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Sample records for contingency table analysis

  1. Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Multidimensional Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Pecáková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical analyses of interactions between categorical variables in various areas (such as public opinion research or marketing research are often only applications of chi-square tests in two-way contingency tables. However, in many situations it is impossible to use large-sample approximations to sampling distributions when theiradequacy can be in doubt. It is known, that these approximations may be very poor when the contingency table contains very small expected frequencies. However, recent work has shown that these approximations can be very poor when the contingency table contains both small and large expected frequencies. Of course, the rule of thumb of a minimum expected frequency is not met either in the case of sparse table. The article deals with alternative approaches to the data analysis in such cases. It points out other possibilities and shows that thanks to the development of computer technology exact methods previously only difficult usable are available for this purpose.

  2. Contingency table analysis methods and implementation using R

    CERN Document Server

    Kateri, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Combining theory and applications, this book presents models and methods for the analysis of two‐ and multi‐dimensional contingency tables. The author uses a threefold approach: fundamental models and related inferences are presented, their interpretational aspects are highlighted, and their practical usefulness is demonstrated. Throughout, practical guidance for using R is provided along with a comprehensive R-functions web-appendix.   Contingency tables arise in diverse fields, including the life, pedagogic, social and political sciences. They also play a prominent role in market research and opinion surveys. The analysis of contingency tables can provide insight into essential structures, relevant quantities and their interactions, and thus leads to improved decision-making.   Special features include:   ·         A motivating example for each topic ·         Applications and implementations in R for all models discussed ·         Emphasis on association and symmetry model...

  3. conting : an R package for Bayesian analysis of complete and incomplete contingency tables

    OpenAIRE

    Overstall, Antony; King, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the R package conting for the Bayesian analysis of complete and incomplete contingency tables using hierarchical log-linear models. This package allows a user to identify interactions between categorical factors (via complete contingency tables) and to estimate closed population sizes using capture-recapture studies (via incomplete contingency tables). The models are fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. In particular, implementations of the Me...

  4. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.

  5. Breakdown concepts for contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Loglinear Poisson models are commonly used to analyse contingency tables. So far, robustness of parameter estimators as well as outlier detection have rarely been treated in this context. We start with finite-sample breakdown points. We yield that the breakdown point of mean value estimators

  6. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  7. Statistical methods in epidemiology. VII. An overview of the chi2 test for 2 x 2 contingency table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, A S

    2001-11-10

    The odds ratio is an appropriate method of analysis for data in 2 x 2 contingency tables. However, other methods of analysis exist. One such method is based on the chi2 test of goodness-of-fit. Key players in the development of statistical theory include Pearson, Fisher and Yates. Data are presented in the form of 2 x 2 contingency tables and a method of analysis based on the chi2 test is introduced. There are many variations of the basic test statistic, one of which is the chi2 test with Yates' continuity correction. The usefulness (or not) of Yates' continuity correction is discussed. Problems of interpretation when the method is applied to k x m tables are highlighted. Some properties of the chi2 the test are illustrated by taking examples from the author's teaching experiences. Journal editors should be encouraged to give both observed and expected cell frequencies so that better information comes out of the chi2 test statistic.

  8. A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, JCW

    2000-01-01

    Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

  9. Person-centered methods configural frequency analysis (CFA) and other methods for the analysis of contingency tables

    CERN Document Server

    Stemmler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book takes an easy-to-understand look at the statistical approach called the person-centered method. Instead of analyzing means, variances and covariances of scale scores as in the common variable-centered approach, the person-centered approach analyzes persons or objects grouped according to their characteristic patterns or configurations in contingency tables. The main focus of the book will be on Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA; Lienert and Krauth, 1975) which is a statistical method that looks for over and under-frequented cells or patterns. Over frequented means that the observations in this cell or configuration are observed more often than expected, under-frequented means that this cell or configuration is observed less often than expected. In CFA a pattern or configuration that contains more observed cases than expected is called a type; similarly, a pattern or configuration that is less observed than expected are called an antitype. CFA is similar to log-linear modeling. In log-linear modelin...

  10. [The relationship between Ridit analysis and rank sum test for one-way ordinal contingency table in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xia, Jie-lai; Yu, Li-li; Li, Chan-juan; Wang, Su-zhen

    2008-06-01

    To explore several numerical methods of ordinal variable in one-way ordinal contingency table and their interrelationship, and to compare corresponding statistical analysis methods such as Ridit analysis and rank sum test. Formula deduction was based on five simplified grading approaches including rank_r(i), ridit_r(i), ridit_r(ci), ridit_r(mi), and table scores. Practical data set was verified by SAS8.2 in clinical practice (to test the effect of Shiwei solution in treatment for chronic tracheitis). Because of the linear relationship of rank_r(i) = N ridit_r(i) + 1/2 = N ridit_r(ci) = (N + 1) ridit_r(mi), the exact chi2 values in Ridit analysis based on ridit_r(i), ridit_r(ci), and ridit_r(mi), were completely the same, and they were equivalent to the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Traditional Ridit analysis was based on ridit_r(i), and its corresponding chi2 value calculated with an approximate variance (1/12) was conservative. The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis should be used when comparing multiple groups in the clinical researches because of its special merits such as distribution of mean ridit value on (0,1) and clear graph expression. The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis can be output directly by proc freq of SAS8.2 with ridit and modridit option (SCORES =). The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis is equivalent to the Kruskal-Wallis H test, and should be used when comparing multiple groups in the clinical researches.

  11. Model selection for contingency tables with algebraic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krampe, A.; Kuhnt, S.; Gibilisco, P.; Riccimagno, E.; Rogantin, M.P.; Wynn, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Goodness-of-fit tests based on chi-square approximations are commonly used in the analysis of contingency tables. Results from algebraic statistics combined with MCMC methods provide alternatives to the chi-square approximation. However, within a model selection procedure usually a large number of

  12. Default 'Gunel and Dickey' Bayes factors for contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, T.; Ly, A.; Morey, R.D.; Love, J.; Marsman, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of R×C contingency tables usually features a test for independence between row and column counts. Throughout the social sciences, the adequacy of the independence hypothesis is generally evaluated by the outcome of a classical p-value null-hypothesis significance test. Unfortunately,

  13. Ordinal Log-Linear Models for Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezińska Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A log-linear analysis is a method providing a comprehensive scheme to describe the association for categorical variables in a contingency table. The log-linear model specifies how the expected counts depend on the levels of the categorical variables for these cells and provide detailed information on the associations. The aim of this paper is to present theoretical, as well as empirical, aspects of ordinal log-linear models used for contingency tables with ordinal variables. We introduce log-linear models for ordinal variables: linear-by-linear association, row effect model, column effect model and RC Goodman’s model. Algorithm, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in the paper. An empirical analysis will be conducted with the use of R.

  14. Subcopula-based measure of asymmetric association for contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Kim, Daeyoung

    2017-10-30

    For the analysis of a two-way contingency table, a new asymmetric association measure is developed. The proposed method uses the subcopula-based regression between the discrete variables to measure the asymmetric predictive powers of the variables of interest. Unlike the existing measures of asymmetric association, the subcopula-based measure is insensitive to the number of categories in a variable, and thus, the magnitude of the proposed measure can be interpreted as the degree of asymmetric association in the contingency table. The theoretical properties of the proposed subcopula-based asymmetric association measure are investigated. We illustrate the performance and advantages of the proposed measure using simulation studies and real data examples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying

    2010-01-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.

  16. Tests for homogeneity for multiple 2 x 2 contingency tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Frequently data are described by 2 x 2 contingency tables. For example, each 2 x 2 table arises from two dichotomous classifications such as control/treated and respond/did not respond. Multiple 2 x 2 tables result from stratifying the observational units on the basis of other characteristics. For example, stratifying by sex produces separate 2 x 2 tables for males and females. From each table a measure of difference between the response rates for the control and the treated groups is computed. The researcher usually wants to know if the response-rate difference is zero for each table. If the tables are homogeneous, the researcher can generalize from a statement concerning an average to a statement concerning each table. If tables are not homogeneous, homogeneous subsets of the tables should be described separately. This paper presents tests for homogeneity and illustrates their use. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Estimation and testing in large binary contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Very sparse contingency tables with a multiplicative structure are studied. The number of unspecified parameters and the number of cells are growing with the number of observations. Consistency and asymptotic normality of natural estimators are established. Also uniform convergence of the estimators

  18. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 10: Contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-06-01

    Contingency tables may be required to perform chi-test analyses. This provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel and explains how to set up methods to calculate confidence intervals for proportions, including proportions with zero numerators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  20. Four hundred or more participants needed for stable contingency table estimates of clinical prediction rule performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Boyle, Eleanor; Keating, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify variability in the results of statistical analyses based on contingency tables and discuss the implications for the choice of sample size for studies that derive clinical prediction rules. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An analysis of three pre-existing sets of large cohort data......, odds ratios and risk/prevalence ratios, for each sample size was calculated. RESULTS: There were very wide, and statistically significant, differences in estimates derived from contingency tables from the same dataset when calculated in sample sizes below 400 people, and typically this variability...... stabilized in samples of 400 to 600 people. Although estimates of prevalence also varied significantly in samples below 600 people, that relationship only explains a small component of the variability in these statistical parameters. CONCLUSION: To reduce sample-specific variability, contingency tables...

  1. The Application of Canonical Correlation to Two-Dimensional Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto F. Restori

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-introduces and demonstrates the use of Mickey’s (1970 canonical correlation method in analyzing large two-dimensional contingency tables. This method of analysis supplements the traditional analysis using the Pearson chi-square. Examples and a MATLAB source listing are provided.

  2. Some Tests for Evaluation of Contingency Tables (for Biomedical Applications)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 37-50 ISSN 1336-9180 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : contingency tables * hypothesis testing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://jamsi.fpv.ucm.sk/docs/v07n01_05_2011/v07_n01_03_KALINA.pdf

  3. Spectral clustering and biclustering learning large graphs and contingency tables

    CERN Document Server

    Bolla, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Explores regular structures in graphs and contingency tables by spectral theory and statistical methods This book bridges the gap between graph theory and statistics by giving answers to the demanding questions which arise when statisticians are confronted with large weighted graphs or rectangular arrays. Classical and modern statistical methods applicable to biological, social, communication networks, or microarrays are presented together with the theoretical background and proofs. This book is suitable for a one-semester course for graduate students in data mining, mult

  4. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion

  5. Patterns of medicinal plant use: an examination of the Ecuadorian Shuar medicinal flora using contingency table and binomial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Husby, Chad E

    2008-03-28

    Botanical pharmacopoeias are non-random subsets of floras, with some taxonomic groups over- or under-represented. Moerman [Moerman, D.E., 1979. Symbols and selectivity: a statistical analysis of Native American medical ethnobotany, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1, 111-119] introduced linear regression/residual analysis to examine these patterns. However, regression, the commonly-employed analysis, suffers from several statistical flaws. We use contingency table and binomial analyses to examine patterns of Shuar medicinal plant use (from Amazonian Ecuador). We first analyzed the Shuar data using Moerman's approach, modified to better meet requirements of linear regression analysis. Second, we assessed the exact randomization contingency table test for goodness of fit. Third, we developed a binomial model to test for non-random selection of plants in individual families. Modified regression models (which accommodated assumptions of linear regression) reduced R(2) to from 0.59 to 0.38, but did not eliminate all problems associated with regression analyses. Contingency table analyses revealed that the entire flora departs from the null model of equal proportions of medicinal plants in all families. In the binomial analysis, only 10 angiosperm families (of 115) differed significantly from the null model. These 10 families are largely responsible for patterns seen at higher taxonomic levels. Contingency table and binomial analyses offer an easy and statistically valid alternative to the regression approach.

  6. Exact Tests for Two-Way Contingency Tables with Structural Zeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. West

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fisher's exact test, named for Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, tests contingency tables for homogeneity of proportion. This paper discusses a generalization of Fisher's exact test for the case where some of the table entries are constrained to be zero. The resulting test is useful for assessing cases where the null hypothesis of conditional multinomial distribution is suspected to be false. The test is implemented in the form of a new R package, aylmer.

  7. Outlier identification procedures for contingency tables using maximum likelihood and $L_1$ estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Observed cell counts in contingency tables are perceived as outliers if they have low probability under an anticipated loglinear Poisson model. New procedures for the identification of such outliers are derived using the classical maximum likelihood estimator and an estimator based on the L1 norm.

  8. Numerical comparison of improved methods of testing in contingency tables with small frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Nariaki; Otake, Masanori

    1968-11-14

    The significance levels of various tests for a general c x k contingency table are usually given by large sample theory. But they are not accurate for the one having small frequencies. In this paper, a numerical evaluation was made to determine how good the approximation of significance level is for various improved tests that have been developed by Nass, Yoshimura, Gart, etc. for c x k contingency table with small frequencies in some of cells. For this purpose we compared the significance levels of the various approximate methods (i) with those of one-sided tail defined in terms of exact probabilities for given marginals in 2 x 2 table; (ii) with those of exact probabilities accumulated in the order of magnitude of Chi/sup 2/ statistic or likelihood ratio (=LR) statistic in 2 x 3 table mentioned by Yates. In 2 x 2 table it is well known that Yates' correction gives satisfactory result for small cell frequencies and the other methods that we have not referred here, can be considered if we devote our attention only to 2 x 2 or 2 x k table. But we are mainly interested in comparing the methods that are applicable to a general c x k table. It appears that such a comparison for the various improved methods in the same example has not been made explicitly, even though these tests are frequently used in biological and medical research. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  9. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  10. Measure of departure from marginal point-symmetry for two-way contingency tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Yamamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For two-way contingency tables, Tomizawa (1985 considered the point-symmetry and marginal point-symmetry models, and Tomizawa, Yamamoto and Tahata (2007 proposed a measure to represent the degree of departure from point-symmetry. The present paper proposes a measure to represent the degree of departure from marginal pointsymmetry for two-way tables. The proposed measure is expressed by using Cressie-Read power-divergence or Patil-Taillie diversity index. This measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from marginal point-symmetry in several tables. The relationship between the degree of departure from marginal point-symmetry and the measure is shown when it is reasonable to assume underlying bivariate normal distribution. Examples are shown.

  11. A new framework of statistical inferences based on the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in an incomplete contingency table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Li, Hui-Qiong

    2017-08-01

    Some existing confidence interval methods and hypothesis testing methods in the analysis of a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins entirely depend on an underlying assumption that the sampling distribution of the observed counts is a product of independent multinomial/binomial distributions for complete and incomplete counts. However, it can be shown that this independency assumption is incorrect and can result in unreliable conclusions because of the under-estimation of the uncertainty. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to derive the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins. The second objective is to provide a new framework for analyzing incomplete contingency tables based on the derived joint sampling distribution of the observed counts by developing a Fisher scoring algorithm to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of interest, the bootstrap confidence interval methods, and the bootstrap testing hypothesis methods. We compare the differences between the valid sampling distribution and the sampling distribution under the independency assumption. Simulation studies showed that average/expected confidence-interval widths of parameters based on the sampling distribution under the independency assumption are shorter than those based on the new sampling distribution, yielding unrealistic results. A real data set is analyzed to illustrate the application of the new sampling distribution for incomplete contingency tables and the analysis results again confirm the conclusions obtained from the simulation studies.

  12. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes and analytical techniques for stratified contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2002-03-01

    In 1999 there were 450 fatalities due to road crashes in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, of which 130 were pedestrians. Hence, every fourth person killed on the roads is a pedestrian. The aim of this study is to investigate pedestrian-vehicle crashes in this fast-growing city with two objectives in mind: to analyze pedestrian collisions with regard to their causes, characteristics, location of injury on the victim's body, and most common patterns and to determine the potential for use of the odds ratio technique in the analysis of stratified contingency tables. Data from 638 pedestrian-vehicle crashes reported by police, during the period 1997-1999, were used. A systematic sampling technique was followed in which every third record was used. The analysis showed that the pedestrian fatality rate per 10(5) population is 2.8. The rates were relatively high within the childhood (1-9 years) and young adult (10-19 years) groups, and the old-age groups (60 - > 80 years), which indicate that young as well as the elderly people in this city are more likely to be involved in fatal accidents of this type than are those in other age groups. The analysis revealed that 77.1% of pedestrians were probably struck while crossing a roadway either not in a crosswalk or where no crosswalk existed. In addition, the distribution of injuries on the victims' bodies was determined from hospital records. More than one-third of the fatal injuries were located on the head and chest. An attempt was made to conduct an association analysis between crash severity (i.e. injury or fatal) and some of the study variables using chi-square and odds ratio techniques. The categorical nature of the data helped in using these analytical techniques.

  13. Analisa Kemampuan Saluran Berdasarkan Metode Contingency N-1 Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Syukriyadin,; Susanti, Rahmi

    2010-01-01

    Sistem transmisi memegang peranan yang sangatpenting dalam proses penyaluran daya. Oleh karena itupengamanan pada saluran transmisi perlu mendapatperhatian yang serius dalam perencanaannya. Analisakemampuan saluran merupakan aplikasi untuk mempelajarikestabilan sistem. Analisa kemampuan saluran dalampenelitian ini menggunakan metode contingency N-1 analysis.Contingency N-1 analysis merupakan sebuah program untukmemperhitungkan berbagi kondisi yang mungkin terjadidalam sistem dimasa yang akan ...

  14. Generalized Measure of Departure from No Three-Factor Interaction Model for 2 x 2 x K Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ban

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For 2 x 2 x K contingency tables, Tomizawa considered a Shannon entropy type measure to represent the degree of departure from a log-linear model of no three-factor interaction (the NOTFI model. This paper proposes a generalization of Tomizawa's measure for 2 x 2 x K tables. The measure proposed is expressed by using Patil-Taillie diversity index or Cressie-Read power-divergence. A special case of the proposed measure includes Tomizawa's measure. The proposed measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from the NOTFI model in several tables.

  15. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  16. Application of the IPEBS method to dynamic contingency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A C.B. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A S [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Dynamic contingency analysis is certainly a demanding task in the context of dynamic performance evaluation. This paper presents the results of a test for checking the contingency screening capability of the IPEBS method. A brazilian 1100-bus, 112-gen system was used in the test; the ranking of the contingencies based on critical clearing times obtained with IPEBS, was compared with the ranking derived from detailed time-domain simulation. The results of this comparison encourages us to recommended the use of the method in industry applications, in a complementary basis to the current method of time domain simulation. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Table-top job analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  18. Contingency Analysis Post-Processing With Advanced Computing and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt; Fitzhenry, Erin

    2017-07-01

    Contingency analysis is a critical function widely used in energy management systems to assess the impact of power system component failures. Its outputs are important for power system operation for improved situational awareness, power system planning studies, and power market operations. With the increased complexity of power system modeling and simulation caused by increased energy production and demand, the penetration of renewable energy and fast deployment of smart grid devices, and the trend of operating grids closer to their capacity for better efficiency, more and more contingencies must be executed and analyzed quickly in order to ensure grid reliability and accuracy for the power market. Currently, many researchers have proposed different techniques to accelerate the computational speed of contingency analysis, but not much work has been published on how to post-process the large amount of contingency outputs quickly. This paper proposes a parallel post-processing function that can analyze contingency analysis outputs faster and display them in a web-based visualization tool to help power engineers improve their work efficiency by fast information digestion. Case studies using an ESCA-60 bus system and a WECC planning system are presented to demonstrate the functionality of the parallel post-processing technique and the web-based visualization tool.

  19. Computer Programs for Sun and Moon Illuminance with Contingent Tables and Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-19

    data provided by the computer routines are also available from the tables and diagrams. Tables required for manual calculation of the Moon’s...8217 Winona MONTANA 104 45 Albion 110 45 Alpine 113 46 Anaconda 114 49 Apgar 104 46 Baker 110 48 Big Sandy 110 46 Big Timber 109 46 Billings 107

  20. A comparison of analysis methods to estimate contingency strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Blair P; Staubitz, Johanna L; Tapp, Jon T

    2018-05-09

    To date, several data analysis methods have been used to estimate contingency strength, yet few studies have compared these methods directly. To compare the relative precision and sensitivity of four analysis methods (i.e., exhaustive event-based, nonexhaustive event-based, concurrent interval, concurrent+lag interval), we applied all methods to a simulated data set in which several response-dependent and response-independent schedules of reinforcement were programmed. We evaluated the degree to which contingency strength estimates produced from each method (a) corresponded with expected values for response-dependent schedules and (b) showed sensitivity to parametric manipulations of response-independent reinforcement. Results indicated both event-based methods produced contingency strength estimates that aligned with expected values for response-dependent schedules, but differed in sensitivity to response-independent reinforcement. The precision of interval-based methods varied by analysis method (concurrent vs. concurrent+lag) and schedule type (continuous vs. partial), and showed similar sensitivities to response-independent reinforcement. Recommendations and considerations for measuring contingencies are identified. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimally ordered sparse [Bʹ], [Bʺ] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [d] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in ...

  2. APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.

  3. Contingency Contracting within the Department of Defense: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillion, Chester

    2000-01-01

    .... The thesis compares and contrasts the regulations governing the contingency contracting operations, the organization structure, contingency contracting support plans, and the training requirements...

  4. Testing contingency hypotheses in budgetary research: An evaluation of the use of moderated regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Frank G.H.; Moers, Frank

    1999-01-01

    In the contingency literature on the behavioral and organizational effects of budgeting, use of the Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) technique is prevalent. This technique is used to test contingency hypotheses that predict interaction effects between budgetary and contextual variables. This

  5. Examining a Terrorist Network Using Contingency Table Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Mathematics and Statistics, with a minor in Actuarial Science. This is my second year as a summer student at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL...After graduation, I plan on either attending graduate school to concentrate in applied statistics or becoming a mathematical statistician for the

  6. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  7. Beyond the 2×2 -contingency table: a primer on entropies and mutual information in various scenarios involving m diagnostic categories and n categories of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2013-10-21

    Usual evaluation tools for diagnostic tests such as, sensitivity/specificity and ROC analyses, are designed for the discrimination between two diagnostic categories, using dichotomous test results. Information theoretical quantities such as mutual information allow in depth-analysis of more complex discrimination problems, including continuous test results, but are rarely used in clinical chemistry. This paper provides a primer on useful information theoretical concepts with a strong focus on typical diagnostic scenarios. Information theoretical concepts are shortly explained. Mathematica CDF documents are provided which compute entropies and mutual information as function of pretest probabilities and the distribution of test results among the categories, and allow interactive exploration of the behavior of these quantities in comparison with more conventional diagnostic measures. Using data from a previously published study, the application of information theory to practical diagnostic problems involving up to 4×4 -contingency tables is demonstrated. Information theoretical concepts are particularly useful for diagnostic problems requiring more than the usual binary classification. Quantitative test results can be properly analyzed, and in contrast to popular concepts such as ROC analysis, the effects of variations of pre-test probabilities of the diagnostic categories can be explicitly taken into account. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  9. Contingencies and metacontingencies: Toward a synthesis of behavior analysis and cultural materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis of cultural materialism and behavior analysis might increase the scientific and technological value of both fields. Conceptual and substantive relations between the two fields show important similarities, particularly with regard to the causal role of the environment in behavioral and cultural evolution. Key concepts in Marvin Harris's cultural materialist theories are outlined. A distinction is made between contingencies at the behavioral level of analysis (contingencies of reinforcement) and contingencies at the cultural level of analysis (metacontingencies). Relations between the two kinds of contingencies are explored in cultural practices from paleolithic to industrial sociocultural systems. A synthesis of these two fields may offer the opportunity to resolve serious problems currently facing modern cultures. PMID:22478011

  10. Disaster risk financing and contingent credit : a dynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Daniel; Mahul, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to assist policy makers interested in establishing or strengthening financial strategies to increase the financial response capacity of developing country governments in the aftermath of natural disasters, while protecting their long-term fiscal balance. Contingent credit is shown to increase the ability of governments to self-insure by relaxing their short-term liquidity c...

  11. Collider detector beam line test table: a structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus which sweeps calorimeter and endwall modules through the beam during testing is called a beam line test table. Because of rather stringent requirements for the physical positioning of the modules an analysis is done here to determine the modifications to the current test table design which will minimize deflections of the table under load

  12. Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benishek, Lois A; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kim C; Matejkowski, Jason; Clements, Nicolle T; Seymour, Brittany L; Festinger, David S

    2014-09-01

    To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). A meta-analysis was conducted on papers published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k = 19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k = nine studies) and long-term outcomes (k = six studies) of prize-based contingency management. The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37, 0.54]. This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤3-month) post-intervention follow-up to 0.33 (95% CI = 0.12, 0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time-point there was no detectable effect [d = -0.09 (95% CI = -0.28, 0.10)]. Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty: contingent claims analysis with an application to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1992-01-01

    Contingent claims analysis provides a useful tool for analysing the value of tax claims, and of companies' after-tax values, under uncertainty. The method is presented and applied to the analysis of how Norwegian petroleum taxes affect company behaviour. Few results can be derived analytically. A numerical approach is suggested, with a stylized description of production possibilities. The Norwegian taxes are found to have strong distortionary effects. The relation to other methods and problems connected with the application are discussed. (Author)

  14. Tables of nuclear constants for gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Kreisinger, F.

    1980-01-01

    The tables of photonuclear reactions presented, designed for gamma activation analysis, list accurate data on energy of photons emitted by radionuclides, gamma line intensity, half-lives, photonuclear reactions, or the genetic relationship leading to the formation of the given radionuclide together with the respective reaction thresholds. They also list natural isotopic occurrence of the individual target nuclides. The tables are arranged by increasing atomic numbers of newly formed radionuclides and by increasing gamma energies. (B.S.)

  15. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  16. DOE handbook table-top needs analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this handbook is to establish guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at DOE nuclear facilities. Information from this handbook can be used to conduct needs analysis as the information and methods apply. Operating contractors are encouraged to use good practices selectively in developing or improving programs to meet the specific needs of their facility.

  17. An analysis of contingent factors for the detection of strategic relevance in business information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paños Álvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are resources able to create competitive advantages for companies. In this analysis, the Resource-based perspective have taken special relevance, because it is argued that this advantages should be identified, reached and maintained. This work is positioned in the analysis of several contingent factors in the process of pointing the possible assesment of these advantages. It is aproaching a portfolio for helping to select what Information Technologies are valuable for what companies and in what activity areas and the study of in what way the sector, the technological innovation profile, the size and the financial capacity of the companies affects this process

  18. Tables of nuclear constants for gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Kreisinger, F.

    1983-01-01

    Tables of nuclear data were compiled for the purpose of routine gamma (photon) activation analysis. The tables are arranged in two parts. The first one lists the radionuclides in the order of their atomic number. In the second one, the emitted gamma-ray photons are tabulated in the order of increasing energy. Tables contain the gamma emitters produced by the following photonuclear reactions: (#betta#,#betta#), (#betta#,n), (#betta#,p), (#betta#,p+n), (#betta#,2n), (#betta#,3n), (#betta#,4n), (#betta#,2p), (#betta#,α), (#betta#,α+n), (#betta#,α+p). This set corresponds to the maximum energy of the bremsstrahlung of roughly 45 MeV. The program for the output of the tabulated data allows the data as required for specific irradiation and measuring reduction of conditions (reaction thresholds, energy and intensity of gamma-rays, half-lives and target elements). (author)

  19. An Analysis of Personnel Career Development Practices within the United States Marine Corps Contingency Contracting Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morris, Joe

    2002-01-01

    ...) to perform contingency contracting. This thesis explores the current environment, within which these contingency contracting Marines operate, and analyzes the affect this environment is having on their career development...

  20. Handbook of Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, T.J.; Svoronos, P.D.N.

    1988-04-01

    This work began as a slim booklet prepared by one of the authors (TJB) to accompany a course on chemical instrumentation presented at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder Laboratories. The booklet contained tables on chromatography, spectroscopy, and chemical (wet) methods, and was intended to provide the students with enough basic data to design their own analytical methods and procedures. Shortly thereafter, with the co-authorship of Prof. Paris D. N. Svoronos, it was expanded into a more-extensive compilation entitled Basic Tables for Chemical Analysis, published as National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 1096. That work has now been expanded and updated into the present body of tables. Although there have been considerable changes since the first version of these tables, the aim has remained essentially the same. The authors have tried to provide a single source of information for those practicing scientists and research students who must use various aspects of chemical analysis in their work. In this respect, it is geared less toward the researcher in analytical chemistry than to those practitioners in other chemical disciplines who must have routine use of chemical analysis

  1. Modeling Zone-3 Protection with Generic Relay Models for Dynamic Contingency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiuhua; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Pajuelo, Eli

    2017-10-02

    This paper presents a cohesive approach for calculating and coordinating the settings of multiple zone-3 protections for dynamic contingency analysis. The zone-3 protections are represented by generic distance relay models. A two-step approach for determining zone-3 relay settings is proposed. The first step is to calculate settings, particularly, the reach, of each zone-3 relay individually by iteratively running line open-end fault short circuit analysis; the blinder is also employed and properly set to meet the industry standard under extreme loading conditions. The second step is to systematically coordinate the protection settings of the zone-3 relays. The main objective of this coordination step is to address the over-reaching issues. We have developed a tool to automate the proposed approach and generate the settings of all distance relays in a PSS/E dyr format file. The calculated zone-3 settings have been tested on a modified IEEE 300 system using a dynamic contingency analysis tool (DCAT).

  2. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  3. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological issues underlying multiple decrement life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, C J; Avery, R C; Littman, G S; Potter, R G

    1977-02-01

    In this paper, the actuarial method of multiple decrement life table analysis of censored, longitudinal data is examined. The discussion is organized in terms of the first segment of usage of an intrauterine device. Weaknesses of the actuarial approach are pointed out, and an alternative approach, based on the classical model of competing risks, is proposed. Finally, the actuarial and the alternative method of analyzing censored data are compared, using data from the Taichung Medical Study on Intrauterine Devices.

  5. An analysis of contingency statements in a DRO procedure: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerow, Stephanie; Rispoli, Mandy; Boles, Margot B; Neely, Leslie C

    2015-06-01

    To examine latency to criterion for reduction of challenging behaviour with and without stating a contingency statement immediately prior to a DRO procedure. An ABAC design in which A was baseline, B was used to evaluate the efficacy of a DRO procedure, and C was used to evaluate the efficacy of a DRO procedure with a contingency statement. The DRO with the contingency statement intervention was associated with a shorter latency to behaviour change than the DRO procedure without the contingency statement. These preliminary findings from this case study highlight the importance of examining the efficiency of behaviour change procedures. Directions for future research are provided.

  6. Analysis of the Perfect Table Fuzzy Rainbow Tradeoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptanalytic time memory tradeoff algorithms are tools for inverting one-way functions, and they are used in practice to recover passwords that restrict access to digital documents. This work provides an accurate complexity analysis of the perfect table fuzzy rainbow tradeoff algorithm. Based on the analysis results, we show that the lesser known fuzzy rainbow tradeoff performs better than the original rainbow tradeoff, which is widely believed to be the best tradeoff algorithm. The fuzzy rainbow tradeoff can attain higher online efficiency than the rainbow tradeoff and do so at a lower precomputation cost.

  7. Contingency analysis modeling for superfund sites and other sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.; Kaiser, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The report provides information on contingency modeling for a wide range of different accidental release scenarios of hazardous air pollutants that might take place at Superfund and other sites. The scenarios are used to illustrate how atmospheric dispersion models, including dense gas models, should be applied. Particular emphasis is made on the input data that is needed for proper applications of models. Flow charts direct the user to specific sections where various scenarios are discussed. A check list of items that should be discussed before running the model is provided. Several examples are provided to specifically show how to apply the models so as to produce a credible analysis for a particular release scenario

  8. Analysis of overload conditions in distance relay under severe system contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim Abu Bakar, Ab. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Malaya (Malaysia); Yatim, Fazilah Mat; Othman, Mohd Ridzal [Transmission Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Yusof, Sallehuddin [Advanced Powor Solutions (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Distance relay protection is widely used worldwide for protection scheme on high voltage transmission lines. This protection tends to be prone to load encroachment condition causing possible undesired tripping condition. Investigations of two system disturbances that occurred in TNB's (Tenaga Nasional Berhad) Grid in the year 2003 and 2005 have clearly revealed the occurrence of load encroachment condition following line overloads after large number of line tripping. Examination of the impedance locus trajectory during the overload events have enabled a distinction be made between power swing and load encroachment phenomena. This paper presents the analysis and findings of the investigation of the load encroachment phenomena of the two events, including other related transmission line contingencies. (author)

  9. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004 permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i market exchange, (ii emotional reward, and (iii neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm—consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency.

  10. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm-consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency.

  11. The marketing firm and consumer choice: implications of bilateral contingency for levels of analysis in organizational neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilateral contingencies that link the marketing firm with its consumerate allow appropriate levels of organizational neuroscientific analysis to be specified. Having described the concept of the marketing firm and the model of consumer behavior on which it is based, the paper analyzes bilateral contingencies at the levels of (i) market exchange, (ii) emotional reward, and (iii) neuroeconomics. Market exchange emerges as a level of analysis that lends itself predominantly to the explanation of firm—consumerate interactions in terms of the super-personal level of reinforcing and punishing contingencies: the marketing firm can be treated as a contextual or operant system in its own right. However, the emotional reward and neuroeconomic levels of analysis should be confined to the personal level of analysis represented by individual managers on the one hand and individual consumers on the other. This also entails a level of abstraction but it is one that can be satisfactorily handled in terms of the concept of bilateral contingency. PMID:25071506

  12. A Contingency View of Problem Solving in Schools: A Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark; Brown, Michael E.

    Patterns of problem-solving activity in one middle-class urban high school are examined and a problem solving model rooted in a conceptual framework of contingency theory is presented. Contingency theory stresses that as political, economic, and social conditions in an organization's environment become problematic, the internal structures of the…

  13. Comparative analysis of the contingent of students of the correspondence form of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Калмыкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the contingent of students of classical distance learning and online learning are the same, which prepares specialists in MESI, identifies features and conclusions are formulated for the development of online learning.

  14. The effect of contingency analysis on the nodal prices in the day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Frederic H.; Mudrageda, Murthy; Soyster, Allen L.; Saric, Andrija T.; Stankovic, Aleksandar M.

    2010-01-01

    We look at the effect of modeling branch-outage contingencies on locational marginal prices. To model contingencies in the day-ahead auction, we formulate a two-stage stochastic program. Rather than follow the current practice of including a list of possible contingencies that must be satisfied, we incorporate a larger set of contingencies in the model and allow contingencies to result in load reductions/outages at a cost. The model can be used and interpreted in two ways. One is to look at the tradeoff between reliability and outage costs. Another is to consider the load losses resulting from a contingency to be consumer offers of load reductions in response to line outages as part of the day-ahead auction. In analyzing the model structure, we find that the prices in the model closer in definition to those currently used in the day-ahead auction do not maximize expected surplus because the day-ahead auction produces prices that assume shortages will never occur. This raises issues with the design of auctions with important stochastic elements in the market. We present results for a 68-node grid with 86 branches (lines and transformers) to illustrate how prices and expected values change as the costs of outages are varied.

  15. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  16. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  17. Contingent Valuation Analysis of an Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology Emergency Department: The Value of Acute Specialty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Kozin, Elliot D; Sethi, Rosh K; Ota, H G; Gray, Stacey T; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Specialty emergency departments (EDs) provide a unique mechanism of health care delivery, but the value that they add to the medical system is not known. Evaluation of patient preferences to determine value can have a direct impact on resource allocation and direct-to-specialist care. To assess the feasibility of contingent valuation (CV) methodology using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey to evaluate specialty emergency services, in the context of an ophthalmology- and otolaryngology-specific ED. Contingent valuation analysis of a standalone otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. Participants were English-speaking adults presenting to a dedicated otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. The WTP questions were assessed using a payment card format, with reference to an alternative modality of treatment (ie, general ED), and were analyzed with multivariate regression. Validated WTP survey administered from October 14, 2014, through October 1, 2015. Sociodemographic data, level of distress, referral data, income, and WTP. A total of 327 of 423 (77.3%) ED patients responded to the WTP survey, with 116 ophthalmology and 211 otolaryngology patients included (52.3% female; mean [range] age, 46 [18-90] years). The most common reason for seeking care at this facility was a reputation for specialty care for both ear, nose, and throat (80 [37.9%]) and ophthalmology (43 [37.1%]). Mean WTP for specialty-specific ED services was $377 for ophthalmology patients, and $321 for otolaryngology patients ($340 overall; 95% CI, $294 to $386), without significant difference between groups (absolute difference, $56; 95% CI, $-156 to $43). Self-reported level of distress was higher among ear, nose, and throat vs ophthalmology patients (absolute difference, 0.47 on a Likert scale of 1-7; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.84). Neither level of distress, income, nor demographic characteristics influenced WTP, but patients with higher estimates of total visit cost were more likely to have higher WTP (β coefficient

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Otolaryngology Emergency Room Using a Contingent Valuation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Kozin, Elliot D; Sethi, Rosh K; Ota, H Gregory; Gray, Stacey T; Shrime, Mark G

    2015-10-01

    Dedicated otolaryngology emergency rooms (ERs) provide a unique mechanism of health care delivery. Relative costs and willingness to pay (WTP) for these services have not been studied. This study aims to provide a cost-benefit analysis of otolaryngology-specific ER care. Cost-benefit analysis based on contingent valuation surveys. An otolaryngology-specific ER in a tertiary care academic medical center. Adult English-speaking patients presenting to an otolaryngology ER were included. WTP questions were used to assess patient valuations of specialty emergency care. Sociodemographic data, income, and self-reported levels of distress were assessed. State-level and institution-specific historical cost data were merged with WTP data within a cost-benefit analysis framework. The response rate was 75.6%, and 199 patients were included in the final analysis. Average WTP for otolaryngology ER services was $319 greater than for a general ER (95% CI: $261 to $377), with a median value of $200. The historical mean cost per visit at a general ER was $575, and mean cost at the specialty ER was $551 (95% CI: $529 to $574). Subtracting incremental cost from incremental WTP yielded a net benefit of $343. Dedicated otolaryngology ER services are valued by patients for acute otolaryngologic problems and have a net benefit of $343 per patient visit. They appear to be a cost-beneficial method for addressing acute otolaryngologic conditions. This study has implications for ER-based otolaryngologic care and direct-to-specialist services. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Contingency Analysis of Caregiver Behavior: Implications for Parent Training and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Parent training is often a required component of effective treatment for a variety of common childhood problems. Although behavior analysts have developed several effective parent-training technologies, we know little about the contingencies that affect parent behavior. Child behavior is one source of control for parent behavior that likely…

  20. Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities - A contingent claims analysis using Parisian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the market-consistent valuation of pension liabilities in a contingent claim framework whereby a knock-out barrier feature is applied to capture early regulatory closure of a pension plan. We investigate two cases which we call "immediate closure procedure" and "delayed closure

  1. A Contingent Analysis of the Relationship between IS Implementation Strategies and IS Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jinjoo

    1991-01-01

    Considers approaches to dealing with user attitudes toward newly implemented information systems (IS), and suggests that behavioral management strategies relevant to IS fall into three categories: (1) empirical/rational; (2) normative/reeducative; and (3) power/coercive, based on "planned change" theories. An integrative contingent model…

  2. Dispersion analysis for difference schemes: tables of generalized Airy functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, R.C.Y.; Hedstrom, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This papers contains graphs and tables of the function /sup Ai/p,q(/sup alpha,x/) =∫/sup infinity/: infinity (2π) -1 exp]y/sup p//p-αy/sup q//q+ixy]dy and its indefinite integral for p=3,5,7, for q=2,4,6, and for several values of α with α> or =0. It is shown how these tables should influence the choice of an artifical viscosity for a difference scheme for a linear hyperbolic equation

  3. Contingency planning and risk analysis for water and tailings management at Ranger Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes some of the more likely risks and contingency procedures associated with the extremely variable monsoonal climate of the Alligator Rivers region in the Northern Territory in relation to the Ranger Uranium Mine. The tailings management system is basically a large storage impoundment and a reticulation system that delivers tailings sludge and recycles supernatant water. It is a closed circuit within the water management system and is dealt with as an integral part of that system

  4. The multiple decrement life table: a unifying framework for cause-of-death analysis in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R

    1989-01-01

    The multiple decrement life table is used widely in the human actuarial literature and provides statistical expressions for mortality in three different forms: i) the life table from all causes-of-death combined; ii) the life table disaggregated into selected cause-of-death categories; and iii) the life table with particular causes and combinations of causes eliminated. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the multiple decrement life table to the ecological literature by applying the methods to published death-by-cause information on Rhagoletis pomonella. Interrelations between the current approach and conventional tools used in basic and applied ecology are discussed including the conventional life table, Key Factor Analysis and Abbott's Correction used in toxicological bioassay.

  5. Inductive Double-Contingency Analysis of UO2 Powder Bulk Blending Operations at a Commercial Fuel Plant (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiles, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    An inductive double-contingency analysis (DCA) method developed by the criticality safety function at the Savannah River Site, was applied in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) of five major plant process systems at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-Cola.). The method emphasizes a thorough evaluation of the controls intended to provide barriers against criticality for postulated initiating events, and has been demonstrated effective at identifying common mode failure potential and interdependence among multiple controls. A description of the method and an example of its application is provided

  6. Contingency proportion systematically influences contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    In the color-word contingency learning paradigm, each word appears more often in one color (high contingency) than in the other colors (low contingency). Shortly after beginning the task, color identification responses become faster on the high-contingency trials than on the low-contingency trials-the contingency learning effect. Across five groups, we varied the high-contingency proportion in 10% steps, from 80% to 40%. The size of the contingency learning effect was positively related to high-contingency proportion, with the effect disappearing when high contingency was reduced to 40%. At the two highest contingency proportions, the magnitude of the effect increased over trials, the pattern suggesting that there was an increasing cost for the low-contingency trials rather than an increasing benefit for the high-contingency trials. Overall, the results fit a modified version of Schmidt's (2013, Acta Psychologica, 142, 119-126) parallel episodic processing account in which prior trial instances are routinely retrieved from memory and influence current trial performance.

  7. Analysis of Japanese energy demand structure based on the interindustry-relations table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Akira; Kashihara, Toshinori

    1990-01-01

    Matching of energy-supply system and demand system is very important in dealing with the energy problem. Especially the energy-demand system is important for determing the quantity and quality of the energy demand. The energy demand is created by activities of industry and human life. The best materials which describe these activity conditions is the interindustry-relations table. Authors rely on this table as the basic data for assuming the energy demand analysis of energy system. The defect of this table is that an industrial classification differs in publishing years. So the table is lacking in the time sequential consistency. Therefore we discuss the method to improve the defect in consistency. In addition, this report analyses the energy demand structure in Japan according to the improved method. The research is done by the following procedure, 1. The unified common sector data is made so that an industrial classification in the interindustry-relations tables become common. 2. The quantity of input energy in each section is extracted from the tables. 3. The input energy is converted into the characteristic indicator and the calorific indicator. 4. The section is united using the common sector data. 5. The result is shown in table or graph. 6. The energy demand structure is analyzed based on the tables and the graphs. This interindustry-relations table is offered by request in the form of the magnetic tape. All the data is processed by computer due to the abundant amount of data. This report shows the idea how to process the fable instead of displaying the details. In addition, the problem in the analysis of the table is pointed out as results of the analysis. This report describes the feature of 23-sections classification in analysis of the energy demand structure. This report offers a basic data to make energy scenario to the energy system analysists. (J.P.N.)

  8. Stochastic analysis of unsaturated steady flows above the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gerardo; Scarfato, Maddalena; Comegna, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Steady flow takes place into a three-dimensional partially saturated porous medium where, due to their spatial variability, the saturated conductivity Ks, and the relative conductivity Kr are modeled as random space functions (RSF)s. As a consequence, the flow variables (FVs), i.e., pressure-head and specific flux, are also RSFs. The focus of the present paper consists into quantifying the uncertainty of the FVs above the water table. The simple expressions (most of which in closed form) of the second-order moments pertaining to the FVs allow one to follow the transitional behavior from the zone close to the water table (where the FVs are nonstationary), till to their far-field limit (where the FVs become stationary RSFs). In particular, it is shown how the stationary limits (and the distance from the water table at which stationarity is attained) depend upon the statistical structure of the RSFs Ks, Kr, and the infiltrating rate. The mean pressure head >> has been also computed, and it is expressed as =Ψ0>(1+ψ>), being ψ a characteristic heterogeneity function which modifies the zero-order approximation Ψ0 of the pressure head (valid for a vadose zone of uniform soil properties) to account for the spatial variability of Ks and Kr. Two asymptotic limits, i.e., close (near field) and away (far field) from the water table, are derived into a very general manner, whereas the transitional behavior of ψ between the near/far field can be determined after specifying the shape of the various input soil properties. Besides the theoretical interest, results of the present paper are useful for practical purposes, as well. Indeed, the model is tested against to real data, and in particular it is shown how it is possible for the specific case study to grasp the behavior of the FVs within an environment (i.e., the vadose zone close to the water table) which is generally very difficult to access by direct inspection.

  9. Using contingent behavior analysis to measure benefits from rural electrification in developing countries: an example from Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Dale T.; Means, Peter; Zimmerle, Daniel; Galvin, Kathleen; Loomis, John; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to electricity and will not receive it from national grids in the next few decades. Electricity makes up an important component of rural development and so increasing access can have positive socioeconomic benefits. In this study, we use contingent behavior analysis to quantify the potential benefits of electricity in rural Rwandan villages which currently do not have electricity. The proposed method allows for calculation of net benefits as well as electricity bills. We find that even relatively poor, isolated households would pay for electricity, though amounts vary across households and this affects the financial viability of electrification. Common uses for electricity include lighting, battery charging, and agricultural processing. Despite heterogeneity, opportunities exist to improve rural economic welfare through increased electricity access. - Highlights: • A lack of electricity slows economic growth in rural villages of Sub-Saharan Africa. • Household survey provides data on potential electricity use in Rwandan villages. • Contingent behavior analysis estimates total economic surplus from electricity. • Household electricity bills estimated to calculate investment returns. • Investment in rural electrification likely to bring positive benefits to rural Rwanda.

  10. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  11. Analysis of static safety of power systems: a study about contingencies selection criteria in the reactive subproblem; Analise de seguranca estatica de sistemas de potencia: um estudo sobre criterios de selecao de contingencias no subproblema reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Vicente Canto dos

    1993-12-01

    The main objective of static safety's analysis in power systems is the determination of the level of gravity of the different contingencies that can occur in a system. Habitually, static safety's analysis is divided in two parts: selection and analysis of contingencies. In this work, they are studied several criteria of selection of applicable contingencies to the sub-problem reactive and are introduced comparisons among results provided by different criteria. They are also studied several forms of evaluation of the impact caused by contingencies on the power systems reactive profile.

  12. An interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis to inform the treatment of challenging behavior in a young child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ciara; Healy, Olive; Lydon, Sinéad

    2018-04-01

    Experimental Functional analysis (EFA) is considered the "gold standard" of behavioural assessment and its use is predictive of treatment success. However, EFA has a number of limitations including its lengthy nature, the high level of expertise required, and the reinforcement of challenging behaviour. This study aimed to further validate a novel interview-informed synthesised contingency analysis (IISCA). An open-ended interview and brief direct observation informed an IISCA for a young boy with autism who engaged in challenging behaviour. Resulting data supported the hypothesis that the target behaviour was multiply controlled by escape from demands and access to tangible items. An intervention comprised of most-to-least prompting, escape extinction, differential reinforcement and a high-probability instruction sequence was evaluated using a reversal design. This intervention reduced challenging behaviour to low levels and resulted in increased compliance. Findings support the status of the IISCA as a valid, practical, and effective process for designing function-based interventions.

  13. Analysis of tables, murals, grids and chassis available for conventional diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Tables, bucky, grids, chassis and their combinations produced by several industries have been analysed, verifying and quantifying the attenuation in order to confront the results with the national and international recommendations. The results have shown that some of those tables do not satisfy the national requirements and for that reason increasing the patient dose. As the dose measurements are performed on the table or bucky, the analysis normally is not considered for quality control verifications and have to be considered, as those parts are positioned among the patient and the image receptor (radiological film) influenced the skin dose

  14. Structural Safety Analysis of Openable Working Table in ACP Hot Cell for Spent Fuel Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ki Chan; Ku, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Eun Pyo; Choung, Won Myung; You, Gil Sung; Lee, Won Kyung; Cho, IL Je; Kuk, Dong Hak

    2006-01-01

    A demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) is under construction in KAERI. In this hot cell facility, all process equipment and materials are taken in and out only through the rear door. The working table in front of the process rear door is specially designed to be openable for the efficient use of the space. This paper presents the structural safety analysis of the openable working table, for the normal operational load condition and accidental drop condition of heavy object. Both cases are investigated through static and dynamic finite element analyses. The analysis results show that structural safety of the working table is sufficiently assured and the working table is not collapsed even when an object of 500 kg is dropped from the height of 50 cm.

  15. Proposed energy conservation contingency plan: emergency restrictions on illuminated advertising and certain gas lighting. Economic impact analysis. Environmental impact assessment. Contingency plan No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    In the event of a severe energy supply disruption or in order to fulfill obligations of the U.S. under the International Energy Program, the President may implement one or more energy conservation contingency plans provided for in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975. This report describes the economic impact of restrictions on the use of illuminated advertising and certain gas lighting. The proposed plan would reduce demand for electricity and natural gas. The reduced demand for electricity would result in reduced demand for oil, natural gas, and other fuels used to generate electricity. Since oil and natural gas would be in short supply, the reduced use of these fuels in the generation of electricity could make supplies available to other industries. By contrast, the coal supply would not be affected by these conditions. However, the substitutability of coal for fuels in short supply (especially oil for electric generation) would tend to offset the impact of reduced demand for coal to generate electricity. Advertising expenditures would shift. Expenditures for illuminated outdoor signs would fall and expenditures for advertising in other media (e.g., radio, newspapers) would rise. No significant effect upon aggregate retail sales is anticipated. In summary, microeconomic effects of the measure are negligible and all effects are minor and/or beneficial. These effects are almost lost in the projected economic effects that would result from any severe supply interruption.

  16. Levers supporting tariff growth for water services: evidence from a contingent valuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Andrea; Vigolo, Vania; Romano, Giulia; Testa, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants. The study is based on a survey conducted among a sample of 587 customers of a water utility located in the province of Verona in the north of Italy. The contingence valuation method is used to measure WTP. Specifically, an ordinal logistic regression model yields the following significant determinants of WTP: quality of water and services provided, preference for privatization of the water utility, sustainable consumption of water, and some socio-demographic variables. The findings provide interesting insights into the drivers of WTP as well as managerial recommendations for water utilities. In particular, the findings show that water utilities need to improve service and water quality to increase customers' acceptance of tariff growth. In addition, utilities should invest in customer education and communication activities focusing on specific age groups (e.g., older customers) to enhance their WTP. Finally, communication strategies should reinforce the possible role of liberalization and privatization in supporting infrastructure investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Anderson, Gerard F

    2014-08-01

    The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. A retrospective cohort study using single-decrement period life tables. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease), and number of comorbid conditions. Comorbidity was measured as a count of conditions collected by Chronic Conditions Warehouse and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic condition. A 67-year-old individual with no chronic conditions will live on average 22.6 additional years. A 67-year-old individual with 5 chronic conditions and ≥10 chronic conditions will live 7.7 fewer years and 17.6 fewer years, respectively. The average marginal decline in life expectancy is 1.8 years with each additional chronic condition-ranging from 0.4 fewer years with the first condition to 2.6 fewer years with the sixth condition. These results are consistent by sex and race. We observe differences in life expectancy by selected conditions at 67, but these differences diminish with age and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency.

  18. A list of tables summarizing various Cmap analysis, from which the final tables in the manuscript are based on

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Various Cmap analyses within and across species and microarray platforms conducted and summarized to generate the tables in the publication. This dataset is...

  19. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  20. The Feasibility of Care Management in Coast Guard Healthcare Facilitate: A Contingency Theory Perspective and Analysis of Organizational Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, John G

    2005-01-01

    .... The Program's role in supporting Coast Guard missions changes as mission priorities change. Looking at the environment in terms of contingency theory, the Program must find the "right fit" for adapting to this ever-changing environment...

  1. [Hazard function and life table: an introduction to the failure time analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K; Inaba, H

    1987-04-01

    Failure time analysis has become popular in demographic studies. It can be viewed as a part of regression analysis with limited dependent variables as well as a special case of event history analysis and multistate demography. The idea of hazard function and failure time analysis, however, has not been properly introduced to nor commonly discussed by demographers in Japan. The concept of hazard function in comparison with life tables is briefly described, where the force of mortality is interchangeable with the hazard rate. The basic idea of failure time analysis is summarized for the cases of exponential distribution, normal distribution, and proportional hazard models. The multiple decrement life table is also introduced as an example of lifetime data analysis with cause-specific hazard rates.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE LINEAR SYSTEM SOLVER APPLIED TO FAST DECOUPLED LOAD FLOW METHOD FOR CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafii

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of fast decoupled load flow computation using three linear system solver scheme. The full matrix version of the fast decoupled load flow based on XB methods used in this study. The numerical investigations are carried out on the small and large test systems. The execution time of small system such as IEEE 14, 30, and 57 are very fast, therefore the computation time can not be compared for these cases. Another cases IEEE 118, 300 and TNB 664 produced significant execution speedup. The superLU factorization sparse matrix solver has best performance and speedup of load flow solution as well as in contigency analysis. The invers full matrix solver can solved only for IEEE 118 bus test system in 3.715 second and for another cases take too long time. However for superLU factorization linear solver can solved all of test system in 7.832 second for a largest of test system. Therefore the superLU factorization linear solver can be a viable alternative applied in contingency analysis.

  3. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  4. Follow-up treatment effects of contingency management and motivational interviewing on substance use: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Caitlin S; Huey, Stanley J; Zara, Erica J; Jhaveri, Kinnari

    2017-06-01

    Motivation is an integral factor in substance use treatment and long-term recovery. However, it is unclear what role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation play across different treatment modalities. A meta-analysis (N = 84) was performed to estimate the pooled effect size of Motivational Interviewing (MI; primarily targeting intrinsic motivation) and contingency management (CM; primarily targeting extrinsic motivation) at different follow-up periods. Collapsed across all substance types, CM had a significant effect at 3-month follow-up, only. In contrast, MI had a significant effect at 6-month follow-up, only. CM had small and medium effects on multiple substances at 3-month follow-up (i.e., tobacco, marijuana, stimulants, polysubstances), but not at 6-month follow-up. MI had 1 significant medium effect at 3-month follow-up (i.e., marijuana), but several significant small effects at 6-month follow-up (i.e., alcohol, tobacco, polysubstances). This meta-analysis suggests that both CM and MI promote reductions in a range of substances, even several months after the intervention concludes. Further, these results provide some evidence that extrinsically focused CM may produce medium follow-up effects in the short run, but intrinsically focused MI may produce small but durable follow-up effects. However, this interpretation is complicated by the differences between the MI and CM studies that preclude statistical tests comparing effect sizes, and few studies assessed motivation itself. Future researchers should investigate how motivational dynamics impact lasting outcomes in substance use treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  6. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  7. A Shot Number Based Approach to Performance Analysis in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Sho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a novel approach that improves the conventional performance analysis in table tennis by introducing the concept of frequency, or the number of shots, of each shot number. The improvements over the conventional method are as follows: better accuracy of the evaluation of skills and tactics of players, additional insights into scoring and returning skills and ease of understanding the results with a single criterion. The performance analysis of matches played at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was conducted using the proposed method. The results showed some effects of the shot number and gender differences in table tennis. Furthermore, comparisons were made between Chinese players and players from other countries, what threw light on the skills and tactics of the Chinese players. The present findings demonstrate that the proposed method provides useful information and has some advantages over the conventional method.

  8. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  9. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  10. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  11. Contingency Management interventions for non-prescribed drug use during treatment for opiate addiction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscough, Tom S; McNeill, Ann; Strang, John; Calder, Robert; Brose, Leonie S

    2017-09-01

    Use of non-prescribed drugs during treatment for opiate addiction reduces treatment success, creating a need for effective interventions. This review aimed to assess the efficacy of contingency management, a behavioural treatment that uses rewards to encourage desired behaviours, for treating non-prescribed drug use during opiate addiction treatment. A systematic search of the databases Embase, PsychInfo, PsychArticles and Medline from inception to March 2015 was performed. Random effects meta-analysis tested the use of contingency management to treat the use of drugs during opiate addiction treatment, using either longest duration of abstinence (LDA) or percentage of negative samples (PNS). Random effects moderator analyses were performed for six potential moderators: drug targeted for intervention, decade in which the study was carried out, study quality, intervention duration, type of reinforcer, and form of opiate treatment. The search returned 3860 papers; 22 studies met inclusion criteria and were meta-analysed. Follow-up data was only available for three studies, so all analyses used end of treatment data. Contingency management performed significantly better than control in reducing drug use measured using LDA (d=0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.72) or PNS (d=0.41) (95% CI: 0.28-0.54). This was true for all drugs other than opiates. The only significant moderator was drug targeted (LDA: Q=10.75, p=0.03). Contingency management appears to be efficacious for treating most drug use during treatment for opiate addiction. Further research is required to ascertain the full effects of moderating variables, and longer term effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  13. Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden within the Language of Contingency "Theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)

  14. Psychophysics of associative learning: Quantitative properties of subjective contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Susana; Lefèvre, Françoise; Jozefowiez, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Allan and collaborators (Allan, Hannah, Crump, & Siegel, 2008; Allan, Siegel, & Tangen, 2005; Siegel, Allan, Hannah, & Crump, 2009) recently proposed to apply signal detection theory to the analysis of contingency judgment tasks. When exposed to a flow of stimuli, participants are asked to judge whether there is a contingent relation between a cue and an outcome, that is, whether the subjective cue-outcome contingency exceeds a decision threshold. In this context, we tested the following hypotheses regarding the relation between objective and subjective cue-outcome contingency: (a) The underlying distributions of subjective cue-outcome contingency are Gaussian; (b) The mean distribution of subjective contingency is a linear function of objective cue-outcome contingency; and (c) The variance in the distribution of subjective contingency is constant. The hypotheses were tested by combining a streamed-trial contingency assessment task with a confidence rating procedure. Participants were exposed to rapid flows of stimuli at the end of which they had to judge whether an outcome was more (Experiment 1) or less (Experiment 2) likely to appear following a cue and how sure they were of their judgment. We found that although Hypothesis A seems reasonable, Hypotheses B and C were not. Regarding Hypothesis B, participants were more sensitive to positive than to negative contingencies. Regarding Hypothesis C, the perceived cue-outcome contingency became more variable when the contingency became more positive or negative, but only to a slight extent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An analysis of contingencies for making casks available for use during the early years of Federal Waste Management System operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.; Danese, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation

  16. Impact of Contingent Liabilities Reclassification on Financial Performance: An Analysis with Brazilian Companies of Electricity Utilities Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Silva do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to verify the effect of a reconfiguration of contingent liabilities in the financial performance of Brazilian companies in the electricity sector in the years 2013 to 2015. The sample consisted of 53 companies and 153 financial statements were analyzed. The model used to reconfigure the contingent liabilities into provisions was developed by Rose (2014. The author classifies the reversal in 5 scenarios: Optimistic (20% Partially Optimistic (40%, moderate (60% Partially Pessimistic (80% and Pessimistic (100%. To represent the economic and financial performance we selected three indicators: General Liquidity (LG, General Indebtedness (EG and Return Over Assets (ROA. The results showed that for worst-case scenarios, there is a significant difference between the indicators calculated on the original data in comparison with those calculated within the reclassified scenarios. The Statistics D of Cohen (1988 pointed out that, in addition to statistically significant, in the worst scenarios, the size effect was also too high, especially for the ROA and the Indebtedness. For Liquidity the differences were not so significant. The findings of this research serve as a warning to users of financial statements and pointed out that they should be aware of the financial effect of different interpretations of the individuals involved in decisions about the likelihood of loss in provision and Contingent liabilities.

  17. Equilibria of perceptrons for simple contingency problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Dupuis, Brian

    2012-08-01

    The contingency between cues and outcomes is fundamentally important to theories of causal reasoning and to theories of associative learning. Researchers have computed the equilibria of Rescorla-Wagner models for a variety of contingency problems, and have used these equilibria to identify situations in which the Rescorla-Wagner model is consistent, or inconsistent, with normative models of contingency. Mathematical analyses that directly compare artificial neural networks to contingency theory have not been performed, because of the assumed equivalence between the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule and the delta rule training of artificial neural networks. However, recent results indicate that this equivalence is not as straightforward as typically assumed, suggesting a strong need for mathematical accounts of how networks deal with contingency problems. One such analysis is presented here, where it is proven that the structure of the equilibrium for a simple network trained on a basic contingency problem is quite different from the structure of the equilibrium for a Rescorla-Wagner model faced with the same problem. However, these structural differences lead to functionally equivalent behavior. The implications of this result for the relationships between associative learning, contingency theory, and connectionism are discussed.

  18. The Contingent Value of Organizational Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Turkulainen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the link between organizational design and effectiveness by examining organizational integration and performance in the context of modern manufacturing. Through careful contextualization and empirical analysis of 266 manufacturing organizations in three industries and nine countries, we uncover a joint effect of integration and complexity on organizational effectiveness. The results extend structural contingency theory, in particular the mechanisms that link organizational integration to organizational effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the continuing relevance of structural contingency theory.

  19. Sensory classification of table olives using an electronic tongue: Analysis of aqueous pastes and brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ítala; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Pereira, José A; Drunkler, Deisy A; Peres, António M

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are highly appreciated and consumed worldwide. Different aspects are used for trade category classification being the sensory assessment of negative defects present in the olives and brines one of the most important. The trade category quality classification must follow the International Olive Council directives, requiring the organoleptic assessment of defects by a trained sensory panel. However, the training process is a hard, complex and sometimes subjective task, being the low number of samples that can be evaluated per day a major drawback considering the real needs of the olive industry. In this context, the development of electronic tongues as taste sensors for defects' sensory evaluation is of utmost relevance. So, an electronic tongue was used for table olives classification according to the presence and intensity of negative defects. Linear discrimination models were established based on sub-sets of sensor signals selected by a simulated annealing algorithm. The predictive potential of the novel approach was first demonstrated for standard solutions of chemical compounds that mimic butyric, putrid and zapateria defects (≥93% for cross-validation procedures). Then its applicability was verified; using reference table olives/brine solutions samples identified with a single intense negative attribute, namely butyric, musty, putrid, zapateria or winey-vinegary defects (≥93% cross-validation procedures). Finally, the E-tongue coupled with the same chemometric approach was applied to classify table olive samples according to the trade commercial categories (extra, 1 st choice, 2 nd choice and unsuitable for consumption) and an additional quality category (extra free of defects), established based on sensory analysis data. Despite the heterogeneity of the samples studied and number of different sensory defects perceived, the predictive linear discriminant model established showed sensitivities greater than 86%. So, the overall performance

  20. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  1. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  2. Licensee safeguards contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is amending its regulations to require that licensees authorized to operate a nuclear reactor (other than certain research and test reactors), and those authorized to possess strategic quantities of plutonium, uranium-233, or uranium-235 develop and implement acceptable plans for responding to threats, thefts, and industrial sabotage of licensed nuclear materials and facilities. The plans will provide a structured, orderly, and timely response to safeguards contingencies and will be an important segment of NRC's contingency planning programs. Licensee safeguards contingency plans will result in organizing licensee's safeguards resources in such a way that, in the unlikely event of a safeguards contingency, the responding participants will be identified, their several responsibilities specified, and their responses coordinated

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Fuel Analysis Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63—Fuel... of pounds of pollutant per MMBtu of heat content. 3. Hydrogen Chloride * * * a. Collect fuel samples...

  4. Detailed oil spill contingency analysis in establishment of preparedness plans for exploration drilling in environmentally sensitive areas: an integrated management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spikkerud, Cathrine S.; Skeie, Geir Morten; Brude, Odd Willy; Gravir, Gjermund [DNV Managing Risk, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the integrated management process leading up to a dynamic oil spill preparedness plan based on detailed analysis of oil spill contingency requirements and environmental risk in environmentally sensitive areas. Starting with a detailed environmental risk and oil spill contingency analysis, oil spill preparedness plans are developed. These plans are generic for the area possibly affected by an oil spill, and are developed in detail for environmental 'hot spots' that are highly challenging in terms of oil spill response. The detailed plans make use of detailed data sets on shoreline substrate sensitivities and cleanup methodology, photographic inventory, logistical issues and access to real-time incident data for important areas. This detailed approach ensures sufficient knowledge about the sensitive area in advance to provide fast and correct strategic and tactical operational recovery decisions. A final element of the integrated process is a web based GIS, providing all parties involved with one common situation overview, ensuring that the facts remain in focus throughout the operation and that those responsible for informing stake-holders have access to correct and timely updated information. (author)

  5. An analysis of contingencies for making casks available for use during the early years of federal waste management system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Danese, F.L.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation

  6. Analysis of underlying and multiple-cause mortality data: the life table methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, M A

    1987-02-01

    The stochastic compartment model concepts are employed to analyse and construct complete and abbreviated total mortality life tables, multiple-decrement life tables for a disease, under the underlying and pattern-of-failure definitions of mortality risk, cause-elimination life tables, cause-elimination effects on saved population through the gain in life expectancy as a consequence of eliminating the mortality risk, cause-delay life tables designed to translate the clinically observed increase in survival time as the population gain in life expectancy that would occur if a treatment protocol was made available to the general population and life tables for disease dependency in multiple-cause data.

  7. Comparing Contingent Valuation, Conjoint Analysis and decition Panels: An Application to the valuation of reduced damages from air pollution in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, B.; Strand, J.; Saelensminde, K.; Wenstoep, F.

    1996-12-31

    The need for assessing values of non-market goods has led to the development of two main groups of valuation approaches, those based on revealed preferences, and those on stated preferences (SP). One of the stated preference approaches, the Contingent Valuation Method, has recently been heavily criticized and alternative SP valuation approaches have appeared. This report discusses three SP approaches to eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, namely open-ended contingent valuation (OE-CVM), conjoint analysis (CA) and multi-attribute utility theory applied to decision panels of experts (DPE). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others and the relation between WTP estimates from the approaches cannot be predicted on prior arguments alone. The three approaches are applied in three different surveys, seeking valuation of specific damages due to air pollution in Norway. In all cases studied, OE-CVM yields the lowest average WTP estimate, while those from CA and EDP are similar. Possible explanations are offered, based on the principle differences between the approaches and on particular features of the three surveys. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Contingencies of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2014-01-01

    Based on a study of the admission test at a design school, this paper investigates the contingencies of aesthetic values as these become visible in assessment practices. Theoretically, the paper takes its starting point in Herrnstein Smith’s notion of ‘contingencies of values’ and outlines...... a pragmatist ground where cultural sociology and economic sociology meet. Informed by the literature on cultural intermediaries, the paper discusses the role of evaluators and the devices which accompany them. Whereas studies of cultural intermediaries traditionally apply a Bourdieusian perspective, recent......, the paper does not accept this storyline. As an alternative, the paper outlines the contingencies of values which are at play at the admission test, composed of official assessment criteria and scoring devices together with conventions within the world of design, and set in motion by interactions...

  9. Contingency planning in southern Africa: Events rather than processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mabaso; Siambabala B. Manyena

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, there is growing focus on contingency planning as a tool for enhancing resilience. Yet, there is little empirical evidence that reflects on the practice of contingency planning systems within the context of disaster risk reduction. This article explores the practice of contingency planning in southern Africa, focussing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. A qualitative comparative analysis informed by fieldwork ...

  10. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Goran; Petrinović, Lidija Zekan; Kondrič, Miran

    2015-09-29

    For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire) was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster) analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A) used in the phase of preparing one's own and disabling the opponent's attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B) used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C) used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts' scores.

  11. Structural Analysis of Technical-Tactical Elements in Table Tennis and their Role in Different Playing Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munivrana Goran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of determining the overall structure of technical-tactical elements in table tennis and evaluating their role in different playing zones around the table, a new measuring instrument (a questionnaire was formulated that took advantage of the expert knowledge of top, world class table tennis coaches. The results of the hierarchical taxonomic (cluster analysis showed that the overall structure of the technical-tactical elements forming the table tennis technique could be divided into three basic groups; a group of technical-tactical elements (A used in the phase of preparing one’s own and disabling the opponent’s attack; a group of technical-tactical elements (B used in the phase of attack and counterattack; and a group of technical-tactical elements (C used in the phase of defense. The differences among the obtained groups of table tennis elements were determined by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test, while relations between the groups and their role in different playing zones around the table were analyzed by comparing the average values of the experts’ scores.

  12. Appendix F - Sample Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Contingency Plan in Appendix F is intended to provide examples of contingency planning as a reference when a facility determines that the required secondary containment is impracticable, pursuant to 40 CFR §112.7(d).

  13. The Impact of the Contingency of Robot Feedback for HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Saunders, Joe

    2013-01-01

    robot iCub on a set of shapes and on a stacking task in two conditions, once with socially contingent, nonverbal feedback implemented in response to different gaze and looming behaviors of the human tutor, and once with non-contingent, saliency-based feedback. The results of the analysis of participants......’ linguistic behaviors in the two conditions show that contingency has an impact on the complexity and the pre-structuring of the task for the robot, i.e. on the participants’ tutoring behaviors. Contingency thus plays a considerable role for learning by demonstration....

  14. Contingent valuation and incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas E. Flores; Thomas C. Brown; James Chivers

    2002-01-01

    We empirically investigate the effect of the payment mechanism on contingent values by asking a willingness-to-pay question with one of three different payment mechanisms: individual contribution, contribution with provision point, and referendum. We find statistical evidence of more affirmative responses in the referendum treatment relative to the individual...

  15. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  16. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching.

  17. Failure Analysis Of The Bolt From Turn Table Tightening On The Heavy Lifting Equipment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, IIham

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the results of failure analysis of the bolt from the turn table tightening which usually using on the heavy lifting equipment or as a equipment tor the material handling with the maximum load about 25 ton. The process of the failure analysis from the series of laboratory testing such as chemical composition, tensile testing, hardness, fracture surtace and microstructure. The results of the analysis we see this bolt have suffered fatigue failure and the initiation, cracking from the manufacture defect. This defect in the form like the folding on the screw surface which maybe happen at the screw forming process. This folding as a part of metal which not bonding together, so could act as a initial crack, and got the creasing of the strength too which cause from oxidation and decarburization at the moment of heat treatment process. So this material got the changein the strength too which oxidation and decarburization at the moment of heat treatment process. So this material got the change in the microstructure, from the martensite temper to the coarse ferrite and finally reduces the strength of the bolt

  18. State estimation of the performance of gravity tables using multispectral image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael A. E.; Kannan, Ananda S.; Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Gravity tables are important machinery that separate dense (healthy) grains from lighter (low yielding varieties) aiding in improving the overall quality of seed and grain processing. This paper aims at evaluating the operating states of such tables, which is a critical criterion required...

  19. Cost-benefit analysis involving addictive goods: contingent valuation to estimate willingness-to-pay for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, David L; Vining, Aidan R; Thomas, Randall K

    2009-02-01

    The valuation of changes in consumption of addictive goods resulting from policy interventions presents a challenge for cost-benefit analysts. Consumer surplus losses from reduced consumption of addictive goods that are measured relative to market demand schedules overestimate the social cost of cessation interventions. This article seeks to show that consumer surplus losses measured using a non-addicted demand schedule provide a better assessment of social cost. Specifically, (1) it develops an addiction model that permits an estimate of the smoker's compensating variation for the elimination of addiction; (2) it employs a contingent valuation survey of current smokers to estimate their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a treatment that would eliminate addiction; (3) it uses the estimate of WTP from the survey to calculate the fraction of consumer surplus that should be viewed as consumer value; and (4) it provides an estimate of this fraction. The exercise suggests that, as a tentative first and rough rule-of-thumb, only about 75% of the loss of the conventionally measured consumer surplus should be counted as social cost for policies that reduce the consumption of cigarettes. Additional research to estimate this important rule-of-thumb is desirable to address the various caveats relevant to this study. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  1. Breaking the Myth of Flexible Work: Contingent Work in Toronto. A Study Conducted by the Contingent Workers Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolff, Alice

    A survey of 205 people, 4 group interviews with approximately 30 people, and 6 design and analysis meetings involving approximately 40 people were conducted in a 1999 participatory study of contingent workers in Toronto. (Contingent work was defined to be lower-waged forms of non-permanent work arrangements that include contracting, employment…

  2. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  3. The contingent valuation method: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, L.

    2004-01-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a simple, flexible nonmarket valuation method that is widely used in cost-benefit analysis and environmental impact assessment. However, this method is subject to severe criticism. The criticism revolves mainly around two aspects, namely, the validity and the reliability of the results, and the effects of various biases and errors. The major objective of this paper is to review the recent developments on measures to address the validity and reliability issues arising out of different kinds of biases/errors and other related empirical and methodological issues concerning contingent valuation method

  4. Social Sensorimotor Contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bütepage, Judith

    2016-01-01

    As the field of robotics advances, more robots are employed in our everyday environment. Thus, the implementation of robots that can actively engage in physical collaboration and naturally interact with humans is of high importance. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to study human interaction and social cognition and how these aspects can be implemented in robotic agents. The theory of social sensorimotor contingencies hypothesises that many aspects of human-human interaction de...

  5. TableSim--A program for analysis of small-sample categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Rugg

    2003-01-01

    Documents a computer program for calculating correct P-values of 1-way and 2-way tables when sample sizes are small. The program is written in Fortran 90; the executable code runs in 32-bit Microsoft-- command line environments.

  6. The practical analysis of food: the development of Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün

    2013-11-15

    Practical and highly sensitive Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA) has been developed for the detection% of species-specific DNA amount in food products. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from multiple curves of real-time qPCR. The statistical analysis was done to estimate the concentration of standard dilutions. Amplicon concentrations versus each Ct value were assessed by the predictions of targets at known concentrations. SQT-DNA was prepared by using the percentage versus each Ct values. The applicability of SQT-DNA to commercial foods was proved by using sausages containing varying ratios of beef, chicken, and soybean. The results showed that SQT-DNA can be used to directly quantify food DNA by a single PCR without the need to construct a standart curve in parallel with the samples every time the experiment is performed, and also quantification by SQT-DNA is as reliable as standard curve quantification for a wide range of DNA concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methodology, Measurement and Analysis of Flow Table Update Characteristics in Hardware OpenFlow Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kuźniar, Maciej

    2018-02-15

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and OpenFlow are actively being standardized and deployed. These deployments rely on switches that come from various vendors and differ in terms of performance and available features. Understanding these differences and performance characteristics is essential for ensuring successful and safe deployments.We propose a systematic methodology for SDN switch performance analysis and devise a series of experiments based on this methodology. The methodology relies on sending a stream of rule updates, while relying on both observing the control plane view as reported by the switch and probing the data plane state to determine switch characteristics by comparing these views. We measure, report and explain the performance characteristics of flow table updates in six hardware OpenFlow switches. Our results describing rule update rates can help SDN designers make their controllers efficient. Further, we also highlight differences between the OpenFlow specification and its implementations, that if ignored, pose a serious threat to network security and correctness.

  8. QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author)

  9. Two psychologies: Cognitive versus contingency-oriented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, H.R.A. De

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive psychology and contingency-based behavior analysis are contrasted to each other with respect to their philosophical and theoretical underpinnings as well as to theirpractical goals. Whereas the former focuses on intra-organismic structure and function in explaining minds, the latter

  10. Appearance of Abnormal Cardiothoracic Ratio of Fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Disease: Life Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Tongsong, Theera

    2017-10-01

    Objective  To determine the timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's disease. Materials and Methods  A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart's disease. Sonographic markers including cardiothoracic (CT) ratio and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) were serially assessed and recorded from the first trimester. The definite diagnosis of fetal Hb Bart's disease based on DNA analysis (CVS), or fetal Hb typing (HPLC; cordocentesis) was performed at the first appearance of an increased CT ratio. Results  Of 275 pregnancies at risk, 64 fetuses were finally proven to be affected and life table analysis was performed. Most affected fetuses showed an increased CT ratio in late first trimester and early second trimester, with median time of the first appearance at 13 weeks and all affected fetuses were detected at 23 weeks or less. The CT ratio yielded a sensitivity of 100 % at a gestational age of 23 weeks with a false-positive rate of 8 %. MCA-PSV appeared later than CT ratio. Only 9.4 % of affected cases developed abnormal MCA-PSV before an increased CT ratio. Conclusion  The timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with Hb Bart's disease was established. This may help us identify Hb Bart's disease among fetuses at risk in earlier gestation and proper schedules for serial ultrasound could be made more effectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Shaking table test and simulation analysis on failure characteristics of seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Yasuaki; Iizuka, Maao; Satoh, Nobuhisa; Yoshikawa, Kazuhide; Katoh, Asao; Tanimoto, Eisuke

    2000-01-01

    Seismic safety and dynamic characteristics of the rubber bearing breaks of three types of base isolation system, natural rubber bearing + steel damper, lead rubber bearing and high damping rubber bearing, for nuclear power plant facilities were conducted by confirmed shaking table tests. The simulation analyses were conducted for the shaking table tests until the rubber broke. These results demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of base isolation system could be simulated closely until the rubber broke using simple analytical model based on static test. (author)

  12. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies va...

  13. Power plant construction lead times: The value of contingency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of two different approaches to the construction of a major power plant (nuclear) is presented. The analysis compares an accelerated, ''go-for-broke'' strategy-which has some risk of being delayed-with a more deliberate contingency construction schedule in terms of revenue requirements and costs of electricity. It is demonstrated that under a wide variety of circumstances there are important advantages to the contingency strategy, but that the magnitude of those advantages is sensitive to the character of the power system being examined and to the flexibility of the contingency approach

  14. Electromyography (EMG) analysis on impact of classroom chair and table usage among primary school students in Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ewe Hui; Shan, Lim Shaiu; Effendi, M. S. M.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan

    2017-09-01

    The existing design of primary school classroom chair and table had brought low back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain problems respectively among students in primary school. The purpose of this study is to relate the electromyography (EMG) analysis with the most critical area of the body during sitting and writing. Six male and six female primary school students from SK Seri Perlis with no back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain problems involved were invited as respondents in this study. EMG experiment was carried out by first determined the critical point at T9 and L3 from thoracic and lumbar segment respectively for ECG electrode placement and performed with a series of sitting trials for analysis. The sitting trials performed were slouch to lumbopelvic sitting and slouch to thoracic sitting follow by instruction. Next, the electrode placement was identified at C2-C3 on cervical spine for neck and at midpoint between C7 to the lateral edge of acromion spanning for shoulder respectively. These points were identified for a series of writing task performing for the EMG analysis. There were two type of writing task which included writing by looking at the whiteboard and paper placed on the table. The subjects were instructed to rest during the experiment when necessary. During lumbopelvic sitting posture, the average muscle activation on lumbar area was at the highest peak. The peak indicated that there was critical effect from the experimental finding. The performance of writing task from whiteboard gave rise a higher impact on neck muscle while writing task from paper had a greater impact on shoulder muscle. The critical affected muscle on these areas was proven on these written tasks. The EMG experiment showed that the existing design of primary school classroom chair and table had brought impact on lumbar, neck and shoulder towards the students who were using. A future recommendation suggests that to redesign primary school classroom chair and table which

  15. Application of operational contingency analysis as a tool to reduce loss in the energy and utility area; Aplicacao da analise de contingencia operacional como ferramenta de minimizacao de perdas na area de energia e utilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano Francisco dos; Alvarenga, Zenilton Galhano; Grijo, Fabio Becalli [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    All new implementation of activities and equipment needs special attention regarding programming, preparation and operations performance, service and necessary interventions in order to achieve success considering operation, safety and environment. The real challenge in order to realize this change is to guarantee for the costumers the minimum interference, once it is performed on an operational routine basis. The energy distribution area from ArcelorMittal Tubarao (IGC-D) has a very important operational tool to succeed on this task: the operational contingency analysis. The objective of this paper is showing how the operational contingency analysis has been used as a tool to help IGC-D operation on preventing interruptions on supplying the internal costumers as well as keeping the maximum efficiency at the plant. (author)

  16. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  17. 41 Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 4, (1), December 2011. 41. Appraisal of the ... quantitative risks analysis in the determination of contingency fund. Therefore, to improve the ... the financial performance of constructed facilities ...

  18. Contingent Conspiracies: Art, Philosophy, Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether creativity comes from being “open” or “closed” to contingent processes, deeply intersects art-historical discourse on authorship, style, technique and practice: from the Greek notion of the Daimon, through commedia dell'arte’s improvised styles and romanticism’s investment......, Hegel) contain a deeper tension between contingency and necessity, often revealed in correlate discussions of the sublime. But as artists find themselves returning again to a concern or care for contingency (a thread running through Heidegger, Levinas and Derrida) or the question how to conspire...... with contingency (Negarestani), they do so today with a new paradigm of scientific knowledge at their disposal. For science too has increasingly been forced to respond to the notion of contingency. Progressively discovering the ubiquity of non-linear dynamics, deterministic chaos and emergent complexity...

  19. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  20. Contingency planning in southern Africa: Events rather than processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mabaso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, there is growing focus on contingency planning as a tool for enhancing resilience. Yet, there is little empirical evidence that reflects on the practice of contingency planning systems within the context of disaster risk reduction. This article explores the practice of contingency planning in southern Africa, focussing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. A qualitative comparative analysis informed by fieldwork was used. The findings show that (1 there was a wide gap between theory and practice in contingency planning, (2 response activities rarely reflected projected scenarios and (3 resources were inadequate for effective contingency planning. We conclude that unless these issues are addressed, contingency planning is likely to remain a theoretical rather than a practical tool for building disaster-resilient communities in southern African countries. Although a generalisation cannot be made on the status of contingency planning and practice in southern Africa without a wider analysis of more examples, the findings may apply beyond the examined contexts and also offer insights into research gaps.

  1. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  2. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  3. Using of dimensional analysis to determine the parameters of gravity separator table device to minimize impurities in bulk lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bagheri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens culinaris medic is an important and highly nutritious crop belonging to the family of legumes. Lentil is cultivated worldwide but competition with weeds is a problem affecting production and can reduce yield by more than 80%. The study on the separation of impurities in bulk lentils (Euphorbia helioscopia weed, Wild oat weed and etc. by a gravity separator has an extreme importance. Since no study has been done to date, in this study, the effects of different parameters of a gravity separator (longitudinal and latitudinal slopes, oscillation frequency and amplitude on the separation of foreign matters in lentil seeds were evaluated. A dimensionless number (v/aω which shows ration of air current velocity blown to lentil to the maximum velocity of table oscillation, was considered in ratio of separation. Materials and Methods In this research, lentil samples were taken from farms in Ardebil Province (Bileh-Savar cultivar. A gravity separator apparatus was also used for separating impurities from lentil seeds. A Laboratory Gravity Separator Type LA-K (Westrup A/S Denmark was used to separate impurities from bulk lentils. In this machine, table settings were as follows; longitudinal slope parameters (1°,1.5°, 1.75°, 2° and 2.5°, latitudinal slope (0.5°, 1°, and 1.5°, frequency of oscillation (380, 400, 420 and 450 cycles min-1, and amplitude of oscillation (5 and 7 mm, these settings were all adjustable. Similarly, the instrument had 5 boxes whereby, through proper adjustment, the heavier material was transferred toward the right side of the table and lighter material moved toward the left side. Through proper adjustment of the main parameters of the instrument, the impurities were separated from bulk lentils. Then using an electronic seed counter, five groups of seed which each group containing 100 seeds were counted and selected. Results and Discussion The results of variance analysis of the factorial design with

  4. Beyond Technology, an Analysis of the Perceived Impact of Transformational Leadership and Contingent Rewards as Extrinsic Motivation on Virtual Team Member Satisfaction and Leadership Effectiveness: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawanda, Haruna Juko

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this nonexperimental, correlational, and descriptive quantitative study research was to gain an empirical understanding of the effects of transformational leadership and contingent reward as extrinsic motivation on employee satisfaction with leadership and leadership effectiveness in virtual team workplace environments.…

  5. Evaluation and analysis of emergency maintenance due by third party action's, formulation and execution of contingency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul; Nunez Ribera, Gary [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    In September 2008, in the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG) located in the south of Bolivia, atypical situations took place. Due to the political events and the social mobilizations in which the country was, a series of third party actions developed putting in risk the facilities of the gas pipeline. These actions resulted in the rupture of a 1 inch instrumentation pipe, causing a leak witch some time caught fire and caused an interruption of the transportation service in that section of the pipeline, later on, another action derived in safety valve shut down causing a total pipeline shut down. In addition to these events we experience a fuel shortage, road blocks and a telephone communication system failure. In spite of these obstacles the maintenance activities were realized and emergency repairs put back in operating conditions the gas pipeline, task that was accomplished in a very short time, taking in account the situation. Later analysis, including all the adverse elements of the situation, result in the adoption of a series of measures and plans directed to mitigate the risk associated to this type of events, such as Mutual Aid Plans with fellow companies and institutions, fortification of the patrimonial security, stock material handling for emergency repairs, etc. (author)

  6. Limits of principal components analysis for producing a common trait space: implications for inferring selection, contingency, and chance in evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Parsons

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing patterns of divergence among separate lineages or groups has posed an especially difficult challenge for biologists. Recently a new, conceptually simple methodology called the "ordered-axis plot" approach was introduced for the purpose of comparing patterns of diversity in a common morphospace. This technique involves a combination of principal components analysis (PCA and linear regression. Given the common use of these statistics the potential for the widespread use of the ordered axis approach is high. However, there are a number of drawbacks to this approach, most notably that lineages with the greatest amount of variance will largely bias interpretations from analyses involving a common morphospace. Therefore, without meeting a set of a priori requirements regarding data structure the ordered-axis plot approach will likely produce misleading results.Morphological data sets from cichlid fishes endemic to Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria were used to statistically demonstrate how separate groups can have differing contributions to a common morphospace produced by a PCA. Through a matrix superimposition of eigenvectors (scale-free trajectories of variation identified by PCA we show that some groups contribute more to the trajectories of variation identified in a common morphospace. Furthermore, through a set of randomization tests we show that a common morphospace model partitions variation differently than group-specific models. Finally, we demonstrate how these limitations may influence an ordered-axis plot approach by performing a comparison on data sets with known alterations in covariance structure. Using these results we provide a set of criteria that must be met before a common morphospace can be reliably used.Our results suggest that a common morphospace produced by PCA would not be useful for producing biologically meaningful results unless a restrictive set of criteria are met. We therefore suggest biologists be aware

  7. Contingent Conversion Convertible Bond: New avenue to raise bank capital

    OpenAIRE

    DI GIROLAMO FRANCESCA; CAMPOLONGO FRANCESCA; DE SPIEGELEER JAN; SCHOUTENS WIM

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the structuring and the pricing of an innovative financial market product. This instrument is called a contingent conversion convertible bond or "CoCoCo". This hybrid bond is itself a combination of two other hybrid instruments: a contingent convertible ("CoCo") and a convertible bond. This combination introduces more complexity in the structure but it also allows investors to profit from strong share price performances. This upside potential is add...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.301 - Contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1544.301 Section 1544.301... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.301 Contingency plan. Each aircraft operator must adopt a contingency plan and must: (a) Implement its contingency plan when directed by TSA. (b) Ensure...

  9. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency Plan...

  10. National Contingency Plan Subpart J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subpart J of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) directs EPA to prepare a schedule of dispersants, other chemicals, and oil spill mitigating devices and substances that may be used to remove or control oil discharges.

  11. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  12. Contingencies of Self-Worth and Psychological Distress in Iranian Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery: Integrative Self-Knowledge as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valikhani, Ahmad; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have shown that people applying for cosmetic surgery experience high-intensity psychological distress, important variables that function as protective factors have rarely been the subject of study in this population. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low and high self-knowledge in experiencing psychological distress and contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and to identify the mediatory role of the integrative self-knowledge in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Eighty-eight patients seeking cosmetic surgery were selected and completed the contingencies of self-worth and integrative self-knowledge scales, as well as the depression, anxiety and stress scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis using 5000 bootstrap resampling. The results of MANOVA showed that patients seeking cosmetic surgery with high self-knowledge had lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress compared to patients with low self-knowledge. They also gained lower scores in contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others. The results of path analysis indicated that self-knowledge is a complete mediator in the relationship between contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and psychological distress. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that self-knowledge as a protective factor plays a major role in relation to the psychological distress experienced by the patients seeking cosmetic surgery. In fact, by increasing self-knowledge among this group of patients, their psychological distress can be decreased. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Shaking table test and analysis of embedded structure soil interaction considering input motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Y.; Mizuno, H.; Machida, N.; Sato, K.; Okano, H.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamic interaction between soil and structure is decomposed into inertial interaction (II) and kinematic interaction (KI). II denotes the interaction due to inertial force applied on foundations. KI denotes the interaction of massless foundations subjected to seismic waves. Forced vibration tests by exciters are not enough to evaluate the complete soil-structure interaction due to the lack of KI. To clarify the effects of KI on the seismic response of structure, the authors intended to carry out shaking table tests of the interaction between the soil and the embedded structure. A method to decompose II and KI is introduced which reveals the construction of embedment effects. Finally, the authors discuss the validity of three kinds of simulation analyses, that is, two-dimensional, approximate three-dimensional and rigorous three-dimensional analyses, comparing with the test results

  14. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-10-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  15. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  16. Valuing Externalities of Watershed Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in Mediterranean Basins: A Comparative Analysis of the Contingent Valuation and Replacement Cost Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Maria Del Carmen Almansa; Calatrava-Requena, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of th...

  17. Non-linear analysis of the behaviour of a thin and squat reinforced concrete wall on a seismic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazars, J.; Ghavamian, S.; Ile, N.; Reynouard, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This work concerns the modeling and analysis of the seismic behaviour of a thin reinforced concrete wall using an experiment performed by the NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) Japanese organisation with the Tadotsu seismic table. The wall with a height/width ratio close to 1, has its extremities stiffened and its base embedded. The wall, loaded on its top with a 122 t weight, is submitted to several seismic levels up to its collapse. A non-linear seismic analysis and different 2-D and 3-D finite elements modeling were used to simulate the behaviour of the structure submitted to a strong dynamic shear. The results presented in this paper belong to the ''Seismic Shear Wall Standard Problem'' benchmark jointly organized the NUPEC and OECD organizations. (J.S.)

  18. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  19. Life table analysis of the United States' Year 2000 mortality objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, I R; Pollard, J H

    1995-06-01

    The US Year 2000 mortality objectives are model standards cast as targeted changes in age-adjusted cause-specific death rates. This research centred on the projected impact of such changes on life expectancy and the mortality toll for each sex. A computer simulation was conducted using single decrement, multiple decrement and cause-elimination life table techniques, together with a decomposition procedure. Male and female life expectancy at birth was projected to increase by 1.71 and 1.51 years, respectively, between the designated 1987 baseline and 2000. The leading beneficiaries would be those aged 65 and older, followed by those aged 45-64, and infants. Declines in coronary heart disease, stroke and injury death rates would most influence the projected life expectancy changes, irrespective of sex. Approximately 782,000 male deaths and 730,000 female deaths would be averted under Year 2000 assumptions. Life expectancy would be a useful summary measure to incorporate into official evaluations of the Year 2000 mortality objectives. Targeting of excess male mortality in the US and other highly industrialized nations is recommended.

  20. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss

  1. Analysis of Tide and Offshore Storm-Induced Water Table Fluctuations for Structural Characterization of a Coastal Island Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trglavcnik, Victoria; Morrow, Dean; Weber, Kela P.; Li, Ling; Robinson, Clare E.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of water table fluctuations can provide important insight into the hydraulic properties and structure of a coastal aquifer system including the connectivity between the aquifer and ocean. This study presents an improved approach for characterizing a permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifer system through analysis of the propagation of the tidal signal, as well as offshore storm pulse signals through a coastal aquifer. Offshore storms produce high wave activity, but are not necessarily linked to significant onshore precipitation. In this study, we focused on offshore storm events during which no onshore precipitation occurred. Extensive groundwater level data collected on a sand barrier island (Sable Island, NS, Canada) show nonuniform discontinuous propagation of the tide and offshore storm pulse signals through the aquifer with isolated inland areas showing enhanced response to both oceanic forcing signals. Propagation analysis suggests that isolated inland water table fluctuations may be caused by localized leakage from a confined aquifer that is connected to the ocean offshore but within the wave setup zone. Two-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were conducted to test the leaky confined-unconfined aquifer conceptualization and to identify the effect of key parameters on tidal signal propagation in leaky confined-unconfined coastal aquifers. This study illustrates that analysis of offshore storm signal propagation, in addition to tidal signal propagation, provides a valuable and low resource approach for large-scale characterization of permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Such an approach is needed for the effective management of coastal environments where water resources are threatened by human activities and the changing climate.

  2. Substituent effects on the optical properties of naphthalenediimides: A frontier orbital analysis across the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Joshua R; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Slootweg, J Chris; Lammertsma, Koop; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2016-01-15

    A comprehensive theoretical treatment is presented for the electronic excitation spectra of ca. 50 different mono-, di-, and tetrasubstituted naphthalenediimides (NDI) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at ZORA-CAM-B3LYP/TZ2P//ZORA-BP86/TZ2P with COSMO for simulating the effect of dichloromethane (DCM) solution. The substituents -XHn are from groups 14-17 and rows 2-5 of the periodic table. The lowest dipole-allowed singlet excitation (S0 -S1 ) of the monosubstituted NDIs can be tuned from 3.39 eV for -F to 2.42 eV for -TeH, while the S0 -S2 transition is less sensitive to substitution with energies ranging between 3.67 eV for -CH3 and 3.44 eV for -SbH2 . In the case of NDIs with group-15 and -16 substituents, the optical transitions strongly depend on the extent to which -XHn is planar or pyramidal as well as on the possible formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The accumulative effect of double and quadruple substitution leads in general to increasing bathochromic shifts, but the increased steric hindrance in tetrasubstituted NDIs can lead to deformations that diminish the effectiveness of the substituents. Detailed analyses of the Kohn-Sham orbital electronic structure in monosubstituted NDIs reveal the mesomeric destabilization of the HOMO as the primary cause of the bathochromic shift of the S0-S1 transition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contingent Employment in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Pot, F.; Koene, Bas; Paauwe, Jaap

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade the Dutch labour market has demonstrated an admirable capacity to generate jobs. Consequently, the unemployment rate has significantly decreased. However, the newly generated jobs are a-typical in the sense that they are not full-time jobs based on open-ended contracts. Instead, the job growth has relied on the growth of part-time and contingent jobs. While the creation of part-time jobs seems to be employee-driven, contingent employment, in contrast, seems to b...

  5. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  6. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  7. Methodology, Measurement and Analysis of Flow Table Update Characteristics in Hardware OpenFlow Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kuźniar, Maciej; Pereší ni, Peter; Kostić, Dejan; Canini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    and performance characteristics is essential for ensuring successful and safe deployments.We propose a systematic methodology for SDN switch performance analysis and devise a series of experiments based on this methodology. The methodology relies on sending a

  8. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  9. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  10. Lessons in Contingent, Recursive Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that critical work in teacher education should begin with teacher educators turning a critical eye on their own practices. The author uses Lesko's conception of contingent, recursive growth and change to analyze a lesson he observed as part of a phenomenological study aimed at understanding more about what it is…

  11. A Profile of Contingent Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Based on data from the supplement to the February 1995 Current Population Survey, contingent workers were more likely to be female, black, young, enrolled in school, and employed in services and construction industries than were noncontingent workers. More than 10% were teachers. (Author)

  12. How Precarious Is Contingent Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2015-01-01

    agree. This study focuses on a number of non-pay conditions for contingent employees, compared to permanent staff, under the assumption that these conditions are cumulatively negative. The article is based on utilizes a survey of app.4,900 employees (response rate 57%), asking questions concerning...

  13. Sustainability between Necessity, Contingency and Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bruckmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources seems necessary to maintain functions and services of eco- and social systems in the long run. Efforts in policy and science for sustainable development have shown the splintering of local, national and global strategies. Sustainability becomes contingent and insecure with the actors´ conflicting knowledge, interests and aims, and seems even impossible through the “rebound”-effect. To make short and long term requirements of sustainability coherent requires critical, comparative and theoretical analysis of the problems met. For this purpose important concepts and theories are discussed in this review of recent interdisciplinary literature about resource management.

  14. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201 Contingency operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold...

  15. 48 CFR 218.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 218... Flexibilities 218.201 Contingency operation. (1) Selection, appointment, and termination of appointment... in a contingency contracting force. See 201.603-2(2). (2) Policy for unique item identification...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.301 Contingency plan. (a) Each airport operator required to have a security program under § 1542.103(a) and (b...

  17. A Seat Around the Table: Participatory Data Analysis With People Living With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charlotte L; Wilkinson, Heather; Watson, Julie; Wilcockson, Jane; Kinnaird, Lindsay; Williamson, Toby

    2018-05-01

    The involvement of "people with experience" in research has developed considerably in the last decade. However, involvement as co-analysts at the point of data analysis and synthesis has received very little attention-in particular, there is very little work that involves people living with dementia as co-analysts. In this qualitative secondary data analysis project, we (a) analyzed data through two theoretical lenses: Douglas's cultural theory of risk and Tronto's Ethic of Care, and (b) analyzed data in workshops with people living with dementia. The design involved cycles of presenting, interpreting, representing and reinterpreting the data, and findings between multiple stakeholders. We explore ways of involving people with experience as co-analysts and explore the role of reflexivity, multiple voicing, literary styling, and performance in participatory data analysis.

  18. Contingency learning without awareness: evidence for implicit control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Crump, Matthew J C; Cheesman, Jim; Besner, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words (e.g., MOVE) was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time (Experiments 1 and 4) or 50% of the time (Experiments 2 and 3). Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies between the words and the colours. An analysis of sequence effects showed that participants who were unaware of the relation between distracter words and colours nonetheless controlled the impact of the word on performance depending on the nature of the previous trial. A block analysis of contingency-unaware participants revealed that contingencies were learned rapidly in the first block of trials. Experiment 3 showed that the contingency effect does not depend on the level of awareness, thus ruling out explicit strategy accounts. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that the contingency effect results from behavioural control and not from semantic association or stimulus familiarity. These results thus provide evidence for implicit control.

  19. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  20. Table 1. Primer sequences used for real-time qRT-PCR analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    TGTCCCAGTAAACCGCTC. GAATCCAGCACGATACCAGT. Figure 1. Expression analysis of candidate CsActin and CsFbox genes by qRT-PCR in response to 4°C treatment. The y-axis indicates Cq values, and error bars represent standard deviations of the mean values of four replicates. Rt, roots; St, stems; Le, leaves; Fl ...

  1. Practical application of double-contingency protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, N.A.; Sanders, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Commercial Fuel Fabrication Facility in Columbia, South Carolina, manufactures fuel assemblies and core components for the commercial nuclear power industry. The ammonium diurinate conversion process converts low-enriched ( 235 U) uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) or uranyl nitrate into ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder. The UO 2 powder is then tumble blended in 1700-kg containers to ensure powder homogeneity and obtain necessary enrichments. The double-contingency principle is applied to all systems, processes, and components in which special nuclear material is processed, handled, or stored to ensure that an acceptable nuclear criticality margin of safety is maintained. The Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program at the Columbia plant is divided into three primary functions: analysis and evaluation, implementation, and compliance. The primary task in analysis and evaluation is to develop comprehensive criticality safety evaluations for all proposed new installations and system modifications. These evaluations involve identifying which of the nine physical process parameters directly affect neutron multiplication and establishing bounding assumptions and criticality safety limits (CSLs). The implementation function primarily consists of translating the open-quotes NCS-speakclose quotes (parameters, k eff , contingencies, barriers, controls, etc.) into operator language (procedural requirements, valve positions, flow rates, pressures, temperatures, etc.) and communicating this information clearly to the manufacturing function through procedures and training. The compliance function deals primarily with conducting criticality safety inspections, audits, and process upset investigations. This paper presents two examples of the challenges associated with the practical implementation of the double-contingency principle to the chemical manufacturing process at the Columbia plant

  2. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  3. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  4. Analysis and testing of model worm type tanks on shaking table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the summary of the lectures, notes and discussions at the IAEA workshop on Benchmark studies for seismic analysis of WWER NPPs, held in 1995 at St. Petersburg. The specific subject of main interest at the meeting was the testing of unanchored worm-type tanks in the emergency cooling systems of WWER-440/213 NPPs such as Paks and Bohunice. Seismic forces were not considered in the original design, therefore this is one of the important tasks in the assessment of seismic vulnerabilities of the WWER NPPs

  5. Design and analysis of a SVE system in a shallow water table application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, T.P.; Leachman, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Cummins Southeastern Power, Inc. (CSPI) operates a diesel engine repair facility in Hialeah Gardens, FL. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons ES) was retained to design a treatment system to remediate soil and hydrocarbons beneath the CSPI service building. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) followed by bioventing was selected as the most appropriate and cost effective approach. These activities were completed as part of CSPI's overall environmental program, which includes cleanup of any contamination that is encountered at their facilities and continual implementation of new measures to prevent future contamination from occurring. This paper presents a complete case history outlining the unique technical challenges associated with the CSPI site conditions. The methods utilized during completion and analysis of the pilot test are discussed and a description of how the pilot data was utilized for completion of the full-scale design is included. The paper presents the empirical analysis method which was developed during this design and shows how it can be applied to other SVE remediation applications

  6. Fuzzy-set based contingency ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Kuo, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed for contingency ranking of Taiwan power system. To examine whether a power system can remain in a secure and reliable operating state under contingency conditions, those contingency cases that will result in loss-of-load, loss-of generation, or islanding are first identified. Then 1P-1Q iteration of fast decoupled load flow is preformed to estimate post-contingent quantities (line flows, bus voltages) for other contingency cases. Based on system operators' past experience, each post-contingent quantity is assigned a degree of severity according to the potential damage that could be imposed on the power system by the quantity, should the contingency occurs. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to deal with the imprecision of linguistic terms

  7. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Two-group numerical analysis of one dimensional table nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osusky, F.; Vrban, B.; Cerba, S.; Lueley, J.; Hascik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complexity of Boltzmann transport equation, for the computational modelling there is a need to simplify operators in the equation. One well known approximation is diffusion theory, which is often used for numerical calculations. This approximation describes the migration of neutrons in space. It also eliminates few challenging variables, such as neutrons angular distribution and in our case energy variability (only two energy groups of neutrons are considered). This simplification has also its limitations and the diffusion theory is applicable in the environment without large local absorbers. The limitations are: environment is homogeneous, steady state type of analysis (∂φ/∂t = 0), neutron scattering is isotropic. The influence of heterogeneousness is decreasing with larger migration area of neutrons and therefore. Diffusion theory is very suitable for fast calculations and it is used during development of theoretical reactor design. The successful application of program code was demonstrated. It has also its limitations but it provides relevant information when these limitations are taken into account by researcher. Development of such program codes helps to increase knowledge level and it directly influences nuclear safety. It also allows solving specific issues which are irresolvable by commercial codes. In the future, we have a plan to enlarge geometry into 2 dimensions. (authors)

  9. Exploratory trend and pattern analysis of 1981 through 1983 Licensee Event Report data. Main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, O.V.; Groh, M.R.; Farmer, F.G.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents an overview of the 1981 through 1983 Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) data base that contains nuclear power plant operational data derived from Licensee Event Reports (LERs) submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Both overall event reporting and events related to specific components, subsystems, systems, and personnel are discussed. At all of these levels of information, software is used to generate count data for contingency tables. Contingency table analysis is the main tool for the trend and pattern analysis. The tables focus primarily on faults associated with various components and other items of interest across different plants. The abstracts and other SCSS information on the LERs accounting for unusual counts in the tables were examined to gain insights from the events. Trends and patterns in LER reporting and reporting of events for various component groups were examined through log-linear modeling techniques

  10. Strategic cost management, contingent factors and performance in services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseas Pavlatos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between contextual factors identified from contingency-based research, the extent of the use of strategic cost management (SCM techniques and business performance in services. An empirical survey was conducted on a sample of 88 services in Greece. The analysis of the survey data indicates that the use of strategic cost management techniques in services can be considered quite satisfactory. By drawing on the grounds of contingency theory, five factors were identified as potentially exhibiting an emergent relationship with strategic cost management. The five factors are; (1 Perceived environmental uncertainty, (2 Structure, (3 Organizational life cycle stage, (4 Strategy and (5 Size. The survey revealed that SCM usage is positively affected by these five contingent factors, while SCM usage, in turn, positively affects performance. A significant mediating effect of SCM usage on performance is evident.

  11. Contingent factors affecting network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Linda D.; Pressey, Andrew D.; Johnston, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the impact of individuals on organizational learning processes, this paper explores the impact of individual cognition and action on the absorptive capacity process of the wider network. In particular this study shows how contingent factors such as social integration mechanisms and power relationships influence how network members engage in, and benefit from, learning. The use of cognitive consistency and sensemaking theory enables examination of how these conting...

  12. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  13. Qualitative analysis of round-table discussions on the business case and procurement challenges for hospital electronic prescribing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Cresswell

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need to understand the challenges surrounding procurement of and business case development for hospital electronic prescribing systems, and to identify possible strategies to enhance the efficiency of these processes in order to assist strategic decision making.We organized eight multi-disciplinary round-table discussions in the United Kingdom. Participants included policy makers, representatives from hospitals, system developers, academics, and patients. Each discussion was digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and, together with accompanying field notes, analyzed thematically with NVivo9.We drew on data from 17 participants (approximately eight per roundtable, six hours of discussion, and 15 pages of field notes. Key challenges included silo planning with systems not being considered as part of an integrated organizational information technology strategy, lack of opportunity for interactions between customers and potential suppliers, lack of support for hospitals in choosing appropriate systems, difficulty of balancing structured planning with flexibility, and the on-going challenge of distinguishing "wants" and aspirations from organizational "needs".Development of business cases for major investments in information technology does not take place in an organizational vacuum. Building on previously identified potentially transferable dimensions to the development and execution of business cases surrounding measurements of costs/benefits and risk management, we have identified additional components relevant to ePrescribing systems. These include: considerations surrounding strategic context, case for change and objectives, future service requirements and options appraisal, capital and revenue implications, timescale and deliverability, and risk analysis and management.

  14. A Python-Based Open Source System for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA Utilizing Raster Attribute Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clewley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A modular system for performing Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA, using entirely open source (General Public License compatible software, is presented based around representing objects as raster clumps and storing attributes as a raster attribute table (RAT. The system utilizes a number of libraries, developed by the authors: The Remote Sensing and GIS Library (RSGISLib, the Raster I/O Simplification (RIOS Python Library, the KEA image format and TuiView image viewer. All libraries are accessed through Python, providing a common interface on which to build processing chains. Three examples are presented, to demonstrate the capabilities of the system: (1 classification of mangrove extent and change in French Guiana; (2 a generic scheme for the classification of the UN-FAO land cover classification system (LCCS and their subsequent translation to habitat categories; and (3 a national-scale segmentation for Australia. The system presented provides similar functionality to existing GEOBIA packages, but is more flexible, due to its modular environment, capable of handling complex classification processes and applying them to larger datasets.

  15. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1 the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2 the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1 the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2 the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  16. USARCENT AOR Contingency Base Waste Stream Analysis: An Analysis of Solid Waste Streams at Five Bases in the U. S. Army Central (USARCENT) Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    and Plastics Waste in As Bench Scale Combustor. University of Technology, Malaysia . http://eprints.utm.my/2854/1/75186.pdf. ASTM – ASTM...prevalent types of solid waste are food (19.1% by average sample weight), wood (18.9%), and plastics (16.0%) based on analysis of bases in...within the interval shown. Food and wood wastes are the largest components of the average waste stream (both at ~19% by weight), followed by plastic

  17. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  18. Identifying the warm glow effect in contingent valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Schokkaert, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a contingent valuation study designed to investigate the influence of warm glow in willingness to pay (WTP) responses. Interindividual differences in warm glow motivation are measured through a factor analysis, performed on a list of attitudinal items. The

  19. CRAFT (complete reduction to amplitude frequency table)--robust and time-efficient Bayesian approach for quantitative mixture analysis by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic quantitative nature of NMR is increasingly exploited in areas ranging from complex mixture analysis (as in metabolomics and reaction monitoring) to quality assurance/control. Complex NMR spectra are more common than not, and therefore, extraction of quantitative information generally involves significant prior knowledge and/or operator interaction to characterize resonances of interest. Moreover, in most NMR-based metabolomic experiments, the signals from metabolites are normally present as a mixture of overlapping resonances, making quantification difficult. Time-domain Bayesian approaches have been reported to be better than conventional frequency-domain analysis at identifying subtle changes in signal amplitude. We discuss an approach that exploits Bayesian analysis to achieve a complete reduction to amplitude frequency table (CRAFT) in an automated and time-efficient fashion - thus converting the time-domain FID to a frequency-amplitude table. CRAFT uses a two-step approach to FID analysis. First, the FID is digitally filtered and downsampled to several sub FIDs, and secondly, these sub FIDs are then modeled as sums of decaying sinusoids using the Bayesian approach. CRAFT tables can be used for further data mining of quantitative information using fingerprint chemical shifts of compounds of interest and/or statistical analysis of modulation of chemical quantity in a biological study (metabolomics) or process study (reaction monitoring) or quality assurance/control. The basic principles behind this approach as well as results to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in mixture analysis are presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fast and precise method of contingency ranking in modern power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Contingency Analysis is one of the most important aspect of Power System Security Analysis. This paper presents a fast and precise method of contingency ranking for effective power system security analysis. The method proposed in this research work takes due consideration of both apparent power o...... is based on realistic approach taking practical situations into account. Besides taking real situations into consideration the proposed method is fast enough to be considered for on-line security analysis.......Contingency Analysis is one of the most important aspect of Power System Security Analysis. This paper presents a fast and precise method of contingency ranking for effective power system security analysis. The method proposed in this research work takes due consideration of both apparent power...

  1. Table 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uovs

    importance in any sheep breeding enterprise another objective was, therefore, to estimate ... was tested conducting least squares analyses of variance using the GLM procedure of SAS (1991). ...... Statistical Analysis Systems users' guide.

  2. Network location theory and contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, S L

    1983-08-01

    A brief survey of results in network location theory is first presented. Then, a systems view of contingency planning is described. Finally, some results in location theory are re-examined and it is shown that they are motivated by contingency planning considerations. Some new issues and problems in location theory are described, which, if properly tackled, will have a substantial impact on contingency planning in transportation.

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Round-Table Discussions on the Business Case and Procurement Challenges for Hospital Electronic Prescribing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M.; Slee, Ann; Coleman, Jamie; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W.; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is a pressing need to understand the challenges surrounding procurement of and business case development for hospital electronic prescribing systems, and to identify possible strategies to enhance the efficiency of these processes in order to assist strategic decision making. Materials and Methods We organized eight multi-disciplinary round-table discussions in the United Kingdom. Participants included policy makers, representatives from hospitals, system developers, academics, and patients. Each discussion was digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and, together with accompanying field notes, analyzed thematically with NVivo9. Results We drew on data from 17 participants (approximately eight per roundtable), six hours of discussion, and 15 pages of field notes. Key challenges included silo planning with systems not being considered as part of an integrated organizational information technology strategy, lack of opportunity for interactions between customers and potential suppliers, lack of support for hospitals in choosing appropriate systems, difficulty of balancing structured planning with flexibility, and the on-going challenge of distinguishing “wants” and aspirations from organizational “needs”. Discussion and conclusions Development of business cases for major investments in information technology does not take place in an organizational vacuum. Building on previously identified potentially transferable dimensions to the development and execution of business cases surrounding measurements of costs/benefits and risk management, we have identified additional components relevant to ePrescribing systems. These include: considerations surrounding strategic context, case for change and objectives, future service requirements and options appraisal, capital and revenue implications, timescale and deliverability, and risk analysis and management. PMID:24260213

  4. Contingency Operations of Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea

    2010-01-01

    America has begun the development of a new space vehicle system which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. The system is called Constellation: it has 2 earth-launch vehicles, Ares I and Ares V; a crew module, Orion; and a lander, Altair with descent and ascent stages. Ares V will launch an Earth Departure Stage (EDS) and Altair into low earth orbit. Ares I will launch the Orion crew module into low earth orbit where it will rendezvous and dock with the Altair and EDS "stack". After rendezvous, the stack will contain four complete rocket systems, each capable of independent operations. Of course this multiplicity of vehicles provides a multiplicity of opportunities for off-nominal behavior and multiple mitigation options for each. Contingency operations are complicated by the issues of crew safety and the possibility of debris from the very large components impacting the ground. This paper examines contingency operations of the EDS in low earth orbit, during the boost to translunar orbit, and after the translunar boost. Contingency operations under these conditions have not been a consideration since the Apollo era and analysis of the possible contingencies and mitigations will take some time to evolve. Since the vehicle has not been designed, much less built, it is not possible to evaluate contingencies from a root-cause basis or from a probability basis; rather they are discussed at an effects level (such as the reaction control system is consuming propellant at a high rate). Mitigations for the contingencies are based on the severity of the off-nominal condition, the time of occurrence, recovery options, options for alternate missions, crew safety, evaluation of the condition (forensics) and future prevention. Some proposed mitigations reflect innovation in thinking and make use of the multiplicity of on-orbit resources including the crew; example: Orion could do a "fly around" to allow the crew to determine the condition

  5. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan... called upon to provide emergency services. [Comment: The contingency plan must be submitted to the...

  7. Pavlovian contingencies and temporal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Peter D; Fairhurst, Stephen; Gallistel, Charles R

    2006-07-01

    The effects of altering the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the acquisition of autoshaped responding was investigated by changing the frequency of unsignaled USs during the intertrial interval. The addition of the unsignaled USs had an effect on acquisition speed comparable with that of massing trials. The effects of these manipulations can be understood in terms of their effect on the amount of information (number of bits) that the average CS conveys to the subject about the timing of the next US. The number of reinforced CSs prior to acquisition is inversely related to the information content of the CS.

  8. L'analyse implicative bayésienne : une méthode pour l'étude des dépendances orientées. 2. Modèle logique sur un tableau de contingence

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jean-Marc; Charron, Camilo

    2006-01-01

    In Bernard & Charron (1996) we proposed a new method, the Bayesian Implicative Analysis, for the study of oriented dependencies between two binary variables, method which enables to conclude in terms of quasi-implication between modalities of the variables. In this article, we extend the method to the general case of an A < B contingency table, whth the problem of measuring the degree of quasi-conformity of the data to a given logical model. At the descriptive level, the method is based on th...

  9. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  10. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  11. Ensinando professoras a analisar e interpretar dados como parte de uma análise de contingências Teaching school-teachers to analyze and to interpret data as part of a contingency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Porto de Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo ensinar três professoras de Educação Infantil a realizar parte de uma análise de contingências: a análise e a interpretação de dados sobre o comportamento de um aluno. Foram exibidos 14 filmes, os quais mostravam uma professora aplicando um método de análise de contingências a comportamentos considerados inadequados de um aluno, sendo tais comportamentos mantidos pela atenção da professora ou pela fuga de tarefas escolares. As participantes observaram e registraram a ocorrência ou não ocorrência do comportamento-alvo, o evento antecedente e a consequência, em intervalos de 30 segundos. Posteriormente, responderam a questões de análise e interpretação de dados. O procedimento foi composto por: Pré-teste; Ensino e Pós-teste. No Pré-teste, erraram a maioria dos registros, assim como as respostas às questões. No Pós-teste, acertaram praticamente todos os registros e as respostas, sugerindo-se a efetividade das estratégias utilizadas para ensiná-las a analisar e interpretar dados em um período relativamente curto.The purpose of this study was to teach three school-teachers to perform part of a contingency analysis: the analysis and interpretation of data about a student's behavior. Fourteen movies were exhibited, which showed a teacher implementing a method of contingency analysis to a student's behaviors. These behaviors were maintained either by the teacher's attention or by escape from academic tasks. Participants observed and recorded the occurrence or non occurrence of the student's target behavior, the antecedent event and the consequence, at 30 second intervals. Afterwards, they answered questions on data analysis and interpretation. The procedure was composed by: Pre-test, Training Procedures and Post-test. On Pre-test, participants made mistakes in the majority of the records and answers to the questions. On Post-test, almost all the records and the answers were correct, which

  12. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201 Contingency...

  13. 7 CFR 457.9 - Appropriation contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriation contingency. 457.9 Section 457.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.9 Appropriation contingency...

  14. Reporting, Recording, and Transferring Contingency Demand Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report, we develop a standard set of procedures for reporting and recording demand data at the contingency location and transferring contingency demand data to the home base - ensuring proper level allocation and valid worldwide peacetime operating stock (POS) and readiness spares package (RSP) requirements.

  15. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  16. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  17. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  18. Historical contingency in fluviokarst landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-02-01

    Lateral and vertical erosion at meander bends in the Kentucky River gorge area has created a series of strath terraces on the interior of incised meander bends. These represent a chronosequence of fluviokarst landscape evolution from the youngest valley side transition zone near the valley bottom to the oldest upland surface. This five-part chronosequence (not including the active river channel and floodplain) was analyzed in terms of the landforms that occur at each stage or surface. These include dolines, uvalas, karst valleys, pocket valleys, unincised channels, incised channels, and cliffs (smaller features such as swallets and shafts also occur). Landform coincidence analysis shows higher coincidence indices (CI) than would be expected based on an idealized chronosequence. CI values indicate genetic relationships (common causality) among some landforms and unexpected persistence of some features on older surfaces. The idealized and two observed chronosequences were also represented as graphs and analyzed using algebraic graph theory. The two field sites yielded graphs more complex and with less historical contingency than the idealized sequence. Indeed, some of the spectral graph measures for the field sites more closely approximate a purely hypothetical no-historical-contingency benchmark graph. The deviations of observations from the idealized expectations, and the high levels of graph complexity both point to potential transitions among landform types as being the dominant phenomenon, rather than canalization along a particular evolutionary pathway. As the base level of both the fluvial and karst landforms is lowered as the meanders expand, both fluvial and karst denudation are rejuvenated, and landform transitions remain active.

  19. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  20. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  1. Structural analysis of a flexure tilt table by using finite element method; Strukturanalyse eines Biege-Kipp-Tisches mittels Finite-Elemente-Methode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schust, Matthias

    2012-08-15

    At the research institute DESY the synchrotron radiation source PETRA III is operated at Hamburg site. The facility is the most powerful lightsource of its kind and enables scientists to use X-ray beams with hitherto unattained brilliance. In a so-called double-crystal monochromator certain wavelengths can be selected from the light. In these systems tilt tables with flexure hinges are used. So far, a certain susceptibility of the assembly to vibration can be seen, which decreases the beam quality. The goal of this thesis is to determine the causes of the problem and to discuss the findings concerning the known behavior. First of all the functioning of the tilt table will be explained. Afterwards the theory of flexure hinges and the boundary conditions of a finite element analysis will be treated. Using a simulation program, several assembly models will be investigated and parameter studies are carried out. Beginning with the base object of investigation - the tilt table - the model of the whole assembly is systematically developed. Natural frequencies, the stress at the spring hinges and the displacement of the crystal surface can be determined. The results of the research show that the vibration behavior of the assembly is very complex and cannot be comprehensively described within the analyses carried out. The cause of the problems has not been identified yet and therefore further studies would be necessary. (orig.)

  2. Use of geospatial technology for delineating groundwater potential zones with an emphasis on water-table analysis in Dwarka River basin, Birbhum, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Gupta, Arindam; Reddy, D. V.; Kaur, Harjeet

    2018-05-01

    Dwarka River basin in Birbhum, West Bengal (India), is an agriculture-dominated area where groundwater plays a crucial role. The basin experiences seasonal water stress conditions with a scarcity of surface water. In the presented study, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) is carried out using a geospatial multi-influencing factor technique. Geology, geomorphology, soil type, land use/land cover, rainfall, lineament and fault density, drainage density, slope, and elevation of the study area were considered for the delineation of GWPZs in the study area. About 9.3, 71.9 and 18.8% of the study area falls within good, moderate and poor groundwater potential zones, respectively. The potential groundwater yield data corroborate the outcome of the model, with maximum yield in the older floodplain and minimum yield in the hard-rock terrains in the western and south-western regions. Validation of the GWPZs using the yield of 148 wells shows very high accuracy of the model prediction, i.e., 89.1% on superimposition and 85.1 and 81.3% on success and prediction rates, respectively. Measurement of the seasonal water-table fluctuation with a multiplicative model of time series for predicting the short-term trend of the water table, followed by chi-square analysis between the predicted and observed water-table depth, indicates a trend of falling groundwater levels, with a 5% level of significance and a p-value of 0.233. The rainfall pattern for the last 3 years of the study shows a moderately positive correlation ( R 2 = 0.308) with the average water-table depth in the study area.

  3. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  4. Pension Insurance Data Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — Find out about retirement trends in PBGC's data tables. The tables include statistics on the people and pensions that PBGC protects, including how many Americans are...

  5. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  6. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  8. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  11. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  12. AcuTable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...

  13. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2013-01-01

    Apparently table tennis plays an important role in physics, not so much because physicists are interested in the theory of table tennis ball scattering, but probably because it provides useful breaks from their deep intellectual occupation. It seems that many of the greatest physicists took table tennis very seriously. For instance, Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis, Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis, and had a table set up in his library, and Niels Bohr apparently beat everybody at table tennis. Therefore, as the CERN Table Tennis Club advertises on a poster for the next CERN Table Tennis Tournament: “if you want to be a great physicist, perhaps you should play table tennis”. Outdoor table at restaurant n° 1 For this reason, and also as part of the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better”, to encourage everyone at CERN to take regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with the supp...

  14. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  15. Hydrogeologic characteristics and geospatial analysis of water-table changes in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas River Valley, southeastern Colorado, 2002, 2008, and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Michael J.

    2017-05-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District measures groundwater levels periodically in about 100 wells completed in the alluvial material of the Arkansas River Valley in Pueblo, Crowley, Otero, Bent, and Prowers Counties in southeastern Colorado, of which 95 are used for the analysis in this report. The purpose of this report is to provide information to water-resource administrators, managers, planners, and users about groundwater characteristics in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley extending roughly 150 miles between Pueblo Reservoir and the Colorado-Kansas State line. This report includes three map sheets showing (1) bedrock altitude at the base of the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley; (2) estimated spring-to-spring and fall-to-fall changes in water-table altitude between 2002, 2008, and 2015; and (3) estimated saturated thickness in the alluvium during spring and fall of 2002, 2008, and 2015, and thickness of the alluvium in the lower Arkansas Valley. Water-level changes were analyzed by geospatial interpolation methods.Available data included all water-level measurements made between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015; however, only data from fall and spring of 2002, 2008, and 2015 are mapped in this report. To account for the effect of John Martin Reservoir in Bent County, Colorado, lake levels at the reservoir were assigned to points along the approximate shoreline and were included in the water-level dataset. After combining the water-level measurements and lake levels, inverse distance weighting was used to interpolate between points and calculate the altitude of the water table for fall and spring of each year for comparisons. Saturated thickness was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from the water-table surface. Thickness of the alluvium was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from land surface using a digital elevation model.In order to analyze the response

  16. PO.RA project. An analysis on gas radon concentrations in soil versus fluctuations in the groundwater table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serentha', C.; Torretta, M.

    2001-01-01

    Man is daily exposed to natural radiation, mainly due to cosmic rays and natural radioactive elements, whose most important radioactive daughters are 222 Rn (radon) and 220 Rn (thoron). Being these ones gaseous, they can spread through the ground, reaching the atmosphere and accumulating in rooms, where their concentrations may be very high. As radon exhalation is strongly connected with the hydrogeological features of the environment, this study tried to find a relationship between fluctuations in the groundwater table and gas radon concentrations in soil, in order to try estimates of indoor radon concentrations [it

  17. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable regulations...

  18. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be: (a) Maintained at the facility; and (b...

  19. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be...

  20. Risk factors of delay proportional probability in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination of Iranian children; Life table approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in expanded program immunization for an increase in vaccination coverage in the children of world, timeliness and schedule of vaccination remains as one of the challenges in public health. This study purposed to demonstrate the related factors of delayed diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccination using life table approach. A historical cohort study conducted in the poor areas of five large Iran cities. Totally, 3610 children with 24-47 months old age who had documented vaccination card were enrolled. Time of vaccination for the third dose of DTP vaccine was calculated. Life table survival was used to calculate the proportional probability of vaccination in each time. Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison proportional probability of delayed vaccination based on studies factors. The overall median delayed time for DTP3 was 38.52 days. The Wilcoxon test showed that city, nationality, education level of parents, birth order and being in rural areas are related to the high probability of delay time for DTP3 vaccination (P 0.05. Being away from the capital, a high concentration of immigrants in the city borders with a low socioeconomic class leads to prolonged delay in DTP vaccination time. Special attention to these areas is needed to increase the levels of parental knowledge and to facilitate access to the health services care.

  1. Life table analysis of the performance of aphid Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae nymphs exposed to a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the age-stage two-sex life table, this work was undertaken in order to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs at two flux densities (0.176T and 0.065T applied at increasing times of duration (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h on the development, fecundity and reproduction of the aphid, Sitobion avenae. Exposed nymphs had a statistically significant shortened first instar period and adult longevity and prolonged fourth instar periods compared to controls. There were significant differences in the population parameters for two exposure combinations, 0.176T for 0.5 h and 0.065T for 1 h. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were 0.1165, 3.5 and 11.7 days, respectively, 0.176 T for 0.5 h and -0.0198, 0.7 and 11.8 days, respectively, 0.065T for 1 h. We therefore recommend using the age-stage, two-sex life table to study the effect of the static magnetic field on development and growth of the aphid, Sitobion avenae.

  2. The Corps Engineer Battalion in Contingency Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymer, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The central research question asks: Is the proposed echelons above division engineer battalion design a better one for active and reserve component corps engineer forces to respond in a contingency...

  3. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  4. CERN Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Table Tennis Club

    2014-01-01

    CERN Table Tennis Club Announcing CERN 60th Anniversary Table Tennis Tournament to take place at CERN, from July 1 to July 15, 2014   The CERN Table Tennis Club, reborn in 2008, is encouraging people at CERN to take more regular exercise. This is why the Club, thanks to the strong support of the CERN Staff Association, installed last season a first outdoor table on the terrace of restaurant # 1, and will install another one this season on the terrace of Restaurant # 2. Table tennis provides both physical exercise and friendly social interactions. The CERN Table Tennis club is happy to use the unique opportunity of the 60th CERN anniversary to promote table tennis at CERN, as it is a game that everybody can easily play, regardless of level. Table tennis is particularly well suited for CERN, as many great physicists play table tennis, as you might already know: “Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis”; “Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis;...

  5. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  6. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  7. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-01-01

    According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of c...

  8. Shaking table test and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer rubber bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fujimoto, Shigeru [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated under various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the results of the shaking table tests and dynamic response analysis. (author)

  9. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1990-01-01

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Dealing with customers enquiries simultaneously under contingent situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Piya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to quote the due date and the price of incoming orders to multiple customers simultaneously when the contingent orders exist. The proposed method utilizes probabilistic information on contingent orders and incorporates some negotiation theories to generate quotations. Rather than improving the acceptance probability of quotation for single customer, the method improves the overall acceptance probability of quotations being submitted to the multiple customers. This helps increase the total expected contribution of company and acceptance probability of entire new orders rather than increasing these measures only for a single customer. Numerical analysis is conducted to demonstrate the working mechanism of proposed method and its effectiveness in contrast to sequential method of quotation.

  11. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Contingent Unknowability of Facts and its Relation with Informal, Epistemological Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Kreiter Bezerra Medeiros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on elements that are involved in a specific type of judgment, namely, those involving facts that, in virtue of contingent reasons, are out of our epistemic reach. Its goal is to propose a philosophical explanation about why we, in informal contexts, take some facts as contingently unknowable. In order to accomplish that goal, we develop a theory that defines contingently unknowable facts in a very specific way. We establish three clauses that are jointly necessary and sufficient — so we argue — for taking an arbitrary fact as contingently unknowable. In a variety of contexts, this strategy has the potential of reducing efforts in an epistemological analysis of this particular type of unknowability.

  13. TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    2010-01-01

    2010 CERN Table Tennis Tournament The CERN Table Tennis Club organizes its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament, at the Meyrin club, 2 rue de livron, in Meyrin, Saturday August 21st, in the afternoon. The tournament is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students. See below for details. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You can also download the registration form from the Club Web page (http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis), and send it via internal mail. Photo taken on August 22, 2009 showing some of the participants in the 2nd CERN Table Tennis tournament. INFORMATION ON CERN TABLE TENNIS CLUB CERN used to have a tradition of table tennis activities at CERN. For some reason, at the beginning of the 1980’s, the CERN Table Tennis club merged with the Meyrin Table Tennis club, a member of the Association Genevoise de Tennis de Table (AGTT). Therefore, if you want to practice table tennis, you...

  14. Optimal self-esteem is contingent: Intrinsic versus extrinsic and upward versus downward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Smit, H.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that noncontingent, unconditional self-esteem is not optimal but defensive. We introduce the concept of intrinsic contingency, where self-esteem is affected by whether one's actions are self-congruent and conducive to personal growth. Whereas external contingencies, especially social and

  15. Contingent convertible bonds as countercyclical capital measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Liebenberg

    2017-06-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of the CCB during contractions is not obvious. Contingent convertible (CoCo bonds – which are bond-like until triggered by a deterioration of a prescribed capital metric, at which point they convert into a form of equity – are explored as a supplementary countercyclical capital measure for such periods to establish whether or not they function effectively. Setting: The analysis is undertaken using global bank CoCo data, and then applied to South African banks. Methods: The Hodrick Prescott filter was applied to empirical historical data. Results: The CCB functions as a good countercyclical capital measure in times of economic expansion by absorbing losses and stabilising the capital base through equity issuance. Conclusion: The issuance of CoCo bonds – if their trigger mechanisms are designed correctly – may prove helpful to banks and the broader financial sector in times of economic contraction through the countercyclical capital properties that manifest through CoCo bonds under these economic conditions.

  16. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  17. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  18. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2018-01-01

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  19. Is the relationship between parental abuse and mobile phone dependency (MPD contingent across neighborhood characteristics? A multilevel analysis of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Hyun-Soo Kim

    Full Text Available Research indicates that mobile phone dependency (MPD is associated with various behavioral and internalizing problems. While a significant amount of findings points to its negative outcomes, there is a dearth of evidence concerning the determinants of MPD. This study focuses on this critical, yet understudied, subject by analyzing the associations between abusive parenting style, neighborhood characteristics, and MPD among youths in South Korea, a country with one of the highest mobile broadband penetration rates in the world. Based on the secondary analysis of two waves of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS, a government-funded multiyear study, we investigate individual- and contextual-level factors underlying MPD. Findings show that, net of a host of time-lagged controls (including baseline dependency from the previous year, abusive parenting style significantly increases adolescent MPD. After adjusting for individual level characteristics, however, no contextual-level effect is found, i.e., residing in a neighborhood with a relatively higher proportion of parental abuse is not related to greater MPD. Finally, two cross-level interaction effects are observed. First, the association between parental abuse and MPD is weaker in a neighborhood context with better educated inhabitants (more college graduates. Second, it is reinforced in demographically "aged" communities with more elderly residents.

  20. Is the relationship between parental abuse and mobile phone dependency (MPD) contingent across neighborhood characteristics? A multilevel analysis of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Chun, JongSerl

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that mobile phone dependency (MPD) is associated with various behavioral and internalizing problems. While a significant amount of findings points to its negative outcomes, there is a dearth of evidence concerning the determinants of MPD. This study focuses on this critical, yet understudied, subject by analyzing the associations between abusive parenting style, neighborhood characteristics, and MPD among youths in South Korea, a country with one of the highest mobile broadband penetration rates in the world. Based on the secondary analysis of two waves of Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear study, we investigate individual- and contextual-level factors underlying MPD. Findings show that, net of a host of time-lagged controls (including baseline dependency from the previous year), abusive parenting style significantly increases adolescent MPD. After adjusting for individual level characteristics, however, no contextual-level effect is found, i.e., residing in a neighborhood with a relatively higher proportion of parental abuse is not related to greater MPD. Finally, two cross-level interaction effects are observed. First, the association between parental abuse and MPD is weaker in a neighborhood context with better educated inhabitants (more college graduates). Second, it is reinforced in demographically "aged" communities with more elderly residents.

  1. Searching for Plausible N-k Contingencies Endangering Voltage Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel search algorithm using time-domain simulations to identify plausible N − k contingencies endangering voltage stability. Starting from an initial list of disturbances, progressively more severe contingencies are investigated. After simulation of a N − k contingency......, the simulation results are assessed. If the system response is unstable, a plausible harmful contingency sequence has been found. Otherwise, components affected by the contingencies are considered as candidate next event leading to N − (k + 1) contingencies. This implicitly takes into account hidden failures...

  2. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  3. Higher education delays and shortens cognitive impairment: a multistate life table analysis of the US Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Mieke; Willekens, Frans J; Bonneux, Luc

    2011-05-01

    Improved health may extend or shorten the duration of cognitive impairment by postponing incidence or death. We assess the duration of cognitive impairment in the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2004) by self reported BMI, smoking and levels of education in men and women and three ethnic groups. We define multistate life tables by the transition rates to cognitive impairment, recovery and death and estimate Cox proportional hazard ratios for the studied determinants. 95% confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrapping. 55 year old white men and women expect to live 25.4 and 30.0 years, of which 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.5; 1.9] years and 2.7 [2.4; 2.9] years with cognitive impairment. Both black men and women live 3.7 [2.9; 4.5] years longer with cognitive impairment than whites, Hispanic men and women 3.2 [1.9; 4.6] and 5.8 [4.2; 7.5] years. BMI makes no difference. Smoking decreases the duration of cognitive impairment with 0.8 [0.4; 1.3] years by high mortality. Highly educated men and women live longer, but 1.6 years [1.1; 2.2] and 1.9 years [1.6; 2.6] shorter with cognitive impairment than lowly educated men and women. The effect of education is more pronounced among ethnic minorities. Higher life expectancy goes together with a longer period of cognitive impairment, but not for higher levels of education: that extends life in good cognitive health but shortens the period of cognitive impairment. The increased duration of cognitive impairment in minority ethnic groups needs further study, also in Europe.

  4. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy

  5. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy.

  6. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  7. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  8. Estimating state-contingent production functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend; Karantininis, Kostas

    The paper reviews the empirical problem of estimating state-contingent production functions. The major problem is that states of nature may not be registered and/or that the number of observation per state is low. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate an artificial, uncertain production...... environment based on Cobb Douglas production functions with state-contingent parameters. The pa-rameters are subsequently estimated based on different sizes of samples using Generalized Least Squares and Generalized Maximum Entropy and the results are compared. It is concluded that Maximum Entropy may...

  9. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  10. SHAKING TABLE TEST AND EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE WITH SEISMIC ISOLATION RUBBER TO THE INTERMEDIATE PART OF PILE FOUNDATION IN LIQUEFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kunihiko; Otsuka, Hisanori; Mitou, Masaaki

    The pile foundation is heavily damaged at the boundary division of the ground types, liquefied ground and non-liquefied ground, during an earthquake and there is a possibility of the collapse of the piles. In this study, we conduct a shaking table test and effective stress analysis of the influence of soil liquefaction and the seismic inertial force exerted on the pile foundation. When the intermediate part of the pile, there is at the boundary division, is subjected to section force, this part increases in size as compared to the pile head in certain instances. Further, we develop a seismic resistance method for a pile foundation in liquefaction using seismic isolation rubber and it is shown the middle part seismic isolation system is very effective.

  11. Analysis of Contemporary Contingency Contracting Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    competition and economies of scale, and tapping existing technologies and corporate knowledge. The CRS (2010a) contends that hiring contractors only...days 0 after payment was made? C. Unanswered 0% A. CootmctoCs ab;t;ty to <ece;,e EFT paymeot~ 1 Payment approval and B. Proper invoice and other

  12. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    ...) in an effort to determine the size and extent of contractor support, and how plans for and the organization and execution of contingency contracting activities might be improved so that Contingency...

  13. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. ... initial project cost, cost overrun and percentage allowed for contingency.

  14. 48 CFR 1632.770 - Contingency reserve payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCING Contract Funding 1632.770 Contingency reserve payments. (a) Payments from the contingency reserve... advise the carrier of its decision. However, OPM shall not unreasonably withhold approval for amounts...

  15. Analysis of the South African input-output table to determine sector specific economic impacts: A study on real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douw Gert Brand Boshoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Input-output analysis is a well known method of analysing specific economic activity and the influence of different sectors on the economy and on one another. This study investigates the ability of input-output analysis to consider the importance of commercial real estate on the economy. It analyses the economic activity, contribution to GDP, employment created and taxes generated with reference to direct, indirect and induced impacts. The research shows the contribution of the specific sector on the economy and highlights the ability of input-output analysis to determine the impact of different types of property and locational analysis. The interaction of property with the economy is discussed, which also enables the use of the analysis reported here for short term future forecasting, whereby expected real estate activity is used to forecast the direct, indirect and induced effects on the economy.

  16. Measurement of kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives by microstructure of fracture surface, sensory evaluation and texture profile analysis (TPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Barbara; Amoruso, Filomena

    2018-02-02

    A series of transformations occur in olive fruit both during ripening and processing. In particular, significant changes in the microstructural composition affect the flavour, texture, nutrients and overall quality of the end product. Texture is one of the sensory quality attributes of greatest importance to consumer acceptance. In the present work, kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives of three cultivars of Olea europaea L. (Bella di Cerignola, Peranzana and Taggiasca cvs) were provided by several measurements of olive tissue texture by sensory, rheological and microstructural approaches. Olives at the same stage of ripening and processed with the same technology, but belonging to different cultivars, showed significant differences at microstructural, sensorial and rheological levels. To describe the relationship between the three variables, multiple regression analysis and principal component analysis were chosen. Differences in microstructure were closely related both in terms of hardness measured by texture profile analysis and hardness measured by sensory analysis. The information provided could be an aid for screening and training of a sensory panel. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Contingency Management with Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.; Lachter, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Automation is playing an increasingly important role in many operations. It is often cheaper faster and more precise than human operators. However, automation is not perfect. There are many situations in which a human operator must step in. We refer to these instances as contingencies and the act of stepping in contingency management. Here we propose coupling Human Autonomy Teaming (HAT) with contingency management. We describe two aspects to HAT, bi-directional communication, and working agreements (or plays). Bi-directional communication like Crew Resource Management in traditional aviation, allows all parties to contribute to a decision. Working agreements specify roles and responsibilities. Importantly working agreements allow for the possibility of roles and responsibilities changing depending on environmental factors (e.g., situations the automation was not designed for, workload, risk, or trust). This allows for the automation to "automatically" become more autonomous as it becomes more trusted and/or it is updated to deal with a more complete set of possible situations. We present a concrete example using a prototype contingency management station one might find in a future airline operations center. Automation proposes reroutes for aircraft that encounter bad weather or are forced to divert for environmental or systems reasons. If specific conditions are met, these recommendations may be autonomously datalinked to the affected aircraft.

  18. Thomas Aquinas on Contingency of Nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2008), s. 185-196 ISSN 1214-8407 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Thomas Aquinas * determinism * contingency Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. The dependency and contingency of politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    differences which make any analytical synthesis both a difficult and a questionable endeavour. In particular, whereas historical institutionalism seeks to explain the present in terms of its dependence on past events, genealogy seeks to provoke the present by demonstrating its historical contingency. In spite...

  20. Management issues regarding the contingent workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Smed, S. [Bowen Workforce Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Fifty per cent of corporate leaders in Calgary today will be eligible for retirement over the next 5 years. In addition, 53 per cent of the entire Calgary workforce is 45 years or older. This paper suggests that only companies that seek aggressive programs to engage immigrants and contractors will weather the skills shortages anticipated in the future. It was noted that contractors care about aligning values to organizations, regardless of the project length, and that professional development is a key consideration when it comes to selecting their next project. Contingent workforce issues include: effectiveness; classification; risk; and cost. It was stated that effectiveness of the contingent workforce is an employer's responsibility. Factors that would strengthen the relationship between corporations and contractors include: proper orientation to manage expectations; training to improve productivity; tracking to enhance the quality of the workforce; and a management process to ensure adherence to protocol. It was concluded that the contingent workforce is an essential component to human capital management strategy, but that key issues must be managed to avoid unnecessary costs. In addition, effectiveness improves when processes are implemented. It was also suggested that technology is an essential component of the solution. Outsourcing is an effective approach to managing the contingent workforce. tabs., figs.

  1. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  2. Contingency learning in alcohol dependence and pathological gambling: learning and unlearning reward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, Lucy D.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Jansen, Jochem M.; van den Brink, Wim; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex mix of

  3. Contingency learning in alcohol dependence and pathological gambling: learning and unlearning reward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, L.D.; Holst, R.J. van; Jansen, J.M.; Brink, W. van den; Oosterlaan, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex

  4. Contingency Learning in Alcohol Dependence and Pathological Gambling: Learning and Unlearning Reward Contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanes, L.D.; Holst, R.; Jansen, J.D.; van den Brink, W.A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by dysfunctional reward processing and their ability to adapt to alterations of reward contingencies is impaired. However, most neurocognitive tasks investigating reward processing involve a complex

  5. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  6. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for contingency measures... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails to...

  7. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of this...

  8. 78 FR 46781 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to... ``contingency operation'' at FAR 2.101 in accordance with the statutory change to the definition made by...

  9. 30 CFR 218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 218.152 Section 218.152 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE..., Offshore § 218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund...

  10. 78 FR 13765 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to address the statutory change to the... ``contingency operation'' at FAR 2.101 in accordance with the statutory change to the definition made by...

  11. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards contingency plan. 72.184 Section 72.184 Energy... Protection § 72.184 Safeguards contingency plan. (a) The requirements of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan for responding to threats and radiological sabotage must be as defined in appendix C to part...

  12. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishermen's contingency fund. 296.3... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's contingency fund. (a) General. There is established in the Treasury of the United States the Fishermen's...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingent fees. 225.7303....7303-4 Contingent fees. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, contingent fees are generally allowable under DoD contracts, provided— (1) The fees are paid to a bona fide employee or a bona...

  14. Sartre's Contingency of Being and Asouzu's Principle of Causality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The position of this work is that all contingent beings have a causal agent. This position is taken as a result of trying to delve into the issue of contingency and causality of being which has been discussed by many philosophers of diverse epochs of philosophy. This work tries to participate in the debate of whether contingent ...

  15. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  16. Empirical yield tables for Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1989-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1983 Forest Survey of Wisconsin and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Wisconsin`s five Forest Survey Units and 14 forest types.

  17. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  18. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  19. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  20. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  1. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  2. Contingent capture effects in temporal order judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk; Pratt, Jay

    2015-08-01

    The contingent attentional capture hypothesis proposes that visual stimuli that do not possess characteristics relevant for the current task will not capture attention, irrespective of their bottom-up saliency. Typically, contingent capture is tested in a spatial cuing paradigm, comparing manual reaction times (RTs) across different conditions. However, attention may act through several mechanisms and RTs may not be ideal to disentangle those different components. In 3 experiments, we examined whether color singleton cues provoke cuing effects in temporal order judgments (TOJs) and whether they would be contingent on attentional control sets. Experiment 1 showed that color singleton cues indeed produce cuing effects in TOJs, even in a cluttered and dynamic target display containing multiple heterogeneous distractors. In Experiment 2, consistent with contingent capture, we observed reliable cuing effects only when the singleton cue matched participants' current attentional control set. Experiment 3 suggests that a sensory interaction account of the differences found in Experiment 2 is unlikely. Our results help to discern the attentional components that may play a role in contingent capture. Further, we discuss a number of other effects (e.g., reversed cuing effects) that are found in RTs, but so far have not been reported in TOJs. Those differences suggest that RTs are influenced by a multitude of mechanisms; however, not all of these mechanisms may affect TOJs. We conclude by highlighting how the study of attentional capture in TOJs provides valuable insights for the attention literature, but also for studies concerned with the perceived timing between stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  4. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  5. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  6. Analysis of Whole-Sky Imager Data to Determine the Validity of PCFLOS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    included in the data sample. 2-5 3.1. Data arrangement for a r x c contingency table ....................... 3-2 3.2. ARIMA models estimated for each...satellites. This model uses the multidimen- sional Boehm Sawtooth Wave Model to establish climatic probabilities through repetitive simula- tions of...analysis techniques to develop an ARIMAe model for each direction at the Columbia and Kirtland sites. Then, the models can be compared and analyzed to

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries: An analysis of policies to bring developing countries to the bargaining table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Adam; Wei Dan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the aggregate net costs and individual country cost savings of greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries. We propose emission permit allocation rules designed to entice developing countries to participate. Absence of developing country involvement has served as an excuse for the lack by participation by the United States in the first compliance period of the Kyoto Protocol and may serve as a disincentive to even more countries in subsequent periods. Our analysis specifies permit allocation rules that could result in no net costs, and even cost-savings, to developing countries for their involvement in the emissions trading market, while at the same time providing extensive benefits to industrialized countries through access to lower-cost mitigation alternatives

  8. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Contingency and similarity in response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2018-05-09

    This paper explores issues of task representation in choice reaction time tasks. How is it possible, and what does it take, to represent such a task in a way that enables a performer to do the task in line with the prescriptions entailed in the instructions? First, a framework for task representation is outlined which combines the implementation of task sets and their use for performance with different kinds of representational operations (pertaining to feature compounds for event codes and code assemblies for task sets, respectively). Then, in a second step, the framework is itself embedded in the bigger picture of the classical debate on the roles of contingency and similarity for the formation of associations. The final conclusion is that both principles are needed and that the operation of similarity at the level of task sets requires and presupposes the operation of contingency at the level of event codes. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Empirical yield tables for Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1982-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1977 Forest Survey of Minnesota and presents examples of how the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Minnesota's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site index classes. Presents 210 of the 350 possible tables that contained sufficient data to justify publication.

  11. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  12. Optimistic bias and pessimistic realism in judgments of contingency with aversive or rewarding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akihito

    2002-10-01

    A depressive personality influences judgments of contingency. This is called "depressive realism." The present experiment examined whether optimistic traits, as measured by various scales, are correlated with judgments of contingency. The valences of the target stimuli were aversive or rewarding (noise avoidance or gaining points). Analysis indicated that the optimistic subjects (as measured by explanatory style for negative events) tend to overestimate noncontingent events; however, optimism measured by other scales did not show such an effect. The findings are discussed in terms of a self-defensive attributional bias.

  13. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  14. Capacity Adjustment through Contingent Staffing Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert , Gilles; Adjadj , Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; For a long time, contingent staffing was considered as the responsability of the Human Resource department. The high needs of workforce flexibility combined with disseminated agencies have led some companies to a great number of labor suppliers. This situation has produced important cost variation, poor quality of service, and important risk due to the mistunderstanding by local managers of legal considerations. To face this situation, companies have started to move fr...

  15. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  16. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Table Tennis club and the Meyrin CTT are organizing two Table Tennis workshops from 2 to 6 July and from 20 to 24 August 2012 inclusive in Meyrin. A professional would be with your children from 14.00 pm to 18.00 pm: an instructor J + S category A. Training courses with specific themes, individual courses would be given depending on the level of the child’s game, “discoveries –table tennis games” courses and games with the robot. Other activities (stretching, relaxation). Afternoons (from 18 to 20 children): 40 CHF per workshop and per child. Evenings (from 18 to 20 adults): 60 CHF per workshop and per adult. For further information, please contact Mr. Monteil : Mobile: (+33) 06 61 31 70 47 E-mail: wilfried.monteil@free.fr.

  17. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  18. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors

  19. Contingency Cost estimation for Research reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Hong, Yun Jeong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many types of cost items in decommissioning cost estimation, however, contingencies are for unforeseen elements of cost within the defined project scope. Regulatory body wants to reasonable quantification for this issue. Many countries have adopted the breakdown of activity dependent and period-dependent costs to structure their estimates. Period-dependent costs could be broken down into defined time frames to reduce overall uncertainties. Several countries apply this notion by having different contingency factors for different phases of the project. This study is a compilation of contingency cost of research reactor and for each country. Simulation techniques using TRIM, MATLAB, and PSpice can be useful tools for designing detector channels. Thus far TRIM, MATLAB and PSpice have been used to calculate the detector current output pulse for SiC semiconductor detectors and to model the pulses that propagate through potential detector channels. This model is useful for optimizing the detector and the resolution for application to neutron monitoring in the Generation IV power reactors.

  20. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  1. Contingency Valuation of Croatian Arboretum Opeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Posavec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social aspects of forestry have always been an important factor of forest usage and management, and therefore have significant influence on its sustainability. Non-wood forest functions such as recreation, tourism, aesthetic and educational factors influence development of rural areas. Contingent valuation method has rarely been used for evaluation of protected forest areas. The aim of the article is to estimate the amount of money visitors are willing to pay for nature’s resources preservation in the arboretum Opeka in the North-West Croatia. Material and Methods: Opeka Arboretum is situated in the Vinica municipality in northern Croatia. Located in a large park surrounding a manor, Opeka arboretum, with its 65 hectares is the largest of the three arboretums existing in Croatia today. The arboretum was founded in 1860 by the Count Marko Bombelles. Contingent valuation is a survey-based economic technique for the non-market valuation of resources, such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination. It is also the approach that can generally be used to include what is usually referred to as the passive use component of the economic value of environmental goods. Results and Conclusion: Willingness to pay for visitor’s use of the arboretum has been investigated using the survey and contingency valuation method on a sample of 53 respondents. Research results present high preference for arboretum benefits such as beauty of landscape, cultural and historical significance, recreation and health but low willingness to pay.

  2. A least square support vector machine-based approach for contingency classification and ranking in a large power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap Soni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an effective supervised learning approach for static security assessment of a large power system. Supervised learning approach employs least square support vector machine (LS-SVM to rank the contingencies and predict the system severity level. The severity of the contingency is measured by two scalar performance indices (PIs: line MVA performance index (PIMVA and Voltage-reactive power performance index (PIVQ. SVM works in two steps. Step I is the estimation of both standard indices (PIMVA and PIVQ that is carried out under different operating scenarios and Step II contingency ranking is carried out based on the values of PIs. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on IEEE 39-bus (New England system. The approach can be beneficial tool which is less time consuming and accurate security assessment and contingency analysis at energy management center.

  3. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  4. A simulation study of rater agreement measures with 2x2 contingency tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Benavente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio de simulacion de medidas de acuerdo entre observadores para tablas de contingencia 2x2. Mediante un estudio de simulacion se aborda una comparacion entre seis medidas obtenidas usando tres enfoques diferentes para la evaluacion del acuerdo. Los coeficientes de acuerdo elegidos fueron sigma de Bennet (1954, Pi de Scott (1955, Kappa de Cohen (1960 y gamma de Gwet (2001; 2008 para representar el enfoque clasico descriptivo, el coeficiente alpha de Aickin (1990, para representar el enfoque de los modelos loglineal y mixtura ("mixture models" y la medida delta de Martin and Femia (2004 para representar el enfoque de los test de eleccion multiple. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que los coeficientes Pi y kappa presentan diferencias notables en relacion a los restantes coeficientes particularmente en presencia de valores extremos de prevalencia y sesgo entre observadores. El mejor comportamento fue observado con los coeficientes alpha de Bennet y delta de Martin and Femia para todos los valores de prevalencia y sesgo entre observadores.

  5. A Simulation Study of Rater Agreement Measures with 2x2 Contingency Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ato, Manuel; Lopez, Juan Jose; Benavente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between six rater agreement measures obtained using three different approaches was achieved by means of a simulation study. Rater coefficients suggested by Bennet's [sigma] (1954), Scott's [pi] (1955), Cohen's [kappa] (1960) and Gwet's [gamma] (2008) were selected to represent the classical, descriptive approach, [alpha] agreement…

  6. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    CERN Document Server

    de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  7. Autonomy and dignity: a discussion on contingency and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Leen

    2014-06-01

    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying 'well'. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a 'good' death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on 'autonomy' and 'dignity' as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a variety of meanings within different discursive projects. The article aims to distinguish the varieties of these signifiers by elaborating existing theoretical perspectives on autonomy and dignity, and also, starting from a perspective on mass media as sites of meaning production and contestation, to study the contingency of autonomy and dignity in Belgian newspaper coverage of four prominent euthanasia cases. By means of a discourse-theoretical textual analysis, this study exposes a dominant--yet contested--articulation of rational-personal autonomy and of dignity in external terms as something that can be obtained, retained or lost, rather than in terms of intrinsic human integrity. These logics of representation reflect a more general late modern dominance of liberal autonomy and of dignity as being closely connected to self-identity, but at the same time result in limited visibility of alternative ways of experiencing an autonomous and dignified death.

  8. CHOOSING A HEALTH INSTITUTION WITH MULTIPLE CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN A POPULATION BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASLI SUNER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple correspondence analysis is a method making easy to interpret the categorical variables given in contingency tables, showing the similarities, associations as well as divergences among these variables via graphics on a lower dimensional space. Clustering methods are helped to classify the grouped data according to their similarities and to get useful summarized data from them. In this study, interpretations of multiple correspondence analysis are supported by cluster analysis; factors affecting referred health institute such as age, disease group and health insurance are examined and it is aimed to compare results of the methods.

  9. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  10. Statistical tables 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy statistical table is a selection of statistical data for energies and countries from 1997 to 2002. It concerns the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the production, the external market, the consumption per sector, the energy accounting 2002 and graphs on the long-dated forecasting. (A.L.B.)

  11. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  12. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  13. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2013-04-01

    , causing a blockage and afflux of the Rhine, which, due to the given conditions of a very narrow valley, would lead to excessive flooding affecting even the greater Rhine-Main-region. Not to mention the consequences of a pyroclastic flow, dropping volcanic bombs and further hazardous/disastrous consequences. In comparison to other "potentially active" or "active volcanoes", e.g. the Vesuvius, the Laacher See is scarcely monitored and according to recent publications poorly analyzed in terms of contingency and evacuation plans. This offers space for critical analysis and creative solutions to an existing problem. Short: We need geographers and their knowledge to provide help. Given these facts, the Laacher See could be the layout for a very interesting geography project bringing together previously gained knowledge and understanding of volcanic activities, their destructive powers, consequences and risks in case of an eruption in combination with their topographical characteristics. Your students thereby act the role of a geoscientist developing contingency plans and evacuation zones for the greater Laacher See area. This involves a detailed analysis of the topographical characteristics based on (classic) topographic maps or online via the use of a GIS (e.g. Google maps). In a second step students enlist the possible consequences they already know according to their range and copy them onto a transparency layer on the topographic map. Using such a layer technique students add population density, important topographic features and maybe even anticipated wind directions to their map. The information density and the specific layout of this map are thereby only determined by the student's previous knowledge, their personal abilities and skills and the amount of time provided. This offers the opportunities to even differentiate the task within your group and provide support adjusted to the individual students level. On the basis of their own thematic map your students should be

  14. Qualitative analysis of multi-disciplinary round-table discussions on the acceleration of benefits and data analytics through hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Smith, Pam; Swainson, Charles; Slee, Ann; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-07-04

    Electronic systems that facilitate prescribing, administration and dispensing of medicines (ePrescribing systems) are at the heart of international efforts to improve the safety, quality and efficiency of medicine management. Considering the initial costs of procuring and maintaining ePrescribing systems, there is a need to better understand how to accelerate and maximise the financial benefits associated with these systems. We sought to investigate how different sectors are approaching the realisation of returns on investment from ePrescribing systems in U.K. hospitals and what lessons can be learned for future developments and implementation strategies within healthcare settings. We conducted international, multi-disciplinary, round-table discussions with 21 participants from different backgrounds including policy makers, healthcare organisations, academic researchers, vendors and patient representatives. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and then thematically analysed with the qualitative analysis software NVivo10. There was an over-riding concern that realising financial returns from ePrescribing systems was challenging. The underlying reasons included substantial fixed costs of care provision, the difficulties in radically changing the medicines management process and the lack of capacity within NHS hospitals to analyse and exploit the digital data being generated. Any future data strategy should take into account the need to collect and analyse local and national data (i.e. within and across hospitals), setting comparators to measure progress (i.e. baseline measurements) and clear standards guiding data management so that data are comparable across settings. A more coherent national approach to realising financial benefits from ePrescribing systems is needed as implementations progress and the range of tools to collect information will lead to exponential data growth. The move towards more sophisticated closed-loop systems that integrate

  15. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results sugges...

  16. Análise de contingências de um portador de diabetes mellitus tipo 2: estudo de caso Contingency analysis of a type 2 diabetes mellitus pacient: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ribeiro Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus é uma doença crônica e o seu tratamento é altamente complexo. Pesquisas têm surgido com o objetivo de compreender as contribuições do estilo de vida e dos fatores comportamentais no desenvolvimento e no controle da doença. O presente estudo realizou uma análise de contingências dos comportamentos de adesão e de não-adesão ao tratamento, buscando, para isso, relações de dependência entre eventos comportamentais e ambientais, a partir de um estudo de caso único com uma paciente portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. O procedimento adotado para a coleta de dados foi a caracterização dos comportamentos de acordo com as seguintes categorias: mensuração da glicemia, administração da insulina, controle da dieta e prática de exercício físico. Os resultados indicaram a prevalência de contingências aversivas e demonstraram a necessidade de se ensinar estratégias de autocontrole ao paciente, e regras por parte da equipe de saúde, que descrevam as contingências em operação no ambiente.Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease wich requires a highly complex treatment. Researches have been done with the objective of understanding the role that life style and behavioral factors play on the onset and control of the disease. The present study aimed at analysing the contingencies involved in the behavior of adherence and non adherence to treatment of a type 2diabetes mellitus patient and the dependency relationship between behavioral and environmental variables in a single case study. The procedure adopted for data collection was the characterization of behaviors according to the following categories: glucemia measurement, insulin administration, diet control and the practice of physical exercise. Results indicate the prevalence of aversive contingencies and demonstrate the need of teaching the pacient self control strategies, and rules by the health team which describe the environmental contingencies in operation.

  17. Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

    2013-02-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

  18. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  19. The Need for a Strategic Approach to Contingency Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Angelo, Anthony F; Houglan, Danny H; Ruckwardt, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    ...; however, the contingency arena is often overlooked. Corporations are finding a strategic enterprise orientation to procurement can create or enhance their own competitive position within a market...

  20. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  1. Evaluation of single-tooth implants in the second molar region: a 5-year life-table analysis of a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ki-Tae; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jang-Yeol; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2010-09-01

    To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the success or survival rate of single-tooth implants that replaced missing maxillary and mandibular second molars. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the 1- to 5-year cumulative survival rate (CSR) for single-tooth implants placed in the second molar region and the effects of associated factors. Four hundred eighty-nine patients (298 males and 191 females; age range: 23 to 91 years; mean age: 47 years) who were admitted to the Seoul National University Dental Hospital between March 2003 and July 2008 and treated with single-tooth implants in the second molar region (227 maxillary implants and 294 mandibular implants; total: 521 implants) were included in the study. Thirty-two subjects received two implants each. A 1- to 5-year CSR was calculated using a life-table analysis. A comparison of CSRs between maxillary versus mandibular implants, one-stage versus two-stage implants, short (10 mm) implants, and standard-diameter (or=5.0 mm) implants was performed using Wilcoxon (Gehan) statistics. P CSR was 95.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in CSRs between implants placed in maxillas and mandibles (96.3% versus 94.9%, respectively; P = 0.084), one- and two-stage implants (95.6% versus 94.7%, respectively; P = 0.267), short and long implants (100% versus 95.1%, respectively; P = 0.582), and standard- and wide-diameter implants (93.8% versus 96.8%, respectively; P = 0.065). Within the limitations of the study, the placement of single-tooth implants in the second molar region was an effective and reliable treatment modality. Also, associated factors such as implant diameter, length, and location (the maxilla versus the mandible) may not have an impact on the long-term success of implants.

  2. 40 CFR 264.51 - Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plan. 264.51 Section 264.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan. (a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The contingency...

  3. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  4. Tomographic examination table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Equipment is described for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The equipment consists of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through a aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry. (UK)

  5. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  6. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Database Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Durfee, Justin David; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) database is used to store input and output data for the linear program model described in [1]. The database allows queries to retrieve this data and updating and inserting new input data.

  7. The Necessity of Contingency or Contingent Necessity: Meillassoux, Hegel, and the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Van Houdt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship of contingency to necessity as developed by Quentin Meillassoux and G.W.F. Hegel. Meillassoux criticizes the restriction of possibility by modern philosophy to the conditions of the transcendental subject, which he calls ‘correlationism’, and opposes to this correlationism, mathematics as an absolute form of thought. The arch-figure of a metaphysical version of correlationism for Meillassoux is Hegel. This article argues that, while Meillassoux is right to criticize a version of correlationism for restricting the range of contingency, he overlooks Hegel’s unique contribution to this issue. Hegel provides us a version of necessity modeled on the mathematical proof which answers Meillassoux’s concerns about correlationist versions of necessity but does not altogether jettison the concept of the subject. Instead, the subject in Hegel is a contingent interruption which emerges from the breaks in the kinds of necessity we posit about the world. Hegel offers us a way of tying these two concepts together in what I call ‘contingent necessity’.

  8. Contingency in the Cosmos and the Contingency of the Cosmos : Two Theological Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    Contingency in reality may be epistemic, due to incomplete knowledge or the intersection of unrelated causal trajectories. In quantum physics, it appears to be ontological. More fundamental and interesting is the limit-question ‘why is there something rather than nothing,’ pointing out the

  9. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  10. Multilevel linear modelling of the response-contingent learning of young children with significant developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J; Hamby, Deborah W

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3). Findings showed that sources of variations in rates of child response-contingent learning were associated almost entirely with type of intervention after the variance associated with differences in practitioners nested within groups were accounted for. Rates of child learning were greater among children whose existing behaviour were used as the building blocks for promoting child competence (asset-based practices) compared to children for whom the focus of intervention was promoting child acquisition of missing skills (needs-based practices). The methods of analysis illustrate a practical approach to clustered data analysis and the presentation of results in ways that highlight sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple developmental disabilities and significant developmental delays. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Document Server

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    2012 CERN Table Tennis Tournament As the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better” is designed in particular to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament is providing an excellent opportunity to practice moving. The tournament will take place at the Meyrin CTT, 2 rue de Livron, Saturday August 25, 2012, in the afternoon (starting at 13:30). It is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students, who are strongly encouraged to participate. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You may also find useful information on the Club Web page http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis CERN 2011 champion Savitha Flaecher, between the finalist Bertrand Mouches on her left, the winner of the consolation draw on her right (Sudarshan Paramesvaran), and far left, Denis Moriaud (semi-finalist a...

  12. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  13. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  14. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships.

  16. Qualitative analysis of multi-disciplinary round-table discussions on the acceleration of benefits and data analytics through hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic systems that facilitate prescribing, administration and dispensing of medicines (ePrescribing systems are at the heart of international efforts to improve the safety, quality and efficiency of medicine management. Considering the initial costs of procuring and maintaining ePrescribing systems, there is a need to better understand how to accelerate and maximise the financial benefits associated with these systems. Objectives: We sought to investigate how different sectors are approaching the realisation of returns on investment from ePrescribing systems in U.K. hospitals and what lessons can be learned for future developments and implementation strategies within healthcare settings. Methods: We conducted international, multi-disciplinary, round-table discussions with 21 participants from different backgrounds including policy makers, healthcare organisations, academic researchers, vendors and patient representatives. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and then thematically analysed with the qualitative analysis software NVivo10. Results: There was an over-riding concern that realising financial returns from ePrescribing systems was challenging. The underlying reasons included substantial fixed costs of care provision, the difficulties in radically changing the medicines management process and the lack of capacity within NHS hospitals to analyse and exploit the digital data being generated. Any future data strategy should take into account the need to collect and analyse local and national data (i.e. within and across hospitals, setting comparators to measure progress (i.e. baseline measurements and clear standards guiding data management so that data are comparable across settings. Conclusions: A more coherent national approach to realising financial benefits from ePrescribing systems is needed as implementations progress and the range of tools to collect information will lead to exponential data growth. The

  17. Regional analysis of groundwater phosphate concentrations under acidic sandy soils: Edaphic factors and water table strongly mediate the soil P-groundwater P relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa; De Neve, Stefaan; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Historic long-term P application to sandy soils in NW-Europe has resulted in abundant sorption, saturation and eventually leaching of P from soil to the groundwater. Although many studies recognize the control of site-specific factors like soil texture and phosphate saturation degree (PSD), the regional-scaled relevance of effects exerted by single factors controlling P leaching is unclear. Very large observational datasets of soil and groundwater P content are furthermore required to reveal indirect controls of soil traits through mediating soil variables. We explored co-variation of phreatic groundwater orthophosphate (o-P) concentration and soil factors in sandy soils in Flanders, Belgium. Correlation analyses were complemented with an exploratory model derived using 'path analysis'. Data of oxalate-extractable Al, Fe, P and pH KCl , phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and PSD in three depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm), topsoil SOC, % clay and groundwater depth (fluctuation) were interpolated to predict soil properties on exact locations of a very extensive net of groundwater monitoring wells. The mean PSD was only poorly correlated to groundwater o-P concentration, indicating the overriding control of other factors in the transport of P to the groundwater. A significant (P soil pH and groundwater table depth than by PSD indicates the likely oversimplification of the latter index to measure the long-term potential risk of P leaching. Accounting for controls on leaching not included in PSD via an alternative index, however, seems problematic as in Flanders for example groundwater o-P turned out to be higher in finer textured soils or soils with higher pedogenic Fe content, probably because of their lower pedogenic Al content and higher soil pH. Path analysis of extensive soil and groundwater datasets seems a viable way to identify prime local determinants of soil P leaching and could be further on used for 'ground-truthing' more complex P-migration simulation

  18. INVESTIGATION OF CONTINGENCY PATTERNS OF TEACHERS’ SCAFFOLDING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the patterns of scaffolding contingency in teaching and learning mathematics carried out by three teachers. Contingency patterns are obtained by examining the transcription from video recording of conversation fragments between teachers and students during the provision of scaffolding. The contingency patterns are drawn in three strategies: diagnostic strategy, intervention strategy, and checking diagnosis. The result shows that the three teachers expressed different interaction contingencies in their scaffolding activities: contingent dominant, non-contingent dominant, and pseudo-contingent. It is also found that the learning interaction performed by experienced teachers tends to be contingent dominant compared to novice teachers. Keywords: Contingency, Contingent Dominant, Non-Contingent Dominant, Pseudo Contingent, Scaffolding DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3410.65-76

  19. Contingency, Irony and Morality: A Critical Review of Rorty’s Notion of the Liberal Utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehan Murray Coombs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Richard Rorty’s notion of the liberal ironist and his vision of a liberal utopia and explores the implications of these for philosophical questions concerning morality, as well as morality in general. Rorty’s assertions of the contingency of language, society and self are explored. Under the contingency of language, the figure of the ironist is defined, and Rorty’s conception of vocabularies is discussed. Under the contingency of society, Rorty’s definition of liberalism, his opposition of literary culture to materialist and metaphysical culture, and his notions concerning utopian politics are discussed. Under the contingency of self, Rorty’s critique of Kantian and his appropriations of Deweyan and Freudian conceptions of morality are presented. Other key factors discussed are Rorty’s theory of the separation of the private and public spheres of life and his ideas concerning cruelty and human solidarity. In this way, a critical analysis of Rorty’s proposed balance between private, ironic doubt and public, liberal social hope is presented and assessed in terms of its merit as a system of thought suited to the needs of post-metaphysical, liberal societies.

  20. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  1. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from two or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all four conditions and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects are discussed, as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:27149393

  2. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  3. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  4. Roentgenologic characteristic of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzhavin, V.I.; Nalivajko, N.N.; Kozlova, L.N.; Petrik, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    9694 persons of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration were examined. Roentgenologic study of posttuberculous changes of 7 group contingent of dispensary registration showed that in people of 7-A subgroup prevail processes of secondary genesis (79.4%) and in people of 7-B subgroup - of primary genesis (55.8%). Consequences of secondary tuberculosis are most recurring

  5. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  6. The double-contingency principle: An historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1 states the double contingency principle as: Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This paper presents a perspective on the double contingency principle

  7. Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraised performance of contingency allowance in addressing projects' cost risk. To achieve this aim, impact of contingency provision in some selected building projects were evaluated. Data for the study was collected by means of checklist from 40 completed projects' files. Furthermore, 100 questionnaires on ...

  8. The Role of Relational Information in Contingent Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefanie I.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    On the contingent capture account, top-down attentional control settings restrict involuntary attentional capture to items that match the features of the search target. Attention capture is involuntary, but contingent on goals and intentions. The observation that only target-similar items can capture attention has usually been taken to show that…

  9. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plans under the national response system: The National Contingency Plan, RCPs, and ACPs. These... discharge under § 300.324, and to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of such a discharge, from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating in or near the area. (2) The areas of...

  10. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  11. Quantitative analysis of the z-spectrum using a numerically simulated look-up table: Application to the healthy human brain at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geades, Nicolas; Hunt, Benjamin A E; Shah, Simon M; Peters, Andrew; Mougin, Olivier E; Gowland, Penny A

    2017-08-01

    To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain. We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena. The LUT method provided reproducible results in healthy controls. The average values of the macromolecular pool sizes measured in white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of 10 healthy volunteers were 8.9% ± 0.3% (intersubject standard deviation) and 4.4% ± 0.4%, respectively, whereas the average nuclear Overhauser effect pool sizes in WM and GM were 5% ± 0.1% and 3% ± 0.1%, respectively, and average amide proton transfer pool sizes in WM and GM were 0.21% ± 0.03% and 0.20% ± 0.02%, respectively. The proposed method demonstrated increased robustness when compared with existing methods (such as Lorentzian fitting and asymmetry analysis) while yielding fully quantitative results. The method can be adjusted to measure other parameters relevant to the z-spectrum. Magn Reson Med 78:645-655, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  13. Social contingencies, the aged, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Today's older population is notably different than it was a few decades ago, both in well-being and in diversity, a shift that must be acknowledged in public policy. The U.S. social insurance system overprotects against highly likely, predictable, and nonvolatile events at the expense of more unlikely, potentially catastrophic, and less volatile events. The public sector, therefore, should move toward proportionally emphasizing health-related, functionally impairing events rather than income maintenance; the private sector is better suited to insuring against predictable and nonvolatile old-age events. A contingent event scheme would: (a) encourage the growth of long-term-care insurance; (b) help bridge the gap between those arguing for greater "efficiencies" in social welfare spending and those pressing for new universal benefits; and (c) bring a new perspective to the "generational equity" debate.

  14. Does elite success trigger mass participation in table tennis? An analysis of trickle-down effects in Germany, France and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Jan; Gaum, Christian

    2017-08-02

    There is a widespread belief that success at the elite level leads to increasing mass participation in sports. However, this assumption is merely supported by empirical evidence and is analyzed here for the case of table tennis. Therefore long-term data (1964-2014) on participation in Germany, France and Austria is statistically tested for effects of success by the countries' athletes at international competitions. Results indicate that no general trickle-down effect can be confirmed for table tennis in the countries observed. Rather, findings are ambivalent, as a strong positive effect was found for the Austrian case, but a paradox relation for the German case, where elite success has been accompanied by decreasing participation in the last decades. Accordingly, as an "automatic" trickle-down effect is unlikely, more specific analyses and strategies seem necessary to use elite success as a lever for the promotion of the sport.

  15. Analysis using life tables of the major causes of death and the differences between country of birth groups in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, D P; Parr, N J; Yusuf, F

    2009-05-01

    This study used life table methods to evaluate the potential effects of reduction in major disease mortality on life expectancy in New South Wales (NSW), and the differences in cause-specific mortality between country of birth groups. The total and partial elimination of major causes of death were examined to identify the high-risk groups for community-level health planning. Life tables were used to combine the mortality rates of the NSW population at different ages into a single statistical model. Using abridged, multiple decrement and cause-elimination life tables with the mortality data for NSW in 2000-2002, broader disease groups were examined. Multiple decrement tables were generated by country of birth. The effect of the partial elimination of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was also studied. This study found that Pacific-born men and women who reach their 30th birthday and eventually die from IHD are expected to live, on average, 10.8 and 5.8 years less, respectively, than average men and women in NSW. If IHD is eliminated as a cause of death, 7.5 years for males and 6.7 years for females would be added to life expectancy at birth. Life expectancy at birth is likely to be further increased by reducing deaths caused by diseases of the cardiovascular system, particularly among people aged over 65 years, by reducing malignant neoplasm deaths among those aged below 65 years, and by reducing deaths due to accidents, injury and poisoning, mainly among men aged 15-29 years. Further gains in life expectancy could be achieved with community-level educational programmes on lifestyle management and disease prevention.

  16. The role of breast-feeding beyond postpartum amenorrhoea on the return of fertility in India: a life table and hazards model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Singh, K K

    1994-04-01

    This paper investigates the effects of continued breast-feeding after resumption of menses on fertility, using data from two retrospective surveys in India and single decrement life table and multivariate time-dependent hazards analyses. Breast-feeding even after the return of menses is found to be associated with longer birth intervals. The interaction of breast-feeding duration after resumption of menses and postpartum amenorrhoea has a significant effect on the risk of conception after return of menses.

  17. Contingent use of fetal fibronectin testing and cervical length measurement in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, François; Fortin, Suzanne; Delvin, Edgard; Djemli, Anissa; Brunet, Suzanne; Dubé, Johanne; Fraser, William D

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the contingent use of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and cervical length (CL) measurement to predict preterm delivery, and to validate the use of phosphorylated IGFBP-1 as a predictor of preterm delivery. We recruited 71 women with a clinical diagnosis of preterm labour between 24 and 34 weeks, and tested for the presence of fFN and IGFBP-1 in the cervicovaginal secretions of all women immediately before CL measurement. Among the 66 women with complete outcome, four were excluded from the final analysis as two had assessment for fFN but no CL measurement, and another two had CL measured but no screening for fFN. Among 62 women with complete results, the mean gestational age at recruitment was 29.4 +/- 2.5 weeks. Six women (9.6%) delivered within two weeks of assessment, and 14 (22.5%) delivered before 34 weeks. A positive fFN test resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 84%, a positive predictive value of 36%, and a negative predictive value of 98% for delivery within two weeks; for CL contingent use of fFN (in which the test was assumed to be positive if CL contingent use protocol, only one third of women needed fFN screening after CL measurement. In this study, IGFBP-1 screening did not predict preterm delivery and fFN screening provided the best predictive capacity. A policy of contingent use of testing for fFN after CL measurement, or contingent use of CL measurement after fFN screening (depending on available resources) is a promising approach to limit use of resources.

  18. Contingency Management of Health Care Organizations: It Depends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    Managers in health care organizations (HCOs) must perform many processes and activities, such as planning goals, designing organization structure, leading people, motivating employees, making decisions, and resolving conflict. How they do all this strongly affects the performance and outcomes of their organizations and themselves. Some managers develop a usual way of performing their jobs and achieve some success with a preferred method of leading or a favorite approach to motivating. However, their success will be limited if they always rely on a standard "1-size-fits-all" approach. This is because contingency factors influence the effectiveness of a given approach to managing. The "best" approach depends on contingency factors, including the situation and the people involved. Managers should choose an approach to fit with the changing contingency factors. This article explains why and how managers should develop a contingency approach to managing HCOs. The development of contingency theory is briefly described. Practical application of contingency management is explained for leading, motivating, decision making, and resolving conflict. By using a contingency approach, managers can be more effective when managing their HCOs.

  19. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  20. Numerical tables on physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Tables on the places of measurement, the sampling methods and the methods of analysis used. The numerical tables of the measurement results are broken down in general parameters, organic, entrophicating and anorganic substances, orgnic micro-pollutants and radioactivity. (GG) [de

  1. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.

  2. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  3. The Anatomy of Job Satisfaction and the Role of Contingent Employment Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Marloes de Graaf-Zijl

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I analyse job satisfaction using fixed effect analysis and a multiple equation model. Overall job satisfaction is analysed as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects. I find that overall job satisfaction is mainly determined by satisfaction with job content. All aspect satisfactions are subsequently explained from observed characteristics, with special focus on contingent employment contracts. Satisfaction with job security is the aspect satisfaction with the stron...

  4. Assessment of denitrification gaseous end-products in the soil profile under two water table management practices using repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Abdirashid A; Astatkie, Tess; Madramootoo, Chandra; Gordon, Robert; Burton, David

    2005-01-01

    The denitrification process and nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the soil profile are poorly documented because most research into denitrification has concentrated on the upper soil layer (0-0.15 m). This study, undertaken during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons, was designed to examine the effects of water table management (WTM), nitrogen (N) application rate, and depth (0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 m) on soil denitrification end-products (N2O and N2) from a corn (Zea mays L.) field. Water table management treatments were free drainage (FD) with open drains and subirrigation (SI) with a target water table depth of 0.6 m. Fertility treatments (ammonium nitrate) were 120 kg N ha(-1) (N120) and 200 kg N ha(-1) (N200). During both growing seasons greater denitrification rates were measured in SI than in FD, particularly in the surface soil (0-0.15 m) and at the intermediate (0.15-0.30 m) soil depths under N200 treatment. Greater denitrification rates under the SI treatment, however, were not accompanied with greater N2O production. The decrease in N2O production under SI was probably caused by a more complete reduction of N2O to N2, which resulted in lower N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios. Denitrification rate, N2O production and N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios were only minimally affected by N treatments, irrespective of sampling date and soil depth. Overall, half of the denitrification occurred at the 0.15- to 0.30- and 0.30- to 0.45-m soil layers, and under SI, regardless of fertility treatment level. Consequently, sampling of the 0- to 0.15-m soil layer alone may not give an accurate estimation of denitrification losses under SI practice.

  5. Comparative study on fast classification of brick samples by combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis using stand-off and table-top laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vítková, Gabriela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); CEPLANT, R and D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modifications, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pořízka, Pavel [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Všianský, Dalibor [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Čelko, Ladislav [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on historical aspect, during archeological excavation or restoration works of buildings or different structures built from bricks it is important to determine, preferably in-situ and in real-time, the locality of bricks origin. Fast classification of bricks on the base of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra is possible using multivariate statistical methods. Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was applied in this case. LIBS was used to classify altogether the 29 brick samples from 7 different localities. Realizing comparative study using two different LIBS setups — stand-off and table-top it is shown that stand-off LIBS has a big potential for archeological in-field measurements. - Highlights: • Comparison of two potentially field-deployable LIBS setups is introduced. • The aim is classification of LIBS spectra of brick samples into several localities. • LDA filled with PCA scores is proposed as an effective classification method. • An influence of brick firing temperature on LIBS spectra is discovered and examined.

  6. 25 CFR 39.502 - How does a school apply for contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school apply for contingency funds? 39.502... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.502 How does a school apply for contingency funds? To apply for contingency funds, a school must send a request to the ELO. The ELO must send the request to the Director for...

  7. 40 CFR 267.54 - When must I amend the contingency plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I amend the contingency plan... STANDARDIZED PERMIT Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 267.54 When must I amend the contingency plan? You must review, and immediately amend the contingency plan, if necessary, whenever: (a) The facility...

  8. 25 CFR 39.501 - What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency? 39.501... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.501 What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency? An emergency or unforeseen contingency is an event that meets all of the following criteria: (a) It could not be planned for...

  9. 40 CFR 265.51 - Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contingency plan. 265.51 Section 265.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan. (a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The...

  10. 25 CFR 39.503 - How can a school use contingency funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a school use contingency funds? 39.503 Section 39.503 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.503 How can a school use contingency funds? Contingency funds can be...

  11. 48 CFR 403.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees. 403.405 Section 403.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contingent Fees 403.405 Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees. (a) A suspected misrepresentation or violation of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees shall be documented in...

  12. MIL-HDBK-338-Environmental Conversion Table Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Frank; Novack, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In reliability analysis for space launch vehicles, limited data is frequently a challenge due to the pure number of launches. A common solution is to use surrogate historical data of similar components from other industries (military data). The operating environment of the common data may be different from that of the necessary target analysis. The military electronic design handbook (MIL-HDBK-338) has a table for converting Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) data from one environment to another. However, the table has some discrepancies and rounding of complementary conversions; namely going from environment A to B does not given the same result as going from B to A. This presentation will show the discrepancies in the original conversation table, the greater than expected magnitude, the problem with the updated published table and a suggested corrected table to reference when doing MTBF data environment conversion.

  13. Analysis of Socio-Political Implication of Infrastructural Decay in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    understanding of the subject matter with a view to succinctly dealing with the issues. ... creating and funding small and medium scale enterprises as the bedrock of the new ..... The formula was used to analyzed all types of contingency table.

  14. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  15. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  16. Application of Contingency Theories to the Supervision of Student Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Julia D.

    1985-01-01

    This article examines selected approaches to student teacher supervision within the context of contingency theory. These include authentic supervision, developmental supervision, and supervision based on the student's level of maturity. (MT)

  17. Contingency inferences driven by base rates: Valid by sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kutzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiedler et al. (2009, reviewed evidence for the utilization of a contingency inference strategy termed pseudocontingencies (PCs. In PCs, the more frequent levels (and, by implication, the less frequent levels are assumed to be associated. PCs have been obtained using a wide range of task settings and dependent measures. Yet, the readiness with which decision makers rely on PCs is poorly understood. A computer simulation explored two potential sources of subjective validity of PCs. First, PCs are shown to perform above chance level when the task is to infer the sign of moderate to strong population contingencies from a sample of observations. Second, contingency inferences based on PCs and inferences based on cell frequencies are shown to partially agree across samples. Intriguingly, this criterion and convergent validity are by-products of random sampling error, highlighting the inductive nature of contingency inferences.

  18. Automated Contingency Management for Advanced Propulsion Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM), or the ability to confidently and autonomously adapt to fault conditions with the goal of still achieving mission objectives,...

  19. National Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan stipulates the criteria for listing and managing the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents used to mitigate oil spills.

  20. Contingencies and onus in the delictual law of damages | Steynberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... evidentiary meaning, do not fit naturally into the theory of proof in the case of contingencies. ... In principle, one can say that the plaintiff must adduce evidence of ...

  1. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  3. Self-Aware Aerospace Vehicle Contingency Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, with Agent Oriented Software, proposes to develop a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both...

  4. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  5. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  6. Recent trends in mortality in Australia--an analysis of the causes of death through the application of life table techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S K

    1992-05-01

    "The paper examines the post-1971 reduction in Australian mortality in light of data on causes of death. Multiple-decrement life tables for eleven leading causes of death by sex are calculated and the incidence of each cause of death is presented in terms of the values of the life table functions. The study found that in the overall decline in mortality over the last 20 years significant changes occurred in the contribution of the various causes to total mortality.... The sex-age-cause-specific incidence of mortality changed and the median age at death increased for all causes except for deaths due to motor-vehicle accidents for both sexes and suicide for males. The paper also deciphers the gains in the expectation of life at birth over various time periods and the sex-differentials in the expectation of life at birth at a point in time in terms of the contributions made by the various sex-age-cause-specific mortality rates." excerpt

  7. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on bibliographic coupling network: How industrial sectors on the GVC compete for production resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyu; Xing, Lizhi

    2018-03-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing national economic systems with abundance of economic relationships depicting information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper focuses on how to quantify the degree of competition on the global value chain (GVC) from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models are established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output (ICIO) tables and then have them transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network models to analyze the competitive relationships based on bibliographic coupling approach. Three indicators well suited for the weighted and undirected networks with self-loops are introduced here, including unit weight for competitive power, disparity in the weight for competitive amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied empirically to analyze the function of industrial sectors on the basis of the latest World Input-Output Database (WIOD) in order to reveal inter-sector competitive status during the economic globalization.

  8. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  9. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  10. ACCRUAL OF LIABILITIES AND CONTINGENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International Financial Reporting Standards together with Public Sector Accounting Standards are based on professional reasoning by appealing to principles that can lead to several solutions for a certain problem. In this respect Romanian economic mechanisms have a high level of rigidity in the implementation of accounting concepts and principles so that it is important to highlight the aspects that generate added value in the current economic climate. Even since 2005 the harmonization of Romanian accounting with the directives of International Accounting Standards, which came to support the harmonization of rules and principles concerning the development of annual financial statements of public institutions, is the most important and essential challenge for administrative environment. Assets and contingent liabilities are elements which in terms of the law cannot be included in the assets of a public institution that is why accounting of these elements must be performed using special off-balance sheet accounts. The purpose of this work emphasizes the opportunity and the recognition of economic events whose elements should be reflected in balance sheet, but also the appropriate and necessary moment of making entries over special accounts off the balance sheet in accordance with IPSAS 19.

  11. Contingency and construction: from mimesis to postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zima

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the transition from literary realism (Balzac, George Eliot, Verga is described as a shift from mimesis to constructivism. It is indicated how the realist confidence in the ability of the writer to represent reality as such yields to a modernist skepticism which recognises the contingent character of all fictional constructs. In spite of this discovery, modernists such as Kafka, Proust and Sartre still believe in a meaningful search for reality, authenticity and truth. This belief seems to disappear in the works of postmodernist authors such as Robbe-Grillet, Eco or Fowles who tend to dissociate fiction from any kind of meaningful search, transforming it into a game: a gadget for the reader. The author, who adopts the perspective of Critical Theory, argues towards the end of the article that the latter is modernist insofar as it refuses to follow the postmodernists in their playful abandoning of key realist and modernist concepts such as truth, authenticity and critique.

  12. Associationism and cognition: human contingency learning at 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2007-03-01

    A major topic within human learning, the field of contingency judgement, began to emerge about 25 years ago following publication of an article on depressive realism by Alloy and Abramson (1979). Subsequently, associationism has been the dominant theoretical framework for understanding contingency learning but this has been challenged in recent years by an alternative cognitive or inferential approach. This article outlines the key conceptual differences between these approaches and summarizes some of the main methods that have been employed to distinguish between them.

  13. Double contingency: A practical example of a risk acceptance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazley, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The double-contingency principle as defined in ANSI/ANS-8.1 specifies that open-quotes Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.close quotes The following practical example has been used to familiarize plant operators and managers and train criticality safety engineers in double contingency

  14. [Making up tuberculosis risk groups from decreed contingents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, A L; Il'icheva, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides materials to make up risk groups from decreed contingents by using the database developed and introduced in the Novomoskovsk district, as well as a programme for rapid determination of the risk of tuberculosis. This procedure reduces a scope of fluorographic surveys among the decreed contingents, as well as their expenditures by 60%. Moreover, it may be useful for professional choice in the employment of the decreed persons, which may promote a decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis among them.

  15. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  16. No Win, No Fee: Some Economics of Contingent Legal Fees.

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Hugh; Waterson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects on the litigation process of alternative contracts between plaintiffs and their lawyers. Three contracts are compared: normal (hourly fee), contingent mark up fees, and contingent share contracts. The focus is on the first two, a recent change in English law governing legal fees providing the motivation. The influences of the contract type on the acceptance of settlement offers, the settlement probability, the accident probability, the demand for trials, and th...

  17. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO 2 , making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables

  18. Oligopolies with contingent workforce and unemployment insurance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Merlone, Ugo; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    In the recent literature the introduction of modified cost functions has added reality into the classical oligopoly analysis. Furthermore, the market evolution requires much more flexibility to firms, and in several countries contingent workforce plays an important role in the production choices by the firms. Therefore, an analysis of dynamic adjustment costs is in order to understand oligopoly dynamics. In this paper, dynamic single-product oligopolies without product differentiation are first examined with the additional consideration of production adjustment costs. Linear inverse demand and cost functions are considered and it is assumed that the firms adjust their outputs partially toward best response. The set of the steady states is characterized by a system of linear inequalities and there are usually infinitely many steady states. The asymptotic behavior of the output trajectories is examined by using computer simulation. The numerical results indicate that the resulting dynamics is richer than in the case of the classical Cournot model. This model and results are then compared to oligopolies with unemployment insurance systems when the additional cost is considered if firms do not use their maximum capacities.

  19. From the search for natural laws to the discovery of contingent rules in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Postel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author defends the idea that one of the positiveresults of modern economic analysis is the conviction that there is no natural law in economics. Thus, the most thorough scientific research which has tried to provide an analytical foundation for the mythical invisible hand, the “general equilibrium paradigm,” has finally shown that such an equilibration process cannot be formally demonstrated. Hence, we can say that economists cannot demonstrate the existence of a law of “supply and demand” but, more simply, can assert that some causal but contingent relations may exist between price, supply and demand. According to this result, the critical approach of Kenneth John Arrow concludes with the necessity of social and moral rule (for the good functioning of the market. It is, thus, necessary to assume the contingent nature of economic rules, and the absence of natural law, and consequently, to modify economists’ theoretical model.

  20. The effects of contingency factors on management control systems: an empirical study at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Paaso, Ilkka

    Contingency theory and management control systems research offer avenues for investigating how contextual factors in organizations affect performance. This quantitative case study investigates how the context of CERN internal services influences the performance consciousness of functional service managers. A literature review recognized four contingency factors relevant for performance consciousness: interdependence, scope, standardization and variation. Data from these factors was measured empirically using a cross-sectional electronic survey and supplemented by data gathered from CERN internal documentation. A quantitative analysis of the data was performed using structural equation modelling. The main findings were congruent with existing literature indicating that a.) high interdependence between work units is associated with decreased variation, increased standardization and increased performance consciousness. b.) high scope is related to increased variation and decreased standardization. Overall, a bet...

  1. The Influence of Green Supply Chain Integration on Firm Performance: A Contingency and Configuration Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtao Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of three dimensions of green supply chain integration (GSCI on operational and financial performance, from both a contingency and a configuration perspective. From the contingency perspective, we used hierarchical regression to determine the impacts of individual GSCI dimensions (green internal, customer and supplier integration and their interactions on firm performance. From the configuration perspective, we used cluster analysis to develop patterns of GSCI, which were analyzed in terms of GSCI strength and balance. Analysis of variance was used to examine the relationship between GSCI pattern and firm performance. We used data collected from manufacturing firms in Shanxi, Shandong, Beijing, Guangdong and Jiangsu to test hypotheses. The findings from both the contingency and configuration perspective indicate that GSCI was related to both operational and financial performance. Furthermore, the interaction between green internal integration and green customer integration was positively related to both operational and financial performance, while the interaction between green internal integration and green supplier integration was negatively related to financial performance. The interaction between green customer integration and green supplier integration was positively related to financial performance.

  2. Contingency blindness: location-identity binding mismatches obscure awareness of spatial contingencies and produce profound interference in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Milliken, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the role of location-identity binding mismatches in obscuring explicit awareness of a strong contingency. In a spatial-priming procedure, we introduced a high likelihood of location-repeat trials. Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b demonstrated that participants' explicit awareness of this contingency was heavily influenced by the local match in location-identity bindings. In Experiment 3, we sought to determine why location-identity binding mismatches produce such low levels of contingency awareness. Our results suggest that binding mismatches can interfere substantially with visual-memory performance. We attribute the low levels of contingency awareness to participants' inability to remember the critical location-identity binding in the prime on a trial-to-trial basis. These results imply a close interplay between object files and visual working memory.

  3. [Contingencies of self-worth in Japanese culture: validation of the Japanese contingencies of self-worth scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko

    2008-08-01

    The author developed a Japanese version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) that was originally developed in the United States (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003). The Japanese version of the scale measures seven contingencies of self-esteem: Defeating others in competition, appearance, relationship harmony, other's approval, academic competence, virtue, and support of family and friends. Scores on the scale had systematic relationships with related variables, and the scale therefore exhibited satisfactory levels of construct validity: Relationship harmony, other's approval, and support of family and friends were positively correlated with sympathy and interdependence, whereas competitiveness was negatively correlated with sympathy. Moreover, competitiveness and academic achievement contingencies predicted competitive motivation, whereas the support of family and friends contingency predicted self-sufficient motivation. The scale has adequate test-retest reliability and a seven-factor structural model was confirmed. The implications for self-esteem and interpersonal relationships in Japanese culture are discussed.

  4. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, J S

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO sub 2 , making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data t...

  5. Numerical tables. Physical and chemical analyses of Rhine water 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Tables present the methods of analysis and the data obtained on inorganic, organic, and radioactive impurities in Rhine water. The measuring stations were located in Switzerland, France, West Germany, and the Netherlands. (HP) [de

  6. Elekta Precise Table characteristics of IGRT remote table positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.

    2009-01-01

    Cone beam CT is a powerful tool to ensure an optimum patient positioning in radiotherapy. When cone beam CT scan of a patient is acquired, scan data of the patient are compared and evaluated against a reference image set and patient position offset is calculated. Via the linac control system, the patient is moved to correct for position offset and treatment starts. This procedure requires a reliable system for movement of patient. In this work we present a new method to characterize the reproducibility, linearity and accuracy in table positioning. The method applies to all treatment tables used in radiotherapy. Material and methods. The table characteristics are investigated on our two recent Elekta Synergy Platforms equipped with Precise Table installed in a shallow pit concrete cavity. Remote positioning of the table uses the auto set-up (ASU) feature in the linac control system software Desktop Pro R6.1. The ASU is used clinically to correct for patient positioning offset calculated via cone beam CT (XVI)-software. High precision steel rulers and a USB-microscope has been used to detect the relative table position in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The effect of patient is simulated by applying external load on the iBEAM table top. For each table position an image is exposed of the ruler and display values of actual table position in the linac control system is read out. The table is moved in full range in lateral direction (50 cm) and longitudinal direction (100 cm) while in vertical direction a limited range is used (40 cm). Results and discussion. Our results show a linear relation between linac control system read out and measured position. Effects of imperfect calibration are seen. A reproducibility within a standard deviation of 0.22 mm in lateral and longitudinal directions while within 0.43 mm in vertical direction has been observed. The usage of XVI requires knowledge of the characteristics of remote table positioning. It is our opinion

  7. National contingency plan product schedule data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putukian, J.; Hiltabrand, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    During oil spills there are always proposals by the technical community and industry to use chemical agents to help in oil spill cleanups. Federal Clean Water Act regulations require that any chemical agents that the federal on-scene coordinator (FOSC) wants to use for oil cleanup be listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule. Chemical countermeasures are among the most controversial, complex, and time-critical issues facing decision-making officials choosing response methods to use on coastal oil spills. There are situations in which dispersants are likely to be one of the most appropriate counter-measure strategies. Dispersants are most effective when applied to fresh oil, and their effectiveness dramatically decreases as the oil weathers, which can begin in as little as 24 hours. To logistically implement dispersant use, a decision would need to be made within roughly the first 4 hours after the release. Most of the information that the FOSC needs to make the determination to use a specific chemical agent exists in manuals, EPA bulletins, and the published literature. This information is not in an easy-to-use format under field emergency conditions. Hence the need to collect and disseminate the information in an automated data base. The sources for the information in this data base are the following. Published results of tests performed by Environment Canada; EPA bulletins associated with the NCP Product Schedule; Published results of tests by the chemical industry. The data base resides on a Macintosh computer and contains information about 70 NCP products, including dispersants, surface collecting agents, and biological additives. It contains information on physical properties, toxicity, heavy metal content, safety precautions, use conditions, etc

  8. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  9. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear analytical chemistry 5. Tables, nomograms and schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolgyessy, J; Varga, S; Dillinger, P; Kyrs, M

    1976-01-01

    Tables, graphs and nomograms are given on aspects of nuclear analytical chemistry. The tables contain data on physical and chemical units and their conversion, exponential functions, the characteristics of radioactive nuclides, data on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, data useful in measuring nuclear radiation, in scintillation and semiconductor spectrometry, activation analysis, data on masking reactions of ions in chemical separation, on extraction, ion exchange, accuracy in applying the method of isotope dilution, on radiochemical analysis.

  11. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, K.; Jensen, S.K.; Ostergaerd, J.; Nogbou, P.

    1993-01-01

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  12. Turning negative memories around: Contingency versus devaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Lemmens, Anke; Voncken, Marisol

    2018-09-01

    It is assumed that fear responses can be altered by changing the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US), or by devaluing the present mental representation of the US. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of contingency- and devaluation-based intervention techniques on the diminishment in - and return of fear. We hypothesized that extinction (EXT, contingency-based) would outperform devaluation-based techniques regarding contingency measures, but that devaluation-based techniques would be most effective in reducing the mental representation of the US. Additionally, we expected that incorporations of the US during devaluation would result in less reinstatement of the US averseness. Healthy participants received a fear conditioning paradigm followed by one of three interventions: extinction (EXT, contingency-based), imagery rescripting (ImRs, devaluation-based) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, devaluation-based). A reinstatement procedure and test followed the next day. EXT was indeed most successful in diminishing contingency-based US expectancies and skin conductance responses (SCRs), but all interventions were equally successful in reducing the averseness of the mental US representation. After reinstatement EXT showed lowest expectancies and SCRs; no differences were observed between the conditions concerning the mental US representation. A partial reinforcement schedule was used, resulting in a vast amount of contingency unaware participants. Additionally, a non-clinical sample was used, which may limit the generalizability to clinical populations. EXT is most effective in reducing conditioned fear responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  14. Comparison of accuracy in predicting emotional instability from MMPI data: fisherian versus contingent probability statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.; Mathews, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The security plans of nuclear power plants generally require that all personnel who are to have access to protected areas or vital islands be screened for emotional stability. In virtually all instances, the screening involves the administration of one or more psychological tests, usually including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). At some plants, all employees receive a structured clinical interview after they have taken the MMPI and results have been obtained. At other plants, only those employees with dirty MMPI are interviewed. This latter protocol is referred to as interviews by exception. Behaviordyne Psychological Corp. has succeeded in removing some of the uncertainty associated with interview-by-exception protocols by developing an empirically based, predictive equation. This equation permits utility companies to make informed choices regarding the risks they are assuming. A conceptual problem exists with the predictive equation, however. Like most predictive equations currently in use, it is based on Fisherian statistics, involving least-squares analyses. Consequently, Behaviordyne Psychological Corp., in conjunction with T.W. Mathews and Associates, has just developed a second predictive equation, one based on contingent probability statistics. The particular technique used in the multi-contingent analysis of probability systems (MAPS) approach. The present paper presents a comparison of predictive accuracy of the two equations: the one derived using Fisherian techniques versus the one thing contingent probability techniques.

  15. Simple gaze-contingent cues guide eye movements in a realistic driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarjanschi, Laura; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Looking at the right place at the right time is a critical component of driving skill. Therefore, gaze guidance has the potential to become a valuable driving assistance system. In previous work, we have already shown that complex gaze-contingent stimuli can guide attention and reduce the number of accidents in a simple driving simulator. We here set out to investigate whether cues that are simple enough to be implemented in a real car can also capture gaze during a more realistic driving task in a high-fidelity driving simulator. We used a state-of-the-art, wide-field-of-view driving simulator with an integrated eye tracker. Gaze-contingent warnings were implemented using two arrays of light-emitting diodes horizontally fitted below and above the simulated windshield. Thirteen volunteering subjects drove along predetermined routes in a simulated environment popu­ lated with autonomous traffic. Warnings were triggered during the approach to half of the intersections, cueing either towards the right or to the left. The remaining intersections were not cued, and served as controls. The analysis of the recorded gaze data revealed that the gaze-contingent cues did indeed have a gaze guiding effect, triggering a significant shift in gaze position towards the highlighted direction. This gaze shift was not accompanied by changes in driving behaviour, suggesting that the cues do not interfere with the driving task itself.

  16. Comparison of accuracy in predicting emotional instability from MMPI data: fisherian versus contingent probability statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.; Mathews, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The security plans of nuclear power plants generally require that all personnel who are to have access to protected areas or vital islands be screened for emotional stability. In virtually all instances, the screening involves the administration of one or more psychological tests, usually including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). At some plants, all employees receive a structured clinical interview after they have taken the MMPI and results have been obtained. At other plants, only those employees with dirty MMPI are interviewed. This latter protocol is referred to as interviews by exception. Behaviordyne Psychological Corp. has succeeded in removing some of the uncertainty associated with interview-by-exception protocols by developing an empirically based, predictive equation. This equation permits utility companies to make informed choices regarding the risks they are assuming. A conceptual problem exists with the predictive equation, however. Like most predictive equations currently in use, it is based on Fisherian statistics, involving least-squares analyses. Consequently, Behaviordyne Psychological Corp., in conjunction with T.W. Mathews and Associates, has just developed a second predictive equation, one based on contingent probability statistics. The particular technique used in the multi-contingent analysis of probability systems (MAPS) approach. The present paper presents a comparison of predictive accuracy of the two equations: the one derived using Fisherian techniques versus the one thing contingent probability techniques

  17. Modes of relating to contingency: An exploration of experiences in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Renske; Hartog, Iris D; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Hans; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lives, people are confronted with unexpected life events, which can be difficult to incorporate into their life narratives. Such a confrontation can result in an experience of contingency. Different ways of relating to contingency have been described by Wuchterl: denying, acknowledging, and "encounter with the Other." In the present article, we aim to trace these theoretical distinctions in real-life experiences of patients. We analyzed 45 interviews using the constant comparative method with a directed content analysis approach in the Atlas.ti coding program. The interviews originated from a randomized controlled trial evaluating an assisted reflection on life events and ultimate life goals. Seven spiritual counselors from six hospitals in the Netherlands conducted the interviews from July of 2014 to March of 2016. All 45 patients had advanced cancer. We found four different modes into which relating to contingency can be classified: denying, acknowledging, accepting, and receiving. With denying, patients did not mention any impact of the life event on their lives. In acknowledging, the impact was recognized and a start was made to incorporate the event into their life. In accepting, patients went through a process of reinterpretation of the event. In receiving, patients talked about receiving insights from their illness and living a more conscious life. Our study is the first to investigate the different ways of relating to contingency in clinical practice. The defined modes will improve our understanding of the various ways in which cancer patients relate to their disease, allowing caregivers to better target and shape individual care.

  18. Automation of BESSY scanning tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanton, J.; Kesteman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A micro processor M6800 is used for the automation of scanning and premeasuring BESSY tables. The tasks achieved by the micro processor are: 1. control of spooling of the four asynchronous film winding devices and switching on and off the 4 projections lamps, 2. pre-processing of the data coming from a bi-polar coordinates measuring device, 3. bi-directional interchange of informations between the operator, the BESSY table and the DEC PDP 11/34 mini computer controling the scanning operations, 4. control of the magnification on the table by swapping the projection lenses of appropriate focal lengths and the associated light boxes (under development). In connection with point 4, study is being made for the use of BESSY tables for accurate measurements (+/-5 microns), by encoding the displacements of the projections lenses. (orig.)

  19. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  20. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  1. Table 1: Biofuels simulation scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A spreadsheet containing information used to generate Table 1. Agricultural Market sector results presented in the spreadsheet were generated elsewhere (non-EPA) and...

  2. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Platform Requirements - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frazier, Christopher Rawls [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is in Phase 3 Sustainment of development of a prototype tool, currently referred to as the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOTP), under the direction of OSD Program Support. CCOT-P is intended to help provide senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders with comprehensive insight into the global availability, readiness and capabilities of the Total Force Mix. The CCOT-P will allow senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks and mitigating strategies for proposed changes to force/capabilities assignments, apportionments and allocations options, focusing specifically on contingency contractor planning. During Phase 2 of the program, conducted during fiscal year 2012, Sandia developed an electronic storyboard prototype of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool that can be used for communication with senior decision makers and other Operational Contract Support (OCS) stakeholders. Phase 3 used feedback from demonstrations of the electronic storyboard prototype to develop an engineering prototype for planners to evaluate. Sandia worked with the DoD and Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic planning community to get feedback and input to ensure that the engineering prototype was developed to closely align with future planning needs. The intended deployment environment was also a key consideration as this prototype was developed. Initial release of the engineering prototype was done on servers at Sandia in the middle of Phase 3. In 2013, the tool was installed on a production pilot server managed by the OUSD(AT&L) eBusiness Center. The purpose of this document is to specify the CCOT-P engineering prototype platform requirements as of May 2016. Sandia developed the CCOT-P engineering prototype using common technologies to minimize the likelihood of deployment issues. CCOT-P engineering prototype was architected and designed to be as independent as possible of the major deployment

  3. Las potencialidades del institucionalismo histórico centrado en los actores para el análisis de la política pública. Contingentes de trabajadores extranjeros en España The Potential of Historical Institutionalism Centered on Actors for the Analysis of the Public Policies. Contingents of Foreign Workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rocío Bedoya Bedoya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es responder a la pregunta sobre las potencialidades que ofrece el institucionalismo histórico centrado en los actores para el análisis de las políticas públicas. Se argumenta que el enfoque centrado en los actores permite un mejor ajuste entre perspectiva teórica y realidad observada en la interacción política. Atendiendo al enfoque, se analizarán las premisas del institucionalismo centrado en los actores y su modelo de explicación y se describirán los principales rasgos de la política de contingentes en el marco del contexto de la globalización, el ingreso de España a la Unión Europea y el aumento visible de los flujos migratorios hacia España. Se destaca la potencialidad del enfoque para explicar los cambios en el sistema de interacción de la política pública de contingentes y para determinar la influencia de las instituciones y del entorno en el comportamiento de los actores.The purpose of this article is to respond to the question of the potential that historical institutionalism centered on actors offers for public policy analysis. It is argued that the focus centered on actors permits for a better adjustment between theoretical perspectives and observed reality in political interactions. Following this focus, the premises of institutionalism centered on actors and its model of explanation will be analyzed and the main characteristics of politics of contingents will be described in the framework of the context of globalization, the entrance of Spain into the European Union and the visible increase of the migratory flows to Spain. The potential of the focus is emphasized to explain the changes in the system of interaction of public policies of contingents and to determine the influence of the institutions and the environment on the behavior of actors.

  4. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† infrequently reported notifiable diseases...

  5. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.

  6. Public education programme for nuclear contingency planning in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M. C.; Li, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. Cooperation by the public is vital to the effective implementation of any contingency plan. Understanding of the basics of radiation protection as well as the contingency plan will help the public to appreciate the situation and react in a rational manner. A public education program to promote awareness of the contingency plan has been implemented in Hong Kong. In particular, a Virtual Exhibition Hall on radiation has been developed and launched in February 2002 for access by the public via Internet. A video and a set of web pages will be launched in the later part of 2002 to inform and educate the public on matters related to nuclear accident response in Hong Kong. This paper describes the public education programme in Hong Kong to promote public awareness and understanding of the nuclear contingency plan

  7. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acquisition of automatic imitation is sensitive to sensorimotor contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Press, Clare; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The associative sequence learning model proposes that the development of the mirror system depends on the same mechanisms of associative learning that mediate Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. To test this model, two experiments used the reduction of automatic imitation through incompatible sensorimotor training to assess whether mirror system plasticity is sensitive to contingency (i.e., the extent to which activation of one representation predicts activation of another). In Experiment 1, residual automatic imitation was measured following incompatible training in which the action stimulus was a perfect predictor of the response (contingent) or not at all predictive of the response (noncontingent). A contingency effect was observed: There was less automatic imitation indicative of more learning in the contingent group. Experiment 2 replicated this contingency effect and showed that, as predicted by associative learning theory, it can be abolished by signaling trials in which the response occurs in the absence of an action stimulus. These findings support the view that mirror system development depends on associative learning and indicate that this learning is not purely Hebbian. If this is correct, associative learning theory could be used to explain, predict, and intervene in mirror system development.

  9. Optimal Nonlinear Pricing, Bundling Commodities and Contingent Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to analyze optimal nonlinear pricing when a firm offers in a bundle a commodity and a contingent service. The paper studies a mechanism design where all private information can be captured in a single scalar variable in a monopoly context. We show that to propose the package for commodity and service is less costly for the consumer, the firm has lower consumers' rent than the situation where it sells their good and contingent service under an independent pricing strategy. In fact, the possibility to use price discrimination via the supply of package is dominated by the fact that it is costly for the consumer to sign two contracts. Bundling energy and a contingent service is a profitable strategy for a energetician monopoly practising optimal nonlinear tariff. We show that the rates of the energy and the contingent service depend to the optional character of the contingent service and depend to the degree of complementarity between commodities and services. (authors)

  10. An Optimized Table-Top Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Set-up for the Nanoscale Structural Analysis of Soft Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Sibillano, T.; De Caro, L.; Altamura, D.; Siliqi, D.; Ramella, M.; Boccafoschi, F.; Ciasca, G.; Campi, G.; Tirinato, Luca; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Giannini, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows how a table top superbright microfocus laboratory X-ray source and an innovative restoring-data algorithm, used in combination, allow to analyze the super molecular structure of soft matter by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering ex-situ experiments. The proposed theoretical approach is aimed to restore diffraction features from SAXS profiles collected from low scattering biomaterials or soft tissues, and therefore to deal with extremely noisy diffraction SAXS profiles/maps. As biological test cases we inspected: i) residues of exosomes' drops from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells; ii) collagen/human elastin artificial scaffolds developed for vascular tissue engineering applications; iii) apoferritin protein in solution. Our results show how this combination can provide morphological/structural nanoscale information to characterize new artificial biomaterials and/or to get insight into the transition between healthy and pathological tissues during the progression of a disease, or to morphologically characterize nanoscale proteins, based on SAXS data collected in a room-sized laboratory.

  11. An Optimized Table-Top Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Set-up for the Nanoscale Structural Analysis of Soft Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Sibillano, T.

    2014-11-10

    The paper shows how a table top superbright microfocus laboratory X-ray source and an innovative restoring-data algorithm, used in combination, allow to analyze the super molecular structure of soft matter by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering ex-situ experiments. The proposed theoretical approach is aimed to restore diffraction features from SAXS profiles collected from low scattering biomaterials or soft tissues, and therefore to deal with extremely noisy diffraction SAXS profiles/maps. As biological test cases we inspected: i) residues of exosomes\\' drops from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells; ii) collagen/human elastin artificial scaffolds developed for vascular tissue engineering applications; iii) apoferritin protein in solution. Our results show how this combination can provide morphological/structural nanoscale information to characterize new artificial biomaterials and/or to get insight into the transition between healthy and pathological tissues during the progression of a disease, or to morphologically characterize nanoscale proteins, based on SAXS data collected in a room-sized laboratory.

  12. Stability analysis of roadway embankments supported by stone columns with the presence of water table under short-term and long-term conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Shaymaa Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of stone column technique to improve soft foundation soils under roadway embankments has proven to increase the bearing capacity and reduce the potential settlement. The potential contribution of stone columns to the stability of roadway embankments against general (i.e. deep-seated failure needs to be thoroughly investigated. Therefore, a two-dimensional finite difference model implemented by FLAC/SLOPE 7.0 software, was employed in this study to assess the stability of a roadway embankment fill built on a soft soil deposit improved by stone column technique. The stability factor of safety was obtained numerically under both short-term and long-term conditions with the presence of water table. Two methods were adopted to convert the three-dimensional model into plane strain condition: column wall and equivalent improved ground methods. The effect of various parameters was studied to evaluate their influence on the factor of safety against embankment instability. For instance, the column diameter, columns’ spacing, soft soil properties for short-term and long-term conditions, and the height and friction angle of the embankment fill. The results of this study are developed in several design charts.

  13. An Optimized Table-Top Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Set-up for the Nanoscale Structural Analysis of Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibillano, T.; de Caro, L.; Altamura, D.; Siliqi, D.; Ramella, M.; Boccafoschi, F.; Ciasca, G.; Campi, G.; Tirinato, L.; di Fabrizio, E.; Giannini, C.

    2014-11-01

    The paper shows how a table top superbright microfocus laboratory X-ray source and an innovative restoring-data algorithm, used in combination, allow to analyze the super molecular structure of soft matter by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering ex-situ experiments. The proposed theoretical approach is aimed to restore diffraction features from SAXS profiles collected from low scattering biomaterials or soft tissues, and therefore to deal with extremely noisy diffraction SAXS profiles/maps. As biological test cases we inspected: i) residues of exosomes' drops from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells; ii) collagen/human elastin artificial scaffolds developed for vascular tissue engineering applications; iii) apoferritin protein in solution. Our results show how this combination can provide morphological/structural nanoscale information to characterize new artificial biomaterials and/or to get insight into the transition between healthy and pathological tissues during the progression of a disease, or to morphologically characterize nanoscale proteins, based on SAXS data collected in a room-sized laboratory.

  14. Determination of partition coefficients using 1 H NMR spectroscopy and time domain complete reduction to amplitude-frequency table (CRAFT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, David; Chica, Jeryl A M

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a simple, direct and novel method for the determination of partition coefficients and partitioning behavior using 1 H NMR spectroscopy combined with time domain complete reduction to amplitude-frequency tables (CRAFT). After partitioning into water and 1-octanol using standard methods, aliquots from each layer are directly analyzed using either proton or selective excitation NMR experiments. Signal amplitudes for each compound from each layer are then extracted directly from the time domain data in an automated fashion and analyzed using the CRAFT software. From these amplitudes, log P and log D 7.4 values can be calculated directly. Phase, baseline and internal standard issues, which can be problematic when Fourier transformed data are used, are unimportant when using time domain data. Furthermore, analytes can contain impurities because only a single resonance is examined and need not be UV active. Using this approach, we examined a variety of pharmaceutically relevant compounds and determined partition coefficients that are in excellent agreement with literature values. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we also examined salicylic acid in more detail demonstrating an aggregation effect as a function of sample loading and partition coefficient behavior as a function of pH value. This method provides a valuable addition to the medicinal chemist toolbox for determining these important constants. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. VeriClick: an efficient tool for table format verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Tamhankar, Mangesh

    2012-01-01

    The essential layout attributes of a visual table can be defined by the location of four critical grid cells. Although these critical cells can often be located by automated analysis, some means of human interaction is necessary for correcting residual errors. VeriClick is a macro-enabled spreadsheet interface that provides ground-truthing, confirmation, correction, and verification functions for CSV tables. All user actions are logged. Experimental results of seven subjects on one hundred tables suggest that VeriClick can provide a ten- to twenty-fold speedup over performing the same functions with standard spreadsheet editing commands.

  16. Negotiating contingent knowledges in a time of epistemic doubt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    How can/should we produce and communicate social scientific knowledge with authority under conditions of epistemic doubt? If all knowledge is contingent and if truth is a discursive effect rather than the final claim about reality - as post-foundationalism suggests - how can we formulate...... and provide support for contingent knowledge-claims? And how can the communication of social scientificknowlege be theorised and practised as the negotiation between social scientific knowledge and other forms of contingent knowledge rather than the one-way transmission of universal, value-free truth......-claims? In the paper, I outline an approach to addressing the final question. The approach is based on a combination of approaches to the production of knowledge developed in post-foundationalist sociology and philosophy of science, approaches to the communication of knowlege developed within communication studies...

  17. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  18. Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of the determined present state of the power system and determining a first representation of the network based on the determined Thevenin equivalents, determining a modified representation of the network, wherein the modified representation is a representation of the network having at least one contingency......, wherein at least one Thevenin equivalent of at least one voltage controlled node is modified due to the at least one contingency, the modified network representation being determined on the basis of the modified Thevenin equivalents, calculating voltage angles of the modified Thevenin equivalents......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....

  19. Robustness and Contingent History: From Prisoner's Dilemma to Gaia Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Inman

    2018-01-01

    In both social systems and ecosystems there is a need to resolve potential conflicts between the interests of individuals and the collective interest of the community. The collective interests need to survive the turbulent dynamics of social and ecological interactions. To see how different systems with different sets of interactions have different degrees of robustness, we need to look at their different contingent histories. We analyze abstract artificial life models of such systems, and note that some prominent examples rely on explicitly ahistorical frameworks; we point out where analyses that ignore a contingent historical context can be fatally flawed. The mathematical foundations of Gaia theory are presented in a form whose very basic and general assumptions point to wide applicability across complex dynamical systems. This highlights surprising connections between robustness and accumulated contingent happenstance, regardless of whether Darwinian evolution is or is not implicated. Real-life studies highlight the role of history, and artificial life studies should do likewise.

  20. Mathematical tables tables of in g [z] for complex argument

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, A A

    1960-01-01

    Mathematical Tables of In ? (z) for Complex Argument is a compilation of tables of In ? (z), z = x + iy, calculated for steps in x and y of 0.01 and with an accuracy of one unit in the last (the sixth) decimal place. Interpolation is used to calculate In ? (z) for intermediate values and is carried out separately for the real and imaginary parts of In ? (z). Six places are retained in interpolation.This book first explains how the values of In ? (z) are calculated using the asymptotic formula in a wide lattice with step h = 0.16, and how the tables and the nomograph are used. The values in the

  1. Efficient statistical tests to compare Youden index: accounting for contingency correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyao; Xue, Yuqiang; Tan, Ming T; Chen, Pingyan

    2015-04-30

    Youden index is widely utilized in studies evaluating accuracy of diagnostic tests and performance of predictive, prognostic, or risk models. However, both one and two independent sample tests on Youden index have been derived ignoring the dependence (association) between sensitivity and specificity, resulting in potentially misleading findings. Besides, paired sample test on Youden index is currently unavailable. This article develops efficient statistical inference procedures for one sample, independent, and paired sample tests on Youden index by accounting for contingency correlation, namely associations between sensitivity and specificity and paired samples typically represented in contingency tables. For one and two independent sample tests, the variances are estimated by Delta method, and the statistical inference is based on the central limit theory, which are then verified by bootstrap estimates. For paired samples test, we show that the estimated covariance of the two sensitivities and specificities can be represented as a function of kappa statistic so the test can be readily carried out. We then show the remarkable accuracy of the estimated variance using a constrained optimization approach. Simulation is performed to evaluate the statistical properties of the derived tests. The proposed approaches yield more stable type I errors at the nominal level and substantially higher power (efficiency) than does the original Youden's approach. Therefore, the simple explicit large sample solution performs very well. Because we can readily implement the asymptotic and exact bootstrap computation with common software like R, the method is broadly applicable to the evaluation of diagnostic tests and model performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. MIL-HDBK-338: Environmental Conversion Table Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Frank; Novack, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In reliability analysis, especially for launch vehicles, limited data is frequently a problem. Component data from other environments must be used. MIL-HBK-338 has a matrix showing the conversation between environments. Due to round off the conversions are not commutative, converting from A to B will not equal converting from B to A. Agenda: Introduction to environment conversions; Original table; Original table with edits; How big is the problem?; First attempt at correction; Proposed solution.

  3. Characteristics of Tables for Disseminating Biobehavioral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Nagelhout, Ed; Feng, Du

    2018-01-01

    To report the complexity and richness of study variables within biological nursing research, authors often use tables; however, the ease with which consumers understand, synthesize, evaluate, and build upon findings depends partly upon table design. To assess and compare table characteristics within research and review articles published in Biological Research for Nursing and Nursing Research. A total of 10 elements in tables from 48 biobehavioral or biological research or review articles were analyzed. To test six hypotheses, a two-level hierarchical linear model was used for each of the continuous table elements, and a two-level hierarchical generalized linear model was used for each of the categorical table elements. Additionally, the inclusion of probability values in statistical tables was examined. The mean number of tables per article was 3. Tables in research articles were more likely to contain quantitative content, while tables in review articles were more likely to contain both quantitative and qualitative content. Tables in research articles had a greater number of rows, columns, and column-heading levels than tables in review articles. More than one half of statistical tables in research articles had a separate probability column or had probability values within the table, whereas approximately one fourth had probability notes. Authors and journal editorial staff may be generating tables that better depict biobehavioral content than those identified in specific style guidelines. However, authors and journal editorial staff may want to consider table design in terms of audience, including alternative visual displays.

  4. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of the sections in this subpart: § 250.1401Table Definitions...

  5. When the Soul has left the Body: A presentation and analysis of the moment of death within the German version of Dirc van Delft’s Table of Christian Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a literary analysis of a 15th-century text, Die sele als sy verscheiden is uitten lichaem (When the soul has left the body), which, until now, remains overlooked and unedited by current scholarship. The text describes what happens to the soul immediately after the moment of ...... Die sele als sy verscheiden is uitten lichaem bears clear testimony to the Late-Medieval shift towards an autonomous approach to death and the need to be the architect of one’s own salvation, as described by the French medievalist and historian Philippe Ariès (1981)....... of physical death and is found in the German version of Dirc van Delft’s Table of Christian Faith. This article discusses the context, function and structure of the text in both its German and (original) Dutch version, and it offers a critical edition and English translation. It concludes by suggesting why...

  6. The Alfonsine tables of Toledo

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José

    2003-01-01

    The Alfonsine Tables of Toledo is for historians working in the fields of astronomy, science, the Middle Ages, Spanish and other Romance languages. It is also of interest to scholars interested in the history of Castile, in Castilian-French relations in the Middle Ages and in the history of patronage. It explores the Castilian canons of the Alfonsine Tables and offers a study of their context, language, astronomical content, and diffusion. The Alfonsine Tables of Toledo is unique in that it: includes an edition of a crucial text in history of science; provides an explanation of astronomy as it was practiced in the Middle Ages; presents abundant material on early scientific language in Castilian; presents new material on the diffusion of Alfonsine astronomy in Europe; describes the role of royal patronage of science in a medieval context.

  7. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    to strengthen links between experiments, simulations and theories and to augment these links with modern approaches in statistics, stochastic processes and data analysis. They further noted that the TMB community has a proven record of first-rate expertise in solving formidable and long-standing scientific problems, and discussed at length how to use this expertise in educational programs for graduate and professional education in science, mathematics and technology, and in other community outreach programs. The Round Tables put forward the following action items for the TMB Organizing Committee. (1) In close interaction with participants of TMB-2007 and TMB-2009, the Organizing Committee was requested to finalize a list of a few representative problems [deep enough and specific enough] useful for a variety of TMB-related themes. (2) The Organizing Committee was requested to organize a collaborative computing environment to maintain the information flux in the community, to share research tools, methodologies and data, including application of modern computational approaches for data sharing, annotation, transfer, analysis and visualization. The goal of the environment is to provide an infrastructure and to enhance quantitative criteria estimating the quality and information capacity of experimental and numerical data sets, and for the evaluation of predictive capabilities of theories and models. (3) The participants recommended contacting funding agencies with a pre-proposal (white paper) for the community project, and the National Academies of Sciences with a proposal to launch a decade of study of non-equilibrium turbulent processes. (4) The Organising Committee was requested to organize the 3rd International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMBW-2011, in the summer of 2011. To summarize, non-canonical turbulent processes are most representative processes in natural and artificial systems. These processes are characterized by non-equilibrium heat and mass

  8. iTTVis: Interactive Visualization of Table Tennis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Lan, Ji; Shu, Xinhuan; Ji, Chenyang; Zhao, Kejian; Wang, Jiachen; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology paved the way for the recording of fine-grained data, such as stroke techniques and stroke placements, during a table tennis match. This data recording creates opportunities to analyze and evaluate matches from new perspectives. Nevertheless, the increasingly complex data poses a significant challenge to make sense of and gain insights into. Analysts usually employ tedious and cumbersome methods which are limited to watching videos and reading statistical tables. However, existing sports visualization methods cannot be applied to visualizing table tennis competitions due to different competition rules and particular data attributes. In this work, we collaborate with data analysts to understand and characterize the sophisticated domain problem of analysis of table tennis data. We propose iTTVis, a novel interactive table tennis visualization system, which to our knowledge, is the first visual analysis system for analyzing and exploring table tennis data. iTTVis provides a holistic visualization of an entire match from three main perspectives, namely, time-oriented, statistical, and tactical analyses. The proposed system with several well-coordinated views not only supports correlation identification through statistics and pattern detection of tactics with a score timeline but also allows cross analysis to gain insights. Data analysts have obtained several new insights by using iTTVis. The effectiveness and usability of the proposed system are demonstrated with four case studies.

  9. Proposed energy conservation contingency plan: emergency restrictions on advertising lighting. Authorities, need, rationale, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The emergency restrictions on advertising lighting proposed in Energy Conservation Contingency Plan No. 5 of 1977 are presented. A statement is given on the need for rationale and operation of the Contingency Plan.

  10. 78 FR 71448 - Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2-Contingency Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...; Order No. 789] Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2--Contingency Reserve AGENCY: Federal Energy... (Contingency Reserve). The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Western Electricity... Region and is meant to specify the quantity and types of [[Page 71449

  11. Financial Management: DoD Process for Reporting Contingent Legal Liabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Peek, Marvin L; Brittingham, Scott S; Baidridge, Denise E; Egu, Charles O; Schenck, Kristy M; Adams, Carl L; Reiser, Cheri L

    2006-01-01

    ... contingent liabilities should read this report. It identifies areas where DoD and its Components have not fully complied with Federal financial accounting standards and are not consistent in computing and disclosing contingent legal liabilities...

  12. Statistical probability tables CALENDF program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the probability tables is: - to obtain dense data representation - to calculate integrals by quadratures. They are mainly used in the USA for calculations by Monte Carlo and in the USSR and Europe for self-shielding calculations by the sub-group method. The moment probability tables, in addition to providing a more substantial mathematical basis and calculation methods, are adapted for condensation and mixture calculations, which are the crucial operations for reactor physics specialists. However, their extension is limited by the statistical hypothesis they imply. Efforts are being made to remove this obstacle, at the cost, it must be said, of greater complexity

  13. Towards a contingency theory of Operations Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Demeter, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of papers addressing relationships between context, OM practice and performance, published in IJOPM and JOM over the last 25 years. The analysis suggest that the field is highly scattered, still quite immature, but growing. Suggestions for further analysis of exist...

  14. Matching-to-sample performance is better analyzed in terms of a four-term contingency than in terms of a three-term contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brent M; Elliffe, Douglas M

    2013-07-01

    Four pigeons performed a simultaneous matching-to-sample (MTS) task involving two samples and two comparisons that differed in their pixel density and luminance. After a long history of reinforcers for correct responses after both samples, 15 conditions arranged either continuous reinforcement of correct responses after Sample 1 and extinction for all responses after Sample 2, or vice versa. The sample after which correct responses were reinforced alternated across successive conditions. The disparity between the samples and the disparity between the comparisons were varied independently across conditions in a quasifactorial design. Contrary to predictions of extant quantitative models, which assume that MTS tasks involve two 3-term contingencies of reinforcement, matching accuracies were not at chance levels in these conditions, comparison-selection ratios differed after the two samples, and effects on matching accuracies of both sample disparity and comparison disparity were observed. These results were, however, consistent with ordinal and sometimes quantitative predictions of Jones' (2003) theory of stimulus and reinforcement effects in MTS tasks. This theory asserts that MTS tasks involve four-term contingencies of reinforcement and that any tendency to select one comparison more often than the other over a set of trials reflects meaningful differences between comparison-discrimination accuracies after the two samples. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. New Challenges of Contingency Theory in Management Accounting System, in Terms of Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ene Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to answer the question: 1. The contingency theory can be a source of improvement in management accounting research ,in terms of global economic crisis?’’ 2. Can be Contingency factors a bridge between organizational theories and management accounting? Research purpose: -The contingency theory can be a source of improvement in management accounting research, in terms of global economic crises; -Contingency factors can be a bridge between organizational theories and management a...

  16. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0159] RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the Animal Welfare Act...

  17. Control, Contingency and Delegation in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Stephen R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes a model which emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority and managerial control of operations. Suggests that risks can be reduced by using (1) a contingency approach to delegation, (2) decision rules for consistency, (3) decision models for specific situations, (4) vital indicator reports, (5) management by objectives, and (6)…

  18. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  19. Empowering Young Abused and Neglected Children through Contingency Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsberg, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contingency play as an intervention strategy can ameliorate abused and neglected children's alienation from adults, reduce stress, and develop positive modes of behavior. The argument is supported by a case study of a four-year-old girl in a day treatment center for abused and neglected children. (BB)

  20. Contingent Capability of a Conceived Child: Civil Law Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena A.; Suslikov, Vladimir N.; Blinkova, Elena V.; Blinkov, Oleg E.; Staroseltseva, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers on contingent legal capability of a conceived child. To protect the capability of conceived children and legal rights, including property, emerging on that basis, it is imperative to strictly identify the moment of emergence and termination of legal capability. The objective of this research is to analyze the provisions on civil…