WorldWideScience

Sample records for continued microelectronics training

  1. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  2. Vacuum microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1990-10-01

    The last few years have seen references in scientific and economic literature to research and development taking place on ''vacuum microelectronics'', but few in the particle physics community seem to know more than these brief, second hand reports, mostly written for a non-scientific readership. The interest of these devices for the particle physics community is obvious when it is realised that one of the driving forces for this research and development is the military need for electronic components which can withstand very high doses of radiation. The author therefore arranged to visit one of the centres of research on these components, and the information obtained there formed the principle source material for this summary. (author)

  3. REMOTE TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two trends in teaching methods and tools chosen on the base of continuing education concept and challenges of the information society. Indeed, the modern post-school education requires improved efficiency and activity of training as it should or can be combined with productive activity of students. Here we discuss and analyze some trends of contemporary distance learning in order to include them into solution of lifelong learning problems. 

  4. Testing microelectronic biofluidic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2007-01-01

    According to the 2005 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, the integration of emerging nondigital CMOS technologies will require radically different test methods, posing a major challenge for designers and test engineers. One such technology is microelectronic fluidic (MEF) arrays,

  5. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  6. [Perceptions about continuous training of Chilean health care teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Coloma N, Katherine; Vaccarezza G, Giulietta; Ortega B, Javiera

    2013-06-01

    Continuous training of teachers, in discipline and pedagogical topics, is a key step to improve the quality of educational processes. To report the perception of Chilean teachers of undergraduate health care programs, about continuous training activities. Twenty teachers working at different undergraduate health care programs in Chile were interviewed. Maximum variation and theoretical sampling methods were used to select the sample. Data was analyzed by open coding, according to the Grounded Theory guidelines. Nine categories emerged from data analysis: Access to continuous training, meaning of training in discipline, activities of continuous training in discipline, meaning of continuous training in pedagogy, kinds of continuous training in pedagogy, quality of continuous training in pedagogy, ideal of continuous training in pedagogy, outcomes of continuous training in pedagogy and needs for continuous training in pedagogy. Teachers of health care programs prefer to participate in contextualized training activities. Also, they emphasize their need of training in evaluation and teaching strategies.

  7. Radiological control technician implementing continuing training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killand, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and is implementing a continuing training program for RCTs. This program was designed to meet the requirements of the DOE and Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual. The program is scheduled on a biennial (two year), six cycle format, where each cycle is seventeen weeks in length. This enables the technician to be in the classroom three times per year, for an average of four days each cycle. Content emphasis is placed on: academics review; lessons learned; new equipment and procedures; practical skills training; and oral board preparation. Academic reviews provide refresher training on core and site academics in both lecture and overview formats. During the first five cycles, an average of six lessons are presented. A preparatory exam is administered along with a quiz covering previous cycles. The sixth cycle is dedicated to an academic review of all previous lesson content, the final comprehensive exam, and the oral examination boards. In conjunction with continuing training, technicians receive additional company required training, providing a substantial cost savings to WHC. WHC employs approximately 300 RCTs

  8. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  9. Predictors of Collateral Learning Transfer in Continuing Vocational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Anja-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and skill shortages continuing vocational training is of great significance in Germany. However, the training effectiveness is mostly assessed only at the end of a training program or several months after the training. Since in continuing vocational training the two contexts learning field (training)…

  10. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  11. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  12. Microelectronic systems N2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronic Systems N2 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NII unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. The aim of this book is to provide a foundation in microelectronic systems hardware and software techniques. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes in the reader only the knowledge attained in BTEC Information Technology Studies F, Engineering Fundamentals F, or equivalent. This book concentrates on the highly popular

  13. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  14. Adhesion in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion  (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi

  15. The Praxis Teacher from Continuing Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuraima Margelis Matos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Related with the demands and policies that the Venezuelan system is setting, it´s necessary to make emphasis in the need for continuing formation of teachers in order to optimize their educational practice; even more when teachers now day have to be in constant process of formation and transformation. It´s necessary to mention that this study is part of a macro research that has been done in the U.E.B. The Paramito, Merida State, which presents one of its research purposes: to reveal through the voices of teachers conception of teaching practice from continuing training they receive. Methodologically it was addressed from the qualitative paradigm directed by the Participatory Action, which emerged from a diagnosis made and led to describe a phase research study. In this case they were made work tables, where dialogue prevailed between the actors involved, emerging categories such as were made: practice and experience for action, sharing knowledge, professional skills, which when put into practice can optimize the educational process in the as they strengthen the continuing education of teachers and thus a better quality education.

  16. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an increment...

  17. Towards More Effective Continuing Education and Training for Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Smith, Ray; Henderson, Amanda; Tyler, Mark; Kelly, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year research project that aimed to identify and evaluate the potential models and practices of learning support that might constitute a national approach to workers' continuing education and training. The identification of a national approach to continuing education and training is emerging as a priority for…

  18. THE ROMANIAN GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS’ OPINIONS ON CONTINUOUS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA LIANA GALE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we present the legislation from Romania and the methodologies related to the continuous training of teachers. In order to know the teachers’ opinions about their professional development, about the programes, courses and other training activities in which they were involved and about their needs for continuous training as geography teachers, a questionnaire was applied, and was completed by 170 teachers. The results were analysed and interpreted. These views are important because, based on them, decisions can be made concerning the teachers’ continuous training at both ministry level, as well as at the level of various institutions involved in such activities.

  19. Nanoelectronics: The perspective in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.; Cicuttin, A.; Colavita, A.A.

    2001-10-01

    The present survey briefly presents the-state-of-the-art in microelectronics, invokes physical considerations in estimating the intrinsic limits of present microelectronic devices, and highlights the future trends in the perspectives of the incoming nanoscale technologies. In order to design artificial systems with molecular precision, molecular brand new engineering methods must be developed, that is, to hold, position, and assemble nanoscale parts in compliance with the laws of physics. In the framework of the nanoscale technologies, the thermodynamically reversible single electron switching systems are considered as ultimate evolutionary end point of electronic logic devices built up at molecular level. (author)

  20. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  1. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and lung function was higher in smokers. Training method could mitigate some of the negative consequences of smoking among smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Objective: To examine the effects of continuous training on lungs functional capability and ...

  2. Therapeutic role of continuous exercise training programme on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continuous (n=112; 58.63 ± 7.22 years) group involved in an 8 weeks continuous training (60-79% HR max reserve) programme of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, while age-matched controls hypertensive (n=105; 58.27± 6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. Cardiovascular parameters [Systolic ...

  3. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001), the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0)); for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001) post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4) than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2) training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05). Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La]) than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively) (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak), time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak), and [La]-(0) between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1) and removal (γ2) indexes. Key points Coaches and athletes need to be aware of the potentiality positive effects of exercise intensity. Improvements

  4. Effects of microelectronics on industrial level measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudel, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Microelectronic elements and production technologies have begun to change industrial level measurement, and this trend will continue. Spectacular breakthroughs cannot be expected, due to the major demand of reliability and to administrative constraints. The demand for transducers has increased with the advance of low-cost computer hardware. Electronics makes well-known method of measurements more universally applicable; it helps to realize new methods, and to design multifunctional transducers which always give the necessary signal for process guidance. The effects on society and environment are wholly positive: More and better measuring technologies permit a better utilisation of raw materials and energies, help to prevent environmental damage, and to raise the standard of living. Negative results are not to be expected on this sector. (orig./RW) [de

  5. LACTATE KINETICS AFTER INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnene Gharbi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT and intermittent (IT physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG. The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001, the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0; for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001 post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4 than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2 training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05. Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La] than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak, time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak, and [La]-(0 between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1 and removal (γ2 indexes

  6. Implementation of Microelectronics Track in Electronics Engineering in a Philippines State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil B. Barte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolving trends in electronics continuous to attract students to take upElectronics Engineering.However, it also adds to discipline implementation complexities.Institutions of Higher Learning offering this program must adapt to this realities to avoid obsolescence. This paper looked at Batangas State University, in the Philippines,ongoingimplementation of the Microelectronics track under the Electronics Engineering (ECEProgram. It describes the restructuring done to the ECE curriculum to overcome the enormous complexity inherent in microelectronics design and the teaching pedagogy adopted to promote active learning. The ongoing program has produced encouraging outcomes:1students were able to design, and simulate complex gate CMOS circuits using EDA tools, in the four(4 course electives identified for the track; 2 the culture of independent learning among students improvement in students soft skills, communication skills, time-management and teamwork skill,; 3. useof free and web-based tools overcome the issue of high cost of license for EDA tools and seminar/training for continuous upgrading of faculty. Another encouraging outcome was the acceptance of the student-centered teaching approach used, Problem-Based Learning (PBL,in enhancing the students learning experience.

  7. 25 CFR 166.908 - Who can participate in continuing education and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can participate in continuing education and training... participate in continuing education and training? (a) The purpose of continuing education and training is to... personnel employed by approved organizations. This program will emphasize continuing education and training...

  8. Continuity of care in general practice vocational training: prevalence, associations and implications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, James; Morgan, Simon; van Driel, Mieke; Henderson, Kim; Tapley, Amanda; McElduff, Patrick; Scott, John; Spike, Neil; Thomson, Allison; Magin, Parker

    2016-01-01

    Continuity of care is a defining characteristic of general practice. Practice structures may limit continuity of care experience for general practice registrars (trainees). This study sought to establish prevalence and associations of registrars' continuity of care. We performed an analysis of an ongoing cohort study of Australian registrars' clinical consultations. Primary outcome factors were 'Upstream' continuity (having seen the patient prior to the index consultation) and 'Downstream' continuity (follow-up organised post-index consultation). Independent variables were registrar, practice, patient, consultation and educational factors. 400 registrars recorded 48,114 consultations. 43% of patients had seen the registrar pre-index consultation, and 49% had follow-up organised. 'Upstream' continuity associations included registrar seniority, Australian medical qualification, practice billing policy, smaller practice size, registrar's previous training in the practice, chronic disease and older, female patients (but not registrar full-time/part-time status). Associations of 'Downstream' continuity included non-Australian qualification, billing, chronic disease and the patient having seen the registrar previously. Consultations prompting follow-up were more complex: longer duration, involving more problems and generating more learning goals. There was, however, evidence for limited educational utility of this 'continuity'. In our study, continuity of care in Australian registrars' training experience is modest. Associations are complex, but may inform initiatives to increase in-training continuity.

  9. Remote Microelectronics Fabrication Laboratory MEFLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a move towards using remote laboratories in engineering education. The majority of these laboratories are static, involving limited user-controlled mechanical movements. The University of South Australia has developed such a laboratory, called NetLab that has been successfully utilized for teaching both on-campus and transnational programs in electrical and electronics engineering. Following this success, we are now developing a remote laboratory for microelectronic fabrication, MEFLab. The first stage of the development is a remote laboratory for visual inspection and testing of electronic circuits directly on the silicon wafer under a microscope which is normally conducted in a cleanroom. The major challenge of this project is the accurate positioning of micro-probes remotely over the internet. This paper presents the details of the setup of this new remote laboratory, with a particular emphasis on the development of the hardware, software and graphical user interface.

  10. Fluoropolymer metallization for microelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, E.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most important requirements for the fastest microelectronic devices in present use, and for the even faster devices for future use, is the reduction of the signal interconnection delay time to a small fraction of all the switching delay times. The interconnection delay time is the product of the resistance of the metal interconnection and the capacitance of the associated dielectric. One method of lowering this delay time is the use of multilayer devices incorporating low resistivity metals (e.g., Cu) and low capacitance dielectrics (e.g. fluoropolymers). Among the many problems faced in the construction of multilayer devices from these materials is the lack of metal adhesion to flouropolymers. This article attempts to put into perspective the problem of metal adhesion to fluoropolymers by addressing the reason for its necessity. Reviewing the critical properties and techniques and discussing the presently available results.

  11. Comprehensive Training of Engineering Students through Continuing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Reynoso Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a priority for student training in general and particularly for future engineers. Although this issue has been frequently addressed in recent years, proposals are still insufficient for engineering students. This paper is aimed at theoretically and empirically demonstrating the potential of continuing education as one of the key areas that engineering schools have for the comprehensive training of students. Preliminary results of a research project commissioned by the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Electrica-FIME of Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico, are presented to respond to the need to improve the learning process of students with a comprehensive approach. The research justification and some of the results obtained in the exploratory phase are also described.

  12. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  13. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  14. Sandia programs relevant to microelectronics fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, S.T.; Vook, F.L.; Gregory, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report was prepared for the Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories Workshop held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, February 24, 1987. It details the current Sandia program activities relevant to microelectronics fabrication.

  15. Materials contamination control in the microelectronic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with many aspects of the contamination of materials in the microelectronic industry. The contamination's control of chemicals, process gases, silicon and the survey of the ions free water's purity are treated. (TEC). 29 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Microelectronics to nanoelectronics materials, devices & manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Kaul, Anupama B

    2012-01-01

    Composed of contributions from top experts, Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics: Materials, Devices and Manufacturability offers a detailed overview of important recent scientific and technological developments in the rapidly evolving nanoelectronics arena.Under the editorial guidance and technical expertise of noted materials scientist Anupama B. Kaul of California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Lab, this book captures the ascent of microelectronics into the nanoscale realm. It addresses a wide variety of important scientific and technological issues in nanoelectronics research and

  17. What arthroscopic skills need to be trained before continuing safe training in the operating room?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Cabitza, Federico; Ragone, Vincenza; Compagnoni, Riccardo; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate consensus among experienced surgeons on what skills a resident should possess before continuing safe training in the operating room (OR). An online survey of 65 questions was developed and distributed to surgeons in the European community. A total of 216

  18. Effective didactic skills training for teachers in continuing medical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Abanador, N.; Moedder, U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and implement effective state-of-the-art teacher training in didactic skills and methods. The training concept should be designed and beneficial for medical teachers' postgraduate medical education (CME). Materials and methods: A 5-day workshop with 12 theoretical and 9 'hands-on' modules was designed and stepwise improved, according to the trainees' feedback. All trainees were trained in small groups (6 to 10 participants per workshop). The workshops consisted of mini-lectures, repeated micro teaching exercises and video-supported feedback concerning the following key-competencies: Communication of goals; methods to trigger interactivity; design of slides in power point presentations; effective feedback-techniques; and use of media, time-management, skills teaching, assessment methods (e.g. OSCE and others), evaluation and general presentation skills. The evaluation was based on two components: (A) trainees' scores in two objective structured teaching exercises (OSTEs) at the beginning and end of workshop, with the ratings of 15 to 20 external observers checked for significant trends (Pearson's X 2 test) in 17 givencriteria for high teaching effectiveness; (B) the trainees rated 20 teaching competencies in a retrospective 'pre-post-analysis' (self-assessment questionnaire) at the end of each workshop and after 6 to 12 months later. Results: The results revealed highly significant (p<0.01) improvements in 13 of 16 OSTE-criteria and in 12 of 13 items of the pre-post-analysis, predominantly estimated to be 'persistent'. Overall, trainees' feedback has been highly encouraging to continue and broaden the program. The discussion covers potential factors for the training success as well as pitfalls and the controversial issue of fees. (orig.)

  19. National study of continuity clinic satisfaction in pediatric fellowship training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangat M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Gangat,1 Genna W Klein,1 Hillel W Cohen,2 Rubina A Heptulla1 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: A national online survey was conducted to evaluate pediatric subspecialty fellow satisfaction regarding continuity clinic experience. Methods: An anonymous online survey (SurveyMonkey™ was developed to evaluate demographics of the program, clinic organization, and patient and preceptor characteristics, and to compare fellow satisfaction when fellows were the primary providers with faculty supervision versus attending-run clinics assisted by fellows or a combination of the two models. Pediatric subspecialty fellows in a 3-year Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited program in the United States (excluding emergency medicine, neonatology, and critical care were invited to participate. Results: There were 644 respondents and nearly half (54% of these had fellow-run clinics. Eighty-six percent of fellows responded that they would prefer to have their own continuity clinics. Higher satisfaction ratings on maintaining continuity of care, being perceived as the primary provider, and feeling that they had greater autonomy in patient management were associated with being part of a fellow-run clinic experience (all P < 0.001. Additionally, fellow-run clinics were associated with a feeling of increased involvement in designing a treatment plan based on their differential diagnosis (P < 0.001. There were no significant associations with patient or preceptor characteristics. Conclusion: Fellow-run continuity clinics provide fellows with a greater sense of satisfaction and independence in management plans. Keywords: resident education/training, workforce, pediatric, patient-provider relationship, pediatric outpatient clinic

  20. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and... Training § 163.41 Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs. (a... agency's performance standards, during the internship period. (c) Continuing education and training. (1...

  1. The effect of aerobic interval training and continuous training on exercise capacity and its determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Nele; Beckers, Paul J; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; De Maeyer, Catherine; Frederix, Geert; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Possemiers, Nadine; Schepers, Dirk; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Wuyts, Kurt; Conraads, Viviane M; Vanhees, Luc

    2017-06-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate (1) the effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) and aerobic continuous training (ACT) on (sub)maximal exercise measures and its determinants including endothelial function, muscle strength and cardiac autonomic function, and (2) the relationship between exercise capacity and these determinants. Methods Two-hundred coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (58.4 ± 9.1 years) were randomized to AIT or ACT for 12 weeks. All patients performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test and endothelial function measurements before and after the intervention; a subpopulation underwent muscle strength and heart rate variability (HRV) assessments. Results The VO 2 , heart rate and workload at peak and at first and second ventilatory threshold increased (P-time training methods seem to be insufficient to improve muscle strength and HRV. Changes in peak VO 2 were linked to changes in all underlying parameters.

  2. Direct Care Workers' Recommendations for Training and Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne, Heather L.; Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Jones, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Training of direct care workers (DCWs) varies depending upon the setting in which they work and the state in which they are trained. Evidence points to the importance of adequate training as critical to DCW job satisfaction and reduction in turnover. Several approaches have been taken to enhance the training of DCWs with the objective that as job…

  3. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  4. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    Global economic, environmental and market developments caused major impact in the microelectronics industry. Astronomical rise of gold metal prices over the last decade shifted the use of copper and silver alloys as bonding wires. Environmental legislation on the restriction of the use of Pb launched worldwide search for lead-free solders and platings. Finally, electrical and digital uses demanded smaller, faster and cheaper devices. Ultra-fine pitch bonding, decreasing bond wire sizes and hard to bond substrates have put the once-robust stitch bond in the center of reliability issues due to stitch bond lift or open wires .Unlike the ball bond, stitch bonding does not lead to intermetallic compound formation but adhesion is dependent on mechanical deformation, interdiffusion, solid solution formation, void formation and mechanical interlocking depending on the wire material, bond configuration, substrate type , thickness and surface condition. Using Au standoff stitch bonds on NiPdAu plated substrates eliminated stitch bond lift even when the Au and Pd layers are reduced. Using the Matano-Boltzmann analysis on a STEM (Scanning Transmission Analysis) concentration profile the interdiffusion coefficient is measured to be 10-16 cm 2/s. Wire pull strength data showed that the wire pull strength is 0.062N and increases upon stress testing. Meanwhile, coating the Cu wire with Pd, not only increases oxidation resistance but also improved adhesion due to the formation of a unique interfacial adhesion layers. Adhesion strength as measured by pull showed the Cu wire bonded to Ag plated Cu substrate (0.132N) to be stronger than the Au wire bonded on the same substrate (0.124N). Ag stitch bonded to Au is predicted to be strong but surface modification made the adhesion stronger. However, on the Ag ball bonded to Al showed multiple IMC formation with unique morphology exposed by ion milling and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Adding alloying elements in the Ag wire

  5. Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training and re-training of healthcare workers is pivotal to improved service delivery. Objective. To determine the proportion of practising medical laboratory scientists with in-service training in Benin City, Nigeria and areas covered by these programmes. Methods. Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City ...

  6. Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Huel, G; Bowler, R; Frenette, B; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although known neurotoxins with potential ophthalmotoxic properties are commonly used in microelectronics assembly, there has been no systematic study of visual disturbances among past or present workers in this industry. The objective of the present study was to compare visual functions, using a matched-pair design, between former workers from a microelectronics plant and a local reference population. From an initial population of 180 former workers and 157 potential referents, 54 pairs were matched for age (+/- 3 y), education (+/- 2 y), sex, ethnic origin, and number of children. Near and far visual acuity, chromatic discrimination, and near contrast sensitivity were assessed monocularly. Paired comparisons (Signed-rank Wilcoxon test) revealed that the former microelectronics workers had significantly lower contrast sensitivity, particularly in the intermediate frequencies, independently of near visual acuity loss. There were no differences for far visual acuity in both eyes. Even though near visual acuity and color vision were compromised among the former workers, the differences were only significant for one eye, as was the prevalence of acquired dyschromatopsia (chi-square for matched pairs, p less than .001). These findings suggest a pattern of contrast sensitivity deficits consistent with impairment to foveal and/or neuro-optic pathways among these former microelectronics workers. Exposure to ophthalmotoxic chemicals is proposed as the most probable risk factor.

  7. Problems in CEMA microelectronic cooperation noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, J.; Kusinski, J.

    1983-10-01

    The development and market trends of products, which use large scale integrated circuits are discussed. Products such as pocket calculators, electronic wrist watches, telephones, and automobiles are used to illustrate the economic results of market saturation with specialized integrated circuits. The status of microelectronics in socialist countries in Europe is addressed.

  8. International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N; Kumar, S; Raj, C; Rao, V; Sarma, G

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains 73 papers presented at ICMEET 2015: International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications. The conference was held during 18 – 19 December, 2015 at Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Antennas, Electromagnetics, Telecommunication Engineering and Low Power VLSI Design.

  9. Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attiyate, Y.H.; Shah, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This bilingual dictionary (German-English and English-German) is to give the general public a clearer idea of the terminology of microelectronics, microcomputers, data processing, and computer science. Each part contains about 7500 terms frequently encountered in practice, about 2000 of which are supplemented by precise explanations. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Government Microelectronics Assessment for Trust (GOMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) is developing a process to be employed in critical applications. The framework assesses levels of trust and assurance in microelectronic systems. The process is being created with participation from a variety of organizations. We present a synopsis of the framework that includes contributions from The Aerospace Corporation.

  11. What Arthroscopic Skills Need to Be Trained Before Continuing Safe Training in the Operating Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle; Cabitza, Federico; Ragone, Vincenza; Compagnoni, Riccardo; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate consensus among experienced surgeons on "what skills a resident should possess before continuing safe training in the operating room (OR)." An online survey of 65 questions was developed and distributed to surgeons in the European community. A total of 216 responded. The survey included 15 questions regarding generic and specific skills; 16 on patient and tissue manipulation, 11 on knowledge of pathology and 6 on inspection of e-anatomical structures; 5 methods to prepare residents; and 12 on specific skills exercises. The importance of each question (arthroscopic skill) was evaluated ranging from 1 (not important at all) to 6 (very important). Chi-square test, respondent agreement, and a qualitative ranking method were determined to identify the top ranked skills ( p  skills considered important were "anatomical knowledge," "tissue manipulation," "spatial perception," and "triangulation" (all chi-square test > 134, p   0.85, and all "high priority" level). The top ranked 2 specific arthroscopic skills were "portal placement" and "triangulating the tip of the probe with a 30-degree scope" (chi-square test > 176, p  high priority). The online survey identified consensus on skills that are considered important for a trainee to possess before continuing training in the OR. Compared with the Canadian colleagues, the European arthroscopy community demonstrated similar ranking. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Effects of Novel Supramaximal Interval Training Versus Continuous Training on Performance in Preconditioned Collegiate, National, and International Class Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Sylvie D; Nolte, Volker W; Bechard, Dan J; Belfry, Glen R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation compared supramaximal oxygen uptake interval training with continuous training in collegiate, national, and international class rowers. It was hypothesized that 6 supramaximal intensity sessions over 11 days would increase power on selected power measures. After 8 weeks of training for a new season, 10 heavyweight and 6 lightweight rowers were randomized into 2 groups. A ramp test to limit of tolerance to determine peak aerobic power (6 females: 25 W·min; 10 males: 30 W·min) and an all-out 3-minute test to determine peak power, 60-second power, critical power, and work above critical power (W') were performed before and after training. A supramaximal training session consisted of 10 cycles of 10-second work (140% peak aerobic power):5-second recovery followed by 8 minutes of active recovery, and repeated 6 times. The continuous group performed predominantly moderate intensity (below lactate threshold) training. All training was performed on rowing ergometers. Critical power increased pre-to-post supramaximal (Δ7%) and continuous training (Δ9%), respectively (336 ± 59W to 360 ± 59W; 290 ± 73W to 316 ± 74W; p ≤ 0.05), whereas the mean power output from all performance measures increased only after supramaximal training (Δ7%) (464 ± 158W to 496 ± 184W; p ≤ 0.05). Testing also revealed decreased W' (Δ21%) and 60-second power (Δ4%) pre-to-post continuous training only (p ≤ 0.05). No differences (p > 0.05) in peak aerobic power or peak power were observed pre-to-post training in either group. In conclusion, after an 8-week preconditioning period, supramaximal interval training preserved anaerobic capacity compared with predominantly continuous training and elicited similar increases in critical power in rowers.

  13. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  14. Microelectronics from fundamentals to applied design

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design analog circuits for microelectronics.  Readers will develop a comprehensive understanding of the basic techniques of analog modern electronic circuit design, discrete and integrated, application as sensors and control and data acquisition systems,and techniques of PCB design.  ·         Describes fundamentals of microelectronics design in an accessible manner; ·         Takes a problem-solving approach to the topic, offering a hands-on guide for practicing engineers; ·         Provides realistic examples to inspire a thorough understanding of system-level issues, before going into the detail of components and devices; ·         Uses a new approach and provides several skills that help engineers and designers retain key and advanced concepts.

  15. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a

  16. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  17. Quick benefits of interval training versus continuous training on bone: a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Maurel, Delphine B; Pallu, Stéphane; Ingrand, Isabelle; Boisseau, Nathalie; Jaffré, Christelle; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    To delay age-related bone loss, physical activity is recommended during growth. However, it is unknown whether interval training is more efficient than continuous training to increase bone mass both quickly and to a greater extent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 10-week interval training regime with a 14-week continuous training regime on bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-four male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were separated into four groups: control for 10 weeks (C10), control for 14 weeks (C14), moderate interval training for 10 weeks (IT) and moderate continuous training for 14 weeks (CT). Rats were exercised 1 h/day, 5 day/week. Body composition and BMD of the whole body and femur respectively were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after training to determine raw gain and weight-normalized BMD gain. Both trained groups had lower weight and fat mass gain when compared to controls. Both trained groups gained more BMD compared to controls when normalized to body weight. Using a 30% shorter training period, the IT group showed more than 20% higher whole body and femur BMD gains compared to the CT. Our data suggest that moderate IT was able to produce faster bone adaptations than moderate CT. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  18. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    when oxygen consumption remains at steady state de- spite an increase in workload. Heart rate using (Polar ... Table 2. Differences in body weight and BMI values in Pres vs. Post program ns = not significant, p > 0.05 ..... zymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. J Appl. Physiol. 1998; 84: 2138-42. 39. Harmer AR ...

  19. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah Kim

    Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  20. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  1. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen......, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment....

  2. Evaluation of a Continuing Education Training on Client Financial Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Svoboda, Deborah; Sander, Rebecca L.; Osteen, Philip J.; Callahan, Christine; Elkinson, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The researchers conducted an evaluation study assessing outcomes among 37 social workers who completed a continuing education course on financial capability and working with clients. Key constructs assessed included participants' attitudes about financial capability, self-efficacy to provide services, organizational barriers, and basic financial…

  3. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  4. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization guidance for the development of continuing technical training. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in nuclear criticality safety at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and throughout the DOE complex. Continuing technical training is training outside of the initial qualification program to address identified organization-wide needs. Typically, this training is used to improve organization performance in the conduct of business. This document provides guidelines for the development of the technical portions of the Continuing Training Program. It is not a step-by-step procedure, but a collection of considerations to be used during the development process

  5. Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Health Sciences: Tele-Education for continued Postgraduate Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Chico, P.; Armero, D.; Saura Iniesta, A. M.; Vicente, V.

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of an inter departmental project, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Education, has made possible the development to specific didactic materials on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices. These have been published as a manual and practical notebook. This material constitutes the grounding work for the first continuous tele-education training course via Internet that Spanish professionals exposed to ionising radiation are following. Interactive multimedia training and tele-education may become one of the alternatives that allow health science professionals to receive continuous training, provided that adequate content and aims had been established during undergraduate training. (Author) 18 refs

  6. The comprehensive work with the collaborating student: A way for training through continuing education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynoso, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at evaluating comprehensive work potentials with collaborating student to contribute to its general training. On the basis of theoretical framework, the findings of exploratory study at the Faculty Mechanical and Electrical Engineer are presented. The findings provide the guidelines for general training of collaborating students through continuing education. Date was obtained through the application of techniques which include surveys and completion of phrases. The results show both positive aspects and shortcomings. The importance of continuous education for the vocational training of the student, and the insufficient the attention devoted to the personal training are outlined.

  7. Athletic training continuing education needs assessment: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, T G

    1994-03-01

    Continuing education for certified athletic trainers is both required and essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the need, including solutions and priorities, for continuing education for athletic trainers in various employment settings. Focus group sessions were conducted during the Spring 1992 District 4 meeting of the National Athletic Trainers Association. Representatives for each of the following employment settings were selected from the preregistration list and invited to participate: high school (7 participated), college/university (8), corporate/industrial (6), professional (3), and clinical (8). Data were compiled from written lists and audio cassette recordings of group discussions. Focus group participants across all employment settings felt that their primary continuing education needs were not being addressed at district meetings. Less traditional topics (eg, ergonomics, budgeting, public relations, and functional capacity evaluations) were identified as the more essential education needs. Focus group opinions varied somewhat regarding specific topics and methods of presentation. Recommendations included a more thematic approach to topics and presentations and ample opportunities for work or discussions in small groups. Results of the focus groups could impact the professional preparation of athletic trainers.

  8. Continuity and Change: Employers' Training Practices and Partnerships with Training Providers. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andy; Tuck, Jacqueline; Callan, Victor

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influence the motivations of employers to train their workforce and the ways in which they engage with the training system. This study combines a national survey and interviews with Australian employers and registered training organisations (RTOs) to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which employers navigate the…

  9. Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach

    CERN Document Server

    Maloberti, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,

  10. Microelectronic test structures for CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ketchen, Mark B

    2011-01-01

    Microelectronic Test Structures for CMOS Technology and Products addresses the basic concepts of the design of test structures for incorporation within test-vehicles, scribe-lines, and CMOS products. The role of test structures in the development and monitoring of CMOS technologies and products has become ever more important with the increased cost and complexity of development and manufacturing. In this timely volume, IBM scientists Manjul Bhushan and Mark Ketchen emphasize high speed characterization techniques for digital CMOS circuit applications and bridging between circuit performance an

  11. Plasma electronics applications in microelectronic device fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory. Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plas

  12. Auditory training of speech recognition with interrupted and continuous noise maskers by children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica R; Thibodeau, Linda M; Assmann, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that individuals with normal hearing (NH) experience a perceptual advantage for speech recognition in interrupted noise compared to continuous noise. In contrast, adults with hearing impairment (HI) and younger children with NH receive a minimal benefit. The objective of this investigation was to assess whether auditory training in interrupted noise would improve speech recognition in noise for children with HI and perhaps enhance their utilization of glimpsing skills. A partially-repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of seven 1-h sessions of auditory training in interrupted and continuous noise. Speech recognition scores in interrupted and continuous noise were obtained from pre-, post-, and 3 months post-training from 24 children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Children who participated in auditory training in interrupted noise demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in speech recognition compared to those who trained in continuous noise. Those who trained in interrupted noise demonstrated similar improvements in both noise conditions while those who trained in continuous noise only showed modest improvements in the interrupted noise condition. This study presents direct evidence that auditory training in interrupted noise can be beneficial in improving speech recognition in noise for children with HI.

  13. Improving training tools for continuing operator qualification in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, F.; San Antonio, S.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently nine nuclear power plants in service in Spain; the most recent started commercial operation in 1988. Spanish legislation requires operators to have an academic technical background of at least 3 yr. The turnover rate is <5%, and in recent years, symptom-based emergency procedure has been introduced. These facts have given rise to a situation in which Spanish licensed operators are demanding more in-depth training to avoid a stagnant routine and boredom. In responding to this challenge, Tecnatom has had to significantly update its two simulators for boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PSR) plants, to ensure coverage of the emergency procedures and has had to create a tool - the Interactive Graphics Simulator - that allows these problems to be ameliorated. With a view to updating its simulators, Tecnatom initiated in 1985 a project known as advanced simulation models (MAS), which was completed at the end of 1990. The TRACS code is a real-time advanced thermohydraulic code for upgrading Tecnatom's nuclear plant simulators. The interactive graphic simulator, (SGI) is a system that provides a graphic display of the models of a full-scope simulator by means of color monitors. The two new tools used are enabling higher levels of motivation to be achieved among the plant operations personnel, especially with respect to requalification

  14. [Virtual microscopy in pathology teaching and postgraduate training (continuing education)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H P; Andrulis, M; Mogler, C; Schirmacher, P

    2008-11-01

    As with conventional microscopy, virtual microscopy permits histological tissue sections to be viewed on a computer screen with a free choice of viewing areas and a wide range of magnifications. This, combined with the possibility of linking virtual microscopy to E-Learning courses, make virtual microscopy an ideal tool for teaching and postgraduate training in pathology. Uses of virtual microscopy in pathology teaching include blended learning with the presentation of digital teaching slides in the internet parallel to presentation in the histology lab, extending student access to histology slides beyond the lab. Other uses are student self-learning in the Internet, as well as the presentation of virtual slides in the classroom with or without replacing real microscopes. Successful integration of virtual microscopy depends on its embedding in the virtual classroom and the creation of interactive E-learning content. Applications derived from this include the use of virtual microscopy in video clips, podcasts, SCORM modules and the presentation of virtual microscopy using interactive whiteboards in the classroom.

  15. Study on the continuing education innovative talents training mode of civil engineering major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengnan; Su, Zhibin; Cui, Shicai

    2017-12-01

    According to the characteristics of civil engineering professional continuing education, continuing education of innovative talents training mode suitable for the characteristics of our school is put forward in this paper. The characteristics of the model include: the education of professional basic courses and specialized courses should be paid attention to; engineering training should be strengthened and engineering quality should be trained; the concept of large civil engineering should be highlighted, the specialized areas should be broadened, and the curriculum system should be reconstructed; the mechanism of personnel training program should be constructed by the employers, the domestic highlevel institutions and our university. It is hoped that the new training model will promote the development of continuing education of civil engineering specialty in our university.

  16. CONTINUOUS TRAINING OF ARCHITECTS AND A PRACTICAL COURSE IN ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoleva Natal'ya Arkad'evna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of training of architects in architectural composition is relevant at each stages of the training process. Continuous training in architectural composition is to assure better mastering of fundamentals of composition. Specialized training courses is to be incorporated into each stage of the training process, namely, into each specialized discipline that shapes up the compositional thinking in the field of architecture and town planning patterns. The fundamental course is entitled "Three-dimensional spatial composition"; it is based on the theory of architecture and urban development, as well as practical classes in architectural analysis and modeling. The author proposes new methods of teaching three-dimensional composition through a cycle of exercises and term papers. The systemic approach contemplates a good knowledge of the theory to serve as the basis for workshops and practical classes, as well as a new idea of continuous training.

  17. Training to Operate a Simulated Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Continuous or Discrete Manual Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Paula J; Neumann, John L; Billings, Deborah R

    2008-01-01

    This report investigates the effects of continuous vs. discrete control methods and the number of simultaneous camera views on operator performance during training to manually control a simulated micro-unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV...

  18. Does it work? The Effect of Continuing Training on Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckhoff, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of continuing education and training for adults on labour market performance in Germany, Denmark and the UK. The central hypothesis is that training outcomes differ across countries, and that this heterogeneity in outcomes is due to institutional differences...

  19. Continuing Education and Training Models and Strategies: An Initial Appraisal. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen; Henderson, Amanda; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Kelly, Ann; Smith, Ray; James, Ian; Beven, Fred; Lewis, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Continuing education and training is an emerging priority for the nation's tertiary education and training system. Changing work, new work requirements, an ageing workforce and lengthening working lives are some of the factors now influencing this priority. Yet, many of the purposes and processes of the Australian tertiary education and training…

  20. Microelectronics and Special Education. CET/MEP Information Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Educational Technology, London (England).

    Used as an additional aid by the teacher, microelectronics can assist mentally and physically handicapped children to meet educational objectives that have been specifically agreed upon for the individual child. Microelectronics can help deaf children develop speech production, communication skills, and grammar and sentence construction;…

  1. Establishing and maintaining instructional skills through initial and continuing training: A common sense approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, J.A.; Hall, J.D.; Betz, T.L.; Stoupe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using this common sense approach to determining initial and continuing training for instructional staff members helped XYZ facility to develop a training program that will meet the specific needs of its staff. From the results of the analysis, XYZ can now provide the right training at the right time. THe competency-to-training matrix will assist XYZ in accomplishing this training. This matrix also groups the competencies into the five phases associated with the Systematic Approach to Training methodology. From this common sense approach, XYZ facility has a report detailing many solutions that go beyond training. Awareness of problems, causes, and solutions are the keys to successful facility management. Sharing these issues with the right facility personnel, XYZ will be able to meet and/or exceed the changing expectations placed on them due to ''downsizing'', ''rightsizing'', or ''reengineering''

  2. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Shelley E.; Machan, Elizabeth A.; O'Connor, Helen T.; Gerofi, James A.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Caterson, Ian D.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT) or placebo (PLA) on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training. PMID:24669314

  3. Effect of continuous and interval aerobic exercise training on baroreflex sensitivity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Gustavo Santos; Borges, Juliana Pereira; da Silva, Pedro Paulo Soares; da Nóbrega, Antônio Cláudio Lucas; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2016-05-01

    The ability of continuous aerobic exercise training (AET) to increase baroreflex control and cardiac function in heart failure (HF) has been well described, but the comparison between continuous and interval AET on these functions is inconclusive. To compare the effects of continuous and interval AET on cardiac function and baroreflex sensitivity (BrS) in an experimental model of HF. Rats were divided into the following groups: continuous training (HF-CT), intense interval training (HF-IIT), moderate interval training (HF-MIT), sedentary group (HF-SED), and sham sedentary (SHAM-SED). Animals underwent surgery to induce HF by ligation of the interventricular coronary artery. Six weeks after surgery, AET was started (8weeks, 3sessions/week). Echocardiography studies to assess cardiac function were performed before and after AET. At the end of the training protocols, the BrS index was assessed by stepwise intravenous infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. All methods of exercise prevented the HF-induced increase in left ventricular diameter in diastole observed in the HF-SED rats (0.88±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.09cm; Ptraining induced similar improvements in cardiac function but that only continuous training induced higher BrS in HF rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [The evaluation of continuous training in healthcare organisations. A bibliographic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rodrigo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and consider scientific documents which develop the impact of Continuous Training in health sciences. Literature review 18 articles are included, organised in two categories: a) the theory and application of Continuous Training to healthcare professionals, b) the impact of Continued Training in healthcare organisations. All of the authors position themselves clearly in favour of CT in healthcare organisations in all professional categories (whether healthcare or not), as a strategic instrument of change and growth. The importance of assessing the impact that both professionals and institutions have on the end-product (i.e. the health of people) is emphasised. Despite the difficulties involved, to establish their impact is of vital importance in order to verify their benefits and effectiveness. Regular assessment is essential for introducing changes in training programmes so that they are adapted to the requirements of healthcare organisations and the needs of their professionals.

  5. Heteromagnetic Microelectronics Microsystems of Active Type

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatiev, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type, by Alexander A. Ignatiev of Saratov State University and Alexander V. Lyashenko of JSC Research Institute Tantal in Russia, offers a very detailed and specialized account of the author's research and development of heteromagnetic materials and devices. The book is based on original material from the author's programs of designing heteromagnetic microsystems. Polyvalent, multiple parameter magneto-semiconductor microsystems are described and the book reports on extensive experimental and theoretical results of research in a range of frequencies up to 1000 GHz. For the first time the direction of satisfying criteria, and burst technologies, which can make a subject of discovery, are discussed in great detail. This book is intended for post-graduate students and researchers specializing in the design and application of heteromagnetic materials and devices. Alexander A. Ignatiev is author of Magnetoelectronics of Microwaves and Extremely High Frequenci...

  6. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  7. Exercise training in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: A randomized controlled pilot study of continuous versus interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Marko; Prokšelj, Katja; Rajkovič, Uroš; Vižintin Cuderman, Tjaša; Janša Trontelj, Katja; Fras, Zlatko; Jug, Borut

    2018-03-15

    Adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) have impaired exercise capacity, vascular and cardiac autonomic function, and quality of life (QoL). Specific effects of high-intensity interval or moderate continuous exercise training on these parameters in adults with repaired ToF remain unknown. Thirty adults with repaired ToF were randomized to either high-intensity interval, moderate intensity continuous training (36 sessions, 2-3 times a week) or usual care (no supervised exercise). Exercise capacity, flow-mediated vasodilation, pulse wave velocity, NT-proBNP and fibrinogen levels, heart rate variability and recovery, and QoL (SF-36 questionnaire) were determined at baseline and after the intervention period. Twenty-seven patients (mean age 39±9years, 63% females, 9 from each group) completed this pilot study. Both training groups improved in at least some parameters of cardiovascular health compared to no exercise. Interval-but not continuous-training improved VO2peak (21.2 to 22.9ml/kg/min, p=0.004), flow-mediated vasodilation (8.4 to 12.9%, p=0.019), pulse wave velocity (5.4 to 4.8m/s, p=0.028), NT-proBNP (202 to 190ng/L, p=0.032) and fibrinogen levels (2.67 to 2.46g/L, p=0.018). Conversely, continuous-but not interval-training improved heart rate variability (low-frequency domain, 0.32 to 0.22, p=0.039), heart rate recovery after 2min post-exercise (40 to 47 beats, p=0.023) and mental domain of SF-36 (87 to 95, p=0.028). Both interval and continuous exercise training modalities were safe. Interval training seems more efficacious in improving exercise capacity, vascular function, NT-proBNP and fibrinogen levels, while continuous training seems more efficacious in improving cardiac autonomic function and QoL. (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02643810). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  9. Comparing interval and continuous exercise training regimens on neurotrophic factors in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaiel; Chadorneshin, Hossein Taheri; Foadoddini, Mohsen; Eivari, Hossein Abtahi

    2015-08-01

    The research literature suggests that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors influence neurotrophins in vitro. However, there is insufficient information about their effects on exercise training conditions, especially during high intensity trainings. This study aimed to compare the effects of 6weeks of high intensity interval and continuous training regimens on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the rat brain. For this purpose, twenty-four Albino Wistar rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), high intensity interval training (HIIT), and continuous training (CT) groups. Both HIIT and CT regimens increased H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration in the brain, and the alterations made were greater following HIIT than CT. In addition, both HIIT and CT regimens increased BDNF and GDNF concentrations significantly, with a higher elevation following HIIT than CT. Furthermore, H2O2 level and TNF-α concentration correlated positively with both BDNF and GDNF concentrations. Generally, high intensity interval training regimen, rather than continuous training regimen, is highly potential to improve BDNF and GDNF through a greater increase in H2O2 and TNF-α as oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Future trends in microelectronics journey into the unknown

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jimmy; Zaslavsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Presents the developments in microelectronic-related fields, with comprehensive insight from a number of leading industry professionals. The book presents the future developments and innovations in the developing field of microelectronics. The book’s chapters contain contributions from various authors, all of whom are leading industry professionals affiliated either with top universities, major semiconductor companies, or government laboratories, discussing the evolution of their profession. A wide range of microelectronic-related fields are examined, including solid-state electronics, material science, optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and renewable energies. The topics covered range from fundamental physical principles, materials and device technologies, and major new market opportunities.

  11. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P  0.05). No outcome variable changed in the CON group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of self-paced HIIT and CT were similarly effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, resting HR and cognitive function in inactive premenopausal women, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment.

  12. Virtual thermo-mechanical prototyping of microelectronics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    Microelectronics have pervaded our lives for the past fifty years, with massive penetration into health, mobility, safety and security, communications, education, entertainment and virtually every aspect of human lives. The main technology drivers that enabled this expansion are miniaturization and

  13. Microelectronics and nanoelectronics trends, and applications to HEP instrumentation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Lecture 1 : Microelectronics and HEP instrumentation CMOS technology has been the leading technology in microelectronics for more that 30 years thanks to its outstanding capability to miniaturization and low power consumption. A brief history of the microelectronics semiconductor industry is presented with applications for LEP and LHC experiments. Lecture 2: Future trends in microelectronics and nanoelectronics Trends in miniaturization point to the fabrication of ULSI nanoscale CMOS circuits by the end of the decade. Device issues and quantum effects in nanoscale MOS transistor will be discussed. Beyond CMOS technology, several technology avenues based on nanotechnology are under investigation. We will present some promising nanoelectronic devices and circuits based on Single Electron Tunneling (SET) transistor, nanowire, quantum dot and carbon nanotubes. Lecture 3: Monolithic pixel detectors Microvertex detectors for particle physics experiments currently uses hybrid silicon pixel detector. Novel emerging m...

  14. Microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, N. E.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Kholopova, E. D.; Guk, K. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development is described. The main steps of the algorithm work are presented. The results of using the algorithm for improving the printed circuit board image are shown

  15. Perceptual effects and efficacy of intermittent or continuous blood flow restriction resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitschen, P J; Kistler, B M; Jeong, J H; Chung, H R; Wu, P T; Walsh, M J; Wilund, K R

    2014-09-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise may be an alternative form of resistance training; however, a side of effect of BFR resistance exercise is acute muscle pain. Typically, BFR exercise studies restrict blood flow with a cuff continuously during the exercise bout, including rest periods. However, others have used intermittent BFR where the cuff is inflated only during sets. We performed two studies to compare intermittent and continuous BFR exercise. In study one, eleven subjects randomly proceeded through three treatments of unilateral leg extensions to failure: (i) continuous BFR, (ii) intermittent BFR and (iii) control (exercise without BFR). Pain measurements were taken immediately after each set. In study two, subjects (n = 32) underwent a 5-week resistance training programme after random assignment to one of the three conditions. Lean mass and strength were assessed at baseline and after training. Continuous BFR resulted in significantly greater pain than intermittent BFR or control. Both BFR conditions resulted in significantly fewer repetitions to failure than control. This suggests that an acute bout of intermittent BFR exercise may produce as much muscle fatigue as an acute bout of continuous BFR exercise, but with less pain. With training, maximal knee extension (P = 0·033) and maximum knee flexion (P = 0·007) strength increased among all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in strength or lean mass. These results suggest that short-term low-load resistance training increases muscle strength to a similar extent as low-load resistance training without BFR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Online training delivery in meteorological continued education and training: Eumetcal experiences & plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siili, Tero; Haga, Lisa; Neitiniemi-Upola, Leena

    2013-04-01

    Eumetcal is the Education and Training (E & T) project of EUMETNET - the collaboration organ­isation of European National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) - with emphasis on Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) from the project's inception in 2002. Finnish Meteorological Institute has been assigned to manage the Eumetcal project since the onset of the project's pilot phase. Participat­ing NMHSs cover most of Europe, their number exceeds 20 and the scales and scopes of their in-house E & T activities vary widely. Eumetcal also collaborates with a number of E & T organisations in Europe and worldwide. Eumetcal's target group includes the meteorological staff and E & T personnel of the participant NMHSs; the target group is hence geographically widely distributed. The subject matters covered include not only scientific and technical skills and competencies, but also other types of competen­cies relevant to NMHSs' staff. Eumetcal's goal and task is to supplement the E & T activities of the participants through collabora­tion and networking, both between project participants and with other E & T organisations. The project also utilises Information and Communications Technologies extensively in delivery of E & T events and materials: Eumetcal is a Virtual Training Organisation and emphasises online and blended E & T events. In the last five years the project has organised or contributed to at least 2-4 E & T events per year. This presentation a) gives an overview of the Eumetcal project and its place among meteorological E & T organisations in Europe and globally, as well as b) describes the E & T events the project has delivered or contributed to in the last years and plans to deliver in 2013. Emphasis will be on the online and blended events and lessons learned from designing and implementing these events and the benefits of using online training.

  17. EMC problems in microelectronic sensor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelli, Alessandro; Grimaccia, Francesco; Mussetta, Marco; Zich, Riccardo E.

    2005-02-01

    Microelectronics for environmental monitoring (microsensors, etc.) present a variety of power supply voltages and operative frequencies from one side and are subject to interference and noise from the external environment on the other. All these aspects lead accuracy and reliability of those circuits devoted to physical measurements a difficult compromise for the designer. Sensors implemented in the newest generation of networks are realized by integrating advanced analog features with digital processing capabilities. The analog blocks, above all, where the processing related to the signal provided by the active element is performed, show in the most substantial way this problem related to EMC inadequacy. In order to restore the top-quality features it is necessary to arrange the best shielding design for the blocks more influenced by interference and noise. So the work of the designer leads to the analysis, simulation and realization of localized and global shields inside and on the packaging. The problem related to the definition of EMC role in designing such shields is very substantial for environmental applications, where performance leads to improve and optimize the traditional designing techniques. The proposal and consequent application of general criteria devoted to define specific needs for shielding is the first step of a logical development oriented to the mature industrial production of efficient and reliable devices able to maintain their performance independently by the influence of external and internal noise.

  18. Use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS (Commercially available Off The Shelf) microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. They review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMs increases from 1.4 x 10 8 rad(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7 x 10 9 rad(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design of process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10--15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMs from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMs from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of COTS and radiation-hardened (RH) technology

  19. IP validation in remote microelectronics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.

  20. Continuing education in athletic training: an alternative approach based on adult learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, W A

    1998-01-01

    To offer an alternative perspective on current continuing education practices and to propose a model for facilitating continuing education in the athletic training workplace. Professional knowledge can quickly become outdated, and the personal/professional contexts of allied medical fields such as athletic training are becoming increasingly more complex, making continuing education paramount. Adult learning theory suggests that individuals are self- directed, autonomous learners in nature and that experience is a rich source for learning, subsequently making the workplace a fruitful environment in which to engage in continuing education. Unfortunately, mandating continuing education may violate the voluntary nature of adult learning, making the practice questionable. Therefore, alternative aspects of continuing education may be helpful. This article consists of a brief synthesis of related literature that offers an alternative perspective of continuing education and proposes a model for facilitating continuing education in the workplace. The model's foundation includes preparing an environment conducive to learning and then focuses on identifying learning needs, setting goals, implementing specific strategies to facilitate self-directed learning, and assessing leaming. Additionally, the model suggests that ongoing reflection is a key factor in enhancing the identification of learning needs, goals, and strategies. The model may best be used by clinical coordinators, directors, and supervisors to better facilitate employee learning and subsequently improve patient care delivery.

  1. Whether Experience and Training of Teachers Affect Their Attitude towards Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahanowas, S. K.; Halder, Santoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teaching experience and training of the teachers are important variables for teaching and evaluating effectively having an immense impact to their inclination, attitude and perfection. West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (W.B.B.S.E), India, has taken the initiative to implement Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation system up to class VIII…

  2. The Study Club as a Continuing Education Format for Training in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Jeffrey E.; Corbett, Suzanne M.

    1996-01-01

    A study club for continuing education in dental implant techniques at the University of Washington is described and evaluated. Training included didactic and patient treatment components. In two sessions of the program, 17 participating restorative dentists and oral surgeons completed treatment on 12 patients. Practitioners found this…

  3. The Role of Cultural Context in Continuing Vocational Training: A Study on Auto Repairmen in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed how auto repairmen working in micro-enterprises undertake continuing vocational training in relation to cultural context. The study was conducted in Kirikkale, a city in central Anatolia in Turkey. To this end, the descriptive research technique of structured interview was used. Interviews with 33 auto repairmen were recorded…

  4. Study on the Needs of Continuing Vocational Training for Social Workers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preslava Dimitrova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The occupation of the social worker in modern times is challenged by the dynamically changing economic and social environment, growing requirements to their qulifications and competences and the needs of gaining new skills and permanen development and improvement. The aim of the presented study of defining the needs for continuing vocational training of specialists providing social services is to provide recommendations regarding the need of training for skills contributing to the increase in the degree of correspondence between labor supply and demand on the labor market, contributing to the improvement of the quality of the labor force in the country as a competitive factor with an increasing importance for successful economic development. The investigation and the specific examples discussed can be a solid basis for future studies and development of models for improvement the system of continuing and vocational training for acquiring the needed knowledge, skills and competences for effective work.

  5. Resident continuity of care experience in a Canadian general surgery training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravindar S.; Walker, G. Ross

    Objectives To provide baseline data on resident continuity of care experience, to describe the effect of ambulatory centre surgery on continuity of care, to analyse continuity of care by level of resident training and to assess a resident-run preadmission clinic’s effect on continuity of care. Design Data were prospectively collected for 4 weeks. All patients who underwent a general surgical procedure were included if a resident was present at operation. Setting The Division of General Surgery, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont. Outcome measures Preoperative, operative and inhospital postoperative involvement of each resident with each case was recorded. Results Residents assessed preoperatively (before entering the operating room) 52% of patients overall, 20% of patients at the ambulatory centre and 83% of patients who required emergency surgery. Of patients assessed by the chief resident, 94% were assessed preoperatively compared with 32% of patients assessed by other residents ( p 0.1). Conclusions This study serves as a reference for the continuity of care experience in Canadian surgical programs. Residents assessed only 52% of patients preoperatively, and only 40% of patients had complete continuity of care. Factors such as ambulatory surgery and junior level of training negatively affected continuity experience. Such factors must be taken into account in planning surgical education. PMID:10526519

  6. The Importance of and the Complexities Associated With Measuring Continuity of Care During Resident Training: Possible Solutions Do Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A; Conry, Colleen M; Mitchell, Karen B; Ericson, Annie; Dickinson, W Perry; Martin, James C; Carek, Peter J; Douglass, Alan B; Eiff, M Patrice

    2016-04-01

    Evolutions in care delivery toward the patient-centered medical home have influenced important aspects of care continuity. Primary responsibility for a panel of continuity patients is a foundational requirement in family medicine residencies. In this paper we characterize challenges in measuring continuity of care in residency training in this new era of primary care. We synthesized the literature and analyzed information from key informant interviews and group discussions with residency faculty and staff to identify the challenges and possible solutions for measuring continuity of care during family medicine training. We specifically focused on measuring interpersonal continuity at the patient level, resident level, and health care team level. Challenges identified in accurately measuring interpersonal continuity of care during residency training include: (1) variability in empanelment approaches for all patients, (2) scheduling complexity in different types of visits, (3) variability in ability to attain continuity counts at the level of the resident, and (4) shifting make-up of health care teams, especially in residency training. Possible solutions for each challenge are presented. Philosophical issues related to continuity are discussed, including whether true continuity can be achieved during residency training and whether qualitative rather than quantitative measures of continuity are better suited to residencies. Measuring continuity of care in residency training is challenging but possible, though improvements in precision and assessment of the comprehensive nature of the relationships are needed. Definitions of continuity during training and the role continuity measurement plays in residency need further study.

  7. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  8. Effects of continuous visual feedback during sitting balance training in chronic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Laura; Giannoni, Psiche; Marinelli, Lucio; Casadio, Maura

    2017-10-16

    Postural control deficits are common in stroke survivors and often the rehabilitation programs include balance training based on visual feedback to improve the control of body position or of the voluntary shift of body weight in space. In the present work, a group of chronic stroke survivors, while sitting on a force plate, exercised the ability to control their Center of Pressure with a training based on continuous visual feedback. The goal of this study was to test if and to what extent chronic stroke survivors were able to learn the task and transfer the learned ability to a condition without visual feedback and to directions and displacement amplitudes different from those experienced during training. Eleven chronic stroke survivors (5 Male - 6 Female, age: 59.72 ± 12.84 years) participated in this study. Subjects were seated on a stool positioned on top of a custom-built force platform. Their Center of Pressure positions were mapped to the coordinate of a cursor on a computer monitor. During training, the cursor position was always displayed and the subjects were to reach targets by shifting their Center of Pressure by moving their trunk. Pre and post-training subjects were required to reach without visual feedback of the cursor the training targets as well as other targets positioned in different directions and displacement amplitudes. During training, most stroke survivors were able to perform the required task and to improve their performance in terms of duration, smoothness, and movement extent, although not in terms of movement direction. However, when we removed the visual feedback, most of them had no improvement with respect to their pre-training performance. This study suggests that postural training based exclusively on continuous visual feedback can provide limited benefits for stroke survivors, if administered alone. However, the positive gains observed during training justify the integration of this technology-based protocol in a well

  9. Need for Danish science teachers' continual professional development after pre-service training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2010-01-01

    Results from a survey of a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers before they began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools (n=110) show a need for continual Professional Development (PD). The results highlight two main areas of concern based on the newly qualified......-service training , which suggests there is a need both in in-service PD and pre-service training to nudge the teachers away from science activities for motivation alone and towards students‘ learning and how they may become scientifically literate‘. Furthermore the results suggest that beliefs held by the teachers...

  10. Use of simulators for the continuation training of nuclear propulsion plant operators in the Royal Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbridge, A.J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Royal Navy now operates 17 submarines which are powered by Pressurised Water Reactors. In the training of the operators of these Nuclear Propulsion Plants, computer simulation is used widely, and ranges from simple analogue devices which present the dynamic response of single plant parameters, through more complex hybrid computers which allow some operator interaction, to the real-time full simulation Manoeuvring Room Trainers. This paper provides information on the use of this latter equipment for the Continuation Training of the Manoeuvring Room Watchkeepers of the Royal Navy's nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on body adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, S E; Johnson, N A; Mielke, G I; Coombes, J S

    2017-08-01

    Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg). To investigate heterogeneity, we conducted sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Of the 6,074 studies netted, 31 were included. Within-group analyses demonstrated reductions in total body fat (%) (HIIT/SIT: -1.26 [95% CI: -1.80; -0.72] and MICT: -1.48 [95% CI: -1.89; -1.06]) and fat mass (kg) (HIIT/SIT: -1.38 [95% CI: -1.99; -0.77] and MICT: -0.91 [95% CI: -1.45; -0.37]). There were no differences between HIIT/SIT and MICT for any body fat outcome. Analyses comparing MICT with HIIT/SIT protocols of lower time commitment and/or energy expenditure tended to favour MICT for total body fat reduction (p = 0.09). HIIT/SIT appears to provide similar benefits to MICT for body fat reduction, although not necessarily in a more time-efficient manner. However, neither short-term HIIT/SIT nor MICT produced clinically meaningful reductions in body fat. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Interval training versus continuous exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Adrian D; Rajopadhyaya, Kanchani; Bentley, David J; Beltrame, John F; Aromataris, Edoardo C

    2015-02-01

    High aerobic capacity is inversely related to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest greater improvements in aerobic capacity with high-intensity interval training (interval) compared to moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (continuous). Therefore we perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of INTERVAL versus CONTINUOUS in aerobic capacity, amongst patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved ejection fraction We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, clinicaltrials.gov and TROVE for randomised controlled trials comparing INTERVAL with CONTINUOUS in patients with CAD. Studies published in the English language up to December 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Aerobic capacity, quantified by peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) post exercise training was extracted and compared post-intervention between INTERVAL and CONTINUOUS by way of a fixed model meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes including anaerobic threshold, blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also analysed. Six independent studies with 229 patients (n=99 randomised to INTERVAL) were included in the meta-analysis. There was a significantly higher increase in VO2peak following INTERVAL compared to CONTINUOUS (Weighted Mean Difference=1.53 ml•kg(-1)min(-1), 95% CI 0.84 to 2.23) with homogeneity displayed between studies (Chi Squared=2.69; P=0.7). Significant effects of INTERVAL compared to CONTINUOUS were also found for anaerobic threshold but not systolic blood pressure. In patients with CAD, INTERVAL appears more effective than CONTINUOUS for the improvement of aerobic capacity in patients with CAD. However, long-term studies assessing morbidity and mortality following INTERVAL are required before this approach can be more widely adopted. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the

  13. The use of the case study method in radiation worker continuing training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Typical methods of continuing training are often viewed by employees as boring, redundant and unnecessary. It is hoped that the operating experience lesson in the required course, Radiation Worker Requalification, will be well received by employees because actual RFP events will be presented as case studies. The interactive learning atmosphere created by the case study method stimulates discussion, develops analytical abilities, and motivates employees to use lessons learned in the workplace. This problem solving approach to continuing training incorporates cause and effect analysis, a technique which is also used at RFP to investigate events. A method of designing the operating experience lesson in the Radiation Worker Requalification course is described in this paper. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. The use of the case study method in radiation worker continuing training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Typical methods of continuing training are often viewed by employees as boring, redundant and unnecessary. It is hoped that the operating experience lesson in the required course, Radiation Worker Requalification, will be well received by employees because actual RFP events will be presented as case studies. The interactive learning atmosphere created by the case study method stimulates discussion, develops analytical abilities, and motivates employees to use lessons learned in the workplace. This problem solving approach to continuing training incorporates cause and effect analysis, a technique which is also used at RFP to investigate events. A method of designing the operating experience lesson in the Radiation Worker Requalification course is described in this paper. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A Review of Continuing Professional Development (CPD of Training Competencies for Malaysian Mechanical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasman Zeti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review issues in continuing professional development of vocational training to the mechanical industries. The spectacle of individuals entering the labour market without relevant qualifications is common in Malaysia. There are many who choose to work instead of pursuing further education after secondary school. In the labour market, these individuals are considered to be low-skilled workers because they had no training prior to employment. The role of employers in providing training and education to employees is vital in establishing career development of employees. Employers who contributed to their employees' training funds through Human Resources Development Council would provide opportunities to increase the skills of workers. Based on the Malaysia's Development Plan of Occupational Skill, the issues and challenges that have been identified in producing skilled workers in interpersonal and technical skills. This paper provided an opportunity to examine an enterprise-based approach to skill formation for workers with basic academic qualifications. It presents an alternative scenario to institution-based Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET, which many Malaysians are familiar with. A structured curriculum development of human resources learning needs according to the job profile of the typical individual and group work which will provide a clearer perspective on knowledge, competence and skill levels of employee behavior in performing tasks will be discussed. The biggest impact on this study is to produce high skill employees concerning customer satisfaction and increased organizational productivity towards high income nations.

  16. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TWO-SPAN CONTINUOUS CONCRETE BRIDGES UNDER MOVING OF HIGH-SPEED TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Marinichenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work provides a comparison of the results of the movement of a high-speed passenger train across the bridge, obtained as a result of finite element modeling in the SAP2000 software package, and real tests of a double-span concrete railway bridge. Analysis of the rigid characteristics of flying structures. Methodology.The numerical method presented in this study shows valid results concerning the dynamic analysis of the behavior of bridges in conditions of high-speed train traffic. The factors influencing the dynamic behavior of bridges under moving loads, the influence of design parameters and rolling stock, as well as the interaction of the train and spans are determined. The system was used in the form of moving concentrated forces simulating the axes of the train. Findings. Maximum movements and accelerations were obtained as a result of the dynamic calculation for different speeds of the train and compared with practical tests. The correctness of the model of a span structure with regard to continuous ferroconcrete spans was verified. Originality. Within the framework of the work, the latest test results were used, including those with speeds calculated on the prospect of rail passenger traffic. For these tests, a model of a span structure was developed. Practical value. The results of the research can be used to plan the introduction of high-speed train traffic on existing and planned flying structures of reinforced concrete bridges. An approach to the design of span structures that will be effective when passing high-speed passenger trains is implemented.

  17. 3D microelectronic packaging from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive reference for graduate students and professionals in both academia and industry on the fundamentals, processing details, and applications of 3D microelectronic packaging, an industry trend for future microelectronic packages. Chapters written by experts cover the most recent research results and industry progress in the following areas: TSV, die processing, micro bumps, direct bonding, thermal compression bonding, advanced materials, heat dissipation, thermal management, thermal mechanical modeling, quality, reliability, fault isolation, and failure analysis of 3D microelectronic packages. Numerous images, tables, and didactic schematics are included throughout. This essential volume equips readers with an in-depth understanding of all aspects of 3D packaging, including packaging architecture, processing, thermal mechanical and moisture related reliability concerns, common failures, developing areas, and future challenges, providing insights into key areas for future resea...

  18. Kovar Micro Heat Pipe Substrates for Microelectronic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, David A.; Burchett, Steven N.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Robino, Charles V.; Schmidt, Carrie; Tigges, Chris P.

    1999-04-01

    We describe the development of a new technology for cooling microelectronics. This report documents the design, fabrication, and prototype testing of micro scale heat pipes embedded in a flat plate substrate or heat spreader. A thermal model tuned to the test results enables us to describe heat transfer in the prototype, as well as evaluate the use of this technology in other applications. The substrate walls are Kovar alloy, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of microelectronic die. The prototype designs integrating micro heat pipes with Kovar enhance thermal conductivity by more than a factor of two over that of Kovar alone, thus improving the cooling of micro-electronic die.

  19. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari-Sarraf V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Sari-Sarraf,1 Akbar Aliasgarzadeh,2 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,3 Hamid Esmaeili,1 Ebrahim K Naderali4 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, 2Bone Research Centre, Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3The School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4Faculty of Science, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15 and control group (CG; n=15. Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group. At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 reductions in total body weight (-3.2%, waist circumference (-3.43 cm, blood pressure (up to -12.7 mmHg, and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05 increases VO2max (-15.3% and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1% and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  1. Applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan

    1987-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristic reaction means such as corsslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become an important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this techique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics. (author)

  2. Techniques for the implantation of ions in microelectronics. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, W.; Aceves, M.; Linares, M.; Fuentes, S.; Fuentes, I.; Landa, M.; Zuniga, C.; Remolina, J.; Peykov, P.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of ion implantation in the field of microelectronics is indispensable as tool for introducing dopant atoms in a semiconductor material surface. It is possible with sophisticated equipment for selecting and accelerating particle to control precisely the electronic behavior of devices and integrated circuits. At National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics a process has been developed for fabrication Metal Oxide Silicon integrated circuits which utilized a medium powered ion implanter. In this work a review is given of the functions of a basic implanter which is required in making electronic devices and the technique we developed in the department of microelectronics at National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics. (Author)

  3. Development of a standardized curriculum concept for continuing training in hernia surgery: German Hernia School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R; Stechemesser, B; Reinpold, W; Fortelny, R; Mayer, F; Schröder, W; Köckerling, F

    2017-04-01

    The increasingly more complex nature of hernia surgery means that training programs for young surgeons must now meet ever more stringent requirements. There is a growing demand for improved structuring and standardization of education and training in hernia surgery. In 2011, the concept of a Hernia School was developed in Germany and has been gradually implemented ever since. That concept comprises the following series of interrelated, tiered course elements: Hernie kompakt (Hernia compact), Hernie konkret (Hernia concrete), and Hernie complex (Hernia complex). All three course elements make provision for structured clinical training based on guest visits to approved hernia centers. The Hernia compact basic course imparts knowledge of anatomy working with fresh cadavers. Hernia surgery procedures can also be conducted using unfixed specimens. Knowledge of abdominal wall ultrasound diagnostics is also imparted and hernia surgery procedures simulated on pelvic trainers. In all three course elements, lectures are delivered by experts across the entire field of hernia surgery using evidence-based practices from the literature. To date, eight Hernie kompakt (Hernia compact) courses have been conducted, in each case with up to 55 participants, and with a total of 390 participants. On evaluating the course, over 95% of participants expressed the view that the Hernia compact course content improved hernia surgery training. Following that positive feedback, the more advanced Hernie konkret (Hernia concrete) and Hernie complex (Hernia complex) course elements were introduced in 2016. The experiences gained to date since the introduction of a Hernia School-a standardized curriculum concept for continuing training in hernia surgery-has been evaluated by participants as an improvement on hitherto hernia surgery training.

  4. Doctoral training in clinical psychology across 23 years: Continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Sayette, Michael A; Pomerantz, Andrew M

    2018-03-01

    Doctoral training in clinical psychology has undergone substantial changes in recent decades, especially with the increasing heterogeneity of training models and graduate students. To document these changes, we analyzed program, student, and faculty characteristics of American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited clinical psychology programs over a 23-year span. We surveyed directors of clinical training about their doctoral programs every 2 years from 1991 to 2013, securing 90%-98% response rates. With minimal exceptions, the survey questions remained constant. Percentages of female and racial/ethnic minority students continued to grow, such that women now comprise about three quarters of trainees and ethnic minorities about one quarter. There has been a decisive shift in faculty theoretical orientation toward cognitive/cognitive-behavioral and away from psychodynamic/psychoanalytic. Internship match rates were relatively high and stable until the early 2010s but have recently rebounded. We discuss the limitations of these survey results and their implications for the future of doctoral training in clinical psychology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuigan Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the child overweight and obesity problem in Australia, resistance training programs have been trialled as an innovative way of assisting children increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing overweight children's participation in a resistance training trial program. Method Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs. Results The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support. Conclusion Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  7. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  8. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.; Nomoto, K.; Anthopoulos, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic

  9. Low temperature thin films for next-generation microelectronics (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    In this article the current methodologies for low-temperature thin film deposition in microelectronics are reviewed. The paper discusses the high temperature processes in microchip manufacturing and describes the thermal budget fitting issue. The quest for low temperature deposition techniques is

  10. Fully integrated circuit chip of microelectronic neural bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Shen; Zhigong, Wang

    2014-09-01

    Nerve tracts interruption is one of the major reasons for dysfunction after spiral cord injury. The microelectronic neural bridge is a method to restore function of interrupted neural pathways, by making use of microelectronic chips to bypass the injured nerve tracts. A low-power fully integrated microelectronic neural bridge chip is designed, using CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The structure and the key points in the circuit design will be introduced in detail. In order to meet the requirement for implantation, the circuit was modified to avoid the use of off-chip components, and fully monolithic integration is achieved. The operating voltage of the circuit is ±2.5 V, and the chip area is 1.21 × 1.18 mm2. According to the characteristic of neural signal, the time-domain method is used in testing. The pass bandwidth of the microelectronic neural bridge system covers the whole frequency range of the neural signal, power consumption is 4.33 mW, and the gain is adjustable. The design goals are achieved.

  11. Structure, properties, and MEMS and microelectronic applications of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Vanadium oxides have for many decades attracted much attention for their rich and unique physical properties which pose intriguing questions as to their fundamental origins as well as offering numerous potential applications for microelectronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This.

  12. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  13. "Carol I" Central University Library Continuous Training Program through Documentary Visits. A Documentary Visit to Cotroceni Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Florea-Paraipan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to emphasize the role of documentary visits in continuous training programs of library professionals. As alternative form of continuous training, the "Carol I" Central University Library runs an annual program of documentary visits to Bucharest museums, in order to identify from the historical, biographical, literary, artistic and scientific perspective, the manner in which evolved Romanian spirituality nationally and beyond. As a form of initial training for national inheritance understanding, the professional visits to cultural institutions allows the discovery of the categories of collections, the structure and their pedagogical value in learning, teaching and training.

  14. Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo

    2015-08-13

    Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between an excessive production of reactive oxygen species and/or a deficiency in the level of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant defenses. The presence of reactive oxygen species in large concentrations and for long periods is associated with the occurrence of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise represents an effective means for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is also able to reduce long-term oxidative stress levels. High-intensity interval training has shown to be an efficient and viable option for type 2 diabetes mellitus control. In turn, high-intensity interval training seems to have positive effects on oxidative stress levels by increasing levels of endogenous antioxidants. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity continuous training to reduce oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to answer the following question: In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, can the method of high-intensity interval training, compared to moderate intensity continuous training reduce oxidative stress levels? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Continuous training vs Interval training in glycemic control and macro and microvascular reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes". No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of superoxide dismutase in any of the experimental groups. Only in the interval group a decrease in malondialdehyde regarding control group and baseline (pinterval group there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase compared to the group of continuous aerobic training and baseline (pinterval training group. Despite the fact that both training groups show improvements over markers of lipid profile and fitness, high intensity interval training has shown to be more effective in the

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  16. HOW TO STEER THE TRANSMISSION RATIO OF PLANETARY CONTINUOUSLY ADJUSTABLE GEAR TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Dankov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The known attempts to create a continuously-adjustable gear train with solid gears have led to development of some so-called adaptive gears. The most structurally simple version of continuously- adjustable gear train is a two-wheel planetary gear. It is an obvious fact that an active regulation of gear ratio for the gear should be based on the presence of con- trolled elements (parameters and a mechanism for their control. In respect of the mentioned gear one of the controlled elements that is a compound central toothed gear has such controlled parameter as a nominal pitch diameter. In this case it can rotate or remain motionless. Other controlled element which is a planetary carrier has its own radius as a controlled parameter and makes a rotary motion with a great speed of a leading element. The purpose of the control mechanism is to ensure radial displacement of central toothed gear and planet gear sectors in the working gear. The paper describes the mechanism modifications and considers two variants for transfer of control action from its source to an object to be controlled. The transfer is ensured by mechanical gears (two variants and hydraulics.

  17. Creep of Two-Phase Microstructures for Microelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Heidi Linch [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The mechanical properties of low-melting temperature alloys are highly influenced by their creep behavior. This study investigates the dominant mechanisms that control creep behavior of two-phase, low-melting temperature alloys as a function of microstructure. The alloy systems selected for study were In-Ag and Sn-Bi because their eutectic compositions represent distinctly different microstructure.” The In-Ag eutectic contains a discontinuous phase while the Sn-Bi eutectic consists of two continuous phases. In addition, this work generates useful engineering data on Pb-free alloys with a joint specimen geometry that simulates microstructure found in microelectronic applications. The use of joint test specimens allows for observations regarding the practical attainability of superplastic microstructure in real solder joints by varying the cooling rate. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic, Sn-Bi eutectic, Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joints have been measured using constant load tests at temperatures ranging from O°C to 90°C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the steady-state creep behavior for In-Ageutectic solder joints and Sn-xBi solid-solution joints. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dom: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Rate-controlling creep mechanisms, as a function of applied shear stress, test temperature, and joint microstructure, are discussed. Literature data on the steady-state creep properties of Sn-Bi eutectic are reviewed and compared with the Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joint data measured in the current study. The role of constituent phases in controlling eutectic creep behavior is discussed for both alloy systems. In general, for continuous, two-phase microstructure, where each phase exhibits significantly different creep behavior, the harder or more creep resistant phase will dominate the creep behavior in a lamellar microstructure. If a

  18. External Review for Sandia National Laboratory Microelectronics and Photonics Program 1998 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCWHORTER, PAUL J.; ROMIG JR., ALTON D.

    1999-02-01

    The committee regards Sandia's Microelectronics and Photonics Program as a vital and strategic resource for the nation. The Microsystems (MEMS) and Chem Lab programs were assessed as unique and best-in-class for the development of significant application areas. They contribute directly to the Sandia mission and impact the development of new commercial areas. The continued development and integration of Radiation hard silicon integrated circuits, micromechanical systems, sensors, and optical communications is essential to the national security mission. The quality of the programs is excellent to outstanding overall. MEMS and Chem Lab activities are examples of outstanding programs. The committee was pleased to see the relationship of the microelectronics development programs to applications in the mission. In a future review the committee would like to see Sandia's research programs and a vision for connectivity to potential national security needs. (This review may be based on analysis and assumptions about the strategic needs of the nation.) In summary, the Microelectronics and Photonics capability affords Sandia the opportunity to deliver exceptional service in the national interest across broad technology areas. The presentations were excellent and well integrated. We received ample pre-reading materials, expectations were well set and the documents were high quality. The committee was provided an agenda with sufficient time among us and some selected one-on-one time with the researchers. The composition of the committee held representation from industry, universities and government. Committee contributions were well balanced and worked as a team. However, the committee was disappointed that no member of Sandia executive management was able to be present for the readout and final debriefing. (A late, higher priority conflict developed.) The members of the EST Program and the committee put substantial effort into the review but a written report like

  19. Does continuity of care by well-trained breastfeeding counselors improve a mother's perception of support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anette; Widström, Ann-Marie; Nissen, Eva

    2006-06-01

    Social support has been shown to be greatly important for breastfeeding success. The objective of this study was to investigate if mothers who were attended by midwives and nurses specially trained in breastfeeding counseling perceived better continuity of care and emotional and informative breastfeeding support than mothers who received only routine care. Ten municipalities, each with an antenatal center and child health center, in southwest Sweden were randomized either to intervention or control municipalities. The intervention included a process-oriented training in breastfeeding counseling and continuity of care at the antenatal and child health centers. Primiparas were asked to evaluate the care given, and those living in the control municipalities were divided into control groups A and B. Data collection took place at different points in time for the two control groups. The 540 mothers responded to 3 questionnaires at 3 days and at 3 and 9 months postpartum. The perception of support provided by the health professionals and from the family classes was rated on Likert scales. Intervention group mothers rated the breastfeeding information given during the family class as significantly better during pregnancy than both control groups, and better than control group B mothers at 3 months postpartum; compared with both control groups, intervention group mothers perceived that they received significantly better overall support and that postnatal nurses provided better information about breastfeeding and the baby's needs. At 9 months, intervention group mothers were more satisfied with knowledge about social rights, information about the baby's needs, and their social network than control group B mothers. Both intervention group and control group B mothers perceived better overall support than control group A during pregnancy. At 3 and 9 months, intervention group mothers perceived that postnatal nurses were more sensitive and understanding compared with both

  20. Program Support and Value of Training in Mentors' Satisfaction and Anticipated Continuation of School-Based Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillin, Samuel D.; Straight, Gerald G.; Saeki, Elina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested a theoretical model of training practices in school-based mentoring by comparing the differences between two mentoring programs on mentor-reported program support, value of training, relationship satisfaction, and plans to continue mentoring. The two mentoring programs that we compared were conducted at the same school and…

  1. Predicting Workplace Transfer of Learning: A Study of Adult Learners Enrolled in a Continuing Professional Education Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Alfred, Mary; Chakraborty, Misha; Johnson, Michelle; Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee…

  2. Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Smilios, Ilias; Bishop, David J

    2017-02-23

    This study examined changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) height after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Sixteen male, elite-level gymnasts performed 90 s of intermittent (3 x 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous stretching (90 s) of the quadriceps muscle. A single-leg stretching and jumping design was used, with the contra-lateral limb serving as a control. The same individuals performed both conditions with alternate legs in a randomized, counterbalanced order. One leg CMJ height was measured for the stretched and the control leg after warm-up, immediately after stretching, and at regular intervals for 10 min after stretching. Range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was measured before, after, and 10 min post-stretching. Compared to the control leg, intermittent stretching increased CMJ height by 8.1±2.0%, 4 min into recovery (+2.2±2.0 cm, 95%CI: 1.0-3.4 cm, p=0.001), while continuous stretching decreased CMJ height by 17.5±3.3% immediately after (-2.9±1.7 cm, 95%CI: -2.0 to -3.7 cm, p=0.001) and by 12.0±2.7% one min after stretching (-2.2±2.1 cm, 95%CI: -1.2 to -3.2 cm, p=0.001). The increases in hip (2.9 and 3.6, p=0.001. d=2.4) and knee joint ROM (5.1 and 6.1, p=0.001. d=0.85) after the intermittent and continuous stretching protocols were not different. The opposite effects of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on subsequent CMJ performance suggests that stretching mode is an important variable when examining the acute effects of static stretching on performance in flexibility-trained athletes.

  3. Lessons learned from early microelectronics production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, H.T.

    1998-02-01

    During the 1980s Sandia designed, developed, fabricated, tested, and delivered hundreds of thousands of radiation hardened Integrated Circuits (IC) for use in weapons and satellites. Initially, Sandia carried out all phases, design through delivery, so that development of next generation ICs and production of current generation circuits were carried out simultaneously. All this changed in the mid-eighties when an outside contractor was brought in to produce ICs that Sandia developed, in effect creating a crisp separation between development and production. This partnership had a severe impact on operations, but its more damaging effect was the degradation of Sandia`s microelectronics capabilities. This report outlines microelectronics development and production in the early eighties and summarizes the impact of changing to a separate contractor for production. This record suggests that low volume production be best accomplished within the development organization.

  4. The effect of aerobic continuous training and detraining on left ventricular structure and function in male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiabadi Javad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Regular exercise training induces cardiac physiological hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic continuous training and a detraining period on left ventricular structure and function in non-athlete healthy men. Material. Ten untrained healthy male students (aged 18-22 years were volunteered and participated in countryside continuous jogging programme (3days/week, at 70% of Maximum Heart Rate for 45 min, 8-weeks and four weeks detraining afterwards. M-mode, 2-dimensional, colour and Doppler transthoracic echocardiography were performed, during resting conditions, before and after the training and after detraining period. Results. Using t-test, we found significant difference in end systolic diameter and the posterior wall thickness, percentage shortening and ejection fraction after eight weeks training compared to before training. It was found no significant difference in end diastolic diameter, interventricular septum thickness, left atrium diameter, aortic root diameter, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Following four weeks detraining after training, compared with eight weeks of training was a significant difference in end diastolic diameter, percentage shortening and ejection fraction and no significant difference in end systolic diameter, posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, left atrium diameter, aortic root diameter, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Conclusions. In general, eight-week aerobic continuous training and a detraining period can affect left ventricular structure and function.

  5. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ota, Makoto; Hirata, Ryuzo; Sato, Kenji; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathlete and a tennis player, ran a course that was 247.4 m in circumference for 5 h while wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system. Blood was obtained at time-points of -1, 1, 3 and 5 h. The athletes had free access to food and fluids throughout the run. The athletes ran at almost the same pace without a sudden decrease in pace. The blood glucose levels increased and remained high in the triathlete, whereas the tennis player remained hypoglycemic throughout the run. Carbohydrate ingestion did not affect the blood glucose levels. The magnitude of hormonal changes, e.g. insulin, adrenaline and cortisol, was greater in the tennis player. The blood glucose concentration did not correlate with the running velocity or the carbohydrate ingestion; however, a discrepancy in blood glucose transition was observed between the triathlete and the tennis player, indicating a possible association between the adaptation to endurance exercise and the blood glucose kinetics during prolonged running.

  6. Enhancing microelectronics education with large-scale student projects

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lidtke, Aleksander; Weddell, Alex; Maunder, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of using large-scale projects, involving many groups of students with different backgrounds, in the education of undergraduate microelectronics engineering students. The benefits of involving students in large, industry-like projects are first briefly reviewed. The organisation of undergraduate programmes is presented, and it is described how students can be involved in such large projects, while maintaining compatibility with undergraduate programmes. The ge...

  7. Continuing professional development training needs of medical laboratory personnel in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasvosve, Ishmael; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Phumaphi, Othilia; Mpofu, Mulamuli; Nyangah, Robert; Motswaledi, Modisa S; Martin, Robert; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2014-08-18

    Laboratory professionals are expected to maintain their knowledge on the most recent advances in laboratory testing and continuing professional development (CPD) programs can address this expectation. In developing countries, accessing CPD programs is a major challenge for laboratory personnel, partly due to their limited availability. An assessment was conducted among clinical laboratory workforce in Botswana to identify and prioritize CPD training needs as well as preferred modes of CPD delivery. A self-administered questionnaire was disseminated to medical laboratory scientists and technicians registered with the Botswana Health Professions Council. Questions were organized into domains of competency related to (i) quality management systems, (ii) technical competence, (iii) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching, and (iv) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research. Participants were asked to rank their self-perceived training needs using a 3-point scale in order of importance (most, moderate, and least). Furthermore, participants were asked to select any three preferences for delivery formats for the CPD. Out of 350 questionnaires that were distributed, 275 were completed and returned giving an overall response rate of 79%. The most frequently selected topics for training in rank order according to key themes were (mean, range) (i) quality management systems, most important (79%, 74-84%); (ii) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research (68%, 52-78%); (iii) technical competence (65%, 44-73%); and (iv) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching (60%, 37-77%). The top three topics selected by the participants were (i) quality systems essentials for medical laboratory, (ii) implementing a quality management system, and (iii) techniques to identify and control sources of error in laboratory procedures. The top three preferred CPD delivery modes, in rank order, were training workshops, hands-on workshops, and internet-based learning

  8. Implementation of microelectronic components in nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A

    1997-01-01

    As the next logical step in the evolution of programmable devices, Field programmable interconnect components (FPIC) bring the benefits of programmability to the system-level by enabling totally p rogrammable hardware . Continuing what was started by programmable memories twenty years ago and then enhanced by programmable logic ten years later, programmable interconnect holds the key to complete system programmability. History has shown that flexibility is the key benefit realized by programmable technologies (see figure 1). Initially used in a lab environment for design verification purposes, programmable technologies enhance development and ease of experimentation. As experience by more users is accumulated, performances improves and component prices are reduced, applications rapidly expand to address highly flexible and quickly implemented final manufactured products. With similar attributes of it's programmable predecessors, FPIC technology provides an attractive solution to the design verification problems of today and the manufacturing challenges of tomorrow

  9. POWERPLAY: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eSchmidhuber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. The novel algorithmic framework POWERPLAY (2011 continually searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Wow-effects are achieved by continually making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially re-use previously learned skills. POWERPLAY's search orders candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time & space complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. POWERPLAY's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Goedel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing repertoire of problem solving procedures can be exploited by a parallel search for solutions to additional externally posed tasks. POWERPLAY may be viewed as a greedy but practical implementation of basic principles of creativity. A first experimental analysis can be found in separate papers [58, 56, 57].

  10. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, D M L; Rocco, E A; Silva, A G; Rocco, D F; Pacheco, M T; Silva, P F; Furlan, V

    2016-02-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18) and interval exercise training (n=17). All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2). The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (Pexercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (Pexercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57); 2) interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67). Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms.

  11. Micromachined chemical sensor with integrated microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Sniegowski, J.; Koehler, D.; Ricco, T.; Martin, S.; McWhorter, P.

    1992-01-01

    With today's continued emphasis on environmental safety and health issues, a resurgence of interest has developed in the area of chemical sensors. These sensors would typically be used to monitor contamination hazards such as underground storage tanks or to assess previous contamination at waste disposal sites. Human exposure to chemical hazards can also be monitored. Additionally, these sensors can be used as part of a manufacturing process control loop. One type of sensor suitable for gas phase monitoring of chemicals is the quartz resonator or quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. In this type of sensor, a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator is coated with a film that interacts with the chemical species of interest. Changes in the mass and elasticity of this film are reflected as changes in the resonant properties of the device. Therefore, the presence of the species of interest can be detected by monitoring the frequency of an oscillator based on the resonance of the quartz. These QCM sensors compete with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as a means for monitoring gas phase species. SAW devices are typically more sensitive to small amounts of a species, but the instrumentation associated with a SAW device is an order of magnitude more expensive than the instrumentation associated with a TSM wave resonator since the SAW devices operate in the 100's of MHz frequency regime while quartz resonators operate in the 5--25 MHz regime. We are working to improve the sensitivity of the QCM sensor by increasing the frequency of the device to 25 MHz (compared to the typical 5 MHz crystal) and by increasing the frequency stability of the system to an ultimate goal of 0.1 Hz. The 25 MHz QCM has already been achieved and once the stability goal is achieved, the QCM will have the same sensitivity as a SAW device

  12. Continuous Flow Perfused Cadaver Model for Endovascular Training, Research, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Kalsi, Richa; Ayers, Joseph D; Drucker, Charles B; Kaushal, Vaidehi; Sutton, William; Crawford, Robert S

    2018-04-01

    Endovascular simulation employing computer, animal, and static models are common and useful adjuncts for teaching endovascular procedures and developing novel, complex endovascular techniques. Unfortunately, these models lack realistic haptic feedback and thus do not faithfully replicate many of the technical challenges associated with clinical endovascular procedures (e.g., arterial calcification, rigidity, and stenosis). We sought to develop a realistic and reproducible perfused cadaver model for endovascular training, device development, and research. Fresh frozen, elderly (age 50-80 years) male cadavers were thawed and prepared for open dissection. The entire arterial tree (ascending aorta to femoral arteries) was dissected free and major branch vessels exposed. Sheaths were placed to allow outflow from selected vessels. A Dacron conduit was sewn to the ascending aorta to generate arterial inflow, which was provided by a centrifugal pump. Aortic aneurysms were created in the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta. Digital subtraction arteriography and various endovascular interventions were performed, including stent grafts and EndoAnchors deployment. Continuous antegrade flow was achieved in the thoracic, abdominal, iliac, and femoral segments. Open and percutaneous access at the femoral region was obtained with realistic back-bleeding and tactile feedback. Adequate, fluoroscopically documented flow was observed in both cannulated major and noncannulated smaller branches. We performed angiography with standard techniques via a pigtail catheter and contrast injector throughout the arterial system. Abdominal and thoracic endografts were deployed with appropriate angiographic guidance and realistic haptic feedback for both guidewire and stent grafts. Additional applications, including selective cannulation, aorto-iliac occlusive disease interventions, and anchor placement, were also successfully simulated. Finally, the model was used as a platform to test

  13. Moore's law and the impact on trusted and radiation-hardened microelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Kwok Kee

    2011-12-01

    In 1965 Gordon Moore wrote an article claiming that integrated circuit density would scale exponentially. His prediction has remained valid for more than four decades. Integrated circuits have changed all aspects of everyday life. They are also the 'heart and soul' of modern systems for defense, national infrastructure, and intelligence applications. The United States government needs an assured and trusted microelectronics supply for military systems. However, migration of microelectronics design and manufacturing from the United States to other countries in recent years has placed the supply of trusted microelectronics in jeopardy. Prevailing wisdom dictates that it is necessary to use microelectronics fabricated in a state-of-the-art technology for highest performance and military system superiority. Close examination of silicon microelectronics technology evolution and Moore's Law reveals that this prevailing wisdom is not necessarily true. This presents the US government the possibility of a totally new approach to acquire trusted microelectronics.

  14. Mechanisms behind the superior effects of interval vs continuous training on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: By use of a parallel and partly crossover randomised, controlled trial design we sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the advantageous effects of interval walking training (IWT) compared with continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control in individuals...... with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that IWT, more than CWT, would improve insulin sensitivity including skeletal muscle insulin signalling, insulin secretion and disposition index (DI). METHODS: By simple randomisation (sequentially numbered, opaque sealed envelopes), eligible individuals (diagnosed...

  15. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  16. Information technology and its role in anaesthesia training and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Larry F; Erlendson, Matthew J; Sun, John S; Clemenson, Anna M; Martin, Paul; Eng, Reuben L

    2012-03-01

    Today's educators are faced with substantial challenges in the use of information technology for anaesthesia training and continuing medical education. Millennial learners have uniquely different learning styles than previous generations of students. These preferences distinctly incorporate the use of digital information technologies and social technologies to support learning. To be effective teachers, modern educators must be familiar with these new information technologies and understand how to use them for medical education. Examples of new information technologies include learning management systems, lecture capture, social media (YouTube, Flickr), social networking (Facebook), Web 2.0, multimedia (video learning triggers and point-of-view video) and mobile computing applications. The information technology challenges for educators in the twenty-first century include: (a) understanding how technology shapes the learning preferences of today's anaesthesia residents, (b) distinguishing between the function and properties of new learning technologies and (c) properly using these learning technologies to enhance the anaesthesia curriculum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuing Education in Patient Safety: Massive Open Online Courses as a New Training Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Cobo, Carmen María; Torres-Manrique, Blanca; Ortego-Mate, Ma Carmen; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma; Sáenz-Jalón, María

    2015-10-01

    Describe the use of two massive open online courses designed to provide education on patient safety. Review follow-up evaluation data from the courses. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT: Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The Nursing School of the University of Cantabria conducted a training session on patient safety through two massive open online courses (MOOCs) aimed at the general population and especially Spanish-speaking health professionals. This study aimed to analyze the profile of health professionals who have completed the courses, their degree of satisfaction, and the percentage of completion. In this retrospective and observational study, two MOOCs on clinical safety were created through an online platform (MiríadaX). Quantitative analysis of the profile of health professionals, their degree of satisfaction, and the percentage of completion was performed. A total of 12,400 students were enrolled, and the average completion rate was 32%. The profile of the average student was female, 37 years old, college educated, a nurse in a hospital, and interested in the course because it may be useful for performing her work. Fifty-five percent of students were very satisfied with the course. MOOCs are considered to be effective and easily accessible, with quality content for professional continuing education that encourages interdisciplinary work and meeting professionals from around the world. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  19. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  20. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD, RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  1. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the AVENGER Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD. RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the AVENGER weapon system...

  2. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the AVENGER Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the AVENGER weapon system...

  3. Microelectronic Spare and Repair Part Status Analysis for the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    .... IOD required management and engineering support In performing microelectronic technology and availability assessments for the impact of nonavailability on the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS...

  4. Intermittent and continuous high-intensity exercise training induce similar acute but different chronic muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J R; Percival, Michael E; Tricarico, Steven; Little, Jonathan P; Cermak, Naomi; Gillen, Jenna B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in an 'all-out' manner (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) is a time-efficient strategy to induce skeletal muscle remodelling towards a more oxidative phenotype. A fundamental question that remains unclear, however, is whether the intermittent or 'pulsed' nature of the stimulus is critical to the adaptive response. In study 1, we examined whether the activation of signalling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on the manner in which an acute high-intensity exercise stimulus was applied. Subjects performed either four 30 s Wingate tests interspersed with 4 min of rest (INT) or a bout of continuous exercise (CONT) that was matched for total work (67 ± 7 kJ) and which required ∼4 min to complete as fast as possible. Both protocols elicited similar increases in markers of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, as well as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). In study 2, we determined whether 6 weeks of the CONT protocol (3 days per week) would increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial content to a similar extent to what we have previously reported after 6 weeks of INT. Despite similar acute signalling responses to the CONT and INT protocols, training with CONT did not increase the maximal activity or protein content of a range of mitochondrial markers. However, peak oxygen uptake was higher after CONT training (from 45.7 ± 5.4 to 48.3 ± 6.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.05) and 250 kJ time trial performance was improved (from 26:32 ± 4:48 to 23:55 ± 4:16 min:s; P < 0.001) in our recreationally active participants. We conclude that the intermittent nature of the stimulus is important for maximizing skeletal muscle adaptations to low-volume, all-out HIIT. Despite the lack of skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations

  5. An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Onofrio A.

    2002-06-01

    Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.

  6. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hinzey, Shawn Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borges, Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  7. Continuous Curvilinear Capsulorhexis Training and Non-Rhexis Related Vitreous Loss: The Specificity of Virtual Reality Simulator Surgical Training (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannel, Colin A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the specificity of simulation-based virtual reality ophthalmic cataract surgery training on the Eyesi ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator, and test the hypothesis that microsurgical motor learning is highly specific. Retrospective educational interventional case series. The rates of vitreous loss and retained lens material, and vitreous loss and retained lens material associated with an errant continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) were assessed among 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed during four consecutive academic years at a teaching hospital. The data were grouped by Eyesi use and capsulorhexis intensive training curriculum (CITC) completion. The main intervention was the completion of the CITC on the Eyesi. In the Eyesi simulator experience-based stratification, the vitreous loss rate was similar in each group (chi square p=0.95) and was not preceded by an errant CCC in 86.2% for "CITC done at least once", 57.1% for "CITC not done, but some Eyesi use", and 48.9% for "none" training groups (p=4×10-5). Retained lens material overall and occurring among the errant CCC cases was similar among training groups (p=0.82 and p=0.71, respectively). Eyesi capsulorhexis training was not associated with lower vitreous loss rates overall. However, non-errant CCC associated vitreous loss was higher among those who underwent Eyesi capsulorhexis training. Training focused on the CCC portion of cataract surgery may not reduce vitreous loss unassociated with an errant CCC. It is likely that surgical training is highly specific to the task being trained. Residents may need to be trained for all surgical steps with adequate intensity to minimize overall complication rates.

  8. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  9. RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL PANORAMA OF MODERNIZATION OF TRAINING TEACHERS OF CONTINUOUS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dorozhkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, there is no evidence-based strategy of upgrade of system of preparation of pedagogical personnel for continuous professional education in the Russian Federation. At the same time, scientists recognize that smoothly running regular high-quality replenishment of education by the skilled heads and teachers having fundamental psychology and pedagogical knowledge and being specialists in one of economic industries has crucial importance for successful development of post-industrial society. Hence, the need for creation of multichannel system of professional and pedagogical preparation has emerged.The aim of the present publication is to provide the complex overview of problems of reforming of professional pedagogical education and to show possible ways of their decision.Methods. The methodological basis of the study involves the concept of professional development of an individual; the thesis on the integration of the system-based, process and project approaches; the principles for the development of professional pedagogical education. Panoramic approach to the discussed problems of modernization of professional and pedagogical school has defined the logic of our research.Results. Psychological and pedagogical problems of professional education are analysed. Multidimensional metaprofessional qualities of teachers of vocational school are considered. The conceptual model of vocational structure of preparation of pedagogical personnel is developed for the system of continuous professional education.The debatable aspect of the research is reflected in the project of a psychological and pedagogical platform – the autonomous modular educational program including massive open online courses, management systems of educational process, supports of innovative infrastructure of education, humanitarian technologies of high education.Practical significance. The vocational structure of training of teachers of vocational

  10. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    More than Moore explores a new area of Silicon based microelectronics, which reaches beyond the boundaries of conventional semiconductor applications. Creating new functionality to semiconductor circuits, More than Moore focuses on motivating new technological possibilities. In the past decades, the main stream of microelectronics progresses was mainly powered by Moore's law, with two focused development arenas, namely, IC miniaturization down to nano scale, and SoC based system integration. While the microelectronics community continues to invent new solutions around the world to keep Moore's law alive, there is increasing momentum for the development of 'More than Moore' technologies which are based on silicon technologies but do not simply scale with Moore's law. Typical examples are RF, Power/HV, Passives, Sensor/Actuator/MEMS or Bio-chips. The More than Moore strategy is driven by the increasing social needs for high level heterogeneous system integration including non-digital functions, the necessity to speed up innovative product creation and to broaden the product portfolio of wafer fabs, and the limiting cost and time factors of advanced SoC development. It is believed that More than Moore will add value to society on top of and beyond advanced CMOS with fast increasing marketing potentials. Important key challenges for the realization of the 'More than Moore' strategy are: perspective materials for future THz devices materials systems for embedded sensors and actuators perspective materials for epitaxial approaches material systems for embedded innovative memory technologies development of new materials with customized characteristics The Hot topics covered by the symposium M (More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics) at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14-18 May 2012 have been: development of functional ceramics thin films New dielectric materials for advanced microelectronics bio- and CMOS compatible

  11. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  12. The Relationship between Employer Endorsement of Continuing Education and Training and Work and Study Performance: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing

    2007-01-01

    Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…

  13. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  15. Continuing education and training of preschool teachers for successful educational work

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The professional development of professional educators in education is a lifelong process which begins with the initial training of professionals and ends up with their retirement. Educators of preschool children have a very important role in this group. Quality professional development of professional educators depends on the quality of educational programs designed for them and skill providers. These training programs also include further education and training of educators for successful e...

  16. Training to Operate a Simulated Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Continuous or Discrete Manual Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durlach, Paula J; Neumann, John L; Billings, Deborah R

    2008-01-01

    .... They were then given training missions during which performance was measured. Eight conditions were investigated, formed by crossing three 2-level factors: input device (mouse vs. game controller...

  17. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1999-01-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  18. [Physical training as interval or continuous training in chronic heart failure for improving functional capacity, hemodynamics and quality of life--a controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechwatal, R M; Duck, C; Gruber, G

    2002-04-01

    We conducted a three-week randomized trial comparing the improvement of functional capacity by exercise training in chronic heart failure by the steady-state (EF 27.3%, n = 20) and the interval modus (EF 29.3%, n = 20) with a control group (EF = 26.6%, n = 10). Minimal EF was 10%, the lowest maximal oxygen consumption was 9.3 ml/kg/min and the lowest cardiac output was 1.9 l/min; 9 patients had been evaluated for HTX. VO2 at the anaerobic threshold and at maximal exercise increased in the continuous exercise group by 1.4 or 1.6 ml/kg/min, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 13.7% (p clinically stable patients with heart failure and even those already having been evaluated for cardiac transplantation profit from short-term physical training. Both training modalities seem equally suited to improve functional capacity. However interval training leads to more pronounced improvement in hemodynamics compared to the steady-state exercise, whereas the later had a greater impact on psychological well-being and quality of life. Patients with heart failure and severe peripheral deconditioning tolerate higher workloads with more peripheral stress by an interval training modus. Long-term training modalities need to be established to further improve and stabilize functional status.

  19. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    23). New York: Springer. 100 Jung, B. M., & Baek, D. H. (2009). Estimating the ROI on implementation of RFID at the ammunition storage warehouse ...ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION ( RFID ) IMPLEMENTATION AT THE DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS ACTIVITY (DMEA) by James B. Gerber December...Identification ( RFID ) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James B. Gerber 7

  20. Impact of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Zhaowei; George, Keith; Little, Jonathan P; Tong, Tomas K; Li, Feifei; Shi, Qingde

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does exercise training impact resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration? What is the main finding and its importance? This randomized controlled intervention study demonstrated that 12 weeks of either high-intensity interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training largely abolished the exercise-induced elevation in cTnT when exercise was performed at the same absolute intensity. There was no impact of training on resting cTnT or postexercise appearance of cTnT when exercise was performed at the same relative intensity. These findings provide new information that might help clinicians with decision-making in relationship to basal and postexercise values of cTnT in individuals with different training status. We evaluated the influence of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training [HIIT; repeated 4 min cycling at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) interspersed with 3 min rest, 200-300 kJ per session, 3 or 4 days each week] and work-equivalent moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; continuous cycling at 60% V̇O2max) on resting cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and the appearance of exercise-induced cTnT. Forty-eight sedentary obese young women were randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT or a control group. The V̇O2max and body composition were measured before and after training. At baseline, cTnT was assessed using a high-sensitivity assay at rest and immediately, 2 and 4 h after 45 min cycling at 60% V̇O2max. After a 12 week training period, cTnT was assessed before and after 45 min cycling at the same relative and absolute intensities as before training. Training led to higher V̇O2max and lower fat mass in both HIIT and MICT groups (all P training, cTnT was significantly elevated in all three groups (by 35-118%, all P training, both resting and postexercise cTnT concentrations (same relative intensity) were similar to pretraining values. In contrast, postexercise cTnT (same

  1. ICMCS-2014: 8. international conference on microelectronics and computer science and 5. conference of physicists of Moldova. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, V.; Balmus, I.

    2014-10-01

    This book includes communications presented at the 8th International conference on microelectronics and computer science. The papers presented in the book cover certain issues of microelectronics, modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology.

  2. Continuing professional education for care staff: evaluation of training and development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkurainen, Marja Leena; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kuokkanen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the "Professional Career in Arthritis Care (PCA) 2003-2005" training and development project conducted at one hospital in Finland. The project consisted of 5,194 training days for 93 participants and 13 practical development tasks. The research task is to describe (1) the level of need for additional training once the project had ended, (2) the significance of the development task from the perspective of professional development, and (3) how the development task has been introduced into the work community. The material was gathered by questionnaire. The training needs remained quite stable in spite of lengthy training when measured by the themes of the curriculum covered during the PCA. When asked about their need for further training in general in order to manage their current job, a total of 66% of participants still expressed a need for training at the end of the PCA. The development task was viewed mostly positively. The PCA project has given some support to professional development and organizational change, general empowerment, motivation, and satisfaction.

  3. Flexibility training in preadolescent female athletes: Acute and long-term effects of intermittent and continuous static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Οlyvia; Papia, Konstantina; Toubekis, Argyris; Donti, Anastasia; Sands, William A; Bogdanis, Gregory C

    2018-07-01

    This study compared the acute and long-term effects of intermittent and continuous static stretching training on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM). Seventy-seven preadolescent female gymnasts were divided into a stretching (n = 57), and a control group (n = 20). The stretching group performed static stretching of the hip extensors of both legs, three times per week for 15 weeks. One leg performed intermittent (3 × 30 s with 30 s rest) while the other leg performed continuous stretching (90 s). ROM pre- and post-stretching was measured at baseline, on weeks 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and after 2 weeks of detraining. ROM was increased during both intermittent and continuous stretching training, but remained unchanged in the control group. Intermittent stretching conferred a larger improvement in ROM compared to both continuous stretching and control from week 3, until the end of training, and following detraining (p = 0.045 to 0.001 and d = 0.80 to 1.41). During detraining, ROM after the intermittent protocol decreased (p = 0.001), while it was maintained after the continuous protocol (p = 0.36). Acute increases in ROM following the intermittent stretching were also larger than in the continuous (p = 0.038). Intermittent stretching was more effective than continuous, for both long-term and acute ROM enhancement in preadolescent female athletes.

  4. Effect of Continuous Motion Parameter Feedback on Laparoscopic Simulation Training: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial on Skill Acquisition and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Julian Frederik; Mehdorn, Anne-Sophie; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Becker, Felix; Eichelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Pankratius, Ulrich; Bahde, Ralf; Foell, Daniel; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile

    To investigate the effect of motion parameter feedback on laparoscopic basic skill acquisition and retention during a standardized box training curriculum. A Lap-X Hybrid laparoscopic simulator was designed to provide individual and continuous motion parameter feedback in a dry box trainer setting. In a prospective controlled trial, surgical novices were randomized into 2 groups (regular box group, n = 18, and Hybrid group, n = 18) to undergo an identical 5-day training program. In each group, 7 standardized tasks on laparoscopic basic skills were completed twice a day on 4 consecutive days in fixed pairs. Additionally, each participant performed a simulated standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy before (day 1) and after training (day 5) on a LAP Mentor II virtual reality (VR) trainer, allowing an independent control of skill progress in both groups. A follow-up assessment of skill retention was performed after 6 weeks with repetition of both the box tasks and VR cholecystectomy. Muenster University Hospital Training Center, Muenster, Germany. Medical students without previous surgical experience. Laparoscopic skills in both groups improved significantly during the training period, measured by the overall task performance time. The 6 week follow-up showed comparable skill retention in both groups. Evaluation of the VR cholecystectomies demonstrated significant decrease of operation time (p Simulation training on both trainers enables reliable acquisition of laparoscopic basic skills. Furthermore, individual and continuous motion feedback improves laparoscopic skill enhancement significantly in several aspects. Thus, training systems with feedback of motion parameters should be considered to achieve long-term improvement of motion economy among surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two weeks of moderate-intensity continuous training, but not high-intensity interval training, increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiani, Kumail K; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Grönroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-05-01

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged, sedentary men were randomized for 2 wk of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal GLUT2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity ( P = 0.001) and whole body insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon (HIIT = 0%; MICT = 37%) ( P = 0.02 for time × training) and tended to increase in the jejunum (HIIT = -4%; MICT = 13%) ( P = 0.08 for time × training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups (HIIT = -6%; MICT = -48%) ( P = 0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group (HIIT = 0%; MICT = -38%) ( P = 0.08 for time × training). In rats, both training groups had higher GLUT2 and CD36 expression compared with control animals. This study shows that already 2 wk of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy, middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study where the effects of exercise training on the intestinal substrate uptake have been investigated using the most advanced techniques

  6. Different training status may alter the continuous blood glucose kinetics in self-paced endurance running

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, YOSHIO; SHIMIZU, TOMOMI; OTA, MAKOTO; HIRATA, RYUZO; SATO, KENJI; TAMURA, YOSHIFUMI; IMANISHI, AKIO; WATANABE, MASAYUKI; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the systemic energy metabolism is to provide a source of energy, mainly glucose, for the brain; therefore, blood glucose levels would be expected to correlate with exercise performance. The individual training status may also affect the blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between blood glucose levels and running velocity during prolonged running in athletes with different training statuses. Two female college athletes, a triathl...

  7. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  8. Applications of synchrotron X-rays in microelectronics industry research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan-Sweet, Jean L.; Detavernier, Christophe; Lavoie, Christian; Mooney, Patricia M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    The high flux and density of X-rays produced at synchrotrons provide the microelectronics industry with a powerful probe of the structure and behavior of a wide array of solid materials that are being developed for use in devices of the future. They also are of great use in determining why currently-used materials and processes sometimes fail. This paper describes the X20 X-ray beamline facility operated by IBM at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and presents a series of three industry challenges and results that illustrate the variety of techniques used and problems addressed. The value of this research ranges from solving short-term, technically specific problems to increasing our academic understanding of materials in general. Techniques discussed include high-resolution diffraction, time-resolved diffraction, texture measurements, and grazing-incidence diffraction

  9. Radiation-Induced Prompt Photocurrents in Microelectronics Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodd, P E; Buller, D L; Doyle, B L; Vizkelethy, G; Walsh, D S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of photocurrents in nuclear weapons induced by proximal nuclear detonations are well known and remain a serious hostile environment threat for the US stockpile. This report describes the final results of an LDRD study of the physical phenomena underlying prompt photocurrents in microelectronic devices and circuits. The goals of this project were to obtain an improved understanding of these phenomena, and to incorporate improved models of photocurrent effects into simulation codes to assist designers in meeting hostile radiation requirements with minimum build and test cycles. We have also developed a new capability on the ion microbeam accelerator in Sandia's Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory (the Transient Radiation Microscope, or TRM) to supply ionizing radiation in selected micro-regions of a device. The dose rates achieved in this new facility approach those possible with conventional large-scale dose-rate sources at Sandia such as HERMES III and Saturn. It is now possible to test the phy...

  10. Metabolic cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training by regulation of PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Hossein; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2018-02-26

    An imbalance in the production of adipokines and myokines impairs the energy expenditure, increases adipocyte and develops metabolic pathologies. Physical exercise is able to regulate the secretion of myokines and adipokines. The present study considers the metabolic cross talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training by regulation of PGC-1α. A sample of 32 male Wistar rats (8 weeks old with mean weight 250 ± 55 g) were divided into four groups randomly: control of base (CO), control of 8 weeks (CO8w), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). The rats were fed with standard chow diet. The CO group was killed at the start of the study and the CO8w group was kept alive for the same time as the experimental groups, but did not participate in any exercise. MICT and HIIT groups for 8 weeks were placed under the moderate-intensity continuous training (15-60 min, with speed of 15-30 m/min) and high-intensity interval training (8-4 intense period for 1 min, with speed of 28-55 m/min, with 3-7 slow-intensity period for 1 min, with a speed of 12-30 m/min) for 8 weeks, respectively. To measure the levels of serum irisin, nesfatin, and resistin the ELISA method was used and real-time PCR method was used to evaluate the relative expression of soleus PGC-1α gene mRNA. The levels of irisin and nesfatin significantly increased in the HIIT compared with control groups (p = 0.001). Resistin values in both training groups showed a significant decrease compared to the control groups (p = 0.005). The level of PGC-1α gene expression in both HIIT and MICT groups was significantly increased in comparison with the control groups (p = 0.001). The results showed that HIIT and MICT increase the transcription of the PGC-1α gene and possibly the increased expression of this gene after HIIT and MICT plays a central role in the

  11. Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in US Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Molly; O'Hara, Reginald; Caldwell, Lydia; Ordway, Jason; Bryant, Darryn

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous one-arm kettlebell (KB) swing training on various US Air Force physical fitness testing components. Thirty trained male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) US Air Force (USAF) personnel volunteered and were sequentially assigned to one of three groups based on 1.5-mile run time: (1) KB one-arm swing training, (2) KB one-arm swing training plus highintensity running (KB + run), and (3) traditional USAF physical training (PT) according to Air Force Instruction 36-2905. The following measurements were made before and after 10 weeks of training: 1.5-mile run, 1-minute maximal push-ups, 1-minute maximal situps, maximal grip strength, pro agility, vertical jump, 40-yard dash, bodyweight, and percent body fat. Subjects attended three supervised exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. During each exercise session, all groups performed a 10-minute dynamic warm-up followed by either (1) 10 minutes of continuous KB swings, (2) 10 minutes of continuous kettlebell swings plus 10 minutes of high-intensity running, or (3) 20 minutes of moderate intensity running plus push-ups and sit-ups. Average and peak heart rate were recorded for each subject after all sessions. Paired t tests were conducted to detect changes from pretesting to posttesting within each group and analysis of variance was used to compare between-group variability (ρ ≤ .05). Twenty subjects completed the study. There were no statistically significant changes in 1.5-mile run time between or within groups. The 40- yard dash significantly improved within the KB swing (ρ ≤ .05) and KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05); however, there were no significant differences in the traditional PT group (ρ ≤ .05) or between groups. Maximal push-ups significantly improved in the KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05) and trends toward significant improvements in maximal push-ups were found in both the KB (ρ = .057) and traditional PT (ρ = .067) groups. This study

  12. Continuous Space Education System and its Role in Increasing Efficiency of Engineering Staff Training for Ukraine Space Rocket Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novykov, O.; Perlik, V.; Polyakov, N.; Khytorniy, V.

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment to new economical and social conditions in Ukraine, being a space-faring country, requires a new concept in improving efficiency of engineering education to provide rocket and space field with highly qualified engineers and scientists. General strategy to solve this task is to combine the efforts of the secondary schools, academic institutions, R&D institutes and production enterprises in order to educe gifted youth as early as possible and to train them into rocket and space field specialists following the scheme of continuous education: school - institution of higher education - enterprise. This report analyzes the 20-year experience of Dniepropetrovsk State University, Yuzhnoye State Design Office and Ukraine's National Center for the Aerospace Education of Youth in their joint efforts to organize the system of continuous education and how it managed to enhance the training efficiency of the engineering skills.

  13. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  14. Effect of continuous aerobic vs. interval training on selected anthropometrical, physiological and functional parameters of adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, P H; Moss, S J

    2016-01-25

    A large percentage of adults with Down syndrome (DS) are overweight and have extremely low aerobic capacities compared with the general population and persons with intellectual disability without DS. Previous aerobic training intervention studies showed limited potential to significantly ameliorate anthropometrical and cardiovascular variables. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of continuous aerobic training (CAT) vs. interval training (IT) on selected anthropometrical, health, physical and functional parameters of adults with DS. Forty-two adults with DS (25 men and 17 women) and a mean age of 33.8 (±8.6) years were randomly allocated to one of three groups (IT, CAT and control). Training was performed for 12 weeks. The IT group performed 10-30 s all out sprints with 90 s (1:3 work-rest ratio) of low cadence, low intensity cycling or walking. The CAT group performed continuous cycling and walking at an intensity of 70-80% of VO 2 peak. Heart rate monitors were used for monitoring training intensities. After 6 weeks of training, the intensity of the CAT was increased to 85% of VO 2 peak, whilst the intensity of the IT group remained 'all out'. An increase of 5 min in duration was implemented after 6 weeks for both training groups. To evaluate pre-post differences between groups, a repeated analysis of covariance with post hoc Bonferroni test was performed RESULTS: After 12 weeks of training, body weight and body mass index decreased significantly more in the IT group compared with control and CAT (P functional parameters and leg strength were shown for CAT compared with control (P training and CAT can both be pursued by adults with DS to positively impact on various parameters of anthropometry, fitness and functional ability, with IT more appropriate for improving body weight and aerobic capacity. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and

  15. Experience in development and implementation of Control Room continuing training programme at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peradze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the same SAT principles each NPP (or operating organisation) goes by its own way, which is defined by available resources, assistance, NPP operational conditions, including policy, economics and public opinion. There were several groups of factors, which are very important to provide quality of training- Time, Human Resources and material resources. We pay especial attention to simulator training. In different conditions personnel behaviour is defined by knowledge, rule or skills. It is very difficult to develop unknown to personnel scenarios. But sometimes- real events not described in plant procedures take place at Nuclear Power Plants. Therefore during NPP events analysis we pay a especial attention searching for situation when knowledge or rule defines personnel behaviour. To provide analysis and statistics of Control Room Personnel training at INPP simulator we developed 'INPP events computer data base'. (author)

  16. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made.12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated.CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05.SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  17. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emma; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Birch, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT). However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT) which is less time committing has not been made. 12 women (22±2 yrs) completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6) or work-matched SCT (n = 6) on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim). CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) were also evaluated. CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05). SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  18. Feasibility of scenario-based simulation training versus traditional workshops in continuing medical education: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brendan; Hawkins, Trisha Lee-Ann; Herman, Robert; Barnes, Sue; Kaufmann, Stephanie; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME) are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods Participants (N=27) were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76) nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= − 0.44; p=0.19). Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (psimulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial. PMID:23870304

  19. Army National Guard Personnel and Training Readiness in the Past Century: Contingencies and Continuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    deployments, refutation of a post-GWOT ’strategic reserve’ role by the ARNG and its professional association, and the terms of the latest post-war compromise...for federal investment. This discourse between states and the US federal government has resulted in a better manned, trained and equipped ARNG, as a

  20. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  1. Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Education and training in the radiological protection of patients has to face many challenges. These stem from the interdisciplinary nature of the personnel involved, their varied backgrounds, the difficult to quantify risk and benefit considerations, concern for quality of the end product, changing attitudes as knowledge develops in fast growing areas of technology and the wide complexity of the equipment used. On the one hand there is a need for giving orientation about the medical exigencies and situations in clinical practice to the radiation protection regulators and, on the other, more and more clinicians without any training in radiation protection are getting involved in the use of high levels of radiation through angiographic procedures. It is hence no wonder that the deterministic effects of radiation have been observed in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. A review of the state of the art in education and training and identifying educational challenges is therefore needed. The medical training of physicians and support personnel in the health care use of ionizing or other radiation in patients is particularly challenging for many reasons, most of which are unique to health care. These include those described in the paper. (author)

  2. Aerobic interval training and continuous training equally improve aerobic exercise capacity in patients with coronary artery disease: the SAINTEX-CAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conraads, Viviane M; Pattyn, Nele; De Maeyer, Catherine; Beckers, Paul J; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Denollet, Johan; Frederix, Geert; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Hoymans, Vicky Y; Possemiers, Nadine; Schepers, Dirk; Shivalkar, Bharati; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-20

    Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation increases peak oxygen uptake (peak VO₂), which is an important predictor of mortality in cardiac patients. However, it remains unclear which exercise characteristics are most effective for improving peak VO₂ in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Proof of concept papers comparing Aerobic Interval Training (AIT) and Moderate Continuous Training (MCT) were conducted in small sample sizes and findings were inconsistent and heterogeneous. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of AIT and Aerobic Continuous Training (ACT) on peak VO₂, peripheral endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life and safety, in a large multicentre study. Two-hundred CAD patients (LVEF >40%, 90% men, mean age 58.4 ± 9.1 years) were randomized to a supervised 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme of three weekly sessions of either AIT (90-95% of peak heart rate (HR)) or ACT (70-75% of peak HR) on a bicycle. Primary outcome was peak VO₂; secondary outcomes were peripheral endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, quality of life and safety. Peak VO₂ (ml/kg/min) increased significantly in both groups (AIT 22.7 ± 17.6% versus ACT 20.3 ± 15.3%; p-timeexercise capacity and peripheral endothelial function following AIT and ACT in a large population of CAD patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  4. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  5. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  6. Moderate Continuous Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Cardiomyocyte Contractility in Β1 Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The lack of cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR negatively affects the regulation of both cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, leading, in the long term, to heart failure (HF. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MCAE is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for patients with HF. Objective: We tested the effects of MCAE on the contractile properties of left ventricular (LV myocytes from β1 adrenergic receptor knockout (β1ARKO mice. Methods: Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT and β1ARKO mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc and trained (WTt; and β1ARKO control (β1ARKOc and trained (β1ARKOt. Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week on a treadmill, for 8 weeks. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant in all comparisons. Results: The β1ARKO and exercised mice exhibited a higher (p < 0.05 running capacity than WT and sedentary ones, respectively. The β1ARKO mice showed higher body (BW, heart (HW and left ventricle (LVW weights, as well as the HW/BW and LVW/BW than WT mice. However, the MCAE did not affect these parameters. Left ventricular myocytes from β1ARKO mice showed increased (p < 0.05 amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation than those from WT. In addition, MCAE increased (p < 0.05 amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation in β1ARKO mice. Conclusion: MCAE improves myocyte contractility in the left ventricle of β1ARKO mice. This is evidence to support the therapeutic value of this type of exercise training in the treatment of heart diseases involving β1-AR desensitization or reduction.

  7. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible

  8. Feasibility of scenario-based simulation training versus traditional workshops in continuing medical education: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Kerr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods: Participants (N=27 were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results: Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76 nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= − 0.44; p=0.19. Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (p<0.05 in all. However, only the simulation group reported an increase in comfort in patient management (d=1.1, p=0.051 for the traditional group and d=1.3; p= 0.0003 for the simulation group. At 1 month, comfort measures in the traditional group increased consistently over time while these measures in the simulation group increased post-workshop but decreased by 1 month, suggesting that some of the effects of training with simulation may be short lived. Discussion: The use of simulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial.

  9. Effect of runway training on rat brain tyrosine hydroxylase: differential effect of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, M R; Feldon, J; Gray, J A; Fillenz, M

    1979-12-01

    Previous experiments have implicated ascending noradrenergic systems in the development of the behavioural responses to different patterns of reward. In this report food deprived male Sprague--Dawley rats were trained to run a straight alley for good reward on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) or a partial reinforcement (PRF) schedule. Tyrosine hydroxylase measured in a partially solubilized preparation from hippocampus and hypothalamus at the end of acquisition was not different from controls, indicating that enzyme induction does not occur during either training schedules. However, hippocampal synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylation rates from the CRF group was significantly higher than from either the PRF group or the handled controls. This indicates that at the end of the acquisition schedule the noradrenergic projection to hippocampus was more active in the CRF group than with the PRF group or the handled control.

  10. Statistical analysis and optimization in the process/device/circuit/system microelectronics design

    OpenAIRE

    Kuleshov, A.; Nelayev, V.; Stempitsky, V.

    2010-01-01

    Methodology and results of statistical analysis and optimization in the joined process/device/circuit/system microelectronics design are presented. A simple example of the cell inverter design illustrates the e±ciency of the methodology.

  11. The Electrical Engineering Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark - Options in Microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the modular structure of the engineering curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark. The basic requirements for an electrical engineering curriculum are presented and different possibilities for specialization in microelectronics and integrated circuit design...

  12. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the ATACMS-BAT Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the ATACMS-BAT weapon system...

  13. Microelectronics Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the JAVELIN Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Manufacturing Science and Technology Division (MS&TD), AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the JAVELIN weapon system...

  14. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm for image segmentation and vision alignment used in microelectronic bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fujun; Li, Junlan; Liu, Shiwei; Zhao, Xingyu; Zhang, Dawei; Tian, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the precision and efficiency of microelectronic bonding, this paper presents an improved adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA) for the image segmentation and vision alignment of the solder joints in the microelectronic chips. The maximum between-cluster variance (OTSU) threshold segmentation method was adopted for the image segmentation of microchips, and the IAGA was introduced to the threshold segmentation considering the features of the images. The performance of the image ...

  15. Progress in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by application of microelectronics. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiling, W.

    1984-01-01

    In the past decade considerable progress has been made in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by developing position-sensitive detector systems and widely using integrated circuits and microcomputers for data acquisition and processing as well as for automation of measuring processes. In this report which will be published in three parts those developments are reviewed and demonstrated on selected examples. After briefly characterizing microelectronics, the use of microelectronic elements for radiation detectors is reviewed. (author)

  16. Improved method for detection of “hot spots” in microelectronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov V. M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available New method of liquid crystal thermography of “hot spots” in crystals of microelectronic products have been developed. The method is based on the use of local cholesteric phase image of “hot spot” in transparent smectic phase of cholesteric liquid crystal against a background of clearly visible topological elements on the surface of microelectronic device crystal. Examples of “hot spot” images in crystals of different types of integrated circuits are shown.

  17. Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0002 Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics Kwang-Sup Lee HANNAM...SUBTITLE Coupling Graphene Sheets with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Energy Storage and Microelectronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4010...superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to grapheme-based materials. The distance of the ligands to the graphene derivative surface can be

  18. Japanese technology assessment: Computer science, opto- and microelectronics mechatronics, biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, D.; Wieder, H.; Spicer, W.; Nevins, J.; Oxender, D.

    1986-01-01

    The series studies Japanese research and development in four high-technology areas - computer science, opto and microelectronics, mechatronics (a term created by the Japanese to describe the union of mechanical and electronic engineering to produce the next generation of machines, robots, and the like), and biotechnology. The evaluations were conducted by panels of U.S. scientists - chosen from academia, government, and industry - actively involved in research in areas of expertise. The studies were prepared for the purpose of aiding the U.S. response to Japan's technological challenge. The main focus of the assessments is on the current status and long-term direction and emphasis of Japanese research and development. Other aspects covered include evolution of the state of the art; identification of Japanese researchers, R and D organizations, and resources; and comparative U.S. efforts. The general time frame of the studies corresponds to future industrial applications and potential commercial impacts spanning approximately the next two decades.

  19. Radiation effects microscopy for failure analysis of microelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Brice, David Kenneth; Schwank, James Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic devices in satellites and spacecraft are exposed to high energy cosmic radiation. Furthermore, Earth-based electronics can be affected by terrestrial radiation. The radiation causes a variety of Single Event Effects (SEE) that can lead to failure of the devices. High energy heavy ion beams are being used to simulate both the cosmic and terrestrial radiation to study radiation effects and to ensure the reliability of electronic devices. Broad beam experiments can provide a measure of the radiation hardness of a device (SEE cross section) but they are unable to pinpoint the failing components in the circuit. A nuclear microbeam is an ideal tool to map SEE on a microscopic scale and find the circuit elements (transistors, capacitors, etc.) that are responsible for the failure of the device. In this paper a review of the latest radiation effects microscopy (REM) work at Sandia will be given. Different SEE mechanisms (Single Event Upset, Single Event Transient, etc.) and the methods to study them (Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC), Single Event Upset mapping, etc.) will be discussed. Several examples of using REM to study the basic effects of radiation in electronic devices and failure analysis of integrated circuits will be given

  20. Wireless link and microelectronics design for retinal prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wentai [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    This project focuses on delivering power and data to the artificial retinal implant inside the eye and the implant microstimulator electronics which delivers the current pulses to stimulate the retinal layer to elicit visual perception. Since the use of invasive means such as tethering wires to transmit power and data results in discomfort to the patients which could eventually cause infection due to the abrasion caused by the wire and contact of the internals of the eye to the external environment, a completely wireless approach is used to transfer both power and data. Power is required inside the eye for the microelectronic implant which uses a dual voltage supply scheme (positive and negative) to deliver biphasic (anodic and cathodic) current pulses. Data in the form of digital bits from the data transmitter external to the eye, carries information about the amplitude, phase width, interphase delay, stimulation sequence for each implant electrode. The data receiver unit decodes the digital stream and the microstimulator unit generates the appropriate current stimuli. Since the external unit consisting of the power transmitter can experience coupling a variation with the power receiver due to the patient’s movements, a closed loop approach is used which varies the transmitted power dynamically to automatically compensate for such movements. This report presents the salient features of this research activities and results.

  1. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  2. [Application of microelectronics CAD tools to synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Morgan; Haiech, Jacques; Rosati, Élise; Rezgui, Abir; Gendrault, Yves; Lallement, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging science that aims to create new biological functions that do not exist in nature, based on the knowledge acquired in life science over the last century. Since the beginning of this century, several projects in synthetic biology have emerged. The complexity of the developed artificial bio-functions is relatively low so that empirical design methods could be used for the design process. Nevertheless, with the increasing complexity of biological circuits, this is no longer the case and a large number of computer aided design softwares have been developed in the past few years. These tools include languages for the behavioral description and the mathematical modelling of biological systems, simulators at different levels of abstraction, libraries of biological devices and circuit design automation algorithms. All of these tools already exist in other fields of engineering sciences, particularly in microelectronics. This is the approach that is put forward in this paper. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Continuing Professional Development through Sustainable In-service Teacher Training System in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Banda, Benson

    2014-01-01

    It is part of ATLAS.ti User Conference 2013 : Fostering Dialog on Qualitative Methods Editor: Susanne Friese Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2014 ISBN 978-3-7983-2692-7 (composite publication) URN urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-51577 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-51577] A teacher is critical in modelling a learner. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers is important in attaining sustainable education. Africa has...

  4. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  5. Effects of l-arginine supplementation associated with continuous or interval aerobic training on chronic heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Giovanna Tedesco; Rossato, Douglas Dalcin; Perini, Júlia Luiza; Pinheiro, Lucas Pereira; Carvalho, Carol; Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Rhoden, Cláudia Ramos; Lago, Pedro Dal; Nunes, Ramiro Barcos

    2017-11-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is related with exercise intolerance and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production, which can lead to several functional capacity alterations. Considering the possible superiority of aerobic interval training compared to continuous training and the capacity of l-arginine to restore the NO pathway, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these treatments are beneficial to exercise capacity, muscle mass preservation and hemodynamic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in CHF rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats post 6weeks of myocardial infarction (MI) surgery were randomly assigned into 6 CHF groups: sedentary (SED, n=6); SED+Arg (n=7); ACT (n=8); ACT+Arg (n=5); AIT (n=7); AIT+Arg (n=5). Exercise test capacity (ETC) was performed pre and post 8weeks of intervention. Supplemented rats received Arg (1g/kg) by oral gavage (7×/week). Exercise training was performed on a rat treadmill (5×/week). Hemodynamic variables, tissue collection, congestion, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative parameters were evaluated at the end of protocols. All trained groups showed a superior exercise capacity compared to SED groups on the post-intervention test (psupplementation was able to improve hemodynamic responses (left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), +dP/dt max , and -dP/dt max (psupplementation (ACT+Arg and AIT+Arg) revealed higher gastrocnemius mass compared to the SED group (psupplementation was important to attenuate muscle loss. Moreover, interval training associated with Arg supplementation elicits greater improvements in hemodynamic parameters, contributing to reduction in pulmonary congestion, and demonstrated particular responses in the inflammatory profile and in the antioxidant status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  7. Application of a contextual instructional framework in a continuing professional development training program for physiotherapists in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Kim; Chevan, Julia; Sander, Antoinette P; Gasherebuka, Jean Damascene; Mann, Monika

    2017-03-22

    Continuing professional development is an important component of capacity building in low resource countries. The purpose of this case study is to describe the use of a contextual instructional framework to guide the processes and instructional design choices for a series of continuing professional development courses for physiotherapists in Rwanda. Four phases of the project are described: (1) program proposal, needs assessment and planning, (2) organization of the program and instructional design, (3) instructional delivery and (4) evaluation. Contextual facilitating factors and needs informed choices in each phase. The model resulted in delivery of continuing professional development to the majority of physiotherapists in Rwanda (n = 168, 0.48 rural/0.52 urban) with participants reporting improvement in skills and perceived benefit for their patients. Environmental and healthcare system factors resulted in offering the courses in rural and urban areas. Content was developed and delivered in partnership with Rwandan coinstructors. Based on the domestic needs identified in early courses, the program included advocacy and leadership activities, in addition to practical and clinical instruction. The contextual factors (environment, healthcare service organization, need for rehabilitation and status and history of the physiotherapy profession) were essential for project and instructional choices. Facilitating factors included the established professional degree and association, continuing professional development requirements, a core group of active professionals and an existing foundation from other projects. The processes and contextual considerations may be useful in countries with established professional-level education but without established postentry-level training. Implications for Rehabilitation Organizations planning continuing professional development programs may benefit from considering the context surrounding training when planning, designing and

  8. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals.

  9. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  10. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-12-15

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Education, training and continuing professional development for the medical physicist - The EFOMP view in relation to EC Council directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, EFOMP, is an umbrella organisation for National Medical Physics Organisations. One of the main objectives of EFOMP is to harmonise and promote the best practice of Medical Physics within Europe. To accomplish this goal, EFOMP has presented various recommendations and guidelines in a number of Policy Statements, unanimously adopted by EFOMP Member Organisations. Policy Statement No 9, 'Radiation Protection of the Patient in Europe: The Training of the Medical Physics Expert in Radiation Physics or Radiation Technology', is the EFOMP response to the Medical Exposure Directive, 97/43/Euratom. Here EFOMP presents its recommendations on the role and the competence requirements of the Medical Physics Expert, defined in this Directive, together with recommendations on education, training and Continuing Professional Development. The previous Directive 96/29/Euratom, the Basic Safety Standards Directive, defines a 'Qualified Expert' in the radiation protection of workers and the general public. EFOMP has an ongoing discussion on the interpretation of the competence requirements of the Qualified Expert in medical practice. The EFOMP approach to achieve harmonisation in the qualification of the Medical Physicist is to encourage the establishment of education and training schemes according to EFOMP recommendations. (author)

  12. Innovative metal thermo-compression wafer bonding for microelectronics and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, B.; Dragoi, V.

    2017-06-01

    With the continuously increasing level of integration for microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, such as gyroscopes, accelerometers and bolometers, metal wafer bonding becomes progressively more importance. In the present work common metal wafer bonding techniques were categorized, described and compared. While devices produced with metal thermo-compression wafer bonding ensure high bonding quality and a high degree of reliability, the required bonding temperatures are very often close to the maximum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process temperature (400-450°C). Based on a thermodynamic model of increasing the Gibbs free energy prior wafer bonding, in-situ ComBond(R) surface activation was applied to enable low-temperature Au-Au, Al-Al and Cu-Cu wafer bonding. Different aspects, such as bonding quality, dicing yield, bond strength, grain growth and elemental analysis across the initial bonding interface, were investigated. Based on these parameters successful wafer bonding was demonstrated at room temperature for Au-Au and Cu-Cu, and at 100°C for Al-Al wafer bonding.

  13. Microelectronics in LMFBR: Activities sponsored by the Commission 1979-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordwall, H.J. de

    1986-01-01

    These studies were designed to draw attention to signal handling techniques which have become applicable to the automatic control of reactors as a result of advances in microelectronics. The underlying concepts being explored are the extent to which more information may be obtained from existing sensors, whether changes in the state of a system may be acted upon automatically and the acceptability of stochastic methods of state estimation. If a given state may arise in a number of different ways, automatic action necessarily involves diagnosis of causes if any but the simplest actions, e.g. scram, is required. Up to now this diagnosis has been made by an operator, though a number of schemes intended to identify the primary cause of an abnormal state or to guide an operator to the most easily accessible safe state are in advanced states of development, e.g. at Halden, Westinghouse and GRS-Garching. The activity decribed is continuing, current emphasis being upon diagnostics using approaches based upon artificial intelligence concepts, system optimisation and quantification of the benefits of networking

  14. Structural Changes Following Velopharyngeal Resistance Training (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy): A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youkyung; Pfeil, Gwenlyn

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility/effectiveness of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to document velopharyngeal (VP) structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Changes in velar length and thickness, levator veli palatini (LVP) length and thickness, velar volume, and intravelar muscular proportion along the course of CPAP therapy participation (Pre-CPAP, Post-CPAP, and withdrawal). Velar and LVP lengths remained nearly the same, with the median changes (Δ) less than 0.6%, across repeated conditions. Although varying in magnitudes of change, median velar volume (Δ4%), velar thickness (Δ20%), LVP thickness (Δ17%), and intravelar muscular proportion (Δ10%) illustrated a consistent pattern of increases following the 8-week CPAP therapy. These VP structural measurements slightly decreased but remained above the pretraining condition after 8-week detraining. This report successfully demonstrated that MRI is a viable tool to document CPAP therapy-induced VP structural changes while providing preliminary empirical data.

  15. Experiences with integral microelectronics on smart structures for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Ted; Casteel, Scott; Navarro, Sergio A.; Kraml, Bob

    1995-05-01

    One feature of a smart structure implies that some computational and signal processing capability can be performed at a local level, perhaps integral to the controlled structure. This requires electronics with a minimal mechanical influence regarding structural stiffening, heat dissipation, weight, and electrical interface connectivity. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment II (ACTEX II) space-flight experiments implemented such a local control electronics scheme by utilizing composite smart members with integral processing electronics. These microelectronics, tested to MIL-STD-883B levels, were fabricated with conventional thick film on ceramic multichip module techniques. Kovar housings and aluminum-kapton multilayer insulation was used to protect against harsh space radiation and thermal environments. Development and acceptance testing showed the electronics design was extremely robust, operating in vacuum and at temperature range with minimal gain variations occurring just above room temperatures. Four electronics modules, used for the flight hardware configuration, were connected by a RS-485 2 Mbit per second serial data bus. The data bus was controlled by Actel field programmable gate arrays arranged in a single master, four slave configuration. An Intel 80C196KD microprocessor was chosen as the digital compensator in each controller. It was used to apply a series of selectable biquad filters, implemented via Delta Transforms. Instability in any compensator was expected to appear as large amplitude oscillations in the deployed structure. Thus, over-vibration detection circuitry with automatic output isolation was incorporated into the design. This was not used however, since during experiment integration and test, intentionally induced compensator instabilities resulted in benign mechanical oscillation symptoms. Not too surprisingly, it was determined that instabilities were most detectable by large temperature increases in the electronics, typically

  16. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  17. Aerobic Interval vs. Continuous Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease or Heart Failure: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with a Focus on Secondary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Nele; Beulque, Randy; Cornelissen, Véronique

    2018-03-03

    In a previous meta-analysis including nine trials comparing aerobic interval training with aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease, we found a significant difference in peak oxygen uptake favoring aerobic interval training. The objective of this study was to (1) update the original meta-analysis focussing on peak oxygen uptake and (2) evaluate the effect on secondary outcomes. We conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis by searching PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases up to March 2017. We included randomized trials comparing aerobic interval training and aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac and vascular function, and quality of life. Twenty-four papers were identified (n = 1080; mean age 60.7 ± 10.7 years). Aerobic interval training resulted in a higher increase in peak oxygen uptake compared with aerobic continuous training in all patients (1.40 mL/kg/min; p interval training in all patients. Other cardiorespiratory parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life were equally affected. This meta-analysis adds further evidence to the clinically significant larger increase in peak oxygen uptake following aerobic interval training vs. aerobic continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure. More well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the safety of aerobic interval training and the sustainability of the training response over longer periods.

  18. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  19. Initial and further education: Substitutes or complements? Differences in continuing education and training over the life-course of European workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examines the place of initial and further education in continuing education and training over the life-course of workers across Europe. The evidence presented demonstrates that in countries with a strong orientation towards vocational education, participation in continuing

  20. Symmetric miniaturized heating system for active microelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael; Mayer, Michael; Jourard, Isaac; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Persic, John

    2010-07-01

    To qualify interconnect technologies such as microelectronic fine wire bonds for mass production of integrated circuit (IC) packages, it is necessary to perform accelerated aging tests, e.g., to age a device at an elevated temperature or to subject the device to thermal cycling and measure the decrease of interconnect quality. There are downsides to using conventional ovens for this as they are relatively large and have relatively slow temperature change rates, and if electrical connections are required between monitoring equipment and the device being heated, they must be located inside the oven and may be aged by the high temperatures. Addressing these downsides, a miniaturized heating system (minioven) is presented, which can heat individual IC packages containing the interconnects to be tested. The core of this system is a piece of copper cut from a square shaped tube with high resistance heating wire looped around it. Ceramic dual in-line packages are clamped against either open end of the core. One package contains a Pt100 temperature sensor and the other package contains the device to be aged placed in symmetry to the temperature sensor. According to the temperature detected by the Pt100, a proportional-integral-derivative controller adjusts the power supplied to the heating wire. The system maintains a dynamic temperature balance with the core hot and the two symmetric sides with electrical connections to the device under test at a cooler temperature. Only the face of the package containing the device is heated, while the socket holding it remains below 75 degrees C when the oven operates at 200 degrees C. The minioven can heat packages from room temperature up to 200 degrees C in less than 5 min and maintain this temperature at 28 W power. During long term aging, a temperature of 200 degrees C was maintained for 1120 h with negligible resistance change of the heating wires after 900 h (heating wire resistance increased 0.2% over the final 220 h). The

  1. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Durães, André R; Reis, Helena F Correia Dos; Neves, Victor R; Martinez, Bruno P; Carvalho, Vitor O

    2017-11-01

    Background Exercise is an effective strategy for reducing total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, it is not clear which modality is best. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training of coronary artery disease patients. Methods We searched MEDLINE, PEDro, LILACS, SciELO and the Cochrane Library (from the earliest date available to November 2016) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training for coronary artery disease patients. Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test. Results Twelve studies met the study criteria, including 609 patients. High-intensity interval training resulted in improvement in peak oxygen uptake weighted mean difference (1.3 ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval: 0.6-1.9, n = 594) compared with moderate-intensity continuous training. No significant difference in physical, emotional, and social domain of quality of life was found for participants for participants in the high-intensity interval training group compared with the moderate-intensity continuous training group. Sub-analysis of three studies with isocaloric exercise training showed no significant difference in peak oxygen uptake weighted mean difference (0.4 ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval: -0.1-0.9, n = 137) for participants in the high-intensity interval training group compared with moderate-intensity continuous training group. Conclusions High-intensity interval training may improve peak oxygen uptake and should be considered as a component of care of coronary artery disease patients. However, this superiority disappeared when isocaloric protocol is compared.

  2. Energy expenditure and EPOC between water-based high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Praia, Aline Borges de Carvalho; Alberton, Cristine Lima

    2018-02-05

    The present study compared the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two water aerobics protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT). A crossover randomized design was employed comprising 11 healthy young women. HIIT consisted of eight 20s bouts at 130% of the cadence associated with the maximal oxygen consumption (measured in the aquatic environment) with 10s passive rest. CONT corresponded to 30 min at a heart rate equivalent to 90-95% of the second ventilatory threshold. EE was measured during and 30 min before and after the protocols and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated. Total EE during session was higher in CONT (227.62 ± 31.69 kcal) compared to HIIT (39.91 ± 4.24 kcal), while EE per minute was greater in HIIT (9.98 ± 1.06 kcal) than in CONT (7.58 ± 1.07 kcal). Post-exercise EE (64.48 ± 3.50 vs. 63.65 ± 10.39 kcal) and EPOC (22.53 ± 4.98 vs.22.10 ± 8.00 kcal) were not different between HIIT and CONT, respectively. Additionally, oxygen uptake had already returned to baseline fifteen minutes post-exercise. These suggest that a water aerobics CONT session results in post-exercise EE and EPOC comparable to HIIT despite the latter supramaximal nature. Still, CONT results in higher total EE.

  3. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Simas, Vini; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua; Furness, James

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465 for HIIT and 488 for MICT) were included in the analysis. HIIT was significantly superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness overall (SMD 0.34 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.2-0.48]; p HIIT intervention (n=9). However, some adverse events (n=5) were not classified by intervention group. HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are significant for CR programs of >6-week duration. Programs of 7-12 weeks' duration resulted in the largest improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for patients with coronary artery disease. HIIT appears to be as safe as MICT for CR participants.

  4. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate Continuous Training on Arterial Stiffness in Episodic Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Minghetti, Alice; Magon, Stefano; Rossmeissl, Anja; Papadopoulou, Athina; Klenk, Christopher; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Faude, Oliver; Zahner, Lukas; Sprenger, Till; Donath, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT) on arterial stiffness in migraine patients. Methods: Forty-eight episodic migraineurs were initially enrolled in the study. 37 patients [female: 30; age: 37 ( SD : 10); BMI: 23.1 (5.2); Migraine days per month: 3.7 (2.5)] completed the intervention. Central blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by an oscillometric monitor. Incremental treadmill exercise testing yielded maximal and submaximal fitness parameters. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIT, MCT, or a control group (CON). The intervention groups trained twice a week over a 12-week intervention period. Results: After adjustment for between-group baseline differences, a moderate meaningful overall reduction of the augmentation index at 75 min -1 heart rate (AIx@75) was observed [partial eta squared ([Formula: see text]) = 0.16; p = 0.06]. With 91% likely beneficial effects, HIT was more effective in reducing AIx@75 than MCT [HIT: pre 22.0 (9.7), post 14.9 (13.0), standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.62; MCT: pre 16.6 (8.5), post 21.3 (10.4), SMD -0.49]. HIT induced a relevant reduction in central systolic blood pressure [cSBP: pre 118 (23) mmHg, post 110 (16) mmHg, SMD = 0.42] with a 59% possibly beneficial effect compared to CON, while MCT showed larger effects in lowering central diastolic blood pressure [pre 78 (7) mmHg, post 74 (7) mmHg, SMD = 0.61], presenting 60% possibly beneficial effects compared to CON. Central aortic PWV showed no changes in any of the three groups. Migraine days were reduced more successfully by HIT than MCT (HIT: SMD = 1.05; MCT: SMD = 0.43). Conclusion: HIT but not MCT reduces AIx@75 as a measure of

  5. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min -1 ; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min -1 ) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min -1 ; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min -1 ) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  6. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate Continuous Training on Arterial Stiffness in Episodic Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henner Hanssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT on arterial stiffness in migraine patients.Methods: Forty-eight episodic migraineurs were initially enrolled in the study. 37 patients [female: 30; age: 37 (SD: 10; BMI: 23.1 (5.2; Migraine days per month: 3.7 (2.5] completed the intervention. Central blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were obtained by an oscillometric monitor. Incremental treadmill exercise testing yielded maximal and submaximal fitness parameters. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIT, MCT, or a control group (CON. The intervention groups trained twice a week over a 12-week intervention period.Results: After adjustment for between-group baseline differences, a moderate meaningful overall reduction of the augmentation index at 75 min−1 heart rate (AIx@75 was observed [partial eta squared (ηp2 = 0.16; p = 0.06]. With 91% likely beneficial effects, HIT was more effective in reducing AIx@75 than MCT [HIT: pre 22.0 (9.7, post 14.9 (13.0, standardized mean difference (SMD = 0.62; MCT: pre 16.6 (8.5, post 21.3 (10.4, SMD −0.49]. HIT induced a relevant reduction in central systolic blood pressure [cSBP: pre 118 (23 mmHg, post 110 (16 mmHg, SMD = 0.42] with a 59% possibly beneficial effect compared to CON, while MCT showed larger effects in lowering central diastolic blood pressure [pre 78 (7 mmHg, post 74 (7 mmHg, SMD = 0.61], presenting 60% possibly beneficial effects compared to CON. Central aortic PWV showed no changes in any of the three groups. Migraine days were reduced more successfully by HIT than MCT (HIT: SMD = 1.05; MCT: SMD = 0.43.Conclusion: HIT but not MCT reduces AIx@75 as a measure of pulse wave

  7. Lithium and lithium ion batteries for applications in microelectronic devices: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Ferrara, Seth; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Batteries employing lithium chemistry have been intensively investigated because of their high energy attributes which may be deployed for vehicle electrification and large-scale energy storage applications. Another important direction of battery research for micro-electronics, however, is relatively less discussed in the field but growing fast in recent years. This paper reviews chemistry and electrochemistry in different microbatteries along with their cell designs to meet the goals of their various applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge and recent progress of microbatteries for emerging micro-electronic devices may shed light on the future development of microbatteries towards high energy density and flexible design.

  8. Materials science in microelectronics I the relationships between thin film processing and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship.The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship - that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film's surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer - determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This

  9. Continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training is as effective as moderate- to high-intensity exercise training at lowering blood HbA(1c) in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Dendale, P; Jonkers, R A M; Beelen, M; Manders, R J F; Corluy, L; Mullens, A; Berger, J; Meeusen, R; van Loon, L J C

    2009-09-01

    Exercise represents an effective interventional strategy to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. However, the impact of exercise intensity on the benefits of exercise training remains to be established. In the present study, we compared the clinical benefits of 6 months of continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training with those of continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise training, matched for energy expenditure, in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Fifty male obese type 2 diabetes patients (age 59 +/- 8 years, BMI 32 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6 month continuous endurance-type exercise training programme. All participants performed three supervised exercise sessions per week, either 55 min at 50% of whole body peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak (low to moderate intensity) or 40 min at 75% of VO(2)peak (moderate to high intensity). Oral glucose tolerance, blood glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, body composition, maximal workload capacity, whole body and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and skeletal muscle fibre type composition were assessed before and after 2 and 6 months of intervention. The entire 6 month intervention programme was completed by 37 participants. Continuous endurance-type exercise training reduced blood glycated haemoglobin levels, LDL-cholesterol concentrations, body weight and leg fat mass, and increased VO(2)peak, lean muscle mass and skeletal muscle cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activity (p training at low to moderate or moderate to high intensity. When matched for energy cost, prolonged continuous low- to moderate-intensity endurance-type exercise training is equally effective as continuous moderate- to high-intensity training in lowering blood glycated haemoglobin and increasing whole body and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in obese type 2 diabetes patients. ISRCTN32206301 None.

  10. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan AL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Hannan,1 Wayne Hing,1 Vini Simas,1 Mike Climstein,2,3 Jeff S Coombes,4 Rohan Jayasinghe,5–7 Joshua Byrnes,8 James Furness1 1Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Water Based Research Unit, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 5Cardiology Department, Gold Coast University Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 6Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 7Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 8Centre for Applied Health Economics, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Logan, QLD, Australia Background: Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. Objective: We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. Methods: A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Results: Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465

  11. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joyce S; Dalleck, Lance C; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Beetham, Kassia S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence and quantify the impact on vascular function of HIIT compared with MICT. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE) were searched (until May 2014) for randomized trials comparing the effect of at least 2 weeks of HIIT and MICT on vascular function. HIIT protocols involved predominantly aerobic exercise at a high intensity, interspersed with active or passive recovery periods. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the mean difference in the change in vascular function assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to post-intervention between HIIT and MICT. The impact of HIIT versus MICT on CRF, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and biomarkers associated with vascular function (oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance) was also reviewed across included studies. Seven randomized trials, including 182 patients, met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A commonly used HIIT prescription was four intervals of 4 min (4 × 4 HIIT) at 85-95% of maximum or peak heart rate (HRmax/peak), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 60-70% HRmax/peak, three times per week for 12-16 weeks. Brachial artery FMD improved by 4.31 and 2.15% following HIIT and MICT, respectively. This resulted in a significant (p HIIT also had a greater tendency than MICT to induce positive effects on secondary

  13. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Senen, Alejandro Berenguel; Jiménez, Verónica Hernández; Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira Barrios; Chicharro, Jose López

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been considered a prognostic and mortality indicator in both healthy and coronary patients. Physical exercise prescription has shown improvements in VO 2 peak and HRR, but most of the studies have been carried out applying continuous training at a moderate intensity, being very limited the use of protocols of high intensity interval training in coronary patients. We aimed to compare the effects of a moderate continuous training (MCT) versus a high intensity interval training (HIIT) programme on VO 2 peak and HRR. Seventy three coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycloergometer were performed to obtain VO 2 peak data and heart rate was monitored during and after the exercise test to obtain heart rate recovery data. Both exercise programmes significantly increase VO 2 peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (HIIT: 4.5±4.46ml/kg/min vs MCT: 2.46±3.57ml/kg/min; p=0.039). High intensity interval training resulted in a significantly increase in HRR at the first and second minute of the recovery phase (15,44±7,04 vs 21,22±6,62, pdisease of low risk resulted in an improvement in VO 2 peak, and also improvements in post-exercise heart-rate recovery, compared with continuous training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Stresses Building up in Microelectronics Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaie Adli, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis comprises a thorough study of the microelectronics packaging process by means of various experimental and numerical methods to estimate the process induced residual stresses. The main objective of the packaging is to encapsulate the die, interconnections and the other exposed internal

  17. The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)

  18. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO hybrid pn junctions for microelectronics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsia, E.; Huby, N.; Tallarida, G.

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO devices are investigated as rectifying heterojunctions for microelectronics applications. A low-temperature atomic layer deposition of ZnO on top of poly(3-hexylthiophene) allows the fabrication of diodes featuring a rectification ratio of nearly 105 at ±4 V and ...

  19. Groovy chips : Microelectronics that listen as well as think

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, N.; Burghartz, J.N.; Sarro, P.M.; Klomp, H.

    2002-01-01

    Just imagine that you are standing in the concourse of Rotterdam Central Station, and you can speak into a machine to ask it the time of the next train to Amsterdam, and an electronic voice will instantly tell you the answer, including the platform number. The TU Delft Mediamatics department has

  20. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  1. Evaluation of a continuing professional development training program for physicians and physician assistants in hospitals in Laos based on the Kirkpatrick model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Bae; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Bouphavanh, Ketsomsouk; Kang, Yu Min

    2016-01-01

    Medical professionals from Korea and Laos have been working together to develop a continuing professional development training program covering the major clinical fields of primary care. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program from 2013 to 2014 using the Kirkpatrick model. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the reaction of the trainees, and the trainers assessed the level of trainees' performance at the beginning and the end of each clinical section. The transfer (behavioral change) of the trainees was evaluated through the review of medical records written by the trainees before and after the training program. The trainees were satisfied with the training program, for which the average score was 4.48 out of 5.0. The average score of the trainees' performance at the beginning was 2.39 out of 5.0, and rose to 3.88 at the end of each section. The average score of the medical records written before the training was 2.92 out of 5.0, and it rose to 3.34 after the training. The number of patient visits to the district hospitals increased. The continuing professional development training program, which was planned and implemented with the full engagement and responsibility of Lao health professionals, proved to be effective.

  2. Physiological differences between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol in recreational runners and metabolic demand prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad J; Govindasamay, Balasekaran; Kay Hiang, Hoon; Seet Gim Lee, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, Ṽ O 2 , BLa), and overall perceptual (RPE O ) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included Ṽ O 2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT). Session 2 was the noncontinuous CS test until exhaustion, having 4:1 min work-to-rest ratio at CS, whereas session 3 was the continuous CS test till exhaustion. As 1-min recovery during session 2 may change fatigue behavior, it was hypothesized that it will significantly change the physiological stress and hence endurance outcomes. Results reported average time to exhaustion (TTE) was 37.33(9.8) mins for session 2 and 23.28(9.87) mins for session 3. Participants experienced relatively higher metabolic demand (BLa) 6.78(1.43) mmol.l -1 in session 3 as compared to session 2 (5.52(0.93) mmol.l -1 ). RER was observed to increase in session 3 and decrease in session 2. Student's paired t -test only reported a significant difference in TTE, ṼO 2 , RER, RPE O , and BLa at "End" between session 2 and 3. Reported difference in RPE O and %HR max at "AT" were 5 (2.2) and 89.8 (2.60)% during session 2 and 6 (2.5) and 89.8 (2.59)% during session 3, respectively. Regression analysis reported strong correlation of %HR max (adj. R-square = 0.588) with BLa than RPE O (adj. R-square = 0.541). The summary of findings suggests that decreasing RER increased TTE and reduced BLa toward "End" during session 2 which might have helped to have better endurance. The %HR max was identified to be used as a better noninvasive surrogate of endurance intensity estimator. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological

  3. The Impact of Lecturers' Initial Teacher Training on Continuing Professional Development Needs for Teaching and Learning in Post-Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings of a research project that aims to investigate the impact of teacher training for lecturers in post-compulsory education on engagement with continuing professional development (CPD) for learning and teaching. The majority of colleges and universities operating in the UK now ensure that all teaching staff…

  4. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group ( n  = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group ( n  = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p  ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p  ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  5. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Toohey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8 or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8 group for 36 sessions (12 weeks of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05. An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01 with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT; it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  6. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function. PMID:28656073

  7. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate or MICT (70% maximum heart rate group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak, neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  8. A survey of Canadian regulated complementary and alternative medicine schools about research, evidence-based health care and interprofessional training, as well as continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2013-12-28

    While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools' students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the attitudinal and communication gaps between these different practices. The aim of this study was to describe the training offered in these areas and gather the perceptions of curriculum/program directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. A two-phase study consisting of an electronic survey and subsequent semi-structured telephone interviews was conducted with curriculum/program (C/P) directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. Questions assessed the extent of the research, evidence-based health care, IPC training and continuing education, as well as the C/P directors' perceptions about the training. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the schools', curriculum's and the C/P directors' characteristics. Content analysis was conducted on the interview material. Twenty-eight C/P directors replied to the electronic survey and 11 participated in the interviews, representing chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture and massage therapy schools. Canadian regulated CAM schools offered research and evidence-based health care training as well as opportunities for collaboration with biomedical peers and continuing education to a various extent (58% to 91%). Although directors were generally satisfied with the training offered at their school, they expressed a desire for improvements. They felt future CAM providers should understand research findings and be able to rely on high quality research and to communicate with conventional care providers as well as to engage in continuing education

  9. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  10. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  11. The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewege, M; van den Berg, R; Ward, R E; Keech, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvements in body composition in overweight and obese adults. Trials comparing HIIT and MICT in overweight or obese participants aged 18-45 years were included. Direct measures (e.g. whole-body fat mass) and indirect measures (e.g. waist circumference) were examined. From 1,334 articles initially screened, 13 were included. Studies averaged 10 weeks × 3 sessions per week training. Both HIIT and MICT elicited significant (p training time commitment. Running training displayed large effects on whole-body fat mass for both HIIT and MICT (standardized mean difference -0.82 and -0.85, respectively), but cycling training did not induce fat loss. Short-term moderate-intensity to high-intensity exercise training can induce modest body composition improvements in overweight and obese individuals without accompanying body-weight changes. HIIT and MICT show similar effectiveness across all body composition measures suggesting that HIIT may be a time-efficient component of weight management programs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Attachment Security and Self-compassion Priming Increase the Likelihood that First-time Engagers in Mindfulness Meditation Will Continue with Mindfulness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Angela C; Shepstone, Laura; Carnelley, Katherine B; Cavanagh, Kate; Millings, Abigail

    Mindfulness practice has many mental and physical health benefits but can be perceived as 'difficult' by some individuals. This perception can discourage compliance with mindfulness meditation training programs. The present research examined whether the activation of thoughts and feelings related to attachment security and self-compassion (through semantic priming) prior to a mindfulness meditation session might influence willingness to engage in future mindfulness training. We expected both of these primes to positively influence participants' willingness to continue with mindfulness training. We primed 117 meditation-naïve individuals (84 female; mean age of 22.3 years, SD = 4.83) with either a self-compassion, attachment security, or a neutral control prime prior to an introductory mindfulness exercise and measured their post-session willingness to engage in further training. Both experimental primes resulted in higher willingness to engage in further mindfulness training relative to the control condition. The self-compassion prime did so indirectly by increasing state mindfulness, while the attachment security prime had a direct effect. This study supports theoretical links between self-compassion and mindfulness and reveals a causal role for these factors in promoting willingness to engage in mindfulness training. Our findings have implications for improving compliance with mindfulness intervention programs.

  13. Tailoring the Crystallographic Texture and Electrical Properties of Inkjet-printed Interconnects for Use in Microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Inal, Karim; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 40 nm are studied for future applications in microelectronic devices. The enhanced diffusivity of nanoparticles is exploited to fabricate electrical interconnects at low temperature. Sintering condition has been tuned to tailor the grain size so that electrical resistivity can be lowered down to 3.4 µOhm∙cm. In this study, a {111}-textured gold thin film has been used to increase diffusion routes. The combined...

  14. New Ways for EUROPRACTICE Training and Best Practice Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    been organized to fill the gap, and information about the courses is distributed in different ways.Intelligent use of internet and multimedia technology promotes micro-electronics training in a very effective way.This is the most effective way to promote the large number of courses......EUROPRACTICE TBPS has been around for one and a half year.TBPS has presented more than 400 new microelectronics courses in different ways. An international conference EMAC organized by TBPS has been held in Barcelona in May 1997.This paper will focus on some of the new ideas coming from TBPS.......Among those should be mentioned intelligent use of internet, multimedia training and RF high speed low power training.TBPS is primarily a course broker negotiating with more than 45 course vendors to get highly qualified courses at different levels and at moderate prices in the 5 key microelectronics areas...

  15. Synthesis of the system modeling and signal detecting circuit of a novel vacuum microelectronic accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongling; Wen, Zhiyu; Wen, Zhongquan; He, Xuefeng; Yang, Yinchuan; Shang, Zhengguo

    2009-01-01

    A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %.

  16. Synthesis of the System Modeling and Signal Detecting Circuit of a Novel Vacuum Microelectronic Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguo Shang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %.

  17. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  18. Developing a flexible approach to Initial Teacher Training and Continuing Professional Development for the Adult and Community Learning sector: a case for collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulin, Pat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Adult and Community Learning (ACL provision and the particular nature of its workforce are important elements in any deliberation around the planning, access to and take-up of professional development of ACL teaching staff. One of the key goals of the LONCETT (London Centre for Excellence in Teacher Training ACL project has been to present evidence-based ways forward in relation to the Initial Teacher Training (ITT and Continuing Professional Development (CPD needs of tutors. The LONCETT research has been conceived as an opportunity to record the perspectives of key players in the professional development of ACL tutors. This paper identifies the key barriers to professionalising staff in this part of the Learning and Skills Sector (LSS. It explores the potential of collaborative approaches between teacher training providers and learning providers to ensure appropriate and accessible professional development for the sector’s workforce.

  19. [Continuing education and matrix support: training, experience, and practices of health professionals in the Centers for the Support of Family Health and the supported teams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, José Patrício; Moreira, Diane Costa

    2017-09-28

    : This study aimed to understand and analyze how processes of continuing education are experienced by professionals in the Centers for the Support of Family Health (NASF) and family health teams. The aim was also to understand how matrix support as a strategy for continuing education was incorporated into the work of these professionals. This was a multiple case study with a qualitative approach in six municipalities in southeast Bahia State, Brazil, which had type-I NASF. Semi-structured interviews were held with 43 NASF professionals and 40 with physicians and nurses from the supported teams. The interviews were categorized and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed that the activities in continuing education are insufficient and inadequate, with a supply of sporadic training developed with a traditional teaching methodology. Continuing education had not been institutionally consolidated in the six municipalities. Training in matrix support and the work process in the NASF proved weak for both groups, which interfered in the support function and management of care. The study revealed the limited action of NASF as promotors of continuing education for the supported teams.

  20. Continuing Vocational Training for Teachers in Beauty and Hair Care : Teachers Act as Active Developers of their Work and Engage in Transferring Good Practices to their Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kurimo, Ritva; Laitinen, Jaana; Pesonen, Maria; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Poutanen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of students and organizers of the Hair and beauty care, the prevention of health hazards (HIKAT) project which offered nationwide continuing vocational training (CVT) for teachers in beauty and hair care to be further disseminated in vocational secondary education. The development of occupational skin diseases is one of the most important health risks related to the exposure to chemical and physical risks in hairdressing. The prevention of occupational...

  1. THE PROBLEM OF CONTINUITY OF TRAINING OF FUTURE EDUCATORS AND TEACHERS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ON ORGANIZATION OF ARTISTIC AND AESTHETIC ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Наталія Колесник

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals peculiarities in realization of the continuity principle in training future educators and teachers of elementary school on organization of children‘s artistic and aesthetic activity. The indexes of child’s readiness for school in different spheres of its activity, and in particular, in artistic and aesthetic one have been determined in this research. Description of depicting activity of children of preschool age has been made, and the types of unconventional technologies o...

  2. Effects of high intensity interval versus moderate continuous training on markers of ventilatory and cardiac efficiency in coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Gustavo G; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT) to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and oxygen pulse (O2P). Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n = 23, age = 56 ± 12 years), MIT (n = 24, age = 62 ± 12 years), or nonexercise control group (CG) (n = 24, age = 64 ± 12 years). MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70-75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks). No differences among groups (before versus after) were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P > 0.05). After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P 0.05), while decreased in CG (-20%, P < 0.05) becoming lower versus HIIT (P = 0.03). HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls.

  3. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls

  4. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA. Because every movement in daily life (i.e. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT. 60-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr in which rats swam for 40min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their

  5. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  6. Changes in brachial artery endothelial function and resting diameter with moderate-intensity continuous but not sprint interval training in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Ninette; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2017-10-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improves peripheral artery function in healthy adults, a phenomenon that reverses as continued training induces structural remodeling. Sprint interval training (SIT) elicits physiological adaptations similar to MICT, despite a lower exercise volume and time commitment; however, its effect on peripheral artery function and structure is largely unexplored. We compared peripheral artery responses to 12 wk of MICT and SIT in sedentary, healthy men (age = 27 ± 8 yr). Participants performed MICT (45 min of cycling at 70% peak heart rate; n = 10) or SIT (3 × 20-s "all out" cycling sprints with 2 min of recovery; n = 9), and responses were compared with a nontraining control group (CTL, n = 6). Allometrically scaled brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased 2.2% after 6 wk of MICT and returned to baseline levels by 12 wk, but did not change in SIT or CTL (group × time interaction, P = 0.04). Brachial artery diameter increased after 6 and 12 wk (main effect, P = 0.03), with the largest increases observed in MICT. Neither training protocol affected popliteal relative FMD and diameter, or central and lower limb arterial stiffness (carotid distensibility, central and leg pulse wave velocity) ( P > 0.05 for all). Whereas earlier and more frequent measurements are needed to establish the potential presence and time course of arterial responses to low-volume SIT, our findings suggest that MICT was superior to the intense, but brief and intermittent SIT stimulus at inducing brachial artery responses in healthy men. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We compared the effects of 12 wk of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on peripheral artery endothelial function and diameter, and central and lower limb stiffness in sedentary, healthy men. Whereas neither training program affected the popliteal artery or stiffness indexes, we observed changes in brachial artery function and diameter with MICT but not

  7. Continuous training and certification in neonatal resuscitation in remote areas using a multi-platform information and communication technology intervention, compared to standard training: A randomized cluster trial study protocol [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Delgado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 10% of all newborns may have difficulty breathing and require support by trained personnel. In Peru, 90% of deliveries occur in health facilities. However, there is not a national neonatal resuscitation and certification program for the public health sector. In addition, the Andes and the Amazon regions concentrate large rural remote areas, which further limit the implementation of training programs and the accomplishment of continuous certification. Neonatal resuscitation training through the use of information, communication and technology (ICT tools running on computers, tablets or mobile phones, may overcome such limitations. This strategy allows online and offline access to educational resources, paving the way to more frequent and efficient training and certification processes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a neonatal resuscitation training and certification program that uses a multi-platform ICT (MP-ICT strategy on neonatal health care in remote areas. Methods: We propose to conduct the study through a cluster-randomized trial, where the study and analysis unit is the health care facility. Eligible facilities will include primary and secondary health care level facilities that are located in provinces with neonatal mortality rates higher than 15 per 1,000 live births. We will compare the proportion of newborns with a heart rate ≥100 beats per minute at two minutes after birth in health care facilities that receive MP-ICT training and certification implementation, with those that receive standard training and certification. Discussion: We expect that the intervention will be shown as more effective than the current standard of care. We are prepared to include it within a national neonatal resuscitation training and certification program to be implemented at national scale together with policymakers and other key stakeholders.  Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Nº NCT03210194  Status of the study: This

  8. Left ventricular vascular and metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training: a randomized trial in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hakala, Juuso; Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular, time-sparing alternative to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), although the cardiac vascular and metabolic effects of HIIT are incompletely known. We compared the effects of 2-week interventions with HIIT and MICT on myocardial perfusion and free fatty acid and glucose uptake. Insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake was decreased by training without any significantly different response between the groups, whereas free fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Adenosine-stimulated myocardial perfusion responded differently to the training modes (change in mean HIIT: -19%; MICT: +9%; P = 0.03 for interaction) and was correlated with myocardial glucose uptake for the entire dataset and especially after HIIT training. HIIT and MICT induce similar metabolic and functional changes in the heart, although myocardial vascular hyperaemic reactivity is impaired after HIIT, and this should be considered when prescribing very intense HIIT for previously untrained subjects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of obtaining the health benefits of exercise, although the cardiac effects of this training mode are incompletely known. We compared the effects of short-term HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions on myocardial perfusion and metabolism and cardiac function in healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged men were randomized to either HIIT or MICT groups (n = 14 in both) and underwent six cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 weeks (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4 min recovery, MICT session 40-60 min at 60% V̇O2 peak ). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was performed to measure cardiac structure and function and positron emission tomography was used to measure myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine stimulation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) and fasting free

  9. Effect of Interval and Continuous Aerobic Training on Basal Serum and Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Values in Seniors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enette, Lievyn; Vogel, Thomas; Fanon, Jean Luc; Lang, Pierre Olivier

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the available clinical trials analyzing, in seniors, the effect of interval aerobic training (IAT) and continuous aerobic training (CAT) on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. We identified 14 randomized or not-randomized intervention studies published up to January 2017 through a computer-assisted search (PUBMED, Pedro, and Science direct data bases). The five trials considering IAT and the nine considering CAT totalized 988 individuals (age range: 58.1-77 years). The parameters of aerobic training (AT) protocol in terms of frequency and intensity are the primary determinants of the BDNF response to AT. The interpretation of the relationship between AT and BDNF signaling pathway was very challenging when specific health conditions were taken into consideration. This was more particularly true with mild cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms. These findings argue in favor of a generalization of the practice of AT and show that the type of training is not the main determining factor of the increase in BDNF level, which results more from the combination of several factors such as intensity and frequency of sessions, duration of programs, and also some genetic determinant coding for BDNF protein. All these factors have to be carefully addressed in future researches in that field. Thus, further researches are still necessary to better the signaling pathway by which AT contributes to better health outcomes.

  10. Virtual patients in continuing medical education and residency training: a pilot project for acceptance analysis in the framework of a residency revision course in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ronny; Hanebeck, Benjamin; Oberle, Stephan; Simon, Anke; Choukair, Daniela; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören

    2015-01-01

    Virtual patients (VPs) are a one-of-a-kind e-learning resource, fostering clinical reasoning skills through clinical case examples. The combination with face-to-face teaching is important for their successful integration, which is referred to as "blended learning". So far little is known about the use of VPs in the field of continuing medical education and residency training. The pilot study presented here inquired the application of VPs in the framework of a pediatric residency revision course. Around 200 participants of a pediatric nephology lecture ('nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in children') were offered two VPs as a wrap-up session at the revision course of the German Society for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ) 2009 in Heidelberg, Germany. Using a web-based survey form, different aspects were evaluated concerning the learning experiences with VPs, the combination with the lecture, and the use of VPs for residency training in general. N=40 evaluable survey forms were returned (approximately 21%). The return rate was impaired by a technical problem with the local Wi-Fi firewall. The participants perceived the work-up of the VPs as a worthwhile learning experience, with proper preparation for diagnosing and treating real patients with similar complaints. Case presentations, interactivity, and locally and timely independent repetitive practices were, in particular, pointed out. On being asked about the use of VPs in general for residency training, there was a distinct demand for more such offers. VPs may reasonably complement existing learning activities in residency training.

  11. Overview of software tools for modeling single event upsets in microelectronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Alexandrovich Smolin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of existing simulation tools for evaluation of single event upset susceptibility of microelectronic devices with deep sub-micron feature sizes. This simulation tools are meant to replace obsolete approach to single event rate estimation based on integral rectangular parallelepiped model. Three main approaches implemented in simulation tools are considered: combined use of particle transport codes and rectangular parallelepiped model, combined use of particle transport codes and analytical models of charge collection and circuit simulators, and combined use of particle transport codes and TCAD simulators.

  12. Automatic differentiation for gradient-based optimization of radiatively heated microelectronics manufacturing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, C.D.; Spence, P.A.; Meza, J.C.; Plantenga, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic differentiation is applied to the optimal design of microelectronic manufacturing equipment. The performance of nonlinear, least-squares optimization methods is compared between numerical and analytical gradient approaches. The optimization calculations are performed by running large finite-element codes in an object-oriented optimization environment. The Adifor automatic differentiation tool is used to generate analytic derivatives for the finite-element codes. The performance results support previous observations that automatic differentiation becomes beneficial as the number of optimization parameters increases. The increase in speed, relative to numerical differences, has a limited value and results are reported for two different analysis codes.

  13. Development of Drop/Shock Test in Microelectronics and Impact Dynamic Analysis for Uniform Board Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallolimath, Sharan Chandrashekar

    For the past several years, many researchers are constantly developing and improving board level drop test procedures and specifications to quantify the solder joint reliability performance of consumer electronics products. Predictive finite element analysis (FEA) by utilizing simulation software has become widely acceptable verification method which can reduce time and cost of the real-time test process. However, due to testing and metrological limitations it is difficult not only to simulate exact drop condition and capture critical measurement data but also tedious to calibrate the system to improve test methods. Moreover, some of the important ever changing factors such as board flexural rigidity, damping, drop height, and drop orientation results in non-uniform stress/strain distribution throughout the test board. In addition, one of the most challenging tasks is to quantify uniform stress and strain distribution throughout the test board and identify critical failure factors. The major contributions of this work are in the four aspects of the drop test in electronics as following. First of all, an analytical FEA model was developed to study the board natural frequencies and responses of the system with the consideration of dynamic stiffness, damping behavior of the material and effect of impact loading condition. An approach to find the key parameters that affect stress and strain distributions under predominate mode responses was proposed and verified with theoretical solutions. Input-G method was adopted to study board response behavior and cut boundary interpolation methods was used to analyze local model solder joint stresses with the development of global/local FEA model in ANSYS software. Second, no ring phenomenon during the drop test was identified theoretically when the test board was modeled as both discrete system and continuous system. Numerical analysis was then conducted by FEA method for detailed geometry of attached chips with solder

  14. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    components. The devices included inputs for reference signals, testing points, and  micro ‐ USB   interfaces.     In order to allow various voltage  levels...recognized  that  micro ‐,  and  now  nano‐ electronics reliability is an important area of research concomitant with advanced electronics technology...controller that connects to a personal computer. The control system communicates with the computer  via a  USB  connection with a simple serial protocol

  15. Microelectronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Heuberger, Albert; Hanke, Randolf

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Heinz Gerhauser on the occasion of his retirement both from the position of Executive Director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS and from the Endowed Chair of Information Technologies with a Focus on Communication Electronics (LIKE) at the Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg. Heinz Gerhauser's vision and entrepreneurial spirit have made the Fraunhofer IIS one of the most successful and renowned German research institutions. He has been Director of the Fraunhofer IIS since 1993, and under his leadership it has grown to beco

  16. Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Health Sciences: Tele-Education for continued Postgraduate Training; Proteccion Radiologica y Garantia de Calidad en Ciencias de la Salud: La teleensenanza para cursos de perfeccionamiento de postgrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Chico, P.; Armero, D.; Saura Iniesta, A. M.; Vicente, V.

    2003-07-01

    The establishment of an inter departmental project, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Education, has made possible the development to specific didactic materials on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices. These have been published as a manual and practical notebook. This material constitutes the grounding work for the first continuous tele-education training course via Internet that Spanish professionals exposed to ionising radiation are following. Interactive multimedia training and tele-education may become one of the alternatives that allow health science professionals to receive continuous training, provided that adequate content and aims had been established during undergraduate training. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. The Utilisation of Marketing to Support the Strategic Development of Educational Institutions and the Continue Training of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina Colan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to decide on an education necesity one has to answer the question �What and who do we organize a certain educational process or system for and why do we organize it in a certain way and not otherwize?�. In order to decide on an education necessity one must also answer the question �What social problems does the educational process or system we devised solve?�. The problem of lifelong in-service training is important for supporting the workforce change, being the main instrument it uses in order to adjust to the new requirements, this enabling its nobility among differerent fields of activity.

  18. Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI); Myers, David R.

    2005-08-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].

  19. Effect of internal stresses on thermo-mechanical stability of interconnect structures in microelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, I.; Park, C.; Vella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Interconnect structures in microelectronic devices can deform via unusual, scale-sensitive phenomena due to thermo-mechanical loads sustained during processing, or during service as part of a microelectronic package. Examples include creep/plasticity of Cu interconnect lines embedded in a dielectric layer at the back-end of Si chip, and diffusionally accommodated sliding at Cu-dielectric interfaces. These effects may result in in-plane (IP) changes in Cu line dimensions, cause strain incompatibilities between Cu and LKD in the out-of-plane (OOP) direction, and cause Cu lines to migrate or crawl under far-field shear stresses imposed by the package. In this paper, a shear-lag based model is utilized to simulate IP and OOP deformation in a Cu-LKD interconnect structure on a Si substrate under thermal cycling conditions associated with processing. A separate model, which simulates IP deformation of Cu interconnects embedded in LKD under thermo-mechanical cycling conditions imposed when the chip is attached to a package, is also presented. The models, which incorporate a constitutive interfacial sliding law developed previously, help rationalize experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations of inelastic strain accrual in Cu lines, and the development of dimensional incompatibility between adjoining components in devices, during thermal cycling

  20. The impact of a continuing training program on the perceived improvement in quality of health care delivered by health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracía-Pérez, María Luisa; Gil-Lacruz, Marta

    2018-02-01

    There is abundant scientific literature concerning factors that affect patients' perceptions of the quality of health care. However, there are few published works that consider the opinions of health care professionals. This article aims to conjointly analyse two organisational strategies that determine professional health care practice: continuous training and quality of care. The objective is to examine the opinions of physicians and nurses on the improvement of the quality of care after a 'learning by doing' program. An evaluation method was designed that integrates the main variables that intervene in quality of care. An online questionnaire was utilised for collecting opinions on the effects of the training program. A total of 184 nurses and 180 other medical professionals participated in the program and all of them were asked to complete the questionnaire. A descriptive, and inferential statistical analysis was undertaken and results showed that there is a direct relationship between perceptions about: satisfaction, professional competence, training modality, optimisation of health resources and quality of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  2. Transformation of the frequency-modulated continuous-wave field into a train of short pulses by resonant filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhmuratov, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    The resonant filtering method transforming the frequency-modulated radiation field into a train of short pulses is proposed to be applied in the optical domain. Effective frequency modulation can be achieved by using an electro-optic modulator. Due to frequency modulation, a narrow-spectrum cw radiation field is seen by the resonant filter as a comb of equidistant spectral components separated by the modulation frequency. Tuning a narrow-bandwidth filter in resonance with the n th spectral component of the comb transforms the radiation field into bunches of pulses, with n pulses in each bunch. The transformation is explained by the interference of the coherently scattered resonant component of the field with the whole comb. Constructive interference results in the formation of pulses, while destructive interference is seen as dark windows between pulses. It is indicated that the optimal thickness of the resonant filter is several orders of magnitude smaller than the necessary thickness of the dispersive filters used before in the optical domain to produce short pulses from the frequency-modulated field.

  3. Virtual Patients in continuing medical education and residency training: a pilot project for acceptance analysis in the framework of a residency revision course in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann, Ronny

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Virtual patients (VPs are a one-of-a-kind e-learning resource, fostering clinical reasoning skills through clinical case examples. The combination with face-to-face teaching is important for their successful integration, which is referred to as “blended learning”. So far little is known about the use of VPs in the field of continuing medical education and residency training. The pilot study presented here inquired the application of VPs in the framework of a pediatric residency revision course. Methods: Around 200 participants of a pediatric nephology lecture (‘nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in children’ were offered two VPs as a wrap-up session at the revision course of the German Society for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ 2009 in Heidelberg, Germany. Using a web-based survey form, different aspects were evaluated concerning the learning experiences with VPs, the combination with the lecture, and the use of VPs for residency training in general.Results: N=40 evaluable survey forms were returned (approximately 21%. The return rate was impaired by a technical problem with the local Wi-Fi firewall. The participants perceived the work-up of the VPs as a worthwhile learning experience, with proper preparation for diagnosing and treating real patients with similar complaints. Case presentations, interactivity, and locally and timely independent repetitive practices were, in particular, pointed out. On being asked about the use of VPs in general for residency training, there was a distinct demand for more such offers. Conclusion: VPs may reasonably complement existing learning activities in residency training.

  4. High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training elicit similar enjoyment and adherence levels in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.

  5. Use of a National Continuing Medical Education Meeting to Provide Simulation-Based Training in Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion Skills: A Pre-Test Post-Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Clark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs. Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives: Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Design: Pre-test – post-test study. Setting: 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Participants: Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Measurements: Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Methods: Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Results: Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21. Seventeen of 22 participants (77% completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001. All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics

  6. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and

  7. Approaches and Obstacles to the Evaluation of Investment in Continuing Vocational Training: Discussion and Case Studies from Six Member States of the European Union. CEDEFOP Panorama. Discussion Paper/Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Uwe; Moraal, Dick; Sorensen, John Houman; Luttringer, Jean-Marie; Pasco, Nicolas; Kohler, Alexander; Barrett, Alan; O'Connell, Philip; Garibaldo, Francesco; Lorenzoni, Stefan; Mandl, Dieter

    This report summarizes six case studies on different aspects of the issue of evaluating investing in continuing vocational training (CVT). Part 1 (chapters 1-2) contains "Conceptual Introduction" (Jean-Marie Luttringer), which explores practical problems in considering training expenses as an investment, and "Methodological…

  8. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities

  9. Short- and long-term effects of intensive training and motivational programme for continued physical activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattukat, K; Rennert, D; Brandes, I; Ehlebracht-König, I; Kluge, K; Mau, W

    2014-08-01

    Despite the positive health effects of (intensive) exercise in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, they are very often inactive. Motivational exercise interventions in other patient samples have shown good effects in promoting exercise behaviours. To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of an intensive exercise training programme in rheumatic patients with additional motivation for continued physical activity. Controlled prospective intervention study with repeated measures over 12 months. Rheumatologic inpatient rehabilitation in two centres in Germany. Three-hundred-and-seven patients with chronic polyarthritis or spondyloarthritis. The patients were assigned to a control group (CG, standard therapy, N.=156) or an intervention group (IG, motivation and intensive training, N.=151). Socio-demographic (age, gender, social background, employment) and health parameters (SF-36, HFAQ, HADS, pain, disease activity), exercise motivation, physical activity and costs of illness were assessed by questionnaires at baseline (t1), discharge (t2), and 12-months-follow-up (t5). Participants evaluated the rehabilitation programme at t2. At t2, IG-patients rated their rehabilitation better than CG-patients and reported higher exercise motivation. All patients had a better health status at t2 compared to t1. At t5, IG-patients reported more physical activity in everyday life. An unexpected lower physical component score (SF-36) of the IG compared to the CG lacked clinical relevance. No other variable showed significant group differences. Both CG- and IG-patients showed improvements in their health-related quality of life, pain, psychological well-being, sports activities, and exercise self-efficacy. The rehabilitation programme that included intensive training was perceived to be better than the conventional programme and the patients benefited more from the motivation intervention. Long-term improvements in all participants may be indicators of the positive effects

  10. CREME96: A revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    CREME96 is an update of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code, a widely-used suite of programs for creating numerical models of the ionizing-radiation environment in near-Earth orbits and for evaluating radiation effects in spacecraft. CREME96, which is now available over the World-Wide Web (WWW) at http://crsp3.nrl.navy.mil/creme96/, has many significant features, including (1) improved models of the galactic cosmic ray, anomalous cosmic ray, and solar energetic particle (flare) components of the near-Earth environment; (2) improved geomagnetic transmission calculations; (3) improved nuclear transport routines; (4) improved single-event upset (SEU) calculation techniques, for both proton-induced and direct-ionization-induced SEUs; and (5) an easy-to-use graphical interface, with extensive on-line tutorial information. In this paper the authors document some of these improvements

  11. Microelectronic DNA assay for the detection of BRCA1 gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Han, Jie; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 are characterized by predisposition to breast cancer, ovarian cancer and prostate cancer as well as colon cancer. Prognosis for this cancer survival depends upon the stage at which cancer is diagnosed. Reliable and rapid mutation detection is crucial for the early diagnosis and treatment. We developed an electronic assay for the detection of a representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), deletion and insertion in BRCA1 gene by the microelectronics microarray instrumentation. The assay is rapid, and it takes 30 minutes for the immobilization of target DNA samples, hybridization, washing and readout. The assay is multiplexing since it is carried out at the same temperature and buffer conditions for each step. The assay is also highly specific, as the signal-to-noise ratio is much larger than recommended value (72.86 to 321.05 vs. 5) for homozygotes genotyping, and signal ratio close to the perfect value 1 for heterozygotes genotyping (1.04).

  12. Porous electrode apparatus for electrodeposition of detailed metal structures or microelectronic interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Hruby, Jill M.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for performing microfabrication of detailed metal structures by electroforming metal deposits within small cavities. Two primary areas of application are: the LIGA process which manufactures complex three-dimensional metal parts and the damascene process used for electroplating line and via interconnections of microelectronic devices. A porous electrode held in contact or in close proximity with a plating substrate or mold top to ensure one-dimensional and uniform current flow into all mold cavities is used. Electrolyte is pumped over the exposed surface of the porous electrode to ensure uniform ion concentrations at this external surface. The porous electrode prevents electrolyte circulation within individual mold cavities, avoiding preferential enhancement of ion transport in cavities having favorable geometries. Both current flow and ion transport are one-dimensional and identical in all mold cavities, so all metal deposits grow at the same rate eliminating nonuniformities of the prior art.

  13. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-01-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  14. Oxide Thin Films and Nano-heterostructures for Microelectronics (MOS Structures, Ferroelectric Materials and Multiferroic Heterostructures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilie, I.; Pintilie, L.; Filip, L. D.; Nistor, L. C.; Ghica, C.

    Oxide materials are becoming of increasing interest due to their large variety of physical properties such as dielectric, magnetism, superconductivity, conductivity, ferroelectricity, multiferroism, etc. In addition, interfacing oxides with other materials is conferring new or better device functionalities. The main physical properties of oxides interfaces and their impact on the electrical properties of interest for microelectronic applications are presented. Further on, this subchapter is also devoted to the investigation and understanding of interface effects observed in heterostructures containing linear (SiO2) and non-linear (ferroelectrics) dielectrics in combination with wide-band gap semiconductor materials (e.g. ZnO and SiC) with special emphasis on size effects, interface quality and the opportunity to control the emergent phenomena in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) and Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor (MFS) materials systems.

  15. Application of Aloe vera gel instead of silicon dioxide as organic dielectric material in microelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Sardar Masud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are now being used in a wide range of microelectronic applications in parallel with inorganic materials, because of their superior properties, environmental safety, and low cost. This paper describes the characterization of Aloe vera gel (AVG, a new organic dielectric material. The surface morphology, spatial distribution of elements, and structural characteristics of an AVG layer were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The resistance of the AVG layer, determined using a four-probe station, was 640 Ω EDX showed that the elements contained in the layer were carbon, oxygen, aluminum, silicon, calcium, potassium, and copper. The XRD results suggested that the sample primarily consisted of bornite (Cu5FeS4, geerite (Cu8S5, sal ammoniac (NH4Cl, and carobbite (KF.

  16. Plan de formación continuada en una unidad de gestión clínica Continuing training plan in a clinical management unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miguel Gamboa Antiñolo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La Unidad de Continuidad Asistencial está orientada a la atención de pacientes frágiles, pluripatológicos y de cuidados paliativos. Atiende a pacientes en domicilio, consulta, unidad de día, consultoría telefónica y en dos hospitales de la misma área sanitaria. Desde su inicio en 2002 como unidad de gestión, la formación ha sido un elemento prioritario de desarrollo. Los elementos clave son acercar la formación al lugar de trabajo, incluir aspectos fundamentales de los problemas asistenciales más prevalentes en el trabajo diario, orientar la formación a todo el personal incluyendo aspectos organizativos, de seguridad del paciente y su entorno, mejora del clima laboral, desarrollo de nuevas habilidades y conocimientos apoyados en la asistencia basada en la evidencia para el desarrollo de las diferentes competencias profesionales. La unidad puede ser el escenario idóneo para acometer las necesarias reformas conceptuales de la formación de los profesionales que permitan mejorar la calidad asistencial.Continuing Care Unit (UCA focused the attention of frail patients, polypathological patients and palliative care. UCA attend patients at home, consulting, day unit, telephone consulting and in two hospitals of the health area. From 2002 UCA began as a management unit, training has been a priority for development. Key elements include: providing education to the workplace, including key aspects of the most prevalent health care problems in daily work, directing training to all staff including organizational aspects of patient safety and the environment, improved working environment, development of new skills and knowledge supported by the evidence-based care for the development of different skills. The unit can be the ideal setting to undertake the reforms necessary conceptual training of professionals to improve the quality of care.

  17. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  18. The use of continuous vs. intermittent cold water immersion as a recovery method in basketball players after training: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ureña, Braulio; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Crespo, Carmen; Timón, Rafael; Calleja-González, Julio; Ibañez, Sergio J; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare two cold water immersion protocols, continuous or intermittent, on recovery in basketball players. Ten male basketball players (age: 14 ± 0.4 years, body mass: 65.4 ± 9.1 kg, height: 175 ± 7.3 cm, body fat %: 10.3 ± 4) were included in the study. After three 90-minute training sessions (avg. heart rate 158 ± 11.92, 156 ± 7.06 and 151 ± 10.44 bpm), participants were grouped into a continuous immersion (12 min at 12 ± 0.4°C) group, intermittent immersion (4 x 2 min immersion at 12 ± 0.4 °C + 1 min out of water) group and a control group (CG). Countermovement jump (CMJ), muscle pain and thigh volume were measured. Both cold water immersion protocols were effective in reducing the pain 24 and 48 hours after training compared with the CG (F (3.54) = 2.91, p = 0.016, η p 2  = .24). Concerning CMJ change, % differences occurred at 24 (Z = 11.04, p = 0.004) and 48 hours (Z = 14.01, p basketball players.

  19. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  20. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S; Rossi, Fabrício E; Cholewa, Jason M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO 2max ) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO 2max ). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L -1 , p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO 2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

  1. A thermodynamics based damage mechanics framework for fatigue analysis of microelectronics solder joints with size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan

    Experimental observations of an increase in resistance with decreasing specimen size and under the presence of non-uniform plastic deformation fields have pushed the development for small scale plasticity theories since the early 90's. The observed phenomenon has been explained in terms of an accumulation of a density of geometrically necessary dislocations, which is required in order to accommodate nonuniform plastic deformation fields. This extra density of dislocations, contributes to the additional hardening observed in small scale specimens under imposed non-uniform plastic deformations. The density of geometrically necessary dislocations has been related to the gradients of plastic strain which are imposed either by the loading conditions or the geometry of the specimen. The proposed set of theories has promoted the idea that there is an additional material parameter, namely a plastic length scale. Within these theories when the material is under the presence of a non-uniform plastic deformation field and once typical structural dimensions approaches the material length scale there is an increase in resistance. Such a class of mathematical framework is currently known as strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theory. On the other hand, the current trend towards miniaturization in the microelectronics industry has raised questions about the true behavior of small structural systems. In this dissertation we address such a problem but from the perspective of eutectic solder alloys. Eutectic solder alloys as frequently used in the microelectronics industry exhibit considerable rate dependent response even at room temperature. Moreover for this type of material, the problem of interest is the response under cyclic loadings induced by thermomechanical fatigue leading to the classical case of creep-fatigue interaction. Several experimental and theoretical studies have been developed in order to generate robust constitutive descriptions for this class of applications. For

  2. The relationship between salivary amylase and the physical and psychological changes elicited by continuation of autogenic training in patients with functional somatic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, Tadashi; Abe, Tetsuya; Kanbara, Kenji; Kato, Fumie; Kawashima, Sadanobu; Saka, Yukie; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Nishiyama, Junji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in biological measures during autogenic training (AT) sessions and the relationship between these biological measures and the changes in physical and psychological measures induced by continuation of AT in patients with functional somatic syndrome (FSS). We used the salivary amylase (SAMY) level, skin temperature of the finger (TEMP), subjective symptom scores, and psychological characteristics to assess these changes. We assessed 24 patients with FSS and 23 healthy controls before and after AT. We then conducted the same tests after the participants had practiced AT at home 1 and 2 months later. The baseline SAMY levels in the first session were significantly higher in the FSS group than in the control group. However, this difference was not significant in the second and third sessions. The pattern of changes in TEMP induced by AT was not different between the FSS and control groups. Tension-anxiety and somatic symptoms in patients with FSS were improved by AT. In the FSS group, the baseline SAMY levels in the first session showed a significant negative correlation with the changes in the subjective symptom score and tension-anxiety score at baseline. The practice of AT, both during the first session and after 1 month of continuation, eased the dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system that is reflected in SAMY in patients with FSS. AT also contributed to decreases in the tension-anxiety and somatic symptoms in patients with FSS. We suggest that SAMY is related to both physical and psychological effects of AT in patients with FSS.

  3. Continuing education: vocational training in the context of hospital pharmacy as a strategy for integration in a multidisciplinary team of specialized hospital Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adriano Santos Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current reality of hospitals increasingly require professionals qualified to assume roles that require high levels of technical and scientific knowledge. The supervised internship in hospital pharmacy aims to train future professionals with critical awareness and ability to understand the reality and act on it. This study consists of an report of the experience of students supervised III internship of the graduate course in Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe. Initially the students made visits in the fields of pharmacy, warehouse, intensive care unit (ICU, emergency care to make the diagnosis of both situational and physical aspects of the information relating to medicines by nursing professionals. Later lectures were held, they were directed to health professionals and administrative staff of the pharmacy. From the results we observed that implement continuing education was of great importance to the quality of pharmacy professionals / warehouse and nursing staff, in which participants were able to actively interact with pharmacists and interns. This interaction reflected in increased communication and more concrete understanding of the multidisciplinary team.

  4. CONTINUING EDUCATION: VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY AS A STRATEGY FOR INTEGRATION IN A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM OF SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adriano Santos Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current reality of hospitals increasingly require professionals qualified to assume roles that require high levels of technical and scientific knowledge. The supervised internship in hospital pharmacy aims to train future professionals with critical awareness and ability to understand the reality and act on it. This study consists of an report of the experience of students supervised III internship of the graduate course in Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe. Initially the students made visits in the fields of pharmacy, warehouse, intensive care unit (ICU, emergency care to make the diagnosis of both situational and physical aspects of the information relating to medicines by nursing professionals. Later lectures were held, they were directed to health professionals and administrative staff of the pharmacy. From the results we observed that implement continuing education was of great importance to the quality of pharmacy professionals / warehouse and nursing staff, in which participants were able to actively interact with pharmacists and interns. This interaction reflected in increased communication and more concrete understanding of the multidisciplinary team.

  5. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  6. Preliminary Flight Results of the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed: NASA DR1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul

    1998-01-01

    NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.

  7. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  8. Can zinc aluminate-titania composite be an alternative for alumina as microelectronic substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, Satheesh Babu; Sebastian, Mailadil Thomas; Surendran, Kuzhichalil Peethambharan

    2017-01-13

    Alumina, thanks to its superior thermal and dielectric properties, has been the leading substrate over several decades, for power and microelectronics circuits. However, alumina lacks thermal stability since its temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ f ) is far from zero (-60 ppmK -1 ). The present paper explores the potentiality of a ceramic composite 0.83ZnAl 2 O 4 -0.17TiO 2 (in moles, abbreviated as ZAT) substrates for electronic applications over other commercially-used alumina-based substrates and synthesized using a non-aqueous tape casting method. The present substrate has τ f of + 3.9 ppmK -1 and is a valuable addition to the group of thermo-stable substrates. The ZAT substrate shows a high thermal conductivity of 31.3 Wm -1 K -1 (thermal conductivity of alumina is about 24.5 Wm -1 K -1 ), along with promising mechanical, electrical and microwave dielectric properties comparable to that of alumina-based commercial substrates. Furthermore, the newly-developed substrate material shows exceptionally good thermal stability of dielectric constant, which cannot be met with any of the alumina-based HTCC substrates.

  9. Femtosecond laser pulses for fast 3-D surface profilometry of microelectronic step-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Woo-Deok; Kim, Seungman; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Keunwoo; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungchul; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2013-07-01

    Fast, precise 3-D measurement of discontinuous step-structures fabricated on microelectronic products is essential for quality assurance of semiconductor chips, flat panel displays, and photovoltaic cells. Optical surface profilers of low-coherence interferometry have long been used for the purpose, but the vertical scanning range and speed are limited by the micro-actuators available today. Besides, the lateral field-of-view extendable for a single measurement is restricted by the low spatial coherence of broadband light sources. Here, we cope with the limitations of the conventional low-coherence interferometer by exploiting unique characteristics of femtosecond laser pulses, i.e., low temporal but high spatial coherence. By scanning the pulse repetition rate with direct reference to the Rb atomic clock, step heights of ~69.6 μm are determined with a repeatability of 10.3 nm. The spatial coherence of femtosecond pulses provides a large field-of-view with superior visibility, allowing for a high volume measurement rate of ~24,000 mm3/s.

  10. Thermal impedance of multi-finger microelectronic structures: exact analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vintrou, Sebastien; Laraqi, Najib; Bairi, Abderrahmane, E-mail: nlaraqi@u-paris10.f, E-mail: nlaraqi@gmail.co [Universite Paris Ouest, Laboratoire Thermique Interfaces Environnement (TIE), EA 4415 PST Ville d' Avray, Departement GTE, 50 Rue de Sevres, F92410 Ville d' Avray (France)

    2009-12-21

    An exact analytical expression for the complex thermal impedance Z of multi-finger microelectronic components is presented in this paper. The integral transform technique has been used to obtain this expression and solve the three dimensional heat conduction equation directly in the frequency domain. Calculations were first performed for a single-finger on a single-layer structure in order to compare the results with those available in the literature and hence validate the solution. Generally, the comparison shows good agreement between our results and those given in most publications. When the structures are composed of several layers, the thermal impedance changes with the thermal conductivities and the thicknesses of the different layers. It is also affected by the thermal contact resistance between the layers. Some results illustrate the influence of these parameters. The case of a multi-finger component is then treated and the influence of distances between fingers is investigated. For all cases, the Nyquist diagram (i.e. Im(Z) versus Re(Z) for different pulsation values {omega}) is plotted. Mainly two zones are observed: one for the high frequencies and the other for the lower ones. The substrate dimensions are found to largely influence the scale of the low frequency zone whereas the distance between the fingers influences the higher one. Finally, the solution is applied to a multi-finger device in contact with a heat sink.

  11. Investigation of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in advanced microelectronics and optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.; Booth, T.; Gray, M. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The next generation of electronic microchips will utilize components with sub-micron feature size and optoelectronic devices with picosecond response time. Fundamental understanding of the device performance can only be obtained through first principles physics modeling of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in realistic geometries with material interfaces and dispersive properties. We have developed a general model incorporating important physics such as charge transport processes in materials with multilevel band structures and electromagnetic effects to simulate device characteristics. Accurate treatment of material interfaces and boundaries is included. The Monte Carlo charge transport is coupled self-consistently to Maxwell`s equations to accurately model scattering processes in the presence of an externally biased potential. This detailed multidimensional simulation capability is compared with and verified by experimental data, and could become an industrial standard for benchmarking and improving the {open_quotes}reduced model{close_quotes} codes used for semiconductor design. Specific tasks are the extension of existing capabilities in particle-in-cell plasma simulation technique and Monte Carlo charge transport to study the physics of charged particle dynamics in realistic microelectronic devices, such as bipolar semiconductors, heterojunction transistors, and optoelectronic switches. Our approach has been based on the coupled particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo technique, which can simultaneously treat both electromagnetic wave propagation and charged-particle transport.

  12. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bufford, Daniel Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I3TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  13. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Bufford, Daniel Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I 3 TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  14. Morphable 3D mesostructures and microelectronic devices by multistable buckling mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haoran; Nan, Kewang; Bai, Wubin; Huang, Wen; Bai, Ke; Lu, Luyao; Zhou, Chaoqun; Liu, Yunpeng; Liu, Fei; Wang, Juntong; Han, Mengdi; Yan, Zheng; Luan, Haiwen; Zhang, Yijie; Zhang, Yutong; Zhao, Jianing; Cheng, Xu; Li, Moyang; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Yuan; Fang, Daining; Li, Xiuling; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structures capable of reversible transformations in their geometrical layouts have important applications across a broad range of areas. Most morphable 3D systems rely on concepts inspired by origami/kirigami or techniques of 3D printing with responsive materials. The development of schemes that can simultaneously apply across a wide range of size scales and with classes of advanced materials found in state-of-the-art microsystem technologies remains challenging. Here, we introduce a set of concepts for morphable 3D mesostructures in diverse materials and fully formed planar devices spanning length scales from micrometres to millimetres. The approaches rely on elastomer platforms deformed in different time sequences to elastically alter the 3D geometries of supported mesostructures via nonlinear mechanical buckling. Over 20 examples have been experimentally and theoretically investigated, including mesostructures that can be reshaped between different geometries as well as those that can morph into three or more distinct states. An adaptive radiofrequency circuit and a concealable electromagnetic device provide examples of functionally reconfigurable microelectronic devices.

  15. High-intensity interval training or continuous training, combined or not with fasting, in obese or overweight women with cardiometabolic risk factors: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Van Bavel, Diogo; de Moraes, Roger; Tibiriça, Eduardo V

    2018-04-28

    Physical inactivity and increased caloric intake play important roles in the pathophysiology of obesity. Increasing physical activity and modifying eating behaviours are first-line interventions, frequently hampered by lack of time to exercise and difficulties in coping with different diets. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a time-efficient method compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (CT). Conversely, diets with a fasting component may be more effective than other complex and restrictive diets, as it essentially limits caloric intake to a specified period without major diet composition changes. Therefore, the combination of HIIT and fasting may provide incremental benefits in terms of effectiveness and time efficiency in obese and sedentary populations. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of HIIT versus CT, combined or not with fasting, on microcirculatory function, cardiometabolic parameters, anthropometric indices, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life in a population of sedentary overweight or obese women with cardiometabolic risk factors. Sedentary women aged 30-50 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and cardiometabolic risk factors, will be randomised to HIIT performed in the fasting state, HIIT performed in the fed state, CT in the fasting state or CT in the fed state. Cardiometabolic parameters, anthropometric indices, cardiorespiratory fitness, quality of life and microvascular function (cutaneous capillary density and microvascular reactivity evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging) will be evaluated before initiation of the interventions and 16 weeks thereafter. The trial complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by the local ethics committee (Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). All patients provide written informed consent before enrolment and randomisation. The study's results will be disseminated to the healthcare community by publications and

  16. Continuing Education In Radiation Protection In The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The Case Of Nuclear Industries Of Brazil Education And Training In The Uranium Production Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • Small changes in how to conduct the training have been proposed and are being incorporated. • The assembly of groups of employees resulted in low production of the facility, caused by lack of staff in production lines. • From this observation the training program was rescheduled. Now new trainings are made in individual form. • Organization of classes now occurs only for initial training. • This training occurs when new formations of classes are requested which only occurs when of new employees are admitted. • In these cases the classes are small, no more than 5 employees.

  17. Evaluating Corporate Sales Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Jon M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Sales training programs require continual evaluation. The authors present a conceptual model of the interrelationships of planning, training, evaluation, and modification (IPTEM) in corporate sales training programs. (CT)

  18. [Role of a credit system in the development of continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the innovation educational space formation program of the I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyzhigina, M A; Buniatian, A A; Sizova, Zh M; Protopopova, T A; Zaugol'nikova, T V; Zhukova, S G

    2007-01-01

    Russia 's joining the European higher educational space and an increase in the international competitive capacity of the European higher educational system envisage first of all that the European credit test system (ECTS) should be accepted and introduced into all national higher educational schools, which ensures both credit test and cumulative functions and guarantees the academic recognition of the education abroad. The issues of modernization of approaches to reforming the continuous postgraduate training of physicians, by using the credit test system, as well as new forms and technologies for an educational process in accordance with the European educational system principles are under discussion. The novelty of the proposed development is that the credit test system is first applied to the continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the Russian higher medical educational system. The Russian continuous postgraduate medical training pattern that is common in form and content is proposed in accordance with the Bologna declaration principles; approaches have been developed to incorporating the European educational traditions into the Russian national continuous postgraduate medical training system, by employing the credit test system; criteria have been elaborated for adapting the European credit test system at all stages of reformation of the Russian educational system; guidelines have been worked out for the conversion of academic load of various forms of the continuous postgraduate training of physicians to the credit test system; ways of introducing the new forms and technologies into an educational process have been proposed in accordance with the European education system principles, by taking into account the credit test system. The introduction of new technologies of an educational process, by using the credit test system will contribute to personality formation in a physician who has a high competence, a capacity for valuable

  19. Concurrent exercise incorporating high-intensity interval or continuous training modulates mTORC1 signaling and microRNA expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Russell, Aaron P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-06-01

    We compared the effects of concurrent exercise, incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and microRNA expression in skeletal muscle, relative to resistance exercise (RE) alone. Eight males (mean ± SD: age, 27 ± 4 yr; V̇o2 peak , 45.7 ± 9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials in a randomized order: 1) RE (8 × 5 leg press repetitions at 80% 1-repetition maximum) performed alone and RE preceded by either 2) HIT cycling [10 × 2 min at 120% lactate threshold (LT); HIT + RE] or 3) work-matched MICT cycling (30 min at 80% LT; MICT + RE). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained immediately before RE, either without (REST) or with (POST) preceding endurance exercise and +1 h (RE + 1 h) and +3 h (RE + 3 h) after RE. Prior HIT and MICT similarly reduced muscle glycogen content and increased ACC(Ser79) and p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation before subsequent RE (i.e., at POST). Compared with MICT, HIT induced greater mTOR(Ser2448) and rps6(Ser235/236) phosphorylation at POST. RE-induced increases in p70S6K and rps6 phosphorylation were not influenced by prior HIT or MICT; however, mTOR phosphorylation was reduced at RE + 1 h for MICT + RE vs. both HIT + RE and RE. Expression of miR-133a, miR-378, and miR-486 was reduced at RE + 1 h for HIT + RE vs. both MICT + RE and RE. Postexercise mTORC1 signaling following RE is therefore not compromised by prior HIT or MICT, and concurrent exercise incorporating HIT, but not MICT, reduces postexercise expression of miRNAs implicated in skeletal muscle adaptation to RE. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. El perfil profesional de los formadores de formación continua en España. [The professional profile of trainers working in continuous training in Spain].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaqi, Xhevrie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the professional profile of trainers working in continuous training in Spain. For this purpose we have developed a structured questionnaire was applied in person to a sample of 606 instructors nationwide. The questionnaire has provided information on aspects such as the socio-occupational status of instructors, their degree of professionalism, and the importance of professional skills. The information gathered has been analyzed by multivariate methods to determine the dominant professional profiles. The quantitative analysis includes the Categorical of Principal Components Analysis (CATPCA to analyze the skills and capabilities of the trainer and cluster analysis in two stages to get the profiles. Four dominant profiles have been deduced by the cluster analysis. The occupational variables, professional experience profiles and competences/skills produce the major discrepancies between the four profiles. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar y describir los perfiles profesionales del formador de formación continua en España. Con este propósito se ha elaborado un cuestionario estructurado que se ha aplicado de forma presencial a una muestra de 606 formadores a nivel nacional. El cuestionario ha proporcionado información sobre aspectos como el estatus socio-laboral del formador, el grado de profesionalización y la importancia de las competencias profesionales de los formadores. La información recabada ha sido analizada mediante métodos multivariantes para determinar los perfiles profesionales dominantes. El análisis cuantitativo incluye el Análisis de Componentes Principales Categóricos (CATPCA para analizar las competencias y capacidades del formador y el análisis Cluster en Dos Fases para obtener los perfiles. De los resultados obtenidos se han deducido cuatro perfiles profesionales dominantes siendo las variables ocupacionales, experiencia profesional y de las capacidades las que mayor

  1. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    The explosive growth of the modern microelectronics field opens new horizons for the development of new lightweight, low power, and smart spacecraft and science instrumentation systems in the new millennium explorations. Although this growth is mostly driven by the commercial need for low power, portable and computationally intensive products, the applicability is obvious in the space sector. The additional difficulties needed to be overcome for applicability in space include radiation hardness for total ionizing dose and single event effects (SEE), and reliability. Additionally, this new capability introduces a whole new philosophy of design and R&D, with strong implications in organizational and inter-agency program management. One key component specifically developed towards low power, small size, highly autonomous spacecraft systems, is the smart sensor remote input/output (TRIO) chip. TRIO can interface to 32 transducers with current sources/sinks and voltage sensing. It includes front-end analog signal processing, a 10-bit ADC, memory, and standard serial and parallel I/Os. These functions are very useful for spacecraft and subsystems health and status monitoring, and control actions. The key contributions of the TRIO are feasibility of modular architectures, elimination of several miles of wire harnessing, and power savings by orders of magnitude. TRIO freely operates from a single power supply 2.5- 5.5 V with power dissipation UV spectrographs, magnetometers, laser rangefinding instruments, etc. Common measurements that apply to many of these instruments are precise time interval measurement and high resolution read-out of solid state detectors. A precise time interval measurement chip was specially developed that achieves ˜100 ps (×10 improvement) time resolution at a power dissipation ˜20 mW (×50 improvement), dead time ˜1.5 μs (×20 improvement), and chip die size 5 mm×5 mm versus two 20 cm×20 cm doubled sided boards. This device is selected as a

  2. Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10 8 rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10 9 rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology

  3. Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-07-07

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10{sup 8} rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10{sup 9} rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology.

  4. Enhanced low dose rate effect of the radiation-sensitive field effect transistors developed by the National Microelectronics Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, D.H.; Kim, S.J.; Min, K.W.; Park, J.; Ryu, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    An enhanced low dose rate effect (ELDRE) was observed in the radiation-sensitive field effect transistors (RADFETs) developed by the National Microelectronics Research Centre (NMRC) for a low total accumulated dose of less than ∼45 Gy in silicon, or 45 Gy(Si). The effect was seen to persist even after∼8 days of annealing at room temperature, implying that it was not a transient effect but rather a permanent one. On the other hand, the ELDRE was seen to disappear at high total doses of above ∼90 Gy(Si)

  5. High-speed high-efficiency 500-W cw CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrey V.

    1996-04-01

    High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.

  6. Attachment Security and Self-compassion Priming Increase the Likelihood that First-time Engagers in Mindfulness Meditation Will Continue with Mindfulness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Angela C.; Shepstone, Laura; Carnelley, Katherine B.; Cavanagh, Kate; Millings, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness practice has many mental and physical health benefits but can be perceived as ‘difficult’ by some individuals. This perception can discourage compliance with mindfulness meditation training programs. The present research examined whether the activation of thoughts and feelings related to attachment security and self-compassion (through semantic priming) prior to a mindfulness meditation session might influence willingness to engage in future mindfulness training. We expected both ...

  7. Calculation and analysis of thermal impedance of microelectronic structures from analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintrou, S.; Laraqi, N.; Baïri, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with thermal impedances of microelectronic components that are useful in Simulation Programs with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE). In devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors, the active regions thicknesses are often much smaller than the substrates thicknesses. The devices can then be thermally assimilated to heat densities located on top of solid media. In addition to that, when the other dimensions of the heat sources are also much smaller than the substrates dimensions, it is reasonable to consider that the substrate is semi-infinite. First, the expression of the thermal impedance Z of a circular shape heat source centered on top of a half space is presented. For this purpose, the integral transform technique has been used to solve the tri-dimensional heat conduction equation in the frequency domain. The original expression is explicit, exact and allows obtaining results very quickly. After that, the case of a circular heat source on top of a cylinder is treated. A complete analysis of the substrate dimensions influence on the thermal impedance is done. It is based on the impedance decomposition into the one-dimensional impedance and the spreading impedance. By comparing these impedances with that obtained for the heat source on top of the semi-infinite medium, the threshold pulsation at which the thermal impedance of the finite medium differs from the thermal impedance of the half space is extracted. Moreover the geometrical criteria resulting in an error of less than 2% between the spreading impedance of the finite medium and the semi-infinite one are extracted. When these criteria are observed the impedance can be calculated using two perfectly known impedances: the spreading impedance of the semi-infinite medium and the one-dimensional impedance. The results are plotted on the Nyquist diagram, providing a compact representation. Finally the assumption of a circular shape heat source to approximate the thermal impedance of a

  8. Well Mind, Well Earth: 97 Environmentally Sensitive Activities for Stress Management, Spirit and Self-Esteem. Continuing Education Training Manual: Environmental Education Ethics and Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael J.

    This document presents an environmental/ethics and counseling psychology training manual. An introductory preview for the manual includes "Green in Green: A study of disconnection, its implications and rectification" by Michael J. Cohen. This preview describes a study that helps readers to identify their natural old-brain as well as…

  9. Continuous AFM observation of martensitic transformation and its reversion in training cycles of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.Z.; Kikuchi, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Shinya, N.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of thermomechanical treatment (so-called ''training'') cycles on stress-induced martensitic transformation and its reversion has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to make clear the origin of improvement of shape memory effect (SME) due to training in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys (SMAs). It was found that training cycles make martensite plates tend to grow on the primary shear system, i.e., on the most favorable shear system for the fcc to hcp martensitic transformation. In addition, training cycles lead to a more uniform distribution of thin martensite plates in a grain. Martensitic plates with the above characteristics are easier to be reverted back to parent phase when heated, and then nearly perfect SME is obtained. AFM observation shows that the key factor to realize perfect SME in Fe-Mn-Si based SMAs is to produce the uniform distribution of thin martensite plates on the primary shear system when deformed by external stress. (orig.)

  10. Investigations on MGy ionizing dose effects in thin oxides of micro-electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Raine, M.; Martinez, M.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Richard, N.; Leray, J.L.; Goiffon, V.; Corbiere, F.; Rolando, S.; Molina, R.; Magnan, P.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total ionizing dose (TID) effects have been studied for a long time in micro-electronic components designed to operate in natural and artificial environments. In most cases, TID induces both charge trapping in the bulk of irradiated oxides and the buildup of interface traps located at semiconductor/dielectric interfaces. Such effects result from basic mechanisms driven by both the shape of the electric field which stands into the oxide and by fabrication process parameters inducing pre-existing traps in the oxide's bulk. From the pioneering studies based on 'thick' oxide technologies to the most recent ones dedicated to innovative technologies, most studies concluded that the impact of total ionizing dose effects reduces with the oxide thinning. This is specifically the case for the gate-oxide of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) for which it is generally considered that TID is not a major issue anymore at kGy dose ranges. TID effects are now mainly due to charge trapping in the field oxides such as Shallow Trench Isolation. This creates either parasitic conduction paths or Radiation-Induced Narrow Channel Effects (RINCE). Static current-voltage (I-V) electrical characteristics are then modified through a significant increase of the off-current of NMOS transistors or by shifting the whole I-V curves (of both NMOS and PMOS transistors). Based on these assumptions, no significant shift of I-V curves should be observed in modern bulk CMOS technologies. However, such phenomenon may not be directly extrapolated to higher TID ranges, typically of several MGy for which only few data are available in the literature. This paper presents evidences of large threshold voltage shifts measured at MGy dose levels despite the fact that transistors are designed in a submicron bulk technology which features a 7-nm thin gate-oxide on GO2 transistors dedicated to mixed analog/digital integrated circuits. Such electrical shifts are encountered

  11. The Effects of Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in United States Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    of 8 to 10 separate exercises that train all major muscle groups. When following a traditional PT program, an active duty member typically engages... abdominal circumference. If an airman fails to meet the minimum required score on any of the fitness components or receives an overall score of ≤75%, the...airman is given a 42- to 90-day reconditioning period before being retested. Historically, USAF active duty men and women are expected to follow

  12. Continuing Education in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is not enough to hold a degree title allowing us to exercise a profession. We all know—indeed, it is obvious—that the socioeconomic environment we operate in has evolved rapidly and dramatically. Greater competition in the job market and training needs that are increasingly more specific and dynamic are driving the demand for specialized learning and are making concepts such as continuing education or lifelong training more important. A health professional must have a calling for ...

  13. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  14. Nuclear data relevant to single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics and their application to SEU simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Kodama, Akihiro; Nakashima, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    A cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28 Si was developed in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model was proposed for simulation of the initial process of SEUs. The model was applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results were compared with measured SEU cross-sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross-sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed. (author)

  15. Measuring the diffusion of Ti and Cu in low-k materials for microelectronic devices by EELS, EFTEM and EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J-P; Lafond, D; Guedj, C; Fayolle, M; Meininger, P; Maitrejean, S; David, T; Posseme, N; Bayle-Guillemaud, P; Chabli, Amal

    2006-01-01

    The need to reduce RC delay and cross talk in Cu interconnects means that ultra low-k dielectrics such as porous SiCOH are being integrated into microelectronic devices. Unfortunately porous materials lead to integration issues such as metal diffusion into the porosity of the dielectric, especially when chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods are used for metal deposition. In our case, the copper anti-diffusion barrier used before Cu deposition is MOCVD TiN. Without an appropriate surface treatment (pore sealing) of the low-k the TiN may diffuse in the porosity. The presence of Ti or Cu in the low-k is deleterious as it can raise the dielectric constant and the leakage current. EFTEM EELS and EDX have been used to map Ti, Cu, O and C as a function of process conditions

  16. Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows

  17. Current Training and Continuing Education Needs of Preschool and School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists regarding Children with Cleft Lip/Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwinek, Anne P.; Kummer, Ann W.; Rice, Gale B.; Grames, Lynn Marty

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the education and experience of preschool and school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) regarding the assessment and treatment of children born with cleft lip and/or palate and to determine their continuing education needs in this area. Method: A 16-item mixed-methods…

  18. Accelerated life testing (ALT) in microelectronics and photonics: its role, attributes, challenges, pitfalls, and interaction with qualification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2002-06-01

    Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are aimed at the revealing and understanding the physics of the expected or occurred failures, i.e. are able to detect the possible failure modes and mechanisms. Another objective of the ALTs is to accumulate representative failure statistics. Adequately designed, carefully conducted, and properly interpreted ALTs provide a consistent basis for obtaining the ultimate information of the reliability of a product - the predicted probability of failure after the given time of service. Such tests can dramatically facilitate the solution to the cost effectiveness and time-to-market problems. ALTs should play an important role in the evaluation, prediction and assurance of the reliability of microelectronics and optoelectronics devices and systems. In the majority of cases, ALTs should be conducted in addition to the qualification tests, which are required by the existing standards. There might be also situations, when ALTs can be (and, probably, should be) used as an effective substitution for such standards, or, at least, as the basis for the improvement of the existing qualification specifications. We describe different types (categories) of accelerated tests, with an emphasis on the role that ALTs should play in the development, design, qualification and manufacturing of microelectronics and photonics products. We discuss the challenges associated with the implementation and use of the ALTs, potential pitfalls (primarily those associated with possible shifts in the mechanisms and modes of failure), and the interaction of the ALTs with other types of accelerated tests. The role of the nondestructive evaluations is also briefly outlined. The case of a laser welded optoelectronic package assembly is used to illustrate the concepts addressed.

  19. NATOs Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    foreign policy relating to NATO and the achievement of its national interests: I) The United States must support selective NATO enlargement to assure the...of national interests: 1) The United States needs to support selective NATO enlargement to assure the world that the alliance is not only a major...United States needs to support NATO enlargement to demonstrate to the world that the alliance continues to be the major actor in collective defense and

  20. NATO’s Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    foreign policy relating to NATO and the achievement of its national interests: I) The United States must support selective NATO enlargement to assure the...of national interests: 1) The United States needs to support selective NATO enlargement to assure the world that the alliance is not only a major...United States needs to support NATO enlargement to demonstrate to the world that the alliance continues to be the major actor in collective defense and

  1. [Server World-Wide Web on the Internet for the provision of clinical cases and digital radiologic images for training and continuing education in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacia, G; Tartamella, M; Finazzo, M; Bartolotta, T; Brancatelli, G; Banco, A; Lo Casto, A; La Tona, G; Bentivegna, E

    1997-06-01

    The Internet, as a global computer network, provides opportunities to make available multimedia educational materials, such as teaching files and image databases, that can be accessed using "World-Wide Web" client browser to provide continuing medical education. Since August, 1995, at the Institute of Radiology-University of Palermo, we developed a World-Wide Web server on the Internet to provide a collection of interactive radiology educational resources such as teaching files and image database for continuing medical education in radiology. Our server is based on a UNIX workstation connected to the Internet via our campus Ethernet network and reachable at the uniform resource locator (URL) address: http:/(/)mbox.unipa.it/approximately radpa/ radpa.html. Digital CT and MR images for teaching files and image database are downloaded through an Ethernet local area network from a GE Advantage Windows workstation. US images will be acquired on-line through a video digitizing board. Radiographs will be digitized by means of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) scanner. To set up teaching files, image database and all other documents, we use the standard "HyperText Markup Language" (HTML) to edit the documents, and the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) or Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) format to store the images. Nine teaching files are presently available on the server, together with 49 images in the database, a list of international radiological servers, a section devoted to the museum of radiology hosted by our Institute, the electronic version of the Journal Eido Electa. In the first 12 months of public access through the Internet, 12,280 users accessed the server worldwide: 45% of them to retrieve teaching files; 35% to retrieve images from the database; the remaining 20% to retrieve other documents. Placing teaching files and image database on a World-Wide Web server makes these cases more available to residents and radiologists to provide continuing medical

  2. Changes in leadership styles as a function of a four-day leadership training institute for nurse managers: a perspective on continuing education program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M S

    1996-01-01

    This study measured changes in knowledge acquisition and application of the Hersey and Blanchard model of leadership styles and leadership style adaptability among 144 registered nurses who participated in a four-day management institute. A pre- and post-institute administration of the LEAD-Self instrument was conducted. Although the findings demonstrated a significant change in the participants' leadership styles, the data revealed that outcomes were not as positive as had been assumed based on participants' self-reports. The discussion of findings reveals the complexity and the necessity of measuring learning outcomes for continuing education program improvement.

  3. Quality assurance and management in microelectronics companies: ISO 9000 versus Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Razvan; Kobi, Abdessamad; Robledo, Christian; Bacivarov, Ioan; Bacivarov, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    A strategy for the implementation of the Six Sigma method as an improvement solution for the ISO 9000:2000 Quality Standard is proposed. Our approach is focused on integrating the DMAIC cycle of the Six Sigma method with the PDCA process approach, highly recommended by the standard ISO 9000:2000. The Six Sigma steps applied to each part of the PDCA cycle are presented in detail, giving some tools and training examples. Based on this analysis the authors conclude that applying Six Sigma philosophy to the Quality Standard implementation process is the best way to achieve the optimal results in quality progress and therefore in customers satisfaction.

  4. Cooling high heat flux micro-electronic systems using refrigerants in high aspect ratio multi-microchannel evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Patry, E.

    2011-11-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of cooling systems can contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Currently, most microelectronic applications are air-cooled. Switching to two-phase cooling systems would decrease power consumption and allow for the reuse of the extracted heat. For this type of application, multi-microchannel evaporators are thought to be well adapted. However, such devices have not been tested for a wide range of operating conditions, such that their thermal response to the high non-uniform power map typically generated by microelectronics has not been studied. This research project aims at clarifying these gray areas by investigating the behavior of the two-phase flow of different refrigerants in silicon and copper multi-microchannel evaporators under uniform, non-uniform and transient heat fluxes operating conditions. The test elements use as a heat source a pseudo-chip able to mimic the behavior of a CPU. It is formed by 35 independent sub-heaters, each having its own temperature sensor, such that 35 temperature and 35 heat flux measurements can be made simultaneously. Careful measurements of each pressure drop component (inlet, microchannels and outlet) found in the micro-evaporators showed the importance of the inlet and outlet restriction pressure losses. The overall pressure drop levels found in the copper test section were low enough to possibly be driven by a thermosyphon system. The heat transfer coefficients measured for uniform heat flux conditions were very high and typically followed a V-shape curve. The first branch was associated to the slug flow regime and the second to the annular flow regime. By tracking the minimum level of heat transfer, a transition criteria between the regimes was established, which included the effect of heat flux on the transition. Then for each branch, a different prediction method was used to form the first flow pattern-based prediction method for two-phase heat transfer in microchannels. A

  5. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  6. The effects of 2 weeks of interval vs continuous walking training on glycaemic control and whole-body oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Clark, Margaret A; Jakobsen, Ida

    2017-01-01

    in physical fitness or body composition. Compared with baseline, IWT reduced mean glucose levels non-significantly (-0.7 ± 0.3 mmol/l, p = 0.08) and significantly reduced maximum glucose levels (-1.8 ± 0.5 mmol/l, p = 0.04) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE; -1.7 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p = 0...... was assessed: 24 h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and urinary free 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α; a marker for oxidative stress), physical fitness and body composition. Neither participants nor assessors were blinded to the interventions. RESULTS: No intervention-induced changes were seen...... > 0.05 for all). No adverse effects were observed with any of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Short-term IWT, but not CWT, improves CGM-derived measures of glycaemic control independent of changes in physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Systemic...

  7. Design and Modeling of a Three-axis Piezoresistive Microelectronic Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, N.; Benichou, A.; Ghaffour, K.; Benyoucef, B.

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for automotive industry and biomedical applications (BioMEMS) have the fastest growth rate within the MEMS market. The Microsystems job market imposes to research laboratories and universities to respond by increasing the quality of MEMS engineering and informatics interdisciplinary training programs. In this fact, our work consists to study and develop a three-axis piezoresistive accelerometer having uniform sensitivities along to three axes. This sensor which is made of a heavy proof mass and four long beams, allow us to obtain high sensitivities, by reducing the resonant frequencies. Uniform axial sensitivities, with a transverse sensitivity, could be obtained using a three-axis sensor. The stress analysis of this sensor was performed in order to determine the positions of the piezoresistances, in the four flexure beams.

  8. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  9. Phase transformation in SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers for optoelectronics and microelectronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, M. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, Avenue de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, France, Europe (France); Talbot, E., E-mail: etienne.talbot@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, Avenue de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, France, Europe (France); Pratibha Nalini, R.; Gourbilleau, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/UCBN, 6 Bd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 4, France, Europe (France); Pareige, P. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, Avenue de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, France, Europe (France)

    2013-09-15

    Due to the quantum confinement, silicon nanoclusters (Si-ncs) embedded in a dielectric matrix are of prime interest for new optoelectronics and microelectronics applications. In this context, SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequently annealed to induce phase separation and Si clusters growth. The aim of this paper is to study phase separation processes and formation of nanoclusters in SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers by atom probe tomography. Influences of the silicon supersaturation, annealing temperature and SiO{sub x} and SiO{sub 2} layer thicknesses on the final microstructure have been investigated. It is shown that supersaturation directly determines phase separation regime between nucleation/classical growth and spinodal decomposition. Annealing temperature controls size of the particles and interface with the surrounding matrix. Layer thicknesses directly control Si-nc shapes from spherical to spinodal-like structures. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers containing Si-ncs have been characterized using atom probe. ► Influence of SiO{sub x} composition on decomposition mode has been investigated. ► Influence of sublayer thicknesses on phase separation has been studied.

  10. Overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Kunihiko; Kouta, Hikaru

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan. Various kinds of lasers and material processing technologies have been developed and applied for manufacturing electronic and photonic devices to meet the strong demands for high-performance, lightweight, low energy-consumption mobile digital consumer electronics, broadband optical fiber communications, low-emission and fuel-efficient, easy-to-steer smart cars, etc. This paper emphasizes solid-state lasers as convenient and versatile light sources for packaging advanced compact devices with sensitive passive or active components having small feature sizes. Some of the representative material processing applications using solid-state lasers for electronic and photonic devices are, opaque and clear defects repairing of LCDs, trimming of functional modules, fine-tuning of optical characteristics of photonic devices, forming of various micro-vias for high-density interconnection circuits, laser patterning of amorphous solar-cells, and high-precision laser welding of electronic components such as optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. The recent progress in high-power ultra-short pulse solid-state lasers seems to be rapidly increasing their processing capabilities such as for fine adjustment of optical filters, etc.

  11. Efectos del entrenamiento continuo e interválico de carga externa similar sobre la frecuencia cardiaca Effects of continuous and interval training similar external load on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Tuimil

    2010-09-01

    , who performed: CC= 8 km at 70% VAM and CI= 4x(1000m at 90% VAM+1000m at 50% VAM. Heart rate was registered during sessions and FCB before and after of the training session. The difference in the mean heart rate between both training modes not statistically significant. However, the mean heart rate of the CC (FCCC (Z=2,240; p<0,05 and CI (FCCI (Z=2,380; p<0,05 were significantly higher than the calculated 70% heart rate reserve (FCR70%. The FCB was only significantly higher after CI (Z=2,319; p<0,05. In conclusion, two different training modes, but of equal average intensity, can produce a similar mean heart rate. The intensity of the programed run based on the VAM is significantly higher than one based on the FCR. The strongly increase in FCB can be influenced by the interval training method.
    KEY WORDS: mean H.R., reserve H.R., basal H.R., MAS, continuous training, interval training.

  12. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  13. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  14. Propuestas para la formación en educación en medios en profesores chilenos Criteria of Media Education Program for Chilean teachers: A proposal for Continuous Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar de Fontcuberta Balaguer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, desarrollado por un grupo de investigación chileno, expone los resultados de una investigación sobre la presencia de la educación en medios en el currículum de la enseñanza media chilena, los problemas que plantea y la formación y actitudes de los profesores de Lengua Castellana y Comunicación en ese ámbito. Para su análisis adopta las definiciones y parámetros contemplados por la UNESCO en Viena (1999 y Sevilla (2002 que indican, entre otros aspectos, que la educación en medios trata sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje «con» y «sobre» los medios, más que «a través» de los medios. El estudio concluye con una propuesta para implementar la formación continua de profesores en ese campo. The article explains the results of a research about Media Education in Chilean Secondary School curriculum, its problems, and training and attitudes of teachers of Spanish Language and Communication. The analysis applies definitions and parameters adopted by UNESCO in Viena (1999 and Seville (2002 which indicate that Media Education means to teach and learn «with»» and «about» media more than «through» media. It proposes a schedule for continuous training of teachers in this field.

  15. Counting and integrating microelectronics development for direct conversion X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.

    2008-02-15

    A novel signal processing concept for X-ray imaging with directly converting pixelated semiconductor sensors is presented. The novelty of this approach compared to existing concepts is the combination of charge integration and photon counting in every single pixel. Simultaneous operation of both signal processing chains extends the dynamic range beyond the limits of the individual schemes and allows determination of the mean photon energy. Medical applications such as X-ray computed tomography can benefit from this additional spectral information through improved contrast and the ability to determine the hardening of the tube spectrum due to attenuation by the scanned object. A prototype chip in 0.35-micrometer technology has been successfully tested. The pixel electronics are designed using a low-swing differential current mode logic. Key element is a configurable feedback circuit for the charge sensitive amplifier which provides continuous reset, leakage current compensation and replicates the input signal for the integrator. The thesis focusses on the electronic characterization of a second generation prototype chip and gives a detailed discussion of the circuit design. (orig.)

  16. Counting and integrating microelectronics development for direct conversion X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, E.

    2008-02-01

    A novel signal processing concept for X-ray imaging with directly converting pixelated semiconductor sensors is presented. The novelty of this approach compared to existing concepts is the combination of charge integration and photon counting in every single pixel. Simultaneous operation of both signal processing chains extends the dynamic range beyond the limits of the individual schemes and allows determination of the mean photon energy. Medical applications such as X-ray computed tomography can benefit from this additional spectral information through improved contrast and the ability to determine the hardening of the tube spectrum due to attenuation by the scanned object. A prototype chip in 0.35-micrometer technology has been successfully tested. The pixel electronics are designed using a low-swing differential current mode logic. Key element is a configurable feedback circuit for the charge sensitive amplifier which provides continuous reset, leakage current compensation and replicates the input signal for the integrator. The thesis focusses on the electronic characterization of a second generation prototype chip and gives a detailed discussion of the circuit design. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  18. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  19. 14 CFR 121.915 - Continuing qualification curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing qualification curriculum. 121... Continuing qualification curriculum. Each continuing qualification curriculum must contain training and... training in the type flight training device or the type flight simulator, as appropriate, regarding...

  20. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    controlled manipulation of individual molecules and atoms that can interact with the human body at sub-cellular level. The recent progress in microelectronics and nanosensors crates very powerful tools for the early detection and diagnosis. The nanowire integrated potassium and dopamine sensors are ideal for the monitoring and control of many cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. Selected movies illustrating the applications of nanodevices to patients will be shown at the talk.

  1. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  2. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    32 4.6 Excellon Micronetics MC-20 Chip Assembly System ................................... 33 4.7 Browne Rotary Reflow Soldering...Excellon Micronetics MC-20 Chip Assembly System.......................................... 33 23. Browne Rotary Reflow Soldering System...Figure f Bousch and Lomb Mtallurgical Microscope. 32 - - .. . . . l 4.6 Excellon Micronetics MC-20 Chip Assembly System During the thick film hybrid

  3. Microelectronics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  4. Nanoscale Microelectronic Circuit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    complementary phases and a 3b binary capacitor bank on each output clock phase to individually trim any phase imbalance due to process variations or...current sources approximate the output voltage. The CLS capacitors de-correlate the MDAC output voltage from the op-amp output...Figure 39. Inverse class-AB ZCD operation obtained by coupling tail current to output via capacitor . As Vo- begins to rise, Itail

  5. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  6. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  7. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  8. Needed: A Voucher Plan in Support of Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, David S.

    Opportunities for career advancement, an adequate pool of trained manpower, and the growth of our economy are inextricably connected with the availability of continuing education and training opportunities to working adults. Availability is a function of access to training and successful participation in training. The federally funded voucher plan…

  9. Guidance for training program evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An increased concern about the training of nuclear reactor operators resulted from the incident at TMI-2 in 1979. Purpose of this guide is to provide a general framework for the systematic evaluation of training programs for DOE Category-A reactors. The primary goal of such evaluations is to promote continuing quality improvements in the selection, training and qualification programs

  10. Annual training manual for security training: Protective force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Westinghouse is committed to high quality training relevant to the need of the Protective Forces at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The training programs at WIPP are designed to qualify Security personnel to perform WIPP security missions in a professional and responsible manner. The program consists of basic as well as sustainment training, as further described in this plan. This plan documents the WIPP Security training program for security personnel for calendar year 1990. The programs detailed in this plan are designed to adequately train persons to ensure the uninterrupted continuity of Department of Energy (DOE)/Westinghouse operations. The Security Training Program consists of four basic elements. These elements are (1) basic level training; (2) on-the-job training; (3) refresher training; and (4) in-service training.

  11. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  12. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  13. Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Christopher M.; Ross, Larry; Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Estigneev, Yuri; Murievav, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government has been assisting the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) for many years with nuclear weapons transportation security (NWTS) through the provision of specialized guard escort railcars and cargo railcars with integrated physical security and communication systems, armored transport vehicles, and armored escort vehicles. As a natural continuation of the NWTS program, a partnership has been formed to construct a training center that will provide counterterrorism training to personnel in all branches of the RF MOD. The Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center (ACTC) is a multinational, multiagency project with funding from Canada, RF and the U.S. Departments of Defense and Energy. ACTC will be a facility where MOD personnel can conduct basic through advanced training in various security measures to protect Category IA material against the threat of terrorist attack. The training will enhance defense-in-depth principles by integrating MOD guard force personnel into the overall physical protection systems and improving their overall response time and neutralization capabilities. The ACTC project includes infrastructure improvements, renovation of existing buildings, construction of new buildings, construction of new training facilities, and provision of training and other equipment. Classroom training will be conducted in a renovated training building. Basic and intermediate training will be conducted on three different security training areas where various obstacles and static training devices will be constructed. The central element of ACTC, where advanced training will be held, is the 'autodrome,' a 3 km road along which various terrorist events can be staged to challenge MOD personnel in realistic and dynamic nuclear weapons transportation scenarios. This paper will address the ACTC project elements and the vision for training development and integrating this training into actual nuclear weapons transportation operations.

  14. Continuing education and professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Edwina

    2002-01-01

    The success of a profession will be determined upon its education and training. A profession is required to encompass: a core body of knowledge; a set of ethical codes of practice; and have practitioners with humanistic qualities. In order to maintain the success of a profession it is necessary to have continuing education, which enhances professional development. Continuing professional education includes a form of self-regulation, which ensures the maintenance of a minimum standard of practice in this ever-changing workplace, and by regulating this standard, the discipline becomes more accountable to the client and the profession as a whole. In Australia, the Nuclear Medicine society's continuing education programs and Universities offering postgraduate programs promote continuing education. If technologists are to successfully keep up with developments in instrumentation, protocols and changing health care requirements, we must ensure that the education of practitioners does not cease at certification of entry to the workplace (Au)

  15. 38 CFR 21.296 - Selecting a training establishment for on-job training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment for on-job training. 21.296 Section 21.296 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... establishment for on-job training. (a) Additional criteria for selecting a training establishment. In addition... to provide on-job training to disabled veterans; (2) Provide continuous training for each veteran...

  16. Teacher In-Service Training: A Luxury or a Tool for Survival? The Problem of Continuing Teacher Education as It Appears in the Briefs Submitted to the Commission on Declining School Enrolments in Ontario, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Nelly

    Declining enrollment in Ontario, a mild issue in the early 1970s, became a crisis by 1976, and was spelled out as such in 1978. Teacher surplus, not shortage, became a new reality. Inservice training thus acquired new importance in overall teacher development since it stands as one of the few options left to teachers trying to save their jobs.…

  17. Leveraging Simulation Against the F-16 Flying Training Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGrath, Shaun R

    2005-01-01

    Air combat training is becoming increasingly constrained by shrinking budgets, airspace limitations for countermeasures and supersonic employment, and operational taskings that limit continuation training opportunities...

  18. Black Youth Unemployment: A Continuing Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia, Esther

    1977-01-01

    If the current trend continues, unemployment rates for black teenagers will continue to go up while officialdom deplores the "critical" situation. Only by guaranteeing minority youth the right to education and job training and by monitoring discrimination will we enable black youth to make the contributions to society of which they are capable.…

  19. Training management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)

  20. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  1. Preliminary investigation of polystyrene/MoS{sub 2}-Oleylamine polymer composite for potential application as low-dielectric material in microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni, E-mail: glandi@unisa.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Altavilla, Claudia; Iannace, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sorrentino@cnr.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), P. Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Ciambelli, Paolo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centre NANO-MATES, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Neitzert, Heinrich C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via G. Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Insulating materials play a vital role in the design and performance of electrical systems for both steady and transient state conditions. Among the other properties, also in this field, polymer nanocomposites promise to offer exciting improvements. Many studies in the last decade has witnessed significant developments in the area of nano-dielectric materials and significant effects of nano-scale fillers on electric, thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric materials have been observed. However, the developments of new and advanced materials to be used the miniaturization of electronic devices fabrication require extensive studies on electrical insulation characteristics of these materials before they can be used in commercial systems. In this work, Polystyrene (PS) composites were prepared by the blend solution method using MoS{sub 2}@Oleylamine nanosheets as filler. The dielectric properties of the resulting comoposite have been investigated at 300K and in the frequency range between 1000 Hz and 1 MHz. The addition of the MoS{sub 2}@Oleylamine nanosheets leads to a decreasing of the relative dielectric constant and of the electrical conductivity measured in the voltage range between ±500V. Thanks to a possibility to tune the electrical permittivity with the control of MoS{sub 2} concentration, these materials could be used as a low-dielectric material in the microelectronics applications.

  2. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydon D. Alexandrou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs. The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs such as trichloromethane (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform; these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs. Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia. The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb. All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L.

  3. Training review criteria and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The industry, through commitment to the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program, is implementing what is referred to as performance-based training, or the Systems Approach to Training (SAT). The NRC considers the following five elements as essential to these training programs: Systematic analysis of the jobs to be performed; learning objectives that are derived from the analysis and that describe desired performance after training; Training design and implementation based on the learning objectives; Evaluation of trainee mastery of the objectives during training; and evaluation and revision of the training based on the performance of trained personnel in the job setting. As indicated in the ''Commission Policy Statement on Training and Qualifications of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel'' of March 20, 1985,''the NRC will continue to closely monitor the process [INPO Accreditation] and its results, and ''It remains the continuing responsibility of the NRC to independently evaluate applicants' and licensees' implementation of improvement programs....'' These procedures provide a systematic means for implementing two of the NRC monitoring functions identified in the Commission Policy Statement: ''Continuing evaluation of industry training and qualification program effectiveness,''; and ''Monitoring plant and industry trends and events involving personnel errors.''

  4. Modeling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in nursing home dementia care (MEDCED)--training of care home staff to reduce use of restraint in care home residents with dementia. A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testad, Ingelin; Mekki, Tone Elin; Førland, Oddvar; Øye, Christine; Tveit, Eva Marie; Jacobsen, Frode; Kirkevold, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored 7-month training intervention "Trust Before Restraint," in reducing use of restraint, agitation, and antipsychotic medications in care home residents with dementia. This is a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial in 24 care homes within the Western Norway Regional Health Authority 2011-2013. From 24 care homes, 274 residents were included in the study, with 118 in the intervention group and 156 in the control group. Use of restraint was significantly reduced in both the intervention group and the control group despite unexpected low baseline, with a tendency to a greater reduction in the control group. There was a significant reduction in Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score in both the intervention group and the follow-up group with a slightly higher reduction in the control group, although this did not reach significance and a small nonsignificant increase in use of antipsychotics (14.1-17.7%) and antidepressants (35.9-38.4%) in both groups. This study reports on the statistically significant reduction in use of restraint in care homes, both prior and during the 7-month intervention periods, in both intervention and control groups. When interpreted within the context of the current climate of educational initiatives to reduce restraint and a greater focus on the importance of person-centered care, the study also highlights the potential success achieved with national training programs for care staff and should be further evaluated to inform future training initiatives both in Norway and internationally. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  6. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  7. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of... Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department), as part of its continuing effort..., the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of...

  8. Efeitos do treinamento moderado contínuo sobre parâmetros imunológico e metabólico de ratos suplementados com maltodextrina Effects of continuous moderate training on immune and metabolic parameters of rats supplemented with maltodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Fernandes Leite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos do exercício moderado contínuo sobre a contagem total e diferencial de leucócitos, as concentrações de glicose sérica e os teores lipídicos de ratos suplementados e não suplementados com solução carboidratada. Para tanto, 35 ratos Wistar, machos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: sedentários não suplementado (n = 10 e suplementado (n = 8; treinados em exercício aeróbio moderado contínuo não suplementado (n = 9 e suplementado (n = 8. O período de treinamento foi de seis semanas de natação em padrão contínuo com sobrecarga correspondente a 3% do peso corporal. Durante cinco dias os animais foram suplementados com uma dose diária de 0,48 g.kg-1 de maltodextrina dissolvida em água ou receberam água pura. O exercício moderado causou uma diminuição significativa na glicemia (p The objective of this study was to determine the effects of continuous moderate exercise on the differential and total count leukocyte, serum glucose concentration and lipid levels of rats supplemented and not supplemented with carbohydrate solution. To this purpose, thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary non-supplemented (n = 10 and supplemented (n = 8, trained in continuous moderate aerobic exercise non-supplemented (n = 9 and supplemented (n = 8. The training of continuous swimming was developed during six week with 3% body weight overload. For five days the animals were supplemented with 0.48 g.kg-1 maltodextrin daily dose dissolved in water or pure water. Moderate exercise caused a significant decrease in blood glucose (p < 0.001 and in the number of blood lymphocytes (p < 0.01. Additionally, the maltodextrin significantly increased the number of lymphocytes of trained animals (p < 0.03. There was no effect of training and maltodextrin on the lipid profile. The results allowed to conclude that with six weeks of training it was possible to cause a drop in the number

  9. Classification of Innovation Objectives Set for Continuing Professional Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyunnikov, Yurii S.

    2017-01-01

    The present demand for teachers, showing advanced aptitude for innovations, is an important reason for promotion of innovative practices in the continuous teacher training. For the on-going development of a continuous training system preparing teachers for innovative activities, it is necessary to have a complete taxonomy of practical objectives.…

  10. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...

  11. Biology of Breast Cancer: A Predoctoral Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maihle, Nita

    1998-01-01

    .... To date, 16 trainees have matriculated into this new training program. Two trainees have successfully completed this training program and have left the Mayo Clinic to continue their training/careers in breast cancer research...

  12. Spanish Companies and the New Vocational Training System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valeriano

    1997-01-01

    Reform of the Spanish vocational-training system under 1990 legislation has created a flexible, responsive initial training subsystem. The continuing-training subsystem has only begun to operate and may be hindered by employer suspicion of certification. (SK)

  13. 9.5 college credit fiber optic training program for under- and unemployed women: a private/public/continuing education partnership designed to promote women in fiber optics as a workforce initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Margaret H.; Valentin, Marjorie R.; Seebeck, Randall G.; Williams, Joseph; Jeffers, Deborah; Markoja, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Three Rivers Community College, in conjunction with CiDRA Corporation a fiber-optic telecommunication company and Middlesex Community College, offered a 12 week, 9.5 college credit Fiber Optics training program for 14 unemployed and underemployed women in central Connecticut. Classes were held at the Meriden Center of Middlesex Community College, with some laboratory activities held at CiDRA's headquarters in Wallingford. Connecticut photonics related manufacturing companies project a need to hire anywhere from 100 to 1000 new photonics workers over the next several years. Despite this incredible demand, Three Rivers Community College is the only community college to offer an associate degree program in Photonics Engineering Technology in Connecticut, and one of only two colleges in new England. Funded in part by monies targeting Non-Traditional Occupations for women through the Connecticut Department of Labor, this accelerated program enabled participants to learn industry basics, be interview ready, and earn valuable credit towards an associate degree. The goal of the training program is to provide these former waitresses, truck drivers, certified nurse aides and medical technicians an opportunity to enter the higher-paying field of fiber-optic technology. The course, designed with curriculum assistance from Connecticut companies, will provide education and training needed to qualify for an entry-level position in fiber-optic manufacturing. In addition to free tuition students enrolled in the program received all supplies needed for the course including textbooks, a scientific calculator and an optics experiment kit. Students also practiced fiber termination and splicing skills and were eligible to take the Fiber Optic Association Certification Test at the conclusion of the program. The cost for the test was also paid by the grant. Students met regularly with female employees of CiDRA who served as mentors for the 12- week program. Math and science tutoring was

  14. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approximate identity for B, bounded in A. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of A is ... continuous elements of a Banach algebra A and symmetric abstract Segal algebras B with respect to A, in the case ..... [13] Hewitt E and Ross K A, Abstract harmonic analysis, 2nd edn. I, II (1970) (New York,.

  15. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  16. Training Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The cornerstone of safe operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is personnel performing the day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Training that is conducted efficiently and effectively and is directly related to the needs of the job (i.e. performance-based training) is fundamental to safe operation. Responsibility for the safe operation of these facilities is a line management function. Therefore, achieving performance-based training requires commitment from the organization for which training is provided. This commitment includes making subject matter experts available for participation in and review of the products of the performance-based training process. It also includes budgeting and scheduling the time required for both initial and continuing training. This commitment must be made by corporate and facility senior management from the beginning. Management must get involved at the start to ensure that they are not only cognizant of ongoing activities, but are also involved to the degree necessary to thoroughly understand the process. Policies implemented and support demonstrated by senior management provide the driving force to ensure that training programs receive the attention that is imperative if facility training programs are to be successful

  17. Outsourcing of Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAMIN, J.E.

    1999-06-17

    Several lessons are covered that has been learned at Fluor Daniel Hanford during their outsourcing effort. We have overcome problems because of our joint commitment to success. We continue to work our way through issues as they arise. On the positive side, several good things have happened as a result of outsourcing. Our training provider (EXITECH) has proven to be very responsive to our many different customers. We have been able to establish and support a 6-month training schedule for the first time. This has allowed the different facilities who send workers to training with more flexibility in planning their workers' time away from their jobs. In addition to the master training schedule, each facility on the Hanford Site has its own special or emergent training needs, and EXITECH has been very responsive in meeting these individual facilities' needs. Student and supervisor feedback on the quality and effectiveness of environmental, safety and health training provided by EXITECH has been very positive. Worker and supervisor feedback indicates the ''hands-on'' training serves their needs, and focuses on what they need to know to be able to perform work safely and efficiently. EXITECH strives very hard at presenting training so students can become successful in their training efforts. The workforce has noticed EXITECH's training philosophy is based on shared success with the trainee, not failure. Along the way, FDH has saved money as a result of this outsourcing. During our first year of the contract, we estimated a $400,000 savings. The decision as to outsource training is likely the most important you will make for your organization. In our situation, it fit the business goals we had established in our bid for the Hanford contract. However, if we were to begin again, we would factor some of the valuable lessons learned experienced during the first 16 months of our current outsourcing.

  18. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  19. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    La prochaine session se déroulera du 04 octobre 2004 au 11 février 2005 (interruption de 3 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web : http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants ...

  20. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...

  1. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  2. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  3. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  4. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Interval training can help you get the most out of your workout. By Mayo Clinic Staff Are you ready to shake up ... more time at the gym? Consider aerobic interval training. Once the domain of elite athletes, interval training ...

  5. Humility Through Humiliation in Continuity Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Efrat

    2016-01-01

    For freshly minted MDs, residency represents a period of transition from being a medical student to becoming a physician. This evolution is often fraught. Continuity clinic-a mandatory component of pediatric residency training-can be a battleground for this tribulation. This essay explores the author's journey from the first days of her continuity clinic to the last. The author recounts her struggles, her fears, her certainty of being an imposter, and her steps towards becoming a pediatrician.

  6. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  7. Continuity of care: differing conceptions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Kerr, Jonathan; Schultz, Karen

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the conception of continuity of care can influence family physician trainees by exploring the perspectives of established family physicians, physicians working in episodic care who had been trained in family medicine, and family medicine trainees. Qualitative analysis of focus group data. Southeastern Ontario. Seven focus groups consisting of members from 3 groups: established family physicians, physicians working in episodic care who had been trained in family medicine, or family medicine trainees. Semistructured focus group interviews were taped and transcribed. Using constant comparison, the transcripts were analyzed for themes related to continuity of care and how these were valued among the 3 groups of physicians. The 3 groups differed on how they valued continuity of the relationship, how they valued informational continuity, and how these concepts affected their perceptions of difficult clinician-patient relationships. Experienced family physicians described long-term relationships as a core value in their practices. In contrast, episodic care physicians valued informational continuity. Family medicine trainees learned about continuity of care through role models and theoretical teaching. They valued the efficiency gained by knowing patients and the reward of being recognized by patients. Family medicine trainees expressed greater distress with difficult clinician-patient interactions than experienced family physicians expressed. It was unclear whether the challenges of difficult relationships were offset by the trainees' appreciation of continuity of care. Different perceptions, settings, and skills can influence how continuity of care is valued, which might affect career and practice decisions among trainees.

  8. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...

  9. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...

  10. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 2 ... In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space H which has a countable reconstruction formula.

  11. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Continuing Professional Education in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiman, Ashley; Zacharakis, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The military relies on continuing professional education as a key component to the success of its organization. With decreasing budgets and increasing importance for a force that operates efficiently and thinks critically, the cognitive tension among training, education, and learning comes center stage.

  13. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  14. 29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent training. 785.30 Section 785.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.30 Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his...

  15. Strengthening health professions education and training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professions are anchored in the education and training that underpin them; such training continues to evolve with ... methods, but also innovate other feasible methods to improve training by means of evidence-based scholarly ... practice in HPE, there is a need for individual institutions to generate local evidence of ...

  16. 14 CFR 141.26 - Training agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.26 Training agreements. A training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter may provide the training, testing, and checking for pilot schools...

  17. 49 CFR 236.832 - Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train. 236.832 Section 236.832 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.832 Train. A...

  18. 40 CFR 273.36 - Employee training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 273.36 Section 273.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Employee training. A large quantity handler of universal waste must ensure that all employees are...

  19. 40 CFR 273.16 - Employee training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 273.16 Section 273.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Employee training. A small quantity handler of universal waste must inform all employees who handle or have...

  20. Field Emission in Vacuum Microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Fursey, George; Schwoebel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Field emission is a phenomenon described by quantum mechanics. Its emission capability is millions times higher than that of any other known types of electron emission. Nowadays this phenomenon is experiencing a new life due to wonderful applications in the atomic resolution microscopy, in electronic holography, and in the vacuum micro- and nanoelectronics in general. The main field emission properties, and some most remarkable experimental facts and applications, are described in this book.

  1. Tailoring strain in microelectronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, T.

    2013-01-01

    The central device of this thesis is the transistor. It acts like a faucet, but hen for electric charge. There is a connection that is called the source, just like the water company. And the charge flows into the drain. Finally there is a handle, here called the gate, to control the flow of charge.

  2. Nondestructive Moisture Measurement in Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    in the silicon oxide upper layers, starting with nearly pure silicon % oxide and becoming more and more a silico-aluminate with a constantly growing...demonstrates that the sensitivity of these sensors could be improved by using an oxide with smaller pores. A copy of the final report will be forwarded...electrolytic bath. Aluminum being amphoteric can react either anodically or cathodically. This mechanism involves Na +or K+ ions which, under the bias

  3. Virtual Training of the Myosignal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlaak, Bernhard; Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate which of three virtual training methods produces the largest learning effects on discrete and continuous myocontrol. The secondary objective was to examine the relation between myocontrol and manual motor control tests. A cohort analytic study. University laboratory. 3 groups of 12 able-bodied participants (N = 36). Participants trained the control over their myosignals on 3 consecutive days. Training was done with either myosignal feedback on a computer screen, a virtual myoelectric prosthetic hand or a computer game. Participants performed 2 myocontrol tests and 2 manual motor control tests before the first and after the last training session. They were asked to open and close a virtual prosthetic hand on 3 different velocities as a discrete myocontrol test and followed a line with their myosignals for 30 seconds as a continuous myocontrol test. The motor control tests were a pegboard and grip-force test. Discrete myocontrol test: mean velocities. Continuous myocontrol test: error and error SD. Pegboard test: time to complete. Grip-force test: produced forces. No differences in learning effects on myocontrol were found for the different virtual training methods. Discrete myocontrol ability did not significantly improve as a result of training. Continuous myocontrol ability improved significantly as a result of training, both on average control and variability. All correlations between the motor control and myocontrol test outcome measures were below .50. Three different virtual training methods showed comparable results when learning myocontrol. Continuous myocontrol was improved by training while discrete myocontrol was not. Myocontrol ability could not be predicted by the manual motor control tests.

  4. Virtual Training of the Myosignal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Terlaak

    Full Text Available To investigate which of three virtual training methods produces the largest learning effects on discrete and continuous myocontrol. The secondary objective was to examine the relation between myocontrol and manual motor control tests.A cohort analytic study.University laboratory.3 groups of 12 able-bodied participants (N = 36.Participants trained the control over their myosignals on 3 consecutive days. Training was done with either myosignal feedback on a computer screen, a virtual myoelectric prosthetic hand or a computer game. Participants performed 2 myocontrol tests and 2 manual motor control tests before the first and after the last training session. They were asked to open and close a virtual prosthetic hand on 3 different velocities as a discrete myocontrol test and followed a line with their myosignals for 30 seconds as a continuous myocontrol test. The motor control tests were a pegboard and grip-force test.Discrete myocontrol test: mean velocities. Continuous myocontrol test: error and error SD. Pegboard test: time to complete. Grip-force test: produced forces.No differences in learning effects on myocontrol were found for the different virtual training methods. Discrete myocontrol ability did not significantly improve as a result of training. Continuous myocontrol ability improved significantly as a result of training, both on average control and variability. All correlations between the motor control and myocontrol test outcome measures were below .50.Three different virtual training methods showed comparable results when learning myocontrol. Continuous myocontrol was improved by training while discrete myocontrol was not. Myocontrol ability could not be predicted by the manual motor control tests.

  5. Health physics training at V.C. Summer Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, L.A.; Bellmore, J.R.; Shultz, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Health Physics training for radiation workers and Health Physics Specialists continues to receive full attention by regulatory agencies such as the NRC and ANI. Guidance for such training continues to develop in a direction which forces utilities to continuously increase the quality and quantity of their Health Physics Training Program. This occurs at a time when our rapidly growing industry is placing greatly increased demands on the available work force of highly trained nuclear workers

  6. Cernavoda NPP training programs The paper presents a general assessment of Cernavoda NPP personnel training programs,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a general assessment of Cernavoda NPP personnel training programs, highlighting the role of training in human performance improvement. Cernavoda NPP Personnel Training and Authorization Department (PTAD) is responsible for the training of CNE Cernavoda NPP personnel and its contractors. PTAD is structured in a manner ensuring the support and response to all plant training, qualification and authorization requirements. The training of personnel is continuously adapted based on IAEA Guides and INPO/WANO recommendations, to keep with world standards, based on the internal and external reviews. At Cernavoda NPP the Training Concept and the Training Programs are based on SAT - Systematic Approach to Training. The Training Concept is established on a set of training documents (RD's, SI's, IDP's), which address all the SAT phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The Training Programs are structured on the initial and continuing personnel training. Their content and goals are responding to the training specific needs for each plant major job family. In order to successfully support NPP training programs, CNPP training center has upgraded classrooms with new presentation facilities and there are plans to expand the space of the building, to develop additional operator and maintenance skills facilities. By responding in a timely and completely manner to all plant training requirements PTAD will help in rising human performance of Cernavoda NPP personnel, supporting the safe, efficient and cost effective production of power. (author)

  7. Field training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, G.E.; Hadaway, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Individualized, personal training can be used to increase an employee's awareness of the HSE program. Such training can stimulate personal commitment and provide personal skills that can be utilized for the benefit of the overall HSE effort. But, providing such training within our industry can be a difficult task due to the scheduling, travel arrangements, and cost associated with bringing employees from isolated, remote locations to centrally located training facilities. One method of overcoming these obstacles involves the use of field instructors to provide the training at the many, and varied number of individuals can be reached with minimal disruption to their work scheduling or to their time off. In fact, this type of on-site training is already used by some oil companies and drilling contractors with encouraging results. This paper describes one drilling contractor's experiences with such a training program. The results after eight years how that this program not only can provide and efficient, economical means of employee training, but also can have a direct application to employee motivation regarding a company's HSE effort

  8. Training Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Training Council, Wellington (New Zealand).

    This bibliography is intended primarily for managers and trainers but will also be of interest to employers, unions, and all parties interested in improving the competency of trade and nonprofessional workers through improved training. Materials represent the topics of needs assessment, identification of training objectives, monitoring and…

  9. Operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-12-01

    The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)

  10. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  11. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  12. Airline Crew Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  13. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  14. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept. Keywords. Bounded operator; Hilbert space; continuous frame; atomic resolution of identity. 1. Introduction and preliminaries. As we know frames are more flexible tools to convey information than bases, ...

  15. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  16. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  17. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...

  18. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  19. Continuing Education in Research Ethics for the Clinical Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Brenda Recchia

    2002-01-01

    Review of professional nursing statements, federal policy, and recommendations for protection of human research subjects resulted in a topic and content outline for research ethics training for nurses. Suggestions for continuing education programs on research ethics were formulated. (SK)

  20. On the Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Jason E.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new framework for building and evaluating machine learning algorithms. We argue that many real-world problems require an agent which must quickly learn to respond to demands, yet can continue to perform and respond to new training throughout its useful life. We give a framework for how such agents can be built, describe several metrics for evaluating them, and show that subtle changes in system construction can significantly affect agent performance.

  1. Evaluation of training effectiveness in Cez, a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svejda, B.; Kopecny, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plant personnel training is realised by the way of basic and periodical training forms within the framework of Czech power company CEZ1. What concerning of contractors, the similar forms of personnel training are used, too. Goals and scope of the training are defined unambiguously - all training process executes according to prepared training programmes. For each profession category exists a comprehensive complete of training programmes covering all forms of personnel training. Thus, evaluation of the training programmes is closely connected with information about effectiveness of training. On the basis of these facts is possible to improve all the training process continuously. The basic information about training centre, some results of the programme training evaluation using method of characteristic indicators and information about its present status in NPP Dukovany are provided in first part of this paper. In the Appendix is described used procedure of feedback to analysis phase to improve content of training process for job position 'turbine repair man'. (author)

  2. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  3. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  4. Training Attestations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2004-01-01

    In the past, paper Training Attestations were printed during the first quarter of a New Year for Staff Members having followed courses and seminars the previous year in the context of CERN's official Training Programmes.  The attestations were sent to Divisional Training Officers (DTO's) for distribution to all Staff Members concerned within their Division. In practise many Staff Members did not find this paper useful, however some expressed a wish to be able to have access to a self-service facility in case of need. This change was discussed by the Joint Training Board (JTB) and with the DTO's during 2003 and was supported. As a consequence, following a collaboration between HR-PMD and IT-AIS, from 2004 onwards paper Training Attestations will no longer be printed and distributed as before. Those requiring a list of training followed in the past can now obtain their attestation directly from the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application for all training followed since 1997. https://hrt.cern...

  5. Driverless Train

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Julia; Berglund, Emma

    2017-01-01

    As automation increases in train services, this project resulted in making a driver-less train. The main purpose was to see how security can be increased. By using sensors, today’s technologies and rebuild the stations with walls on the platforms, the safety can increase for the better. This project designs a railway system consisting of a train, boom barriers and a station. The mechanical parts were made from scratch to get the system to work beneficially. The use of Arduino as a micro contro...

  6. Implementation of pesticide applicator certification schools and continuing education workshops : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportations (ODOT) herbicide applicator training program consists of initial pesticide applicator training schools followed by independent Certification testing and then on-going yearly continuing education workshops...

  7. Continuous leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Yamashita, T.; Kameda, M.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described which comprises sprinkling continuously and uniformly a solvent selected from an acid, an alkali and an organic solvent on the surface of each of a plurality of multi-staged, moving continuous unit layers formed of pulverized uranium ore fed in a predetermined amount from a multi-staged, metering, continuous feed apparatus. Layers composed of a uniform mixture of the pulverized ore and solvent are thermally cured and then subjected to repulping and solid-liquid separation to recover a pregnant liquor containing the extracted metal component

  8. Training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997

  9. Information Technology Training in India toward Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Katsuhiko

    This paper describes Toshiba‧s training program in Information Technology in India. It is not a simple technology training, but a training for globalization of Japanese engineers so that they can cope with people from different culture and business practices. We first describe why such training program became necessary. We then describe how the training courses and contents are developed. The operation of the training program and our effort in continual improvement are explained. The effectiveness of the program is also evaluated. The training program presented is a first in its kind and we believe that it can contribute to changing Toshiba from inside toward more globalized corporation. We also believe that this kind of overseas training is effective in training young students so that they can cope with globalizing society after graduation.

  10. Medicinal chemistry teaching and training: a continuous adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; de Souza, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bridging the gap: The differences between medicinal chemistry at the industrial and academic levels raises the question: Is there a significant gap between the two spheres that requires attention, or should such differences be deemed natural, without the need to close the gap? Herein we provide

  11. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... concomitant risks of cardiovascular events (such as stroke, kidney disease, decreased disability adjusted and mortality), hypertension has been claimed to be a major global health problem and public-health challenge; demanding a vast proportion of health care resources directly and indirectly.3,4.

  12. Effect of low intensity continuous training programme on serum uric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) is considered to be positively associated with cardiovascular event risk factor in hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of Hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between SUA level and hypertensive management particularly ...

  13. Study on Continuing Vocational Training System in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil; Thoregaard, Kamille

    2009-01-01

    4 partnerlande (Bulgarien, Danmark, Grækenland og Rumænien) har i et EU-finansieret projekt analyseret stærke og svage sider ved landenes respektive systemer og situationer vedrørende erhvervsrettet efter- og videreuddannelse (CVT) og livslang læring (LLL) - med henblik på at øge den fremtidige...

  14. Engaging Employers in Workplace Training - Lessons from the English Train to Gain Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazenod, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambition of an employer-led vocational education and training system, a lack of employer engagement in workplace training continues to be reported in England. There seems to be a mismatch between national policy level expectations of how employers should be engaging in workplace training and the practicalities of employer engagement at…

  15. Continual improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  16. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Trieste will continue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Trieste will continue to be the home of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics for the foreseeable future. An agreement signed in Vienna during December between the Italian Government and the Agency brought this assurance. (author)

  18. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  20. 14 CFR 142.39 - Training program curriculum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program curriculum requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Aircrew Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements § 142.39 Training program curriculum requirements. Each training program curriculum...

  1. 5 CFR 410.310 - Computing time in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing time in training. 410.310... Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.310 Computing time in training. For the purpose of computing time in training for continued service agreements under section 4108 of title 5, United States...

  2. Laboratory cross training needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, W H; Shaikh, A H

    1998-01-01

    To define the continuing education topics and methods in the area of chemistry and hematology, that if developed, would best support the cross-training needs of hospital based laboratories in the State of Georgia. A cross sectional study of hospital based laboratories in Georgia was completed using surveys sent to 181 hospital laboratory managers and administrators. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the survey results. Department of Medical Technology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta GA. Laboratory managers and administrators. Not applicable. Four descriptive outcome measurements were requested from each participant: 1) demographic questions, 2) cross-training topics desired, 3) training material desired, and 4) computer literacy and equipment assessment. Sixty-six surveys were completed and returned in a usable form (36% return rate). Demographically, the respondent group is a representative sample of hospital based laboratories in the State of Georgia with 46% of the respondents from facilities of 100 hospital beds or less. Respondents desired that case study training topics be developed using paper and computer assisted instruction mediums. Additionally, respondents desired that Professional Acknowledgement for Continuing Education (P.A.C.E.) be associated with the training material. They were willing to pay for this administrative service. This cross sectional study assessed the cross-training needs of hospital based laboratories in Georgia. Findings will allow educators to focus and develop continuing education packages that best meet the needs of the laboratorian workforce.

  3. NRC influences on nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    NRC influences on utility training programs through prescriptive requirements and evaluation of industry self-initiatives are discussed. NRC regulation and industry initiatives are complimentary and in some instances industry initiatives are replacing NRC requirements. Controls and feedback mechanisms designed to enhance positive NRC influences and minimize or eliminate negative influences are discussed. Industry and NRC efforts to reach an acceptable mix between regulator oversight and self-initiatives by the industry are recognized. Problem areas for continued cooperation to enhance training and minimize conflicting signals to industry are discussed. These areas include: requalification examination scope and content, depth of training and examination on emergency procedures; improved learning objectives as the basis for training and examination, and severe accident training

  4. Application of Cognitive Principles in Distributed Computer-Based Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deatz, Richard

    2001-01-01

    As the U.S. Army continues to develop more powerful and complex digital information systems, it is essential that both training needs and training opportunities are addressed to meet mission objectives...

  5. Training programming: revisiting terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-11-01

    widely defined or justified in literature. In fact, these terms have caused confusion in the day-to-day training and in the academic community, arising many different visions about the same term. By instance, we can assume that a macro cycle can have duration of 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks or even a year. Nevertheless, the problem of training programming lies not in the way how the training period is called, but in its real meaning, that is, the way of organizing and monitoring the training load in order to reach the best physical shape, and if that is possible, within the defined deadline. In connection with the above, it would be even more inappropriate to use the ATR terminology (accumulation, transformation and realization or the terms “integrated” or “concentrated” related to the training cycle because they lead many trainers to put these in practice, misleading them to think they are making a good planning. To the best of our knowledge, we do not know any study analyzing or providing scientific evidences that allow us to know with precision what, how and when the athletes concretely accumulate, transform and realize a set of physical and physiological strength or endurance variables, or any other motor skills, during training period. Thus, these terms never should be used because they are false, add nothing new to training process and are inappropriate to denominate biological processes, types of training or effects of such training programs. In fact, the aim of all training sessions is (or should be to accumulate, transform (or rather, transfer and realize continuously training stimuli that allows improve the physical performance of athletes. For these reasons, it is meaningless to say about a physical capacity that it is firstly accumulated, then it is transformed (or transferred and finally it is realized.  Only an atrocious ignorance of the basic physiological fundamentals of adaptation, and goals and principles of training, could originate such a misconception

  6. Continuous Adductor Canal Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monahan, Amanda M; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Khatibi, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for adductor canal perineural catheters. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that scheduled bolus administration is superior or noninferior to a continuous infusion...... on cutaneous knee sensation in volunteers. METHODS: Bilateral adductor canal catheters were inserted in 24 volunteers followed by ropivacaine 0.2% administration for 8 hours. One limb of each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous infusion (8 mL/h) or automated hourly boluses (8 m...... tolerance of electrical current and quadriceps femoris maximum voluntary isometric contraction strength at baseline, hourly for 14 hours, and again after 22 hours. RESULTS: The 2 administration techniques provided equivalent cutaneous analgesia at 8 hours because noninferiority was found in both directions...

  7. Leading and Managing Continuing Professional Development: Developing People, Developing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Peter; Bubb, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This book has been written for those who lead and manage continuing professional development (CPD). Continuing professional development co-coordinators hold a key role and one that needs to be developed further in many schools. This book is intended to help people think more deeply about the professional development and training of staff--all…

  8. Enhancement of single-phase heat transfer and critical heat flux from an ultra-high-flux simulated microelectronic heat source to a rectangular impinging jet of dielectric liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, D.C.; Mudawar, I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Jet impingement is encountered in numerous applications demanding high heating or cooling fluxes. Examples include annealing of metal sheets and cooling of turbine blades, x-ray medical devices, laser weapons, and fusion blankets. The attractive heat transfer attributes of jet impingement have also stimulated research efforts on cooling of high-heat-flux microelectronic devices. These devices are fast approaching heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm[sup 2], which have to be dissipated using coolants that are both electrically and chemically compatible with electronic components. Unfortunately, fluids satisfying these requirements tend to possess poor transport properties, creating a need for significant enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient by such means as increased coolant flow rate and phase change. The cooling problem is compounded by a need to cool large arrays of heat sources in minimal volume, and to reduce the spacing between adjacent circuit boards. These requirements place severe constraints on the packaging of jet impingement cooling hardware.

  9. Compression planning for continuous improvement in quality programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Y.A.; Hood, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes Compression Planning, an innovative approach for planning in groups. This participative and structured approach is especially suitable for technical and highly regulated organizations. Compression Planning was applied to the first organization-wide effort at training integration for regulatory compliance, at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a multi-program national laboratory. The planning process was judged as measurably superior to PNL's customary planning. Within 10 days a training policy was issued and an action plan drafted. The participants produced a report identifying and prioritizing 33 key training issues; began to data gather and solicit input from personnel Lab-wide, producing a 2-volume training inventory; and formulated 14 recommendations for implementation. Two years later the plan is still evolving, as PNL training continues to develop, consistent with Continuous Improvement Process objectives

  10. Nuclear engineering training and advanced training at universities and in manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    The lecture describes: the qualification of the staff of one nuclear power plant building company, the structure of university studies in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the USA and in the GDR, technical colleges, continuation studies, in-service training in the manufacturing industry, training programmes for short-term benefits, training of German and foreign operating personnel by the manufacturers, training within the framework of technology transfer. (HSCH) [de

  11. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S

    1996-01-01

    A simple three-pump-based system for the performance of continuous venovenous haemodialysis is described. The method employs access to the circulation via a double-lumen catheter, and by means of a standard extracorporeal peristaltic pump the blood is circulated through a haemofiltration filter....... Standard solutions for peritoneal dialysis are administered in a single-pass manner countercurrent to the blood flow. To control the dialysate flow through the filter, two separate pumps designed for intravenous infusion are used. Anticoagulation is achieved by means of continuous heparin infusion...

  12. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  13. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  14. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... managers, horses and facilitators were training to strike between self-centredness and other-orientation, self-interests and fellow-feelings, was related to this marriage. The thesis contributes to the conceptualisation of the relationship between the self and sociality, particularly within consumer...... culture research interested in destabilising the primacy of the agentive powers of the human consumer. It does so by broadening the notion of the social to include animals – and by emphasising the sensorial, bodily and affective dimensions of the relations between self and sociality. A related...

  15. Experimental Studies of Selected Aqueous Electrochemical Systems Relevant for Materials Processing in the Fabrications of Microelectronic Components and Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingzhao

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this dissertation to investigate a selected set of aqueous electrochemical systems that are relevant for materials processing in the fabrication of microelectronic devices and direct alcohol fuel cells. In terms of technical applications, this work covers three main experimental systems: (i) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), (ii) electro-less nickel deposition, and (iii) direct alkaline glycerol fuel cells. The first two areas are related to electronic device fabrications and the third topic is related to cost-effective energy conversion. The common electrochemical aspect of these different systems is that, in all these cases the active material characteristics are governed by complex (often multi-step) reactions occurring at metal-liquid (aqueous) interfaces. Electro-analytical techniques are ideally suited for studying the detailed mechanisms of such reactions, and the present investigation is largely focused on developing adequate analytical strategies for probing these reaction mechanisms. In the fabrication of integrated circuits, certain steps of materials processing involve CMP of Al deposited on thin layers of diffusion barrier materials like Ta/TaN, Co, or Ti/TiN. A specific example of this situation is found in the processing of replacement metal gates used for high-k/metal-gate transistors. Since the commonly used barrier materials are nobler than Al, the Al interface in contact with the barrier can become prone to galvanic corrosion in the wet CMP environment. Using model systems of coupon electrodes and two specific barrier metals, Ta and Co, the electrochemical factors responsible for these corrosion effects are investigated here in a moderately acidic (pH = 4.0) abrasive-free solution. The techniques of cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy are combined with strategic measurements of galvanic currents and open circuit potentials (OCPs). L-ascorbic acid (AA) is employed as a

  16. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  17. Continuous digital health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halteren, Aart; Gay, Vaĺerie

    2015-01-01

    A transformation is underway regarding how we deal with our health, not only because mobile Internet technology has made it possible to have continuous access to personal health information, but also because breaking the trend of ever-growing healthcare costs is increasingly necessary. Connectivity,

  18. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  19. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  20. Continuing the Eclectic Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Don W.; Myers, Pennie

    1991-01-01

    Continues recent debate on the current state of theory and the proper role of eclectic approaches. Presents brief overview of Adaptive Counseling and Therapy/Readiness model as systematic form of eclecticism. Makes argument for matching counseling approach to nature of problem and readiness of the client rather than maintaining a single…