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Sample records for continental shelf sediment

  1. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the northern Catalan continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

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    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Sanz, José Luis; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Micallef, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The northern Catalan continental shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, extends along 200 km from the Cap de Creus submarine canyon to the Llobregat Delta, in the vicinity of the city of Barcelona. In this paper we present the results of a systematic investigation of this area by means of very high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to fully assess its morphological variability. The causative factors and processes determining such variability are subsequently interpreted. The shelf is divided in three segments by two prominent submarine canyons: the northernmost Roses Shelf is separated from the intermediate La Planassa Shelf by the La Fonera Canyon, while the boundary between the La Planassa Shelf and the southernmost Barcelona Shelf is marked by the Blanes Canyon. These two canyons are deeply incised in the continental margin, with their heads located at only 0.8 and 5 km from the shore, respectively. The seafloor character reflects the influence of external controlling factors on the geomorphology and sediment dynamics of the northern continental shelf of Catalonia. These factors are the geological setting, the volume and nature of sediment input, and the type and characteristics of processes leading to sediment redistribution, such as dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) and eastern storms. The interaction of all these factors determines sediment dynamics and allows subdividing the northern Catalan continental shelf into three segments: the erosional-depositional Roses Shelf to the north, the non-depositional La Planassa Shelf in the middle, and the depositional Barcelona Shelf to the south. Erosional features off the Cap de Creus Peninsula and an along-shelf subdued channel in the outer shelf illustrate prevailing sediment dynamics in the Roses segment, which is dominated by erosional processes, local sediment accumulations and the southward bypass of sediment. The rocky character of the seafloor immediately north of the Blanes Canyon head demonstrates that

  2. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf

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    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.

    1991-08-01

    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  3. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  4. Nutrient regeneration and oxygen demand in Bering Sea continental shelf sediments

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    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Phoel, William C.

    1992-04-01

    Measurements of seabed oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration were made on continental shelf sediments in the southeast Bering Sea from 1 to 15 June 1981. The mean seabed oxygen demand was relatively modest (267 μM O 2 m -2 h -1), equivalent to a utilization of 60 mg organic carbon m -2 day -1. The seasonal build up of ammonium over the mid-shelf domain was generated at least in part by the bottom biota, as previously suggested ( WHITLEDGEet al., 1986 , Continental Shelf Research, 5, 109-132), but on the outer shelf nitrate replaced ammonium as the dominant inorganic nitrogen compound that was regenerated from the sediments. Comparison of oxygen consumption with the organic matter in sedimenting particulate matter (sampled with sediment traps) could imply that benthic processes were not accounting for the fate of considerable quantities of organic matter. Benthic oxygen demand rates, however, probably lag behind the input of the spring bloom to the bottom, thus extending the remineralization process out over time. Consumption by small microheterotrophs in the water column was also a likely sink, although shelf export and advective transport north were possible as well. Estimated nitrification rates in surface sediments could account for only a small fraction of the abrupt increase in nitrate observed in the water column over the shelf just prior to the spring bloom.

  5. Denitrification pathways and rates in the sandy sediments of the Georgia continental shelf, USA

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    Ingall Ellery

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Denitrification in continental shelf sediments has been estimated to be a significant sink of oceanic fixed nitrogen (N. The significance and mechanisms of denitrification in organic-poor sands, which comprise 70% of continental shelf sediments, are not well known. Core incubations and isotope tracer techniques were employed to determine processes and rates of denitrification in the coarse-grained, sandy sediments of the Georgia continental shelf. In these sediments, heterotrophic denitrification was the dominant process for fixed N removal. Processes such as coupled nitrification-denitrification, anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification were not evident over the 24 and 48 h time scale of the incubation experiments. Heterotrophic denitrification processes produce 22.8–34.1 μmole N m-2 d-1 of N2 in these coarse-grained sediments. These denitrification rates are approximately two orders of magnitude lower than rates determined in fine-grained shelf sediments. These lower rates may help reconcile unbalanced marine N budgets which calculate global N losses exceeding N inputs.

  6. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  7. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  8. Mineralogy of the carbonate sediments - western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    An X-ray diffraction study of forty-six sediment samples and three oolitic limestone samples from the western continental shelf of India shows that aragonite is the dominant carbonate mineral (99% maximum), followed by low-magnesium calcite (77...

  9. Geochronology of sediments in the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and in southern continental shelf of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.T.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Cunha, I.I.L.; Tessler, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental analysis methods for 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry in sediments, as well as the sedimentation rates in cores collected from Brazilian coastal region are presented. Sampling locations have covered the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and the continental shelf of southern Sao Paulo State. Values for 210 Pb ranged from 122.5 to 14.3 Bq x kg -1 for estuarine sediments and from 195.5 to 23.6 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. For 226 Ra the values obtained in sediments varied from 15.2 to 2.3 Bq x kg -1 in the estuary and from 30.1 to 16.1 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. Sedimentation rates are variable, ranging from 0.53 to 0.98 cm x y -1 in estuary sediments and from 0.18 to 0.40 cm x y -1 at the continental shelf. (author)

  10. Radiocarbon dates of sediment cores from inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, A.R.; Rajagopalan, G.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of carbonized wood samples from three sediment cores from the inner continental shelf off Taingapatnam, in the southwestern coast of India, indicates ages in the bracket 8400-9400 YBP. These radiometric ages correlate well with the ages of carbonized wood from inner continental shelf off Ponnani, Kerala and Karwar, Karnataka. The occurrence of carbonized wood in widely spread offshore areas probably represents a regional transgressive event in the west coast which resulted in submergence and destruction of coastal mangroves. The rate of sedimentation in the study area varies between 0.12 and 0.37 mm/yr, much lower than those reported from shelf areas north of Mangalore. The slow accumulation of sediments in the southern parts of the western continental shelf of India, as exemplified from the present study, may be due to very poor discharge and low bed load sediments of the west-flowing small rivers of this part of the peninsula and low concentration of suspended particulate matter in them. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.

    The bulk geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India and also the partition geochemistry of the sediments of the shelf and slope regions between Ratnagiri and Mangalore have been studied. The studies...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liangying; Wang Jizhong; Wei Gaoling; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ 18 PAH) were 27–224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ 18 PAH (28–224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28–109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. - Highlights: ► Coal and biomass combustion was the main origin of PAHs in coastal marine sediment of China. ► Fluvial transport was the main mode for transporting PAHs to the East China Sea inner shelf. ► Atmospheric deposition largely accounted for sediment PAHs in Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. ► Regional energy use pattern in China was responsible for the spatial distribution of PAHs in coastal marine sediment. - Sources, compositions and spatial distributions of PAHs in continental shelf sediments off China are analyzed to estimate anthropogenic influences.

  13. Sedimentology and geochemistry of surface sediments, outer continental shelf, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Vallier, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Present-day sediment dynamics, combined with lowerings of sea level during the Pleistocene, have created a mixture of sediments on the outer continental shelf of the southern Bering Sea that was derived from the Alaskan Mainland, the Aleutian Islands, and the Pribilof ridge. Concentrations of finer-grained, higher-organic sediments in the region of the St. George basin have further modified regional distribution patterns of sediment composition. Q-mode factor analysis of 58 variables related to sediment size and composition - including content of major, minor, and trace elements, heavy and light minerals, and clay minerals - reveals three dominant associations of sediment: 1. (1) The most significant contribution, forming a coarse-grained sediment scattered over most of the shelf consists of felsic sediment derived from the generally quartz-rich rocks of the Alaskan mainland. This sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Si, Ba, Rb, quartz, garnet, epidote, metamorphic rock fragments, potassium feldspar, and illite. 2. (2) The next most important group, superimposed on the felsic group consists of andesitic sediment derived from the Aleutian Islands. This more mafic sediment contains relatively high concentrations of Na, Ca, Ti, Sr, V, Mn, Cu, Fe, Al, Co, Zn, Y, Yb, Ga, volcanic rock fragments, glass, clinopyroxene, smectite, and vermiculite. 3. (3) A local group of basaltic sediment, derived from rocks of the Pribilof Islands, is a subgroup of the Aleutian andesite group. Accumulation of fine-grained sediment in St. George basin has created a sediment group containing relatively high concentrations of C, S, U, Li, B, Zr, Ga, Hg, silt, and clay. Sediment of the Aleutian andesite group exhibits a strong gradient, or "plume", with concentrations decreasing away from Unimak Pass and toward St. George basin. The absence of present-day currents sufficient to move even clay-size material as well as the presence of Bering submarine canyon between the Aleutian

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-08-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ(18)PAH) were 27-224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ(18)PAH (28-224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28-109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

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    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  16. Clay sediment accumulation rates on the monsoon-dominated western continental shelf and slope region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Clay accumulation rates shown in sediment cores from the nearshore to outer continental shelf and slope regions in water depths of 10-1246 m on the western continental margins of India were determined by the 210Pb dating technique. The 210Pb excess...

  17. Sources of organic carbon in the Portuguese continental shelf sediments during the Holocene period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdloff, D.; Araujo, M.F.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Mendes, I.; Monge Soares, A.M.; Dias, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Organic C (OC) and total N (TN) concentrations, and stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C) in muddy deposit sediments of the Northern and Southern Portuguese continental shelf were used to identify sources of fine-sized organic matter ( 13 C ranging, respectively, from 8.5 to 21 and from -22.4 per mille to -27 per mille ). Intense supplies to the Guadiana continental shelf of fine terrigenous particles during the Younger-Dryas Event are closely linked with higher OC/TN values and lower δ 13 C ratios. During the postglacial transgression phase, an increasing contribution of marine supplies (up to 80%) occurred. Higher δ 13 C (up to -22.4 per mille ) values and low OC/TN ratios (down to 8.5) are found as the sea level approaches the current one. The Upper Holocene records emphasize the return to enhanced terrestrial supplies except for the Little Climatic Optimum between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. This climatic event is especially obvious in the three cores as a return to marine production and a decrease in terrestrial sediment supply to the continental shelf. The return to a cooling event, the Little Ice Age, between the 15th and 19th centuries AD, is mirrored by decreased terrigenous supplies in core KSGX 57. Gradually increasing sedimentation in estuaries, as well as formation of coastal dune fields, have been hypothesized on the basis of increasing δ 13 C and decreasing OC, TN and OC/TN values

  18. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

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    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  19. Geochemical record of Holocene to Recent sedimentation on the Western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea

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    Limmer, David R.; BöNing, Philipp; Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; KöHler, Cornelia M.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Tabrez, Ali R.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiproxy geochemical analysis of two cores recovered from the Indus Shelf spanning the Early Holocene to Recent (<14 ka). Indus-23 is located close to the modern Indus River, while Indus-10 is positioned ˜100 km further west. The Holocene transgression at Indus-10 was over a surface that was strongly weathered during the last glacial sea level lowstand. Lower Holocene sediments at Indus-10 have higherɛNdvalues compared to those at the river mouth indicating some sediment supply from the Makran coast, either during the deposition or via reworking of older sediments outcropping on the shelf. Sediment transport from Makran occurred during transgressive intervals when sea level crossed the mid shelf. The sediment flux from non-Indus sources to Indus-10 peaked between 11 ka and 8 ka. A hiatus at Indus-23 from 8 ka until 1.3 ka indicates non-deposition or erosion of existing Indus Shelf sequences. HigherɛNdvalues seen on the shelf compared to the delta imply reworking of older delta sediments in building Holocene clinoforms. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mg/Al and Sr isotopes are all affected by erosion of detrital carbonate, which reduced through the Holocene. K/Al data suggest that silicate weathering peaked ca. 4-6 ka and was higher at Indus-10 compared to Indus-23. Fine-grained sediments that make up the shelf have geochemical signatures that are different from the coarser grained bulk sediments measured in the delta plain. The Indus Shelf data highlight the complexity of reconstructing records of continental erosion and provenance in marine settings.

  20. {sup 210}Pb-Excess and Sediment Accumulation Rates at the Iberian Continental Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Soares, A. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Sediments from the continental shelf, slope, and rise at the continental margin of northern Portugal and the adjacent Iberian abyssal basin were analysed for 210Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 14}C. Pb-210 derived sedimentation rates at the continental shelf off the Portuguese coast were 0.2-0.6 cm/a. In some cores from fine sediment deposits at the outer shelf, the {sup 210}Pb excess continuum was interrupted and sediment layers were missing, suggesting that events such as sediment slides could have occurred. Higher sedimentation rates were determined in locations at the rise of the continental slope, confirming enhanced deposition by sediment slides. In the deeper Iberian Abyssal Basin, using the {sup 14}C age of sediment layers the sedimentation rate was determined at 3.2 cm/ka, thus four orders of magnitude lower than at the continental shelf. The spatial distribution of sedimentation rates determined by radionuclide based chronologies, suggested that fine sediments from river discharges are deposited mainly at the outer continental shelf. These deposits may became unstable with time and, occasionally, originate sediment slides that are drained by the canyons and reach the deep sea. The Iberian abyssal basin receives some advective contribution of these sediment slides and the sedimentation rate is one order of magnitude higher than in other abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  1. Supervised classification of continental shelf sediment off western Donegal, Ireland

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    Monteys, X.; Craven, K.; McCarron, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Managing human impacts on marine ecosystems requires natural regions to be identified and mapped over a range of hierarchically nested scales. In recent years (2000-present) the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resources programme (INFOMAR) (Geological Survey Ireland and Marine Institute collaborations) has provided unprecedented quantities of high quality data on Ireland's offshore territories. The increasing availability of large, detailed digital representations of these environments requires the application of objective and quantitative analyses. This study presents results of a new approach for sea floor sediment mapping based on an integrated analysis of INFOMAR multibeam bathymetric data (including the derivatives of slope and relative position), backscatter data (including derivatives of angular response analysis) and sediment groundtruthing over the continental shelf, west of Donegal. It applies a Geographic-Object-Based Image Analysis software package to provide a supervised classification of the surface sediment. This approach can provide a statistically robust, high resolution classification of the seafloor. Initial results display a differentiation of sediment classes and a reduction in artefacts from previously applied methodologies. These results indicate a methodology that could be used during physical habitat mapping and classification of marine environments.

  2. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

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    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  3. The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jake; Lusher, Amy; Thompson, Richard C; Morley, Audrey

    2017-09-07

    Microplastics are widely dispersed throughout the marine environment. An understanding of the distribution and accumulation of this form of pollution is crucial for gauging environmental risk. Presented here is the first record of plastic contamination, in the 5 mm-250 μm size range, of Irish continental shelf sediments. Sixty-two microplastics were recovered from 10 of 11 stations using box cores. 97% of recovered microplastics were found to reside shallower than 2.5 cm sediment depth, with the area of highest microplastic concentration being the water-sediment interface and top 0.5 cm of sediments (66%). Microplastics were not found deeper than 3.5 ± 0.5 cm. These findings demonstrate that microplastic contamination is ubiquitous within superficial sediments and bottom water along the western Irish continental shelf. Results highlight that cores need to be at least 4-5 cm deep to quantify the standing stock of microplastics within marine sediments. All recovered microplastics were classified as secondary microplastics as they appear to be remnants of larger items; fibres being the principal form of microplastic pollution (85%), followed by broken fragments (15%). The range of polymer types, colours and physical forms recovered suggests a variety of sources. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms influencing microplastic transport, deposition, resuspension and subsequent interactions with biota.

  4. Change in morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York between 2011 and 2014: Analysis of hurricane impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey; Denny, Jane F.; Liste Munoz, Maria; Safak, Ilgar

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor mapping investigations conducted on the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011 and 2014, the period encompassing the impacts of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, provide an unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics during large storm events. Analyses of these studies demonstrate that storm-induced erosion and sediment transport occurred throughout the study area in water depths up to 30 m. Acoustic backscatter patterns were observed to move from ~1 m to 450 m with a mean of 20 m and movement tended to decrease with increasing water depth. These patterns indicate that both of the primary inner continental shelf sedimentary features in the study area, linear sorted bedforms offshore of eastern Fire Island and shoreface-attached sand ridges offshore of central and western Fire island, migrated alongshore to the southwest. The migration of the sorted bedforms represents the modification of an active ravinement surface and is thought to have liberated a significant volume of sediment. Comparison of isopach maps of sediment thickness show that the volume of modern sediment composing the lower shoreface and shoreface-attached sand ridges decreased by ~2.8 × 106 m3 across the ~73 km2 of common seafloor mapped in both surveys. However, a similar analysis for the relatively calmer 15-yr period prior to 2011 revealed significant accretion. This allows speculation that the shoreface-attached sand ridges are maintained over decadal timescales via sediment supplied through erosion of Pleistocene outwash and lower Holocene transgressive channel-fill deposits exposed on the inner continental shelf, but that the sand ridges also periodically erode and move to the southwest during large storm events. Analyses show that significant storminduced erosion and sediment transport occurs far seaward of the 5 to 9 m depth of closure assumed for Fire Island, where it is thought that an onshore

  5. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  6. Dating recent sediments from the subaqueous Yangtze Delta and adjacent continental shelf, China

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    Zhang-Hua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed sediment lithology, fallout of 210Pb and 137Cs, and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs for two short cores, YZE and CX38, obtained by gravity corer from the Yangtze River mouth offshore and adjacent continental shelf, to compare geochronological methods on the recent sediments of this area. Lithology and grain size changes in YZE suggested the re-discharging of the North Channel of the Yangtze River mouth by flood events during 1949–1954 and associated accretion in the offshore area. This event was validated by a remarkable zone of declination in both 137Cs and 210Pb activities and the absolute ages derived from the 137Cs and SCPs. In contrast, 210Pb results show obvious disturbance of grain size by sediment mixing and cannot be interpreted above 100 cm. In CX38, absolute ages for the early- and mid-1950s were derived by the 137Cs and the SCP profile respectively, which occurred in a reasonable sequence. The excess 210Pb distribution shows exponentially decreasing activities with depth, and the mean sedimentation rate agrees roughly with the one inferred from the SCP profile. We suggest that the limitation of the 210Pb method needs consideration while the SCP profile has the potential to provide a useful and independent dating method for recent Yangtze offshore and adjacent shelf sediments.

  7. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

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    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    -pressure systems drove a net sediment flux southwestward. Analysis of a 12-year data record from a local buoy shows an average of 41 cold fronts, 32 warm fronts, and 26 low-pressure systems per year. The culmination of these events would yield a cumulative net inner-continental shelf transport to the south–west, a trend that is further verified by sediment textural analysis and bedform morphology on the inner-continental shelf.

  8. Heavy minerals in the sediments on the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Fifty-eight sediment samples from the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore were analysed for heavy minerals consist of principally opaques, hornblende, epidote, garnet, sillimanite, hypersthene and zircon, with minor amounts...

  9. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf sediments from Krishna to Ganges river mouth, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Ninety six sediment samples (less than 2 mu m fractions) of the eastern continental shelf of India between Ganges in the north and Krishna in the south have been studiEd. by X-ray diffraction. On the basis of nature and abundance of different clay...

  10. Morphology and stratal geometry of the Antarctic continental shelf: Insights from models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.; Barker, Peter F.; Brancolini, Giuliano

    1997-01-01

    Reconstruction of past ice-sheet fluctuations from the stratigraphy of glaciated continental shelves requires understanding of the relationships among the stratal geometry, glacial and marine sedimentary processes, and ice dynamics. We investigate the formation of the morphology and the broad stratal geometry of topsets on the Antarctic continental shelf with numerical models. Our models assume that the stratal geometry and morphology are principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the seaward edge of the grounded ice. The location of the grounding line varies with time almost randomly across the shelf. With these simple assumptions, the models can successfully mimic salient features of the morphology and the stratal geometry. The models suggest that the current shelf has gradually evolved to its present geometry by many glacial advances and retreats of the grounding line to different locations across the shelf. The locations of the grounding line do not appear to be linearly correlated with either fluctuations in the 5 l s O record (which presumably represents changes in the global ice volume) or with the global sea-level curve, suggesting that either a more complex relationship exists or local effects dominate. The models suggest that erosion of preglacial sediments is confined to the inner shelf, and erosion decreases and deposition increases toward the shelf edge. Some of the deposited glacial sediments must be derived from continental erosion. The sediments probably undergo extensive transport and reworking obliterating much of the evidence for their original depositional environment. The flexural rigidity and the tectonic subsidence of the underlying lithosphere modify the bathymetry of the shelf, but probably have little effect on the stratal geometry. Our models provide several guidelines for the interpretation of unconformities, the nature of preserved topset deposits, and the

  11. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally

  12. Storm-driven delivery of sediment to the continental slope: Numerical modeling for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. K.; Kniskern, T. A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    The supply of sediment from the continental shelf to deeper waters is of critical importance for building continental margin repositories of sediment, and may also factor into episodic events on the continental slope such as turbidity currents and slope failures. While numerical sediment transport models have been developed for coastal and continental shelf areas, they have not often been used to infer sediment delivery to deeper waters. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic - suspended sediment transport model for the northern Gulf of Mexico has been developed and run to evaluate the types of conditions that are associated with delivery of suspended sediment to the continental slope. Accounting for sediment delivery by riverine plumes and for sediment resuspension by energetic waves and currents, the sediment transport calculations were implemented within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model domain represents the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope including the Mississippi birdfoot delta and the Mississippi and DeSoto Canyons. To investigate the role of storms in driving down-slope sediment fluxes, model runs that encompassed fall, 2007 through late summer, 2008 the summer and fall of 2008 were analyzed. This time period included several winter storms, and the passage of two hurricanes (Ike and Gustav) over the study area. Preliminary results indicated that sediment delivery to the continental slope was triggered by the passage of these storm events, and focused at certain locations, such as submarine canyons. Additionally, a climatological analysis indicates that storm track influences both the wind-driven currents and wave energy on the shelf, and as such plays an important role in determining which storms trigger delivery of suspended continental shelf sediment to the adjacent slope.

  13. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  14. Distribution and sources of organic carbon, nitrogen and their isotopic signatures in sediments from the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) continental shelf, northern Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Gaye, B.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.S.; Chivas, A.R.; Wheeler, D.; Thwin, S.

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and their delta sup(13) C and delta sup (15) N values were determined from 110 sediment samples from the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) continental shelf, northern Andaman Sea to decipher the concentration...

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  16. The geostatistics of the metal concentrations in sediments from the eastern Brazilian continental shelf in areas of gas and oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jose Edvar; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miguens, Flavio Costa; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2014-04-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to evaluate the differences in the geochemistry of metals in the marine sediments along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin along the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern sector) and Espírito Santo (Southeastern sector). The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn were obtained from acid digestion and quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metals showed a similar order of concentration: Al > Fe > Ba > Mn > V > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu, in both the Ceará; and Rio Grande do Norte shelf regions but different in the Espírito Santo shelf (Fe > Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > V > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were below the detection limit in all areas. A multivariate analysis revealed that the metals of siliciclastic origin on the continental shelf of Ceará are carried by Al. In addition, a large portion of metal deposits is connected to the iron and manganese oxides on the continental margin of Rio Grande do Norte. The metals from the continental supply on the coast of Espírito Santo (Cu, Ni, Ba, and Mn) are associated with Al; whereas Cr, Pb, V, and Zn are associated with iron in this southern area. Geochemical evaluations are needed to distinguish the origin and mineralogical differences of marine sediments within the regions. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) applied to the sediments from the coast of Ceará showed the morphological diversity of sediment grains: biological fragments, multifaceted particles, aggregates, and crystals occurred in the three regions analyzed. Among these grains, calcite, Mg-calcite, and aragonite were predominant in the northeastern sector, whereas silicates and other minerals were predominant the southeastern sector. Mg, K, Ti, and Zr as well as the

  17. Surficial sediments of the continental shelf off Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    sediments occur betweenthe water depths of 15 to 50m corresponding to a distance of about 40 km from the coast. Beyond 50 m to the shelf edge are calcareous sands. Non-carbonate components of these deep water sands are essentially quartz, many of which...

  18. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of @iRV gaveshani@@ were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral cntent. The distribution of total clay (< 4~k fraction...

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations across the Florida Panhandle continental shelf and slope after the BP MC 252 well failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Richard A.; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick; Moss, Joseph A.; Amick, Lauren; Carruth, Rebecca; Head, Marie; Marks, Joel; Tominack, Sarah; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The R/V Bellows, Florida Institute of Oceanography (FIO), with faculty and students from the University of West Florida (UWF), sampling mats of oil floating over the continental shelf south of Pensacola Florida during the BP MC 252 well failure. PAH concentrations in sediments on the shelf declined over time after the well was capped with a half life of ∼200 days. - Highlights: • PAHs concentrations were highest in slope sediments near the failed well site. • PAH concentrations in the shelf sediments were highest during the oil spill. • PAHs concentrations declined over time since the spill. - Abstract: The Florida Panhandle continental shelf environment was exposed to oil from the BP oil well failure in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Floating mats of oil were documented by satellite, but the distribution of dissolved components of the oil in this region was unknown. Shipek® grab samples of sediments were taken during repeated cruises between June 2010 and June 2012 to test for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of this contamination. Sediments were collected as composite samples, extracted using standard techniques, and PAHs were quantified by GC/MS-SIM. PAHs in samples from the continental slope in May 2011 were highest near to the failed well site and were reduced in samples taken one year later. PAHs from continental shelf sediments during the spill (June 2010) ranged from 10 to 165 ng g −1 . Subsequent cruises yielded variable and reduced amounts of PAHs across the shelf. The data suggest that PAHs were distributed widely across the shelf, and their subsequent loss to background levels suggests these compounds were of oil spill origin. PAH half-life estimates by regression were 70–122 days for slope and 201 days for shelf stations

  20. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Spanish northern continental shelf. Assessment of spatial and temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinas, Lucia; Angeles Franco, M.; Antonio Soriano, J.; Jose Gonzalez, J.; Pon, Jordi; Albaiges, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Spanish Northern continental shelf in March and September 2003, and February 2005. Concentrations of PAHs (Σ13 parent components) were in the range of 22-47528 μg/kg dw, the highest values corresponding to coastal urban-industrial hotspots and decreasing offshore. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that concentrations of total PAHs were below the threshold effect level (TEC) in 27 stations (81%) and above in 7, two of which (Gijon and Bilbao) were above the probable effect concentration (PEC). The detailed study of diagnostic ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH sources along the continental shelf, with a slight decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore. In order to assess the incidence of sediment sampling on the variability of the results, selected stations were also monitored in February and September 2004 and September 2005. The average field variance of the values obtained for each station was 31% that decreased to 23% when the values were normalized to TOC. - PAHs in the Spanish Atlantic coastal sediments reflect chronic inputs of petrogenic and pyrolytic hydrocarbons, with a decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore and representing low to moderate pollution according to established sediment quality guidelines.

  1. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Spanish northern continental shelf. Assessment of spatial and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.vinas@vi.ieo.e [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai - Canido, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Angeles Franco, M.; Antonio Soriano, J.; Jose Gonzalez, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai - Canido, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Pon, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain); Albaiges, Joan, E-mail: albqam@cid.csic.e [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in surface sediments collected at 36 stations along the Spanish Northern continental shelf in March and September 2003, and February 2005. Concentrations of PAHs (SIGMA13 parent components) were in the range of 22-47528 mug/kg dw, the highest values corresponding to coastal urban-industrial hotspots and decreasing offshore. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that concentrations of total PAHs were below the threshold effect level (TEC) in 27 stations (81%) and above in 7, two of which (Gijon and Bilbao) were above the probable effect concentration (PEC). The detailed study of diagnostic ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH sources along the continental shelf, with a slight decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore. In order to assess the incidence of sediment sampling on the variability of the results, selected stations were also monitored in February and September 2004 and September 2005. The average field variance of the values obtained for each station was 31% that decreased to 23% when the values were normalized to TOC. - PAHs in the Spanish Atlantic coastal sediments reflect chronic inputs of petrogenic and pyrolytic hydrocarbons, with a decrease of the latter moving westwards and offshore and representing low to moderate pollution according to established sediment quality guidelines.

  2. Effects of energy-related activities on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B [ed.

    1975-01-01

    Sixteen papers were presented and are announced separately. Coastal waters, continental shelf geology and aquatic ecosystems are studied for modelling basic data for assessment of possible environmental impacts from offshore energy development. Sediment transport and wave phenomena are modelled for understanding water pollution transport and diffusion. (PCS)

  3. Acoustic masking in sediments due to gases on the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Vora, K.H.; Topgi, R.S.

    Surveys carried out on the western continental shelf of India indicate that the inner and middle shelf to a depth of 50-60 m is covered by acoustically transparent clays. On the shelf off Bombay, the clays are thin near the shore where they overlie...

  4. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  5. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial–interglacial timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, Claire L.; Hodgson, David M.; Plater, Andrew J.; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian–Eemian–early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  6. Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial-interglacial timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, Claire L; Hodgson, David M; Plater, Andrew J; Mauz, Barbara; Selby, Ian; Lang, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The erosional morphology preserved at the sea bed in the eastern English Channel dominantly records denudation of the continental shelf by fluvial processes over multiple glacial-interglacial sea-level cycles rather than by catastrophic flooding through the Straits of Dover during the mid-Quaternary. Here, through the integration of multibeam bathymetry and shallow sub-bottom 2D seismic reflection profiles calibrated with vibrocore records, the first stratigraphic model of erosion and deposition on the eastern English Channel continental shelf is presented. Published Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and 14 C ages were used to chronometrically constrain the stratigraphy and allow correlation of the continental shelf record with major climatic/sea-level periods. Five major erosion surfaces overlain by discrete sediment packages have been identified. The continental shelf in the eastern English Channel preserves a record of processes operating from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to MIS 1. Planar and channelised erosion surfaces were formed by fluvial incision during lowstands or relative sea-level fall. The depth and lateral extent of incision was partly conditioned by underlying geology (rock type and tectonic structure), climatic conditions and changes in water and sediment discharge coupled to ice sheet dynamics and the drainage configuration of major rivers in Northwest Europe. Evidence for major erosion during or prior to MIS 6 is preserved. Fluvial sediments of MIS 2 age were identified within the Northern Palaeovalley, providing insights into the scale of erosion by normal fluvial regimes. Seismic and sedimentary facies indicate that deposition predominantly occurred during transgression when accommodation was created in palaeovalleys to allow discrete sediment bodies to form. Sediment reworking over multiple sea-level cycles (Saalian-Eemian-early Weichselian) by fluvial, coastal and marine processes created a multi-lateral, multi-storey succession of

  7. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf and slope: SEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) Program, which began in 1980 or 1981, had as its goal the testing of a hypothesis with respect to the fate of particulate matter formed in and introduced into the waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the northern east coast of the US, i.e., the MAB. The original hypothesis was that a large proportion of the particles in general, and of the particulate organic carbon (POC) in particular, was exported from the shelf, across the shelf/slope break and front, into the waters of, and, to some degree, deposited in the sediments of the continental slope. This hypothesis was based on budgets of organic carbon and lead-210 that did not account for a large proportion of those species in the waters or sediments of the shelf, and on a carbon-rich band of sediments centered on the slope at ∼1,000 m water depth. The results of the first SEEP experiment, south of New England and Long Island (SEEP-1) suggested, but did not prove, that there was only a relatively small proportion of the carbon which was exported from the shelf to the slope. The objective of the second experiment -- SEEP-2 -- done under the subject grant, was to tighten the experiment in terms of the kinds of data collected, and to focus it more on the shelf and only the upper slope, where shelf-derived particles were thought to be deposited

  8. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with generalized continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that combines a standard plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere based on the age of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus generalized shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to develop a methodology for reconstructing ocean bathymetry in the geologic past that includes heterogeneous continental margins in addition to abyssal ocean floor. First, the plate cooling model is applied to maps of ocean crustal age to calculate depth to basement. To the depth to basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A three-parameter continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Parameters of the shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are determined from modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and central Atlantic, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth to basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  9. U, Th, K content, heat production and thermal conductivity of Sao Paulo, Brazil continental shelf sediments: a reconnaissance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Hamza, V.M.; Furtado, V.V.; Adams, J.A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the natural potassium, uranium and thorium content, the radiogenic heat production and the thermal conductivity of 80 bottom surface sediment samples collected from the Brazilian continental shelf off Sao Paulo was made. The average equivalent contents of these radio-elements in an estuarine ambient were 1.21%, 1.75 ppm and 4.29 ppm respectively, and 1.20%, 1.21 ppm and 4.05 ppm, respectively, in the shelf samples. The largest radioelement contents were associated with the more fine-grained sediments. The 234 U to 238 U isotopic ratios varied from 0.60 to 1.75 with an average of 1.11, indicating that the sources for the uranium in these sediments are both terrigenous and from the sea water. An average radiogenic heat production of 0.63 (+ - 0.04) μW.m -3 was calculated from the experimental concentration data. Data for the thermal conductivity measurements ranged from 0.83 to 2.51 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 , with an average of 1.81 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 . (Author) [pt

  10. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf and slope off Saurashtra, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Clay mineral distribution in the sediments of the west coast of India indicates that the illite and chlorite-rich sediments, derived from the Indus, occupy the continental shelf of the northern part of the Gulf of Kutch. Montmorillonite derived from...

  11. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  12. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  13. Global Paleobathymetry Reconstruction with Realistic Shelf-Slope and Sediment Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Olson, P.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo-ocean bathymetry reconstructions in a 0.1°x0.1° resolution, using simple geophysical models (Plate Model Equation for oceanic lithosphere), published ages of the ocean floor (Müller et al. 2008), and modern world sediment thickness data (Divins 2003). The motivation is to create realistic paleobathymetry to understand the effect of ocean floor roughness on tides and heat transport in paleoclimate simulations. The values for the parameters in the Plate Model Equation are deduced from Crosby et al. (2006) and are used together with ocean floor age to model Depth to Basement. On top of the Depth to Basement, we added an isostatically adjusted multilayer sediment layer, as indicated from sediment thickness data of the modern oceans and marginal seas (Divins 2003). We also created another version of the sediment layer from the Müller et al. dataset. The Depth to Basement with the appropriate sediment layer together represent a realistic paleobathymetry. A Sediment Wedge was modeled to complement the reconstructed paleobathymetry by extending it to the coastlines. In this process we added a modeled Continental Shelf and Continental Slope to match the extent of the reconstructed paleobathymetry. The Sediment Wedge was prepared by studying the modern ocean where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved (north, south and central Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean between Australia-Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America). The model takes into account the modern continental shelf-slope structure (as evident from ETOPO1/ETOPO5), tectonic margin type (active vs. passive margin) and age of the latest tectonic activity (USGS & CGMW). Once the complete ocean bathymetry is modeled, we combine it with PALEOMAP (Scotese, 2011) continental reconstructions to produce global paleoworld elevation-bathymetry maps. Modern time (00 Ma) was assumed as a test case. Using the above-described methodology we reconstructed modern ocean

  14. Bacterial biogeography influenced by shelf-basin exchange in the Arctic surface sediment at the Chukchi Borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dukki; Nam, Seung-Il; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyoungjun; Sadowsky, Michael J; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that continental shelves around the Arctic Ocean play a major role in the ventilation of the deep basins as a consequence of shelf-basin exchange. In the present study, we found that bacterial assemblage of the surface sediment was different from that of seawater while seawater harboured local bacterial assemblages in response to the Arctic hydrography. This finding suggests that the Arctic seafloor sediments may have distinctive bacterial biogeography. Moreover, the distribution of bacterial assemblages and physicochemical properties in surface sediments changed gradually from the Arctic continental shelf to deep-sea basin. Based on the results, bacterial biogeography in the Arctic seafloor sediments may be influenced by winnowing and re-deposition of surface sediments through the sediment gravity flow. The present study offers a deeper understanding of shelf convection and its role for the construction of bacterial assemblages in the Arctic Ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Phosphatised limestones and associated sediments from the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Natarajan, R.; Parthiban, G.; Mascarenhas, A.

    Quaternary carbonate sediments: Rao, Ch.M., Paropkari~ A.L., Mascarenhas, A. and Murty, carbonate sediments and reefs, Yucatan shelf, Mexico. Am. P.S.N., 1987. Distribution of phosphorus and phosphatisa- Assoc. Pet. Geol. Mem., 11: 1-128. tion along...

  16. Wind forcing controls on river plume spreading on a tropical continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarya, A.; Vegt, van der M.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf is located close to the Equator in the Indonesian Archipelago, hosting a complex of coral reefs along its oceanic edge. The Berau coral reefs have a very high biodiversity, but the area is under serious risk due to river-derived nutrients and sediments. The region is

  17. Paleocene Wilcox cross-shelf channel-belt history and shelf-margin growth: Key to Gulf of Mexico sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Steel, Ronald; Ambrose, William

    2017-12-01

    Shelf margins prograde and aggrade by the incremental addition of deltaic sediments supplied from river channel belts and by stored shoreline sediment. This paper documents the shelf-edge trajectory and coeval channel belts for a segment of Paleocene Lower Wilcox Group in the northern Gulf of Mexico based on 400 wireline logs and 300 m of whole cores. By quantitatively analyzing these data and comparing them with global databases, we demonstrate how varying sediment supply impacted the Wilcox shelf-margin growth and deep-water sediment dispersal under greenhouse eustatic conditions. The coastal plain to marine topset and uppermost continental slope succession of the Lower Wilcox shelf-margin sediment prism is divided into eighteen high-frequency ( 300 ky duration) stratigraphic sequences, and further grouped into 5 sequence sets (labeled as A-E from bottom to top). Sequence Set A is dominantly muddy slope deposits. The shelf edge of Sequence Sets B and C prograded rapidly (> 10 km/Ma) and aggraded modestly ( 80 m/Ma) characterizes Sequence Sets D and E, which is associated with smaller (9-10 m thick on average) and isolated channel belts. This stratigraphic trend is likely due to an upward decreasing sediment supply indicated by the shelf-edge progradation rate and channel size, as well as an upward increasing shelf accommodation indicated by the shelf-edge aggradation rate. The rapid shelf-edge progradation and large rivers in Sequence Sets B and C confirm earlier suggestions that it was the early phase of Lower Wilcox dispersal that brought the largest deep-water sediment volumes into the Gulf of Mexico. Key factors in this Lower Wilcox stratigraphic trend are likely to have been a very high initial sediment flux to the Gulf because of the high initial release of sediment from Laramide catchments to the north and northwest, possibly aided by modest eustatic sea-level fall on the Texas shelf, which is suggested by the early, flat shelf-edge trajectory, high

  18. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons

  19. Recent foraminiferal assemblages from the continental shelf sediments of Madras, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    During the 15th cruise of INS Kistna, as part of the International Indian Ocean Expedition, several sub-surface samples were collected, (using LaFond-Dietz snapper), from the continental shelf region of the Bay of Bengal. Samples from two locations...

  20. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  1. Geochemistry of marine sediments of the Brazilian Northeastern continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Souza do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine sediment samples collected from the northeastern Brazilian continental shelf, at water depths between 20 and 80 m, consisted mainly of sands with an almost total absence of gravel and granules. Medium, coarse and very coarse sand grains are mostly composed of halimeda, lithothamnium, rodoliths and bioclastic sands with a carbonate content varying between 77 and 96 %. The chemistry in general shows a decreasing content of Ca (86.1 % >Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55% > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0.04 % in the samples. There was no correlation between CaCO3 and chemical contents and grain size with depth and bio-components. With the exception of Sr of marine origin, all other elements (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe are of continental origin. The lithothamnium of some offshore samples shows higher CaCO3 content, while Mg and Na are present only in halimedas. Bioclastic sands contain no Br, and silt and clay fractions are rare and characterize samples closer to the coast. These marine bioclastic granulates are of very pure biogenic calcium carbonates and are thus highly to be recommended for economic purposes.Os granulados marinhos, da Plataforma Continental do nordeste brasileiro, coletados de profundidades entre 20 e 80 m, são predominantemente areias cascalhosas constituídas de halimedas, litotames, rodolitos e areias bioclásticas, cujos teores de carbonatos variam de 77 a 96 %. A concentração média geral de elementos químicos na ordem decrescente é Ca (86.1 % > Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55 % > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0,04 %, independentemente da profundidade e tipo de bio-componente. Com exceção do Sr, que é de origem marinha, os demais elementos (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe são de origem continental. Elementos como Mg e Na foram restritos às halimedas em apenas duas amostras, enquanto Br não foi detectado nas areias

  2. Impacts of Suspended Sediment and Estuarine - Shelf Exchange Pathways on Shelf Ecosystem Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Pan, C.; Dinniman, M. S.; Lau, Y.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; O'Brien, S. J.; Bouchard, C.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Dykstra, S. L.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Jacobs, G. A.; Church, I.; Hofmann, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    A circulation model based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System, with coupled biogeochemical and sediment transport modules, has been implemented for Mississippi Sound and the adjacent continental shelf region. The model has 400-m horizontal resolution, 24 vertical layers, and includes wetting/drying capability to resolve shallow inshore regions. The circulation model was spun-up using oceanographic initial and lateral boundary conditions provided by a 1-km resolution regional implementation of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) in the Gulf of Mexico. The biogeochemical module includes multiple size classes of phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, a fish larvae compartment, and explicitly tracks dissolved oxygen with benthic cycling interaction. The sediment transport model is implemented based on benthic mapping data that provides bottom sediment type distributions and spatio-temporal validation. A regionally specific atmospheric forcing product that provides improved spatial and temporal resolution, including diurnal sea breeze impacts, has been developed and applied. Model experiments focus on periods when comprehensive ship-based sampling was deployed by the CONCORDE (Consortium for Coastal River-Dominated Ecosystems) research program, which was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. Biophysical interactions and biogeochemical variability associated with estuarine - shelf exchanges between nearshore lagoonal estuarine waters and the continental shelf revealed by the model provide new insight into how seasonal variation of hydrological forcing conditions influence ecological and biogeochemical processes in the highly productive Northern Gulf region. Application of the COAWST-based model system with and without inclusion of the sediment transport module demonstrates how suspended sediment in the

  3. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  4. Holocene sediment distribution on the inner continental shelf of northeastern South Carolina: implications for the regional sediment budget and long-term shoreline response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Jane F.; Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gayes, Paul T.; Morton, R.A.; Warner, John C.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Voulgaris, George

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution geophysical and sediment sampling surveys were conducted offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina to define the shallow geologic framework of the inner shelf. Results are used to identify and map Holocene sediment deposits, infer sediment transport pathways, and discuss implications for the regional coastal sediment budget. The thickest deposits of Holocene sediment observed on the inner shelf form shoal complexes composed of moderately sorted fine sand, which are primarily located offshore of modern tidal inlets. These shoal deposits contain ~67 M m3 of sediment, approximately 96% of Holocene sediment stored on the inner shelf. Due to the lack of any significant modern fluvial input of sand to the region, the Holocene deposits are likely derived from reworking of relict Pleistocene and older inner-shelf deposits during the Holocene marine transgression. The Holocene sediments are concentrated in the southern part of the study area, due to a combination of ancestral drainage patterns, a regional shift in sediment supply from the northeast to the southwest in the late Pleistocene, and proximity to modern inlet systems. Where sediment is limited, only small, low relief ridges have formed and Pleistocene and older deposits are exposed on the seafloor. The low-relief ridges are likely the result of a thin, mobile veneer of sediment being transported across an irregular, erosional surface formed during the last transgression. Sediment textural trends and seafloor morphology indicate a long-term net transport of sediment to the southwest. This is supported by oceanographic studies that suggest the long-term sediment transport direction is controlled by the frequency and intensity of storms that pass through the region, where low pressure systems yield net along-shore flow to the southwest and a weak onshore component. Current sediment budget estimates for the Grand Strand yield a deficit for the region. Volume calculations of Holocene deposits on the

  5. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  6. Surficial sediment character of the New York-New Jersey offshore continental shelf region: a GIS compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    Broad continental shelf regions such as the New York Bight are the product of a complex geologic history and dynamic oceanographic processes, dominated by the Holocene marine transgression (>100 m sea-level rise) following the end of the last Pleistocene ice advance ~ 20,000 years ago. The area of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (U.S. EEZ) territory, extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast, is larger than the continental U.S. and contains submerged landforms that provide a variety of natural functions and societal benefits, such as: critical habitats for fisheries, ship navigation and homeland security, and engineering activities (i.e. oil and gas platforms, pipeline and cable routes, potential wind-energy-generation sites). Some parts of the continental margins, particularly inner-continental shelf regions, also contain unconsolidated hard-mineral deposits such as sand and gravel that are regarded as potential aggregate resources to meet or augment needs not met by onshore deposits (Williams, 1992). The present distribution of surficial sediment off the northeastern United States is shaped from the deposits left by the last glaciation and reflects the cumulative effects of sediment erosion, transport, sorting, and deposition by storm and tidal processes during the Holocene rise in sea level. As a result, the sediments on the sea floor represent both an historical record of former conditions and a guide to possible future sedimentary environments. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the Coastal and Marine Geology Program, in cooperation with the University of Colorado and other partners, has compiled extant sediment character and textural data as well as other geologic information on the sea floor from all regions around the U.S. into the usSEABED data system (Reid and others, 2005; Buczkowski and others, 2006; Reid and others, 2006). The usSEABED system, which contains information on sediment grain size and lithology for more than 340

  7. Gas-charged sediments on the inner continental shelf off western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    the enormous reserves of methane hydrates in the Arctic (Nisbet, 1989) and elsewhere. Owens et al. (1991) observed that the northern Arabian Sea is an oceanic region of unusually high methane concentrations and fluxes to the atmo- sphere. In view... The western continental shelf of India between IO°N and 22°N is bordered by the Deccan Traps (volcanic rocks) of Cretaceous age towards the north of Goa, whereas Peninsular gneisses, char- nockites and various schistose formations of Archaean age...

  8. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism from sediments along a continental shelf-to-slope transect in the NW Barents Sea: Implications for geomagnetic and depositional changes during the past 15 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, C.; Lucchi, R. G.; Sagnotti, L.; Macrì, P.; Morigi, C.; Melis, R.; Caffau, M.; Rebesco, M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data were measured on glaciomarine silty-clay successions along an E-W sediment-core transect across the continental shelf and slope of the Kveithola paleo-ice stream system (south of Svalbard, north-western Barents Sea), representing a stratigraphic interval spanning the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The records indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral and that magnetic minerals are distinctly less abundant on the shelf than at the continental slope. The paleomagnetic properties allow for the reconstruction of a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) throughout the sedimentary successions. The stratigraphic trends of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters are used for a shelf-slope core correlation and sediment facies analysis is applied for depositional processes reconstruction. The new paleomagnetic records compare to the PSV and RPI variation predicted for the core sites by a simulation using the global geomagnetic field variation models SHA.DIF.14k and CALS7K.2 and closest PSV and RPI regional stack curves. The elaborated dataset, corroborated by available 14C ages, provides a fundamental chronological framework to constrain the coupling of shelf-slope sedimentary processes and environmental changes in the NW Barents Sea region during and after deglaciation.

  9. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution

  10. Palaeoclimatic significance of gypsum pseudomorphs in the inner shelf sediments off Machalipatnam bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Pseudo-gypsum crystals have been found in the coarse fraction of the sediments from the inner continental shelf off Machilipatnam Bay. They range in size from 3 to 7 mm are elongate and lenticular in shape. Bassanite and calcite are pseudomorphs...

  11. Distribution of total phosphorus in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    The total phosphorus content in the sediment samples collected from different stations on the continental shelf along five sections normal to the coast near Bombay, Karwar, Mangalore, Cochin and Alleppey has been determined and the distribution...

  12. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David

    2002-01-01

    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  13. Benthic oxygen consumption on continental shelves off eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Emerson, Craig W.; Hargrave, Barry T.; Shortle, Jeannette L.

    1991-08-01

    The consumption of phytoplankton production by the benthos is an important component of organic carbon budgets for continental shelves. Sediment texture is a major factor regulating benthic processes because fine sediment areas are sites of enhanced deposition from the water column, resulting in increased organic content, bacterial biomass and community metabolism. Although continental shelves at mid- to high latitudes consist primarily of coarse relict sediments ( PIPER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1013-1035), shelf regions of boreal and subarctic eastern Canada contain large areas of silt and clay sediments ( FADER, Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1123-1153). We collated estimates of benthic oxygen consumption in coarse (<20% silt-clay, <0.5% organic matter) and fine sediments (20% silt-clay, 0.5% organic matter) for northwest Atlantic continental shelves including new data for Georges Bank, the Scotian Shelf, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf. Estimates were applied to the areal distribution of sediment type on these shelves to obtain a general relationship between sediment texture and benthic carbon consumption. Mean benthic oxygen demand was 2.7 times greater in fine sediment than in coarse sediment, when normalized to mean annual temperature. In terms of carbon equivalents, shelf regions with minimal fine sediment (Georges Bank, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland-northeast Newfoundland) consumed only 5-8% of annual primary production. Benthos of the Gulf of Maine (100% fine sediment) and the Scotian Shelf (35% fine sediment) utilized 16-19% of primary production. Although 32% of the Labrador Shelf area contained fine sediments, benthic consumption of pelagic production (8%) was apparently limited by low mean annual temperature (2°C). These results indicate that incorporation of sediment-specific oxygen uptake into shelf carbon budgets may increase estimates of benthic consumption by 50%. Furthermore, respiration and production by large

  14. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  15. Methane Metabolizing Microbial Communities in the Cold Seep Areas in the Northern Continental Shelf of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Liang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediment contains large amount of methane, estimated approximately 500-2500 gigatonnes of dissolved and hydrated methane carbon stored therein, mainly in continental margins. In localized specific areas named cold seeps, hydrocarbon (mainly methane) containing fluids rise to the seafloor, and support oases of ecosystem composed of various microorganisms and faunal assemblages. South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by passive continental margins in the west and north and convergent margins in the south and east. Thick organic-rich sediments have accumulated in the SCS since the late Mesozoic, which are continuing sources to form gas hydrates in the sediments of SCS. Here, Microbial ecosystems, particularly those involved in methane transformations were investigated in the cold seep areas (Qiongdongnan, Shenhu, and Dongsha) in the northern continental shelf of SCS. Multiple interdisciplinary analytic tools such as stable isotope probing, geochemical analysis, and molecular ecology, were applied for a comprehensive understanding of the microbe mediated methane transformation in this project. A variety of sediments cores have been collected, the geochemical profiles and the associated microbial distribution along the sediment cores were recorded. The major microbial groups involved in the methane transformation in these sediment cores were revealed, known methane producing and oxidizing archaea including Methanosarcinales, anaerobic methane oxidizing groups ANME-1, ANME-2 and their niche preference in the SCS sediments were found. In-depth comparative analysis revealed the presence of SCS-specific archaeal subtypes which probably reflected the evolution and adaptation of these methane metabolizing microbes to the SCS environmental conditions. Our work represents the first comprehensive analysis of the methane metabolizing microbial communities in the cold seep areas along the northern continental shelf of South China Sea, would provide new insight into the

  16. Speciation and spatial distribution of solid-phase iron in surface sediments of the East China Sea continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Hao, Xiao-Chen; Shi, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Gui-Peng; Li, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Speciation and reactivity characterization of solid-phase Fe in marine sediments are of significance to understanding its heterogeneous mineralogy and crystallinity, the diagenetic cycling of Fe and its regulating roles on many other elements in sediments. In this study, a combination of sequential and single-step extractions was used for the determination of seven Fe pools in surface sediments of the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf: (1) carbonate associated Fe (Fe(II) carb ) plus acid volatile sulfide-Fe (Fe(II) AVS ), (2) easily reducible amorphous/poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox1 ), (3) reducible crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ox2 ), (4) magnetite (Fe mag ), (5) poorly reactive sheet silicate Fe (Fe PRS ), (6) pyrite-Fe (Fe py ), and (7) unreactive silicate Fe (Fe U ). Total Fe (Fe T ) in the sediments is largely determined by terrestrial aluminosilicate particles as indicated by a great similarity of the Fe T with that of the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates. The size of Fe PRS is found to be the largest pool, followed by Fe U , Fe ox2 , Fe mag , Fe(II) AVS+carb , Fe ox1 and Fe py . The large Fe PRS may result from neoformation of Fe-rich clay minerals via reverse weathering and subsequent ageing. The small sizes of Fe(II) AVS+carb and Fe py pools is believed to be the result of low SO 4 reduction due to generally low labile organic matter together with the oxic/suboxic, dynamic environments of the surface sediments. The occurrence of Fe ox1 , Fe ox2 and Fe PRS in the sediments is closely associated with the clay fraction as indicated by a high spatial correlation between the former and the latter. Highly reactive Fe(Fe HR ) in the sediments is comparable to that in global marine sediments, but apparently lower than in the Yangtze River and global riverine particulates due probably to sequestration in the Yangtze Estuary. The ratios of Fe HR /Fe T , Fe PR /Fe T and Fe U /Fe T in the ECS surface sediments consistently show more similarity to

  17. Concentrations and isotope ratios of mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz Ferreira; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) may originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The measurement of spatial and temporal variations of Hg isotope ratios in sediments may enable source identification and tracking of environmental processes. In this study we establish the distribution of mercury concentrations and mercury isotope ratios in surface sediments of three transects along the continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil. The shelf showed on average lower total Hg concentrations (9.2 ± 5.3 ng g -1 ) than the slope (24.6 ± 8.8 ng g -1 ). MMHg average concentrations of shelf 0.15 ± 0.12 ng g -1 and slope 0.13 ± 0.06 ng g -1 were not significantly different. Distinct differences in Hg isotope ratio signatures were observed, suggesting that the two regions were impacted by different sources of Hg. The shelf showed more negative δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values ranging from -0.59 to -2.19‰ and from -0.76 to 0.08‰, respectively. In contrast, the slope exhibited δ 202 Hg values from -0.29 to -1.82‰ and Δ 199 Hg values from -0.23 to 0.09‰. Mercury found on the shelf, especially along the "D" and "I" transects, is depleted in heavy isotopes resulting in more negative δ 202 Hg compared to the slope. Isotope ratios observed in the "D" and "I" shelf region are similar to Hg ratios commonly associated with plants and vegetation and very comparable to those detected in the estuary and adjoining mangrove forest, which suggests that Hg exported from rivers may be the dominating source of Hg in near coastal regions along the northern part of the shelf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Continental shelf sediment dynamics in the Anthropocene: A global shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo

    2017-04-01

    Recent technological advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  19. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre

  20. Minimum distribution of subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the US Beaufort Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in Late Pleistocene time (~19 ka), sea level rise inundated coastal zones worldwide. On some parts of the present-day circum-Arctic continental shelf, this led to flooding and thawing of formerly subaerial permafrost and probable dissociation of associated gas hydrates. Relict permafrost has never been systematically mapped along the 700-km-long U.S. Beaufort Sea continental shelf and is often assumed to extend to ~120 m water depth, the approximate amount of sea level rise since the Late Pleistocene. Here, 5,000 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired between 1977 and 1992 were examined for high-velocity (>2.3 km s−1) refractions consistent with ice-bearing, coarse-grained sediments. Permafrost refractions were identified along sea ice-bearing permafrost, which does not extend seaward of 30 km offshore or beyond the 20 m isobath.

  1. Emergence of burrowing urchins from California continental shelf sediments-A response to alongshore current reversals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, F.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Thompson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Two sequences of bottom photographs taken every two or four hours for two months during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) off the Russian River, California, reveal the dynamic nature of interations between the water column, the sediments, and benthic organisms in the mid-shelf silt deposit. Time-lapse photographs taken between late spring and early summer in 1981 and 1982 show that the subsurface-dwelling urchin Brisaster latifrons (one of the largest invertebrates found in shelf-depth fine sediment off the U.S. Pacific coast) occasionally emerged from the sediment, plowed the sediment surface during the course of a few hours to several days, then buried themselves again. Frame-by-frame study of the film sequences shows that the urchins typically emerged following relaxation of coastal upwelling, periods characterized by current direction reversals and increases in bottom water turbidity. Among the possible causes of the emergence of urchins and the consequent bioturbation of the upper few cm of sediment, a response to an enhanced food supply seems most plausible. Circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility that phytoplankton sedimentation during periods of upwelling relaxation could provide a new source of food at the sediment surface. ?? 1989.

  2. Speciation of phosphorus in the continental shelf sediments in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka Kumar; Kurian, John; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Tripathy, Subhasish

    2016-03-01

    The distributions of various forms of phosphorus (P) and their relation with sediment geochemistry in two core sediments near Karwar and Mangalore offshore have been studied through the modified SEDEX procedure (Ruttenberg et al., 2009) and bulk chemical analysis. The present study provides the first quantitative analysis of complete phosphorus speciation in the core sediments of the Eastern Arabian shelf. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Al-Ti-Zr ternary diagram suggest low to moderate source area weathering of granodioritic to tonalitic source rock composition, despite the intense orographic rainfall in the source area. Due to the presence of same source rock and identical oxic depositional environment, the studied sediments show the same range of variation of total phosphorus (24 to 83 μmol/g) with a down-depth depleting trend. Organic bound P and detrital P are the two major chemical forms followed by iron-bound P, exchangeable/loosely bound P and authigenic P. The authigenic P content in the sediments near Mangalore coast varies linearly with calcium (r=0.88) unlike that of Karwar coast. The different reactive-phosphorus pools exhibit identical depleting trend with depth. This indicates that the phosphorus released from the organic matter and Fe bound fractions are prevented from precipitating as authigenic phosphates in the deeper parts of the sediment column. The low concentration of total P, dominance of detrital non-reactive fraction of P and inhibition of formation of authigenic phosphate result in the absence of active phosphatization in the Eastern Arabian Shelf in the studied region. High sedimentation rate (35-58 cm/kyr) and absence of winnowing effect appear to be the dominant factor controlling the P-speciation in the studied sediments.

  3. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  4. Oil, gas potential in shallow water: Peru`s continental shelf basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H. [BPZ and Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-11-16

    This third article of a series highlights the three sedimentary basins that underlie the 16 million acres of continental shelf adjacent to a 650-mile stretch of Peruvian coastline. This area lies roughly between the ports of Chiclayo and Pisco. These basins offer a variety of reservoirs, traps, and source-rock potential in water depths of less than 1,000 ft. They are characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene strata, underlain by Paleogene, Mesozoic, and Upper Paleozoic sediments down to as much as 7 sec two-way time on modern seismic records. In some places the sedimentary section may reach an aggregate thickness in excess of 50,000 ft. From north to south these contiguous shelf basins are the Sechura-Salaverry, Huacho, and Pisco basins. All three basins are described.

  5. Nineteenth-century collapse of a benthic marine ecosystem on the open continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M

    2017-06-14

    The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods ( Laqueus ) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands. Geological age-dating of 190 dead brachiopod shells shows that (i) no shells have been produced on the mainland shelf within the last 100 years, (ii) their shell production declined steeply during the nineteenth century, and (iii) they had formerly been present continuously for at least 4 kyr. This loss, sufficiently rapid (less than or equal to 100 years) and thorough to represent an ecosystem collapse, coincides with intensification of alluvial-plain land use in the nineteenth century, particularly livestock grazing. Extirpation was complete by the start of twentieth-century urbanization, warming, bottom fishing and scientific surveys. The loss of this filter-feeding fauna and the new spatial homogeneity and dominance of deposit- and detritus-feeders would have altered ecosystem functioning by reducing habitat heterogeneity and seawater filtering. This discovery, attesting to the power of this geological approach to recent ecological transitions, also strongly increases the spatial scope attributable to the negative effects of siltation, and suggests that it has been under-recognized on continental shelves elsewhere as a legacy of coastal land use. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Sediment-infill volcanic breccia from the Neoarchean Shimoga greenstone terrane, western Dharwar Craton: Implications on pyroclastic volcanism and sedimentation in an active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikyamba, C.; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Santosh, M.; Lingadevaru, M.; Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Subba Rao, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    We report sediment-infill volcanic breccia from the Neoarchean Shimoga greenstone belt of western Dharwar Craton which is associated with rhyolites, chlorite schists and pyroclastic rocks. The pyroclastic rocks of Yalavadahalli area of Shimoga greenstone belt host volcanogenic Pb-Cu-Zn mineralization. The sediment-infill volcanic breccia is clast-supported and comprises angular to sub-angular felsic volcanic clasts embedded in a dolomitic matrix that infilled the spaces in between the framework of volcanic clasts. The volcanic clasts are essentially composed of alkali feldspar and quartz with accessory biotite and opaques. These clasts have geochemical characteristics consistent with that of the associated potassic rhyolites from Daginkatte Formation. The rare earth elements (REE) and high field strength element (HFSE) compositions of the sediment-infill volcanic breccia and associated mafic and felsic volcanic rocks suggest an active continental margin setting for their generation. Origin, transport and deposition of these rhyolitic clasts and their aggregation with infiltrated carbonate sediments may be attributed to pyroclastic volcanism, short distance transportation of felsic volcanic clasts and their deposition in a shallow marine shelf in an active continental margin tectonic setting where the rhyolitic clasts were cemented by carbonate material. This unique rock type, marked by close association of pyroclastic volcanic rocks and shallow marine shelf sediments, suggest shorter distance between the ridge and shelf in the Neoarchean plate tectonic scenario.

  7. Comparative organic geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea) sediments: estuary to continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; White, C.; Anderson, A.; Vergnaud, B.; Johnstone, G.; Brear, S.; Woulds, C.; Naqvi, S. W.; Kitazato, H.

    2014-02-01

    Surface sediments from sites across the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea were analysed for their carbon and nitrogen compositions (elemental and stable isotopic), grain size distributions and biochemical indices of organic matter (OM) source and/or degradation state. Site locations ranged from the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers to depths of ~ 2000 m on the continental slope, thus spanning nearshore muds and sands on the shelf and both the semi-permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the upper slope (~ 200-1300 m) and the seasonal hypoxic zone that impinges on the shelf. Source indices showed mixed marine and terrigenous OM within the estuaries, and overwhelming predominance (80%+) of marine OM on the shelf and slope. Thus, riverine OM is heavily diluted by autochthonous marine OM and/or is efficiently remineralised within or immediately offshore of the estuaries. Any terrigenous OM that is exported appears to be retained in nearshore muds; lignin phenols indicate that the small terrigenous OM content of slope sediments is of different origin, potentially from rivers to the north. Organic C contents of surface shelf and slope sediments varied from winnowing and/or dilution) on the shelf and progressive OM degradation with increasing oxygen exposure below the OMZ. Reduced oxygen exposure may contribute to OM enrichment at some sites within the OMZ, but hydrodynamic processes are the overriding control on sediment OM distribution.

  8. Nepheloid Layers: Origin and Development In A Narrow Continental Shelf (nw Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.; Vitorino, J.; Rodrigues, A.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Dias, J. A.

    A general hydrographic, nephelometric and sedimentological surveying of the NW Portuguese continental shelf and slope was undertaken, under winter and spring con- ditions in order to elaborate a conceptual model of suspended sediments (nepheloid layer) dynamics. Two major situations were found: 1) Spring/Summer - with northerly winds (upwelling) and low energetic wave regime that favour the deposition of sedi- ments. The northerly winds promote offshore transport in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) and the establishment of a seasonal thermocline allow the expansion of the SNL to the west. The SNL can reach or even cross the shelf-break (50 km from coastline). Particulate organic carbon (POC) content in this layer highlights the higher contribution of biogenic particles (average concentration of 22%); 2) Winter, with southerly winds (downwelling) and high energetic wave regime that favour mid- shelf sediments resuspension and offshore transport in the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL). In the shelf-break the BNL detached to form intermediate nepheloid layers (INL). The SNL is restricted to the inner shelf. The effect of southerly winds gener- ates shoreward Ekman transport and detains the offshore westward extension of this layer even during high river run-off periods. The POC content indicates a dominance of litogenic particles in suspension (average concentration of 8%). Over the mid- and inner-shelf the dominant resuspension mechanism is associated with surface waves (Vitorino et al., 2002). Estimates based on wave measurements at mid-shelf (86m depth) suggested that, in winter, the wave shear velocity frequently exceeds 1 cm/s, assumed as the critical shear velocity for the resuspension of the fine grained sedi- ments (34m) of the bottom cover. Storm events, such as the one observed in November 1996 easily increase the wave shear velocities over 3 cm/s, leading to the increase of the BNL thickness (20-30m) (Vitorino et al., 2002; Oliveira et al., 2002). Low

  9. Seafloor classification using artificial neural network architecture from central western continental shelf of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Vasudev; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Navelkar, Gajanan S.; Prabhu Desai, R. G.

    2005-04-01

    Seafloor classification studies are carried out at the central western continental shelf of India employing two frequency normal incidence single beam echo-sounder backscatter data. Echo waveform data from different seafloor sediment areas are utilized for present study. Three artificial neural network (ANN) architectures, e.g., Self-Organization Feature Maps (SOFM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) are applied for seafloor classifications. In case of MLP, features are extracted from the received echo signal, on the basis of which, classification is carried out. In the case of the SOFM, a simple moving average echo waveform pre-processing technique is found to yield excellent classification results. Finally, LVQ, which is known as ANN of hybrid architecture is found to be the efficient seafloor classifier especially from the point of view of the real-time application. The simultaneously acquired sediment sample, multi-beam bathymetry and side scan sonar and echo waveform based seafloor classifications results are indicative of the depositional (inner shelf), non-depositional or erosion (outer shelf) environment and combination of both in the transition zone. [Work supported by DIT.

  10. Contribution of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae to inner shelf sediments of the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, M. A.; Fleeger, J. W.; Rabalais, N. N.; Condrey, R.; Carman, K. R.

    2010-03-01

    Marine sediment may contain both settled phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (BMA). In river-dominated, shallow continental shelf systems, spatial, and temporal heterogeneity in sediment type and water-column characteristics (e.g., turbidity and primary productivity) may promote spatial variation in the relative contribution of these two sources to the sediment organic matter pool available to benthic consumers. Here we use photosynthetic pigment analysis and microscopic examination of sediment microalgae to investigate how the biomass, composition, and degradation state of sediment-associated microalgae vary along the Louisiana (USA) inner shelf, a region strongly influenced by the Mississippi River. Three sandy shoals and surrounding muddy sediments with depths ranging from 4 to 20 m were sampled in April, August, and October 2007. Pigment composition suggested that sediment microalgae were primarily diatoms at all locations. We found no significant differences in sediment chlorophyll a concentrations (8-77 mg m -2) at the shoal and off-shoal stations. Epipelic pennate diatoms (considered indicative of BMA) made up a significantly greater proportion of sediment diatoms at sandy (50-98%) compared to more silty off-shoal stations (16-56%). The percentage of centric diatoms (indicators of settled phytoplankton) in the sediment was highest in August. Sediment total pheopigment concentrations on sandy stations (40 mg m -2), suggesting differences in sediment microalgal degradation state. These observations suggest that BMA predominate in shallow sandy sediments and that phytodetritus predominates at muddy stations. Our results also suggest that the relative proportion of phytodetritus in the benthos was highest where phytoplankton biomass in the overlying water was greatest, independent of sediment type. The high biomass of BMA found on shoals suggests that benthic primary production on sandy sediments represents a potentially significant local source of sediment

  11. Clay mineral distribution in the shelf sediments off the northern part of the east coast of india

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Forty-eight sediment samples from the continental shelf between Visakhapatnam and the Ganges were analysed by X-ray diffraction for the composition and distribution of clay minerals. Estuarine samples of the Hooghly are dominated by illite...

  12. Observations and modeling of wave-supported sediment gravity flows on the Po prodelta and comparison to prior observations from the Eel shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykovski, P.; Wiberg, P. L.; Geyer, W. R.

    2007-02-01

    A mooring and tripod array was deployed from the fall of 2002 through the spring of 2003 on the Po prodelta to measure sediment transport processes associated with sediment delivered from the Po River. Observations on the prodelta revealed wave-supported gravity flows of high concentration mud suspensions that are dynamically and kinematically similar to those observed on the Eel shelf [Traykovski, P., Geyer, W.R., Irish, J.D., Lynch, J.F., 2000. The role of wave-induced density-driven fluid mud flows for cross-shelf transport on the Eel River continental shelf. Continental Shelf Research 20, 2113-2140]. Due to the dynamic similarity between the two sites, a simple one-dimensional (1D) across-shelf model with the appropriate bottom boundary condition was used to examine fluxes associated with this transport mechanism at both locations. To calculate the sediment concentrations associated with the wave-dominated and wave-current resuspension, a bottom boundary condition using a reference concentration was combined with an "active layer" formulation to limit the amount of sediment in suspension. Whereas the wave-supported gravity flow mechanism dominated the transport on the Eel shelf, on the Po prodelta flux due to this mechanism is equal in magnitude to transport due to wave resuspension and wind-forced mean currents in the cross-shore direction. Southward transport due to wave resuspension and wind forced mean currents move an order of magnitude more sediment along-shore than the down-slope flux associated wave-supported gravity flows.

  13. Geomorphic characterization of four shelf-sourced submarine canyons along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, Jeffrey; Brothers, Daniel S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Shelf-sourced submarine canyons are common features of continental margins and are fundamental to deep-sea sedimentary systems. Despite their geomorphic and geologic significance, relatively few passive margin shelf-breaching canyons worldwide have been mapped using modern geophysical methods. Between 2007 and 2012 a series of geophysical surveys was conducted across four major canyons of the US Mid-Atlantic margin: Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk canyons. More than 5700 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and 890 line-km of sub-bottom CHIRP profiles were collected along the outer shelf and uppermost slope (depths of 80-1200 m). The data allowed us to compare and contrast the fine-scale morphology of each canyon system. The canyons have marked differences in the morphology and orientation of canyon heads, steepness and density of sidewall gullies, and the character of the continental shelf surrounding canyon rims. Down-canyon axial profiles for Washington, Baltimore and Wilmington canyons have linear shapes, and each canyon thalweg exhibits morphological evidence for recent, relatively small-scale sediment transport. For example, Washington Canyon displays extremely steep wall gradients and contains ~100 m wide, 5–10 m deep, v-shaped incisions down the canyon axis, suggesting modern or recent sediment transport. In contrast, the convex axial thalweg profile, the absence of thalweg incision, and evidence for sediment infilling at the canyon head, suggest that depositional processes strongly influence Norfolk Canyon during the current sea-level high-stand. The north walls of Wilmington, Washington and Norfolk canyons are steeper than the south walls due to differential erosion, though the underlying cause for this asymmetry is not clear. Furthermore, we speculate that most of the geomorphic features observed within the canyons (e.g., terraces, tributary canyons, gullies, and hanging valleys) were formed during the Pleistocene, and show only

  14. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  15. Seabed fluid expulsion along the upper slope and outer shelf of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Ruppel, C.; Kluesner, J.W.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, J.D.; Hill, J.C.; Andrews, B.D.; Flores, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the spatial distribution of seabed fluid expulsion features is crucial for understanding the substrate plumbing system of any continental margin. A 1100 km stretch of the U.S. Atlantic margin contains more than 5000 pockmarks at water depths of 120 m (shelf edge) to 700 m (upper slope), mostly updip of the contemporary gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Advanced attribute analyses of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data reveal gas-charged sediment and probable fluid chimneys beneath pockmark fields. A series of enhanced reflectors, inferred to represent hydrate-bearing sediments, occur within the GHSZ. Differential sediment loading at the shelf edge and warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation along the upper slope are the proposed mechanisms that led to transient changes in substrate pore fluid overpressure, vertical fluid/gas migration, and pockmark formation.

  16. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  17. Organic matter distribution in the continental shelf sediments, off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.

    (average 3.8%) than those towards Azhikode (average 1.97%). The sand predominant offshore relict sediments contain very low organic matter values (average 0.71%). The high organic matter content in the inner shelf is mainly controlled by the fine texture...

  18. Very large dune formation along the Ebro outer continental shelf (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Ribó, Marta; Ballesteros, Maria; Palanques, Albert; Farrán, Marcelli; Acosta, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Large and very large subaqueous dunes have been observed in a number of outer shelf regions around the world, tipically developing on fossil sand bodies and ridges. Dunes observed on outer shelves usually display large dimensions with maximum wavelength reaching up to 500 m and heights up to 20 m. Forcing mechanisms able to induce their formation have been described as strong bottom currents related to tidal variations and water masses flowing under geostrophic conditions, generally controlled and enhanced by local geomorphologic configurations. In this study, such bed features have been recognized, mapped and measured around the Columbretes Islands (Ebro continental shelf - Western Mediterranean) with the aim to reconstruct which are the potential forcing processes that could generate them in relation to the local settings of the area. Swath-bathymetry around the Columbretes Islands was collected using 30 kHz and 180 kHz Multi Beam echo-sounders for a 50-400 m water depth range. Bathymetric data revealed the presence of three main relict sand bodies along the outer shelf, for a 80-116 m depth range, above which asymmetrical, slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical large and very large 2D and 3D subaqueous dunes were observed. Dunes range from 150 to 760 m in wavelength and from tens of cm to 6 m in height. These bedforms are composed of sandy sediments, presumably coming from the degraded relict sand bodies on which they developed, mixed to the fine fractions coming from the recent draping holocenic sediments. The orientation of the dunes is SSW and progressively turns to W directions moving towards the southernmost sector of the area, following the trend of the shelf-edge. Observed dunes display a strong asymmetric profile for those occurring along the shelf-edge (Symmetry Index (SI): 2.6) and lose progressively their asymmetry towards the inner portion of the shelf (SI: 0.5), being 0.6 the minimum SI value to classify the dunes as asymmetric. The subaqueous dunes

  19. On the occurrence of caliche pisolites from the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    leader for his interest and for valuable suggestions which improved the manuscript. Thanks are due to Mr. V.S. Raja Raman for his assistance. References Aristarain, L.F., 1970. Chemical analysis of caliche profiles from the High Plains, New Mexico... limestones and associated sediments from the western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 95: 17-29. Reeves, C.C., 1970. Origin classification and geologic history of caliche on the southern High plains, Texas and eastern New Mexico. J. Geol., 78: 352...

  20. Determinação dos elementos-traço (Zn, Co e Ni em sedimentos da Plataforma Continental Amazônica sob influência da descarga do rio Amazonas Determination of trace elements (Zn, Co and Ni in sediments at the Amazon Continental Shelf on influence of the Amazon River discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Wanzeller Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Plataforma Continental Amazônica (PCA no trecho compreendido entre os cabos Orange (AP e Maguari (PA, para determinar os teores de Zn, Co e Ni nos sedimentos superficiais, identificando o papel dos sedimentos como fonte ou reserva de elementos-traço. A concentração dos elementos metálicos apresentou a seguinte associação: Zn > Ni > Co. Os sedimentos localizados na PCA podem ser considerados como sítio de ocorrência natural dos elementos metálicos, não havendo influência de fontes poluidoras na liberação destes para o sistema.Determination of trace elements (Zn, Co and Ni in sediments at the Amazon Continental Shelf on influence of the Amazon River discharge This research was developed at Amazon Continental Shelf (ACS between the Orange Cape (Amapá State and the Maguari Cape (Pará State, to determine the levels of zinc, cobalt and nickel in the superficial sediments identifying its inputs and outputs. The rate of these metallic elements in the sediments decreases following Zn> Ni> Co. The concentrations of total metals in the surface sediments range from Zn = 52.8 159.5; Ni = 21.7 47.4 and Co = 14.3 48.8 (mg.kg-1. The levels of trace elements observed in the sediments at ACS are of natural occurrence. Pollution sources of metallic elements were not observed.

  1. Dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll on the narrow continental shelf of Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Fernandes Eça

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Brazilian continental shelf is narrow and subject to the influence of a western boundary current system, presenting lower biological productivity than other regions. In this study, the distribution of water masses, dissolved inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids (TSS on the inner shelf (< 35 m depth, between Itacaré and Canavieiras, eastern Brazil, is presented. Sampling surveys were carried out in March and August 2006 and March 2007. Tropical water (TW prevailed during March 2006 and August 2007 with the lower salinity waters (< 36 found in most samples taken in March 2007, reflecting the influence of continental outflow and rain in coastal waters. Low concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and Chl-a found were typical of TW and results suggested that the inner shelf waters were depleted in dissolved inorganic nitrogen in August 2006 and March 2007, and in phosphate in March 2006, potentially affecting phytoplankton growth. Stratification of the water column was observed due to differences in dissolved nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a and TSS when comparing surface and bottom samples, possibly the result of a colder water intrusion and mixing on the bottom shelf and a deep chlorophyll maximum and/or sediment resuspension effect. Despite this stratification, oceanographic processes such as lateral mixing driven by the Brazil Current as well as a northward alongshore drift driven by winds and tides transporting Coastal Water can lead to an enhanced mixing of these waters promoting some heterogeneity in this oligotrophic environment.

  2. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    anomalies exist over two Cretaceous basins in the coastal area; a negative Bouguer anomaly exists over one of the basins southwest of Monrovia, as shown by a marine traverse, suggesting that Cretaceous or younger sedimentary rocks fill these basins also. A 50 to 60 mgal positive Bouguer anomaly area exists along the coast from Sierra Leone to Ivory Coast. This anomaly correlates with mafic granulites in the Monrovia region, where the gradient is too steep to be entirely due to crustal thickening at the continental margin and may be related to tectonic activity associated with the basins. The only major break in this positive anomaly above basement rocks along the entire coast of Liberia is over granite gneiss adjacent to (and presumably underlying) the only onshore basins on the Liberian coast. Three seismic reflection profiles support the interpretation of a substantial section of sedimentary rock offshore. A suggested sequence of events indicates tectonic activity in the periods about 2700, about 2000, and about 550 m.y. B.P.; uplift and exposure of deep crustal rocks; deposition of Paleozoic sediments; intrusion of diabase dikes in inland zones; intrusion of 176 to 192 m.y.-old dikes and sills accompanying separation of Africa and South and North America; block faulting along coast and continental shelf, and active sea-floor spreading; filling of basins in Cretaceous and Tertiary(?) time; basaltic extrusion on spreading sea floor and sedimentation on continental shelf and slope.

  3. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  4. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in sediments of the shelf and slope regions of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Braganca, A.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  5. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damodararao, K.; Singh, S.K.; Rai, V.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    , constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology...

  6. Sources, extent and history of methane seepage on the continental shelf off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Lepland, Aivo; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.; Eichinger, Florian; Knies, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Active natural hydrocarbon gas seepage was recently discovered in the Hola area on the continental shelf off Vesterålen, northern Norway. We conducted acoustic and geochemical investigations to assess the modern and past extent, source and pathways of the gas seepage . Water column echosounder surveys showed bubble plumes up to several tens of metres above the seafloor. Analyses of dissolved methane in the water column indicated slightly elevated concentrations (50 nM) close to the seafloor. To identify fluxes and origin of methane in the sediments we analysed sediment pore water chemistry, the isotopic composition of methane and of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13CCH4, d2HCH4, d13CDIC) in three closely spaced (

  7. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  8. Ecological and taphonomical influences on coccoliths in surface sediments in the shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian

    2017-05-01

    Coccoliths, combined with sediment grain size, carbonate calcium and organic matters content, were analyzed to assess the ecological and taphonomical influences on coccolith distribution patterns in surface sediments in the continental shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas. Coccolith abundances ranged from 0 to 2.08×109 coccoliths g-1 sediment. The increasing abundance from the coastal inner shelf to the seaward middle shelf generally reflects the ecological fact that living coccolithophores are more abundant in the mesotrophic shelf waters than in the eutrophic coastal waters, although their deposits are still controlled by taphonomical effects, such as bottom (tidal) currents and calcite preservation conditions. Most abundant coccoliths are found in the fine-grained sediments of southwestern Cheju Island, where both ecology and taphonomy favor coccolith preservation. Still, large densities of coccoliths (>108 coccoliths g-1 sediment) are also found in coarse-grained relict sediments in the middle shelf. Coccolith assemblages were predominated by Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. The relative abundance of E. huxleyi, in addition to ecological reasons, may relate to selective post-mortem dissolution, since small E. huxleyi coccoliths are more susceptible to dissolution. Coccolith calcite has minor contributions (<1% to 12%) to total sediment CaCO3, and the main parts are attributed to terrigenous CaCO3 debris and relict shell fragments.

  9. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles on wave-driven sea-floor sediment mobility along the central California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reid, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are the dominant temporally and spatially variable process influencing sea floor sediment resuspension along most continental shelves. Wave-induced sediment mobility on the continental shelf and upper continental slope off central California for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events was modeled using monthly statistics derived from more than 14 years of concurrent hourly oceanographic and meteorologic data as boundary input for the Delft SWAN wave model, gridded sea floor grain-size data from the usSEABED database, and regional bathymetry. Differences as small as 0.5 m in wave height, 1 s in wave period, and 10° in wave direction, in conjunction with the spatially heterogeneous unconsolidated sea-floor sedimentary cover, result in significant changes in the predicted mobility of continental shelf surficial sediment in the study area. El Niño events result in more frequent mobilization on the inner shelf in the summer and winter than during La Niña events and on the outer shelf and upper slope in the winter months, while La Niña events result in more frequent mobilization on the mid-shelf during spring and summer months than during El Niño events. The timing and patterns of seabed mobility are addressed in context of geologic and biologic processes. By understanding the spatial and temporal variability in the disturbance of the sea floor, scientists can better interpret sedimentary patterns and ecosystem structure, while providing managers and planners an understanding of natural impacts when considering the permitting of offshore activities that disturb the sea floor such as trawling, dredging, and the emplacement of sea-floor engineering structures.

  10. Mass-physical properties of surficial sediments on the Rhoˆne continental margin: implications for the nepheloid benthic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefiere, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    Mass-physical properties of the surficial (upper 5 m) sediments on the Gulf of Lions continental margin were analysed, from more than 100 short (1 m) and longer (5 m) cores obtained during several cruises. Data include water content, unit weight, Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index), shear strength and compression index, and are used to determine: first, the mass property distribution, according to the main parameters influencing mass-physical properties; the relationships between these properties and the nepheloid layer on the shelf. The shoreline (lagoons) and inner shelf are characterized by low density and shear strength and high water content deposits, due to electrochemical flocculation of the sediment. The outer shelf is blanketed by higher density and shear strength and lower water content deposits generated by normal settling of suspended particles. On the inner shelf, during river peak discharges, a short-term thin bottom layer of "yogurt-like" [ FASS (1985) Geomarine Letters, 4, 147-152; FASS (1986) Continental Shelf Research, 6, 189-208] fluid-mud (unit weight lower than 1.3 mg m -3) is supplied, by a bottom nepheloid layer. During stormy periods, this "yogurt-like" layer (about 10 cm thick) partly disappears by resuspension of suspended particulate matter; this is advected, in the bottom nepheloid layer, over the shelf and the canyons within the upper slope.

  11. Contribution to atmospheric methane by natural seepages on the Bulgarian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Varna (Bulgaria). Inst. of Oceanology

    2002-07-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the atmospheric methane flux from Bulgarian Black Sea continental shelf. Potential gas source rocks include Holocene gas-charged sediments, Quaternary peats and sapropels, and deep-lying Palaeocene and Neogene clays, Cretaceous coals, and other sediments of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age. These cover almost the whole continental shelf and slope and, together with irregularly developed seal rocks and widespread active and conducting faults, provide good conditions for upward gas migration. A total of 5 100 line kilometers of shallow seismic (boomer) and echo-sounder records acquired during the Institute of Oceanology's regional surveys, and several detailed side-scan sonar lines, have been reviewed for water column targets. Four hundred and eighty-two targets were assigned as gas seepage plumes. It is estimated that a total of 19,735 individual seeps exists on the open shelf. The number of seeps in coastal waters was estimated to be 6020; this is based on available public-domain data, specific research, and results of a specially made questionnaire which was distributed to a range of 'seamen'. More than 150 measurements of the seabed flux rates were made in the 'Golden sands' and 'Zelenka' seepage areas between 1976 and 1991. Indirect estimations of flux rates from video and photo materials, and a review of published data have also been undertaken. Based on these data, three types of seepages were identified as the most representative of Bulgarian coastal waters. These have flux rates of 0.4, 1.8, and 3.51/min. The contribution to atmospheric methane is calculated by multiplying the flux rates with the number of seepages, and entering corrections for methane concentration and the survival of gas bubbles as they ascend through seawater of the corresponding water depth. The estimation indicates that between 45,100,000 (0.03 Tg) and 210,650,000 m{sup 3} (0. 15 Tg) methane yr{sup -1} come

  12. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2007-01-01

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  13. Sediment accumulation on the Southern California Bight continental margin during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.R.; Lee, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment discharged into the portion of the Southern California Bight extending from Santa Barbara to Dana Point enters a complex system of semi-isolated coastal cells, narrow continental shelves, submarine canyons, and offshore basins. On both the Santa Monica and San Pedro margins, 210Pb accumulation rates decrease in an offshore direction (from ??0.5 g cm-2yr-1 to 0.02 g cm-2yr -1), in concert with a fining in sediment grain size (from 4.5?? to 8.5??), suggesting that offshore transport of wave-resuspended material occurs as relatively dilute nepheloid layers and that hemiplegic sedimentation dominates the supply of sediment to the outer shelf, slope, and basins. Together, these areas are effectively sequestering up to 100% of the annual fluvial input. In contrast to the Santa Monica margin, which does not display evidence of mass wasting as an important process of sediment delivery and redistribution, the San Pedro margin does provide numerous examples of failures and mass wasting, suggesting that intraslope sediment redistribution may play a more important role there. Basin deposits in both areas exhibit evidence of turbidites tentatively associated with both major floods and earthquakes, sourced from either the Redondo Canyon (San Pedro Basin) or Dume Canyon (Santa Monica Basin). On the Palos Verdes shelf, sediment-accumulation rates decrease along and across the shelf away from the White's Point outfall, which has been a major source of contaminants to the shelf deposits. Accumulation rates prior to the construction of the outfall were ??0.2 g cm-2yr-1 and increased 1.5-3.7 times during peak discharges from the outfall in 1971. The distal rate of accumulation has decreased by ??50%, from 0.63 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.29 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. The proximal rate of accumulation, however, has only decreased ??10%, from 0.83 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1971-1992 to 0.73 g cm -2yr-1 during the period 1992-2003. Effluent

  14. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goswami; P. L. Olson; L. A. Hinnov; A. Gnanadesikan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in th...

  15. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  16. Sedimentation on the Valencia Continental Shelf: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres; Swift, Donald J. P.; Young, Robert A.; Han, Gregory; Nittrouer, Charles A.; DeMaster, David J.; Rey, Jorge; Palomo, Carlos; Acosta, Juan; Ballester, A.; Castellvi, J.

    1983-10-01

    Preliminary analysis of data collected during the course of a cooperative Spanish-United States investigation of the Valencia Shelf (western Mediterranean) reveals a storm-dominated, mud-accumulating sedimentary regime. Calcareous mud is accumulating seaward of a narrow band of shoreface sand and gravel. On the outer shelf the mud is enriched by a pelagic calcareous component. Preliminary 210Pb data from vertical profiles of box cores yield nominal accumulation rates from 2.6 mm y -1 near the Ebro Delta to 1.3 mm y -1 on the southern portion of the Valencia Shelf. Storm-current winnowing has resulted in the development of a biogenic lag sand over the mid-shelf mud in the northern part of the study area. Piston cores reveal a basal Holocene sand and gravel facies similar to that presently seen on the inner shelf. Upward-fining sequences on the central and outer shelf are inferred to result from the landward shift of lithotopes during the course of the Holocene transgression. These sequences are locally repeated, perhaps as the consequence of brief, local interludes of coastal progradation. Application of a diagnostic circulation model suggests that intense, downwelling coastal flows occur during winter northeastern storms. Storm activity has induced erosional shoreface retreat during the course of the Holocene transgression and has generated by this means the basal coarse facies observed in the piston cores. In the central part of the study area seaward of the Albufera Lagoon, the mud blanket thins to a layer several centimeters thick which is draped over a thickened (10 m) basal sand. The basal sand is molded into northwest trending ridges. The data are not sufficient to determine whether these are overstepped barriers, or submarine sand ridges formed by storm flows during the shoreface retreat process.

  17. Fossil ostracodes of continental shelf cores at IODP Site U1354 (Expedition 317)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, S.; Ohi, T.; Kawagata, S.; Ishida, K.; Shipboard Scientific Party, E.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand took advantage of high rates of Neogene sediment supply, which preserved a high-frequency (0.1-0.5 m.y.) record of depositional cyclicity. Ostracodes are crustaceans that widely inhabit marine, brackish, and non-marine environments. Shallow marine species have more restricted habitat and respond sensitively to environmental changes. Therefore they are a useful tool for high-resolution analyses of paleoenvironmental changes. We study samples older than ~1.0 Ma from Site U1354, which is in an intermediate position within the three shelf sites transect of Expedition 317. Quaternary to early Pliocene (~4.5 Ma) sediments were cored in this site with best core recovery (81%) among the shelf sites. The period from the Pliocene to Pleistocene is known for distinct paleoclimatic changes, from the intensive warming at around 3.5 Ma, to the cooling stage starting from 2.75 Ma. We expect that high-resolution analyses of fossil ostracode assemblages reveal detailed sea level and paleoceanographic changes on the continental shelf of the Canterbury Basin caused by global climate changes. Samples were examined at 1.5 m depth intervals. Samples of ~20 cc were freeze-dried and washed through a 63 µm opening sieve. The residues were dried and then divided into aliquot parts containing around 200 specimens using a sample splitter. All individual ostracodes were picked from residues coarser than 125 µm. Valves and carapaces were counted as one

  18. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  19. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A.; Lekshmi, S.

    are predominantly mixed, semidiurnal in nature. Motion over any continental shelf is governed by the tide-driven oscillatory flow. In this paper, tidal and non-tidal characteristics of the waters of Southwest continental shelf of India are assessed using...

  20. Variability in measured current structure on the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    -1 Variability in Measured Current Structure on the Southwest Continental Shelf of India P.K. Dinesh Kumar and K. Srinivas National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre P.O.Box 1913, Cochin - 682018,India Email: dineshku@niokochi.org ABSTRACT... WORDS: Direct current measurements, tidal currents, southwest coast of India. INTRODUCTION The circulation pattern of the eastern Arabian Sea over the southwest continental shelf of India (inferred...

  1. The Project for the Extension of the Continental Shelf - the Portuguese experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Pedro; Ribeiro, Luísa P.; Roque, Cristina; Henriques, Guida; Brandão, Filipe; Dias, Frederico; Simões, Maria; Neves, Mariana; Conceição, Patricia; Botelho Leal, Isabel; Emepc, Equipa

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the continental shelf is a juridical term used to define a submarine area that extends throughout the natural prolongation of a land territory, where the coastal State exercises sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources. Article 76 provides a methodology for determining the outer edge of the continental margin and to delineate the outer limits of the continental shelf. The task of preparing the Portuguese submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf was committed to the Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf (EMEPC), which formally began its activity in January 2005. At that time, the existing national capacity to conduct such a task was very limited in its hydrographic, geological and geophysical components. A great effort has been made by Portugal to overcome these weaknesses and develop a strategy to submit the proposal for the extension of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles on 11th May of 2009. The execution of the project involved the implementation of several complementary strategies including: 1) intensive bathymetric, geophysical and, locally, geological data acquisition; 2) acquisition/development of new stand-alone and ship mounted equipment; 3) interactions with universities and research institutes, with emphasis in R&D initiatives; 4) creation of critical mass in deep-sea research by promoting advanced studies on: International Law, Geophysics, Geology, Hydrography, Biology, amongst others; 5) promotion of the sea as a major national goal, coupled with an outreach strategy. Until now, more than 1050 days of surveying have resulted in a large scale seafloor mapping using two EM120 and one EM710 multibeam echosounders from Kongsberg mounted on two hydrographic vessels. The surveys follow IHO Order 2 Standard (SP44, 5th Edition) and cover an area over 2.6 million km2. A multichannel reflection

  2. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  3. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  4. Holocene limestones of part of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    , while those on te upper continental slope (130-180 m) are algal bryozoan limestones. The limestones have a radiocarbon age ranging between 9,000 and 11,000 years. Depositional environmental on the continental shelf during the Holocene appears...

  5. Geomorfologia, cobertura sedimentar e transporte de sedimentos na plataforma continental interna entre a Ponta de Saquarema e o Cabo Frio (RJ Geomorphology, sediment distribution and transpon on the inner continental shelf between Ponta de Saquarema and Cabo Frio (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Muehe

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A plataforma continental interna defronte à restinga da Massambaba - um sistema de duplos cordões litorâneos localizados entre Saquarema e Arraial do Cabo, com 48 km de extensão - apresenta topografia regular, interrompida por raros afloramentos de rochas do embasamento cristalino e por ocorrências localizadas de arenitos de praia. Um amplo afloramento destes últimos ocorre na faixa batimétrica de 48 a 60 m, correspondendo à posição da linha de costa cerca de 10.000 anos atrás. Outro afloramento de arenitos de praia, de reduzida dimensão, ocorre próximo ao perfil S-4, à distância de 50 m da face da praia, em profundidade de 4 m. A cobertura sedimentar, sem aporte significativo de sedimentos terrígenos, é constituída predominantemente por areias quartzosas reliquiares. O gradiente batimétrico apresenta declividade elevada, atípica para uma plataforma passiva, atingindo o limite distai da plataforma continental interna, a isobatimétrica de 60 m, a uma distância da ordem de 4 milhas náuticas da linha de praia. O padrão de distribuição granulométrico apresenta gradientes de decréscimo em direção a leste, isto é, em direção ao Cabo Frio, e em direção a maiores profundidades. A diminuição do tamanho granulométrico em direção ao Cabo Frio é atribuída como sendo resultado do aporte de sedimentos terrígenos através de um sistema de drenagem pleistocênico, interrompido pela construção do cordão litorâneo mais interiorizado, e à remobilização dos sedimentos por ação de ondas e correntes com transporte residual em direção a leste.The inner continental shelf in front of the Massambaba beach, an East-West striking, 48 km long, double barrier beach, located between the towns of Saquarema and Arraial do Cabo presents a monotonous topography with only few outcrops of crystaline rocks, patches of beach rocks and a sediment cover of mainly relict quartz sand. The topographic gradient, steeper as expected for

  6. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  7. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  8. Sedimentation Deposition Patterns on the Chukchi Shelf Using Radionuclide Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediment core collections and assays of the anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes, 137Cs and 210Pb, respectively, are providing long-term indications of sedimentation and current flow processes on the Chukchi and East Siberian sea continental shelf. This work, which has been integrated into interdisciplinary studies of the Chukchi Sea supported by both the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (COMIDA Hanna Shoal Project) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Russian-US Long Term Census of the Arctic, RUSALCA) includes studies of total radiocesium inventories, sedimentation rate determinations, where practical, and depths of maxima in radionuclide deposition. Shallow maxima in the activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide in sediment cores reflect areas with higher current flow (Barrow Canyon and Herald Canyon; 3-6 cm) or low sedimentation (Hanna Shoal; 1-3 cm). The first sedimentation studies from Long Strait are consistent with quiescent current conditions and steady recent sedimentation of clay particles. Elsewhere, higher and more deeply buried radionuclide inventories (> 2 mBq cm-2 at 15-17 cm depth) in the sediments correspond to areas of high particle deposition north of Bering Strait where bioturbation in productive sediments is also clearly an important influence. Radiocesium activities from bomb fallout dating to 1964 are now present at low levels (20 cm. Independent sedimentation rate measurements with the natural radionuclide 210Pb are largely consistent with the radiocesium measurements.

  9. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  10. The FOODBANCS project: Introduction and sinking fluxes of organic carbon, chlorophyll- a and phytodetritus on the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig R.; Mincks, Sarah; DeMaster, David J.

    2008-11-01

    The impact of the highly seasonal Antarctic primary production cycle on shelf benthic ecosystems remains poorly evaluated. Here we describe a times-series research project on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf designed to evaluate the seafloor deposition, and subsequent ecological and biogeochemical impacts, of the summer phytoplankton bloom along a transect crossing the Antarctic shelf near Anvers Island. During this project, entitled Food for Benthos on the Antarctic Continental Shelf (FOODBANCS), we deployed replicate sediment traps 150-170 m above the seafloor (total water-column depth of 590 m) on the central shelf from December 1999 to March 2001, recovering trap samples every 3-4 months. In addition, we used a seafloor time-lapse camera system, as well as video surveys conducted at 3-4 months intervals, to monitor the presence and accumulation of phytodetritus at the sediment-water interface. The fluxes of particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll- a into sediment traps (binned over 3-4 month intervals) showed patterns consistent with seasonal variability, with average summer fluxes during the first year exceeding winter fluxes by a factor of ˜2-3. However, inter-annual variability in summer fluxes was even greater than seasonal variability, with 4-10-fold differences in the flux of organic carbon and chlorophyll- a between the summer seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Phytodetrital accumulation at the shelf floor also exhibited intense inter-annual variability, with no visible phytodetritus from essentially December 1999 to November 2000, followed by pulsed accumulation of 1-2 cm of phytodetritus over a ˜30,000 km 2 shelf area by March 2001. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the levels of inter-annual variability we observed are typical of the Antarctic shelf over decadal time scales. We conclude that fluxes of particulate organic carbon, chlorophyll- a and phytodetritus to WAP-shelf sediments vary intensely on seasonal to inter

  11. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  12. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  13. Nutrient Distributions, Transports, and Budgets on the Inner Margin of a River-Dominated Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Nutrient distributions, transports, and budgets on the inner margin of a river-dominated continental shelf John C. Lehrter,1 Dong S. Ko,2 Michael C...and D. C. Biggs (1993), The influence of advec- tion on the spatial variability of nutrient concentrations on the Texas- Louisiana continental shelf

  14. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf.

  15. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf

  16. Radiocarbon and seismic evidence of ice-sheet extent and the last deglaciation on the mid-Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokoengen, Kaare; Frengstad, Bjoern

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the ice extent and glacier chronology on the continental shelf off mid-Norway has been severely hampered by the lack of dates from the glacial deposits. Seismic interpretation and new accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates show that the ice sheet extended to the edge of the continental shelf at the last glacial maximum. The two youngest till units near the shelf edge were deposited about 15000 and 13500 BP. The results indicate that the ice sheet partly reached the shelf break as late as 11000 BP followed by a deglaciation of most of the continental shelf in less than 1000 years

  17. P-wave velocity models of continental shelf of East Siberian Sea using the Laplace-domain full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Jang, U.; Niessen, F.; Baranov, B.

    2017-12-01

    2016 IBRV ARAON Arctic Cruise Leg-2, Expedition ARA07C was a multidisciplinary undertaking carried out in the East Siberian Sea (ESS) from August 25 to September 10, 2016. The program was conducted as a collaboration between the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (IORAS), and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). During this expedition, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the continental shelf and the upper slope of the ESS, totaling 3 lines with 660 line-kilometers. The continental shelf of ESS is one of the widest shelf seas in the world and it is believed to cover the largest area of sub-sea permafrost in the Arctic. According to the present knowledge of the glacial history of the western Arctic Ocean, it is likely that during the LGM with a sea level approximately 120 m below present, the entire shelf area of the ESS was exposed to very cold air temperatures so that thick permafrost should have formed. Indeed, in water depths shallower than 80 m, sub-bottom profiles in the ESS recorded from the shelf edge to a latitude of 74°30' N in 60 m water depth exhibited acoustic facies, suggesting that at least relicts of submarine permafrost are present. In order to identify the existence and/or non-existence of subsea permafrost in our study area, we analyze the MCS data using the Laplace domain full waveform inversion (FWI). In case of the Canadian continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea, subsea permafrost has high seismic velocity values (over 2.6 km/sec) and strong refraction events were found in the MCS shotgathers. However, in the EES our proposed P-wave velocity models derived from FWI have neither found high velocity structures (over 2.6 km/sec) nor indicate strong refraction events by subsea permafrost. Instead, in 300 m depth below sea floor higher P-wave velocity structures (1.8 2.2 km/s) than normal subsea sediment layers were found, which are interpreted as cemented strata by glaciation activities.

  18. Mean hydrography on the continental shelf from 26 repeat glider deployments along Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Amandine; Roughan, Moninya; Austin, Tim; Everett, Jason D.; Griffin, David; Hollings, Ben; King, Edward; Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Milburn, Stuart; Pasquer, Benedicte; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Robertson, Robin; Stanley, Dennis; Suthers, Iain; White, Dana

    2016-08-01

    Since 2008, 26 glider missions have been undertaken along the continental shelf of southeastern Australia. Typically these missions have spanned the continental shelf on the inshore edge of the East Australian Current from 29.5-33.5°S. This comprehensive dataset of over 33,600 CTD profiles from the surface to within 10 m of the bottom in water depths ranging 25-200 m provides new and unprecedented high resolution observations of the properties of the continental shelf waters adjacent to a western boundary current, straddling the region where it separates from the coast. The region is both physically and biologically significant, and is also in a hotspot of ocean warming. We present gridded mean fields for temperature, salinity and density, but also dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a fluorescence indicative of phytoplankton biomass. This data will be invaluable for understanding shelf stratification, circulation, biophysical and bio-geochemical interactions, as well as for the validation of high-resolution ocean models or serving as teaching material.

  19. Geophysical and sampling data from the inner continental shelf: Duxbury to Hull, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Andrews, Brian D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) have cooperated to map approximately 200 km² of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Duxbury and Hull. This report contains geophysical and geological data collected by the USGS on three cruises between 2006 and 2007. These USGS data are supplemented with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hydrographic survey conducted in 2003 to update navigation charts. The geophysical data include (1) swath bathymetry from interferometric sonar and multibeam echosounders, (2) acoustic backscatter from sidescan sonar and multibeam echosounders, and (3) subsurface stratigraphy and structure from seismic-reflection profilers. The geological data include sediment samples, seafloor photographs, and bottom videos. These spatial data support research on the influence sea-level change and sediment supply have on coastal evolution, and on efforts to understand the type, distribution, and quality of subtidal marine habitats in the Massachusetts coastal ocean.

  20. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  1. Continental Shelf Sediments of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masron, Tarmiji; Rumpet, Richard; Musel, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Sediment distributions in deep sea influence the benthic community structure and thus play an important role in shaping the marine ecosystem. Several studies on sediment characteristics had been conducted in South China Sea (SCS), but only limited to coastal areas of regions within SCS territories. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the benthic sediment profile in an area beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of Sarawak, southern SCS. Sediment samples were collected from 31 stations, comprising three depth ranges: (I) 20–50 m, (II) 50–100 m, and (III) 100–200 m. The total organic matter (TOM) contents were determined and subjected to dry and wet sieving methods for particle size analysis. TOM contents in the deep area (>50 m) were significantly higher (p = 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.73) with silt-clay fraction. About 55% and 82% of stations in strata II and III, respectively, were dominated by silt-clay fractions (50 m) tend to be poorly sorted, very fine skewed, and platykurtic. Unlike data obtained 20 years ago which reported high content of silt-clay (58%), this study recorded a lower content (35%); therefore, changes in sediment load had been observed in southern SCS. PMID:29075660

  2. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  3. Distribution and origin of sediments on the northern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Guo; Wong, H. K.; Luo, You-Lang; Liang, Zhi-Rong

    1999-03-01

    Seventy-seven surface sediment samples and core samples from the outer Sunda Shelf were analyzed and a number of seismic profiles of the shelf were interpreted. The bottom sediments could be divided into six types: terrigenous sand, biogenic sand, silt-sand, clay-silt-sand, clayey silt and coral reef detritus. Our seismic data showed a thick, prograding Pleistocene deltaic sequence near the shelf-break and a thin Holocene sedimentary layer on the outer shelf. Eleven thermoluminescence (TL) ages were determined. The oldest relict sediments were derived from Late Pleistocene deposits. Based on sediment types, ages, and origins, five sedimentary areas were identified: area of modern Mekong sediments; insular shelf area receiving modern sediments from small Borneo rivers; shelf area near the Natuna-Anambas islands in the southeastern Gulf of Thailand Basin off the Malay Peninsula; area of relict sediments on the outer shelf north of the Natuna Islands, and typical coral reefs and detritus sediments.

  4. State intervention causing inefficiency: an empirical analysis of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2005-01-01

    State intervention in the Norwegian Continental Shelf started with the establishment of Statoil as the medium of state ownership over the found petroleum and as a tool to monitor oil companies' procurement behaviour. This paper tests the extent to which the state intervention created inefficiencies in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) activities, as measured by data envelopment analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis. Our results confirm such inefficiencies. Accordingly, the results provide an important insight into NCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  5. Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; McClennen, Charles E.; Butman, Bradford

    1981-01-01

    A 13,000 km2 area of the southern New England Continental Shelf which is covered by anomalously fine-grained sediment has been surveyed by means of high-resolution, seismic-reflection and side-scan sonar techniques to map its morphology and structure, and a near-bottom instrument system contributed to understanding present activity of the deposit. Seismic-reflection profiles show that the fine-grained deposit, which is as much as 13 m thick, has accumulated during the last transgression because it rests on a reflector that is geomorphically similar to and continuous with the Holocene transgressive sand sheet still exposed on the shelf to the west. The ridge and swale topography comprising the sand sheet on the shelf off New Jersey and Long Island are relict in origin as these same features are found buried under the fine sediment deposit. Southwestward migrating megaripples observed on the sonographs in the eastern part of the deposit are evidence that sediment is still actively accumulating in this area. In the western part of the deposit, where surface sediment is composed of silt plus clay, evidence of present sediment mobility consists of changes in the near-bottom, suspended-matter concentrations primarily associated with storms. Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank are thought to be the sources for the fine-textured sediment. Storms and strong tidal currents in these shoal areas may still erode available fine-grained material, which then is transported westward by the mean drift to the southern New England Shelf, where a comparatively tranquil environment permits deposition of the fine material.

  6. 76 FR 48861 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko). The permit... Petroleum Corporation regarding the project. EPA carefully reviewed each of the comments submitted and...

  7. Arsenic enrichment in shelf and coastal sediment of the Brazilian subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, N.; Medeanic, S.; Garcia, F. A.; Travassos, M. P.; Baisch, P.

    2012-03-01

    High levels of As (i.e., above the nationally legislated threshold of 70 mg kg-1) were found in shelf sediment of the Espirito Santo state of Brazil. The elevated content of this metalloid propagated in the sediment to a depth of approximately 1.5 m. The adjacent beach sands and mangrove sediments were also enriched in As. The variation in As levels along the shelf sediment profiles was acompained by calcareous-material distribution, which reflects the paleogeographical circumstances that promote local reef development during the corresponding intervals of sedimentation. Arsenic-rich calcareous bioclast materials migrate to a beach from the surface horizon of nearby shelf sediment, thereby replacing the part of the As that previously entered the marine environment with eroded material from the continent to the littoral zone. The segment of the Brazilian tropical shelf that was studied clearly demonstrated that the As enrichment of the shelf sediment is determined by the exposure of the Barreiras formation on the coast and the development of reefs, which are favorable sites for the settling of bodies of biogenic carbonates.

  8. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  9. A Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model for the Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Sensitivity of Fluxes to Spatially-Varying Erodibility and Model Nesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Moriarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign that collected seabed and hydrodynamic measurements. This paper described the formulations used within the model, and analyzed the sensitivity of sediment flux estimates to model nesting and seabed erodibility. Calculations were based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System—Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (ROMS-CSTMS, a primitive equation model using a finite difference solution to the equations for momentum and water mass conservation, and transport of salinity, temperature, and multiple classes of suspended sediment. The three-dimensional model resolved the complex bathymetry, bottom boundary layer, and river plume that impact sediment dispersal on this shelf, and accounted for processes including fluvial input, winds, waves, tides, and sediment resuspension. Nesting within a larger-scale, lower resolution hydrodynamic model stabilized model behavior during river floods and allowed large-scale shelf currents to impact sediment dispersal. To better represent observations showing that sediment erodibility decreased away from the river mouth, the seabed erosion rate parameter was reduced with water depth. This allowed the model to account for the observed spatial pattern of erodibility, though the model held the critical shear stress for erosion constant. Although the model neglected consolidation and swelling processes, use of a spatially-varying erodibility parameter significantly increased export of fluvial sediment from Poverty Bay to deeper areas of the shelf.

  10. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  11. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  12. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for Comments from... construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. The BOEMRE...

  13. Sediment movement along the U.S. east coast continental shelf—II. Modelling suspended sediment concentration and transport rate during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Vincent D.; Butman, Bradford; Grant, William D.

    1990-05-01

    Long-term near-bottom wave and current observations and a one-dimensional sediment transport model are used to calculate the concentration and transport of sediment during winter storms at 60-80 m water depth along the southern flank of Georges Bank and in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Calculations are presented for five stations, separated by more than 600 km alongshelf, that have different bottom sediment texture, bedforms and current conditions. A modified version of the sediment transport model presented by GRANT and GLENN (1983, Technical Report to the American Gas Association), GLENN (1983, D.Sc. Thesis, M.I.T.), and GLENN and GRANT (1987, Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 8244-8264) is used to examine the influence of wave-current interaction, sediment stratification, and limitations on the erodibility of the bottom sediments on the concentration of sediment in the water column and on transport. Predicted suspended sediment concentrations are higher than observed, based on beam transmissometer measurements, unless an erosion limit of order a few millimeters for sediments finer than 94 μm is imposed. The agreement between predicted and measured beam attenuation is better at stations that have significant amounts of silt plus clay in the surficial sediments than for stations with sandy sediments. Sediment concentrations during storms estimated by MOODYet al. (1987, Continental Shelf Research, 7, 609-628) are within 50% of the model predictions. Sediment transport rates for sediments 94 μm and finer are determined largely by the concentrations in the surficial sediment and the erosion depth limit. Large alongshelf transports in the direction of storm-driven currents are inferred for stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. During a 115-day period in winter 1979-1980, the net transport of sediment along the shelf was westward; benthic storms (defined as periods when the bottom wave stress exceeded the current stress by 2 dyn cm -2) occurred between 23 and 73% of the

  14. Stratigraphic Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Obelcz, J.; Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Caporaso, A.; Shen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position in a trough located in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf seafloor. We are investigating the local stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, and mode of forest preservation of this unique site. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (18 in total) were collected. Core analysis included: bulk density and imaging via Geotek multi sensor core logger, sediment grain size, structure, and organic content via loss-on-ignition. Selected samples have been dated using 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Multibeam and CHIRP subbottom bathymetry provide context for litho- and chrono-stratigraphy of the site. Integration of core lithostratigraphy and modern shelf bathymetry reveal Holocene transgressive sands blanketing diverse sedimentary facies that are truncated by the late Pleistocene-early Holocene ravinement. Deposits below the ravinement surface include interbedded sand and mud (exact age unknown, but possibly pertaining to a shallow marine environment), overlying a floodplain/swamp facies of woody debris, peat, and mud (provisionally dated by 14C to 41-45 ka). These units grade laterally into paleosols that appear to be 10-15 ka older, based on recently obtained preliminary OSL dates. Occurrence of paleosols and swamp deposits of broadly similar age and elevation suggests that the ancient landscape possessed topographic relief that allowed wetland and upland habitats to develop in close proximity. These new OSL dates enhance our initial hypothesis that floodplain aggradation in the area was a key factor that might have allowed forest preservation. The timing of temporary sea level rises (SLR) ca. 40 and 60 ka. with our 14C and preliminary OSL dates, suggests that floodplain

  15. Studies on sound signal scattering from varying seabed sediments of the western continental shelf of India: Cochin to Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    A study on the interaction effect of the acoustic signal with three different sediment type seabottoms off the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore of the west coast of India is performed. Analyses by means of Probability Density Function (PDF...

  16. Submarine glacial landforms on the Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Shaw, J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2016-01-01

    The Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine region surrounds the southern part of Nova Scotia, encompassing, from west to east, the Bay of Fundy, Grand Manan Basin, German Bank, Browns Bank, Northeast Channel and northeastern Georges Bank (Fig. 1a, b). During the last glacial maximum (c. 24–20 14C ka BP), the SE margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) occupied the study area, the rest of the Gulf of Maine and the continental Scotian Shelf off Atlantic Canada (see Dyke et al. 2002, fig. 1; Shaw et al. 2006, fig. 8; Hundert & Piper 2008, fig. 16). Early mapping of the glaciated region on the Scotian Shelf using side-scan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles revealed topographic features interpreted to be recessional moraines indicative of retreat of the LIS (King et al. 1972; King 1996). Subsequently, multibeam sonar seafloor mapping of local-scale glacial landforms on the inner Scotian Shelf off Halifax, Nova Scotia (Fig. 1b) provided further information on the dynamics of the advance and retreat of the ice sheet (Loncarevic et al.1994). Interpretation of seismic-reflection profiles across Georges Bank revealed that the surficial sediment is a veneer of glacial debris transported to Georges Bank by the LIS during the late Pleistocene from continental areas to the north (Shepard et al. 1934; Knott & Hoskins 1968; Schlee 1973; Twichell et al. 1987; Fader et al. 1988). Recent high-resolution multibeam sonar surveys of German Bank and the Bay of Fundy mapped a complex of ice-advance and ice-retreat features attributed to the activity of the LIS (Todd et al. 2007; Todd & Shaw 2012).

  17. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrographic features along a coast-to-offshore transect on the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islabão, C. A.; Mendes, C. R. B.; Detoni, A. M. S.; Odebrecht, C.

    2017-12-01

    The continental shelf in Southern Brazil is characterized by high biological productivity associated with horizontal and vertical density gradients due to the mixing of distinct water masses. Phytoplankton biomass and composition were evaluated in summer 2013 along an on-offshore transect off the mouth of the Patos Lagoon (Lat. 32°12S). Photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, salinity and fluorescence vertical profiles were carried out and Brünt-Väisäla frequency was estimated. Three water bodies were identified: the Subtropical Shelf Water along the entire transect, the Plata Plume Water on the middle shelf surface and the Tropical Water farther offshore. The water was sampled (N = 40) for the analyses of dissolved inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton cell density and composition. Phytoplankton present in the water was identified and quantified by the classical microscope sedimentation technique, complemented with CHEMTAX analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data. From the results obtained, chlorophyll a concentration was higher at both coastal stations (1.6-2.0 mg m-3) where the water column was homogeneous and diatoms dominated the stations. This group was replaced by dinoflagellates in stratified conditions on the shelf and farther offshore. Along the onshore-offshore gradient, two types of dinoflagellates were found: the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates Prorocentrum and Scrippsiella with a small contribution at the coastal stations, and the fucoxantin-containing small Gymnodiniales cells (< 15 μm) with more than 50% of the total chlorophyll a at the stations on the continental shelf, especially associated with the chlorophyll maximum at the base of the euphotic zone. The positive (negative) relationship between the biomass of dinoflagellates (diatoms) with the Brünt-Väisäla frequency, respectively, support the hypothesis that stratification is the most important environmental factor that determines the biomass of

  18. Biocenoses of benthic foraminifera of the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Portugal: influence of the upwelling events and other shelf processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to compare the dimensions and composition of benthic foraminiferal biocenoses (living specimens during two summer sampling events. Forty-four sediment samples were collected on the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Center of Portugal (latitude of 40º30'N-40º50'N, longitude of 8º46'W-9º20'W for granulometry, total organic matter (TOM and living foraminiferal analyses. The sediment samples were collected during summers of 1994 and 1995, on stations located along transects (east-west direction and between the bathymetries of 10-200 m. During the sampling campaigns, measurements of salinity, temperature and density data were recorded in the water column. The results showed that the living assemblages were mainly found in stations located between 20-80 m depth. The abundance of living foraminifera was generally reduced at depths <20 m in the so-called “coastal deposits”, where the sediments are frequently remobilized and transported by the littoral drift. Living benthic foraminiferal densities were also reduced in stations at 80-200 m depth, despite the high sedimentary TOM contents. Results obtained in this work indicate that, in this marine setting, the most determinant factors for the dimension and composition of living foraminifera are not the sediments’ granulometry and organic matter content. In fact, the coastal dynamics, sediment stability, availability of quality food, among other factors, such as the bottom salinity oscillations and their combination, should better explain the abundance of living foraminifera and the biocenoses composition.

  19. Assessing the impact of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy on the morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.

    2016-01-15

    This report documents the changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness detected on the inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, before and after Hurricanes Irene and Sandy made landfall. Comparison of acoustic backscatter imagery, seismic-reflection profiles, and bathymetry collected in 2011 and in 2014 show that sedimentary structures and depositional patterns moved alongshore to the southwest in water depths up to 30 meters during the 3-year period. The measured lateral offset distances range between about 1 and 450 meters with a mean of 20 meters. The mean distances computed indicate that change tended to decrease with increasing water depth. Comparison of isopach maps of modern sediment thickness show that a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges, which are the dominant sedimentary structures offshore of Fire Island, migrated toward the southwest because of erosion of the ridge crests and northeast-facing flanks as well as deposition on the southwest-facing flanks and in troughs between individual ridges. Statistics computed suggest that the modern sediment volume across the about 81 square kilometers of common sea floor mapped in both surveys decreased by 2.8 million cubic meters, which is a mean change of –0.03 meters, which is smaller than the resolution limit of the mapping systems used.

  20. Flux, Budget and Sources of Black Carbon (BC) in the Continental Shelf of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) derived from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has received increasing attention due to their potential importance in a wide range of biogeochemical processes. China has been generally considered as the world's largest BC emitter. Due to a combination of the prevailing East Asia monsoon and large amounts of riverine outflow, BC released from China can be transported to the adjacent continental shelf seas, the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported BC data set of the aerosol samples in the Bohai Rim, the concentration, flux, and budget of BC in the BS and YS were investigated. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 μg/cm2/yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 μg/cm2/yr. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr. The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge played comparable importance in delivering BC to the BS, and sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the total input BC. Besides, we attempted to apportion the BC sources in the BS and YS surface sediments using PAHs (organic molecular proxies cogenerated with BC) and BC as an input data to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Results showed that ~83% of the sediment BC was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, and the remaining ~17% was from biomass burning. Due to the differences in their production mechanisms and therefore physicochemical properties, the above distinction and quantification would help us better understand their different environmental behaviors in the complex continental shelf

  1. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  2. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may

  3. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  4. Plankton community respiration, net ecosystem metabolism, and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: Implications for hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Michael C.; Stanley, Roman S.; Lehrter, John C.; Hagy, James D.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen Continental Shelf Research, 29: 1861-1872) to estimate net water column metabolism. There was consistent evidence of net heterotrophy, particularly in western transects, and in deeper waters (>40 m depth), indicating a net organic carbon deficit on the LCS. We offer a simple scale argument to suggest that riverine and inshore coastal waters may be significant sources of organic carbon to account for this deficit. This study provided unprecedented, continental shelf scale coverage of heterotrophic metabolism, which is useful for constraining models of oxygen, carbon, and nutrient dynamics along the LCS.

  5. Sediment movement along the U.S. east coast continental shelf-I. Estimates of bottom stress using the Grant-Madsen model and near-bottom wave and current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, V.D.; Butman, B.; Grant, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Bottom stress is calculated for several long-term time-series observations, made on the U.S. east coast continental shelf during winter, using the wave-current interaction and moveable bed models of Grant and Madsen (1979, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 1797-1808; 1982, Journal of Geophysical Research, 87, 469-482). The wave and current measurements were obtained by means of a bottom tripod system which measured current using a Savonius rotor and vane and waves by means of a pressure sensor. The variables were burst sampled about 10% of the time. Wave energy was reasonably resolved, although aliased by wave groupiness, and wave period was accurate to 1-2 s during large storms. Errors in current speed and direction depend on the speed of the mean current relative to the wave current. In general, errors in bottom stress caused by uncertainties in measured current speed and wave characteristics were 10-20%. During storms, the bottom stress calculated using the Grant-Madsen models exceeded stress computed from conventional drag laws by a factor of about 1.5 on average and 3 or more during storm peaks. Thus, even in water as deep as 80 m, oscillatory near-bottom currents associated with surface gravity waves of period 12 s or longer will contribute substantially to bottom stress. Given that the Grant-Madsen model is correct, parameterizations of bottom stress that do not incorporate wave effects will substantially underestimate stress and sediment transport in this region of the continental shelf.

  6. Areas with special ecological values on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kessel, J.G.; Berkenbosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we are submitting proposals for the boundaries of areas on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). In the National Spatial Strategy a conservation regime has been determined for five areas in the North Sea with special ecological values. RIKZ and Alterra have formulated this report in

  7. Manmade and natural radionuclides in north east Atlantic shelf and slope sediments: Implications for rates of sedimentary processes and for contaminant dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Stewart, A.; Cook, G.T.; Mitchell, L.; Ellet, D.J.; Griffiths, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of manmade and natural radionuclides in north east Atlantic continental shelf and slope sediments to the west of Scotland. The data are interpreted in the context of sediment mixing and accumulation processes and are used to establish the westward extent of contamination of the sediment system. Offshore shelf and slope sediments were found to have post-glacial sedimentation rates of the order of 1 cm ky -1 but nearshore sediments had much higher accumulation rates of the order of 0.1 cm y -1 . Surface mixed layer depths of up to 6 cm were observed and non-local mixing affected most of the slope sediments, resulting in advective transport of surface sediment to depths of up to 10 cm. Biodiffusion coefficients for offshore shelf and slope sediments were dominantly in the range 10 -8 to 10 -9 cm 2 s -1 . The study confirmed that seawater contaminated with Sellafield waste radionuclides is dominantly entrained to the east of 7 deg. W and, consistent with this, higher levels of Sellafield derived radionuclides were confined to nearshore sediments, with lower levels to the west of 7 deg. W. 238 Pu/ 239,24 Pu data indicated that Sellafield contributed 75-91% of the total plutonium in coastal sediment but only about 4-8% of the total in slope sediments. By analogy, it can be concluded that a similar situation will apply to other contaminants in seawater entering the north east Atlantic via the North Channel

  8. The Asymmetric Continental Shelf Wave in Response to the Synoptic Wind Burst in a Semienclosed Double-Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lixin; Lin, Xiaopei; Hetland, Robert D.; Guo, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the asymmetric structure of continental shelf wave in a semienclosed double-shelf basin, such as the Yellow Sea. Supported by in situ observations and realistic numerical simulations, it is found that in the Yellow Sea, the shelf wave response to the synoptic wind forcing does not match the mathematically symmetric solution of classic double-shelf wave theory, but rather exhibits a westward shift. To study the formation mechanism of this asymmetric structure, an idealized model was used and two sets of experiments were conducted. The results confirm that the asymmetric structure is due to the existence of a topographic waveguide connecting both shelves. For a semienclosed basin, such as the Yellow Sea, a connection at the end of the basin eliminates the potential vorticity barrier between the two shelves and hence plays a role as a connecting waveguide for shelf waves. This waveguide enables the shelf wave to propagate from one shelf to the other shelf and produces the asymmetric response in sea level and upwind flow evolutions.

  9. Relict sand waves in the continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Montoya-Montes, Isabel; Fontán-Bouzas, Ángela; Somoza, Luis; Amos, Carl L.; Salgado, Jorge Rey

    2014-10-01

    The presence of fossil or relict bedforms is common in the Quaternary fill of modern continental shelf due to sea level oscillations, tectonic subsidence and migration of associated sedimentary facies. The continental margin of the Gulf of Valencia has been strongly influenced by glacio-eustasy and neotectonics. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, seismic reflection profiles and box core samples were collected across the continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia during the DERIVA cruises carried out in 2010 and 2011. The integrated analysis of this data set and high-resolution mapping of the relict bedforms on the Valencian continental shelf, ranging between 50 and 90 m allowed the study of previously identified system of sand waves located in front of the present-day Albufera de Valencia lagoon. The system is composed of 27 ridges with a NNE-SSW orientation, i.e. oblique to the present shoreline, in which the lateral horns point backwards. These sand waves can reach 10 m in height and 3 km in length resulting in a maximum slope of 6°. According to seismic stratigraphic and relative sea level curve reconstructions, these sand waves were formed during the Younger Dryas (~ 12-10 ky BP). Consequently, they have been classified as Holocene sand waves associated with coastal sedimentary evolution.

  10. Surveying the Alentejo continental shelf for minerals and Quaternary environmental changes: preliminary results of the MINEPLAT project survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Neres, Marta

    2017-04-01

    assessment of good quality sand deposits between approximately 30m and 50m below sea level aims at minimizing this problem that affects the economy of littoral of Alentejo. The MINEPLAT project (Assessment of the mineral resources potential in the continental shelf of Alentejo and of the environmental conditions caused by the tectonic uplift in the Pliocene-Quaternary) aims at assessing the existence of mineral deposits off the Alentejo. The MINEPLAT-1 geophysical survey acquired very high resolution multi-channel reflection seismics, swath bathymetry, backscatter and magnetic data in a test area. The preliminary results show: previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline rocks; faults affecting recent sediments; well defined patches of sediments associated to morphologic traps. Future work will involve ground-truthing to characterize the shallow deposits. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by Alentejo 2020 contract ALT20-03-0145-FEDER-000013

  11. Glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Cofaigh, C. Ó

    2002-01-01

    This book examines the process and patterns of glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins and the geophysical and geological signatures of the resulting sediments and landform...

  12. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Broecker, W.S.; Feely, H.W.; Gerard, R.D.

    1976-04-01

    The report is to the Energy Research and Development Administration on accomplishments of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory geochemistry and physical oceanography groups during the 1975-1976 funding period on grant E(11-1)2185. Goals are to obtain detailed, quantitative knowledge of the rates of mixing within coastal waters of the New York Bight and across the continental slope and the exchange of water masses and species transported within them between shelf and Atlantic Ocean waters. The research is aimed at understanding the chemical, physical, and biological processes which control the origin, dispersal, and fate of particulate matter and trace metals, and to ultimately model the impact of energy related pollutants on the continental shelf

  13. 78 FR 47748 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ...-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development... will use Form 0009 to issue a renewable energy right-of- way (ROW) grant on the Outer Continental Shelf....gov/Renewable-Energy Program/ Regulatory-Information/Index.aspx. DATES: The ROW grant form will be...

  14. The NSW Steam Trawl Fishery on the South-East Continental Shelf of Australia, 1915-1961

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, A. Lif Lund

    2014-01-01

    How was modern fishing methods, in the form of steam trawling, introduced in Australia? And what were the consequences for the fish stocks found on the South-East Continental Shelf? Through historical catch records and archival resources, the history of the NSW Steam Trawl Industry from 1915...... that flathead biomass on the South-East Continental shelf was permanently reduced. The study furthermore reveals how the trawl industry was influenced by government policy, market conditions, war and fishing effort with little understanding of the marine resources which they relied on....

  15. Organic geochemistry of continental margin and deep ocean sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, J.K.; Hunt, J.M.; Eglinton, T.; Dickinson, P.; Johnson, C.; Buxton, L.; Tarafa, M.E.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this research continues to be the understanding of the complex processes of fossil fuel formation and migration. DOE funded research to date has focused on case histories'' of down-hole well profiles of light hydrocarbons, pyrograms, pyrolysis-GC and -GCMS parameters, and biomarker data from wells in the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coasts the Alaskan North Slope. In the case of the Alaskan North Slope, geological data and one-dimensional maturation modeling have been integrated in order to better constrain possible source rocks, timing, and migration routes for oil and gas generation and expulsion processes.This period, biomarker analyses and organic petrographic analyses were completed for the Ikpikpuk well. In the case of the Gulf Coast, we have obtained a one-dimensional maturation model of the Cost B-1 well in E. Cameron field of the Louisiana Gulf Coast. The completed E. Cameron data set adds to the enigma of the Gulf Coast oils found on the continental shelf of Louisiana. If significant quantities of the oil are coming from relatively organic lean Tertiary rocks, then non-conventional'' expulsion and migration mechanisms, such as gas dissolved in oil must be invoked to explain the Gulf Coast oils reservoired on the Louisiana continental shelf. We are designing and starting to assemble a hydrous pyrolysis apparatus to follow, the laboratory, rates of generation and expulsion of sediment gases. Initiation of some new research to examine {delta}{sup 13}C of individual compounds from pyrolysis is also described. We are beginning to examine both the laboratory and field data from the Gulf Coast in the context of a Global Basin Research Network (GBRN). The purpose is to better understand subsurface fluid flow processes over geologic time in sedimentary basins and their relation to resource accumulation (i.e., petroleum and metal ores). 58 refs.

  16. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  17. The Açu Reef morphology, distribution, and inter reef sedimentation on the outer shelf of the NE Brazil equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Luzia Liniane; Gomes, Moab Praxedes; Vital, Helenice

    2018-05-01

    have trapped relict siliciclastic sediments within the three sets of reefs, west of the Açu Incised Valley and adjacent coasts. Lines evidence of easterly nearshore currents carried sediments from the old Açu Incised Valley and adjacent coasts. These incipiently drowned reefs influence the water circulation patterns of the modern shelf system, its carbonate sedimentation, and sediment transport. This study provides a new example of reef occurrence which might be more commonly observed on similar equatorial continental shelves.

  18. 77 FR 52353 - Right-of-Way Grant of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... of Submerged Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf to Support Renewable Energy Development AGENCY... would be used to issue Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy right-of-way (ROW) grants in order... renewable energy, but does not constitute a project easement. The ability of an ROW grantee to install such...

  19. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  20. Environmental characterization of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia-Garcia, M; Garcia-Abad, M.C [Departamento de Hidrobiologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, (Mexico); Carranza-Edwards, A; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    This study analyzes data and information of the physical and chemical characteristics of water, and type of sediments of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The changes of salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen fluctuate according to the wet and dry seasons (in the last one, prevails the Tehuantepecanos winds). The stations samples of salinity, temperature, pH, and type of sediments were classified by cluster and factor analysis. The results suggest that the Gulf of Tehuantepec has two subsystems. The Oaxaqueno subsystem extends south-southeast from Salina Cruz to the Tonala inlet. This subsystem is characterized by upwelling periods, which leads to low temperatures, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient concentration, as well as sandy sediments and insignificant river discharges when low temperature, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient concentration are typical, and by sandy sediments and insignificant river discharges. The second, the Chiapaneco subsystem, is located between the Tonala inlet and the Suchiate River, with strong influence of coastal lagoons and river discharges. The bottom is characterized by sandy and muddy-sand sediments. This subsystem is not affected by either Tehuantepecanos winds or upwelling. Both subsystems and their characteristics probably determine the patterns of distribution of the biotic resources. [Spanish] Se analizan datos e informacion de las caracteristicas fisico-quimicas del agua y tipo de sedimentos de la plataforma continental del Golfo de Tehuantepec, Mexico. Los cambios de salinidad, temperatura y oxigeno disuelto varian de acuerdo con las estaciones de lluvias y sequia (en esta ultima prevalecen fuertes vientos denominados Tehuantepecanos). Las estaciones de muestreo fueron agrupadas (utilizando salinidad, temperatura, pH y tipo de sedimentos) con analisis por conglomerados y analisis de factores. Los resultados indican que el Golfo de Tehuantepec tiene dos subsistemas. El subsistema

  1. Run-off and sedimentation processes over the continental shelf along the European-Siberian Tundra coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, D. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    The contribution of anthropogenic radionuclides from the European sources to the arctic seas have decreased in the first half of the 1990's. This is reflected in the measured activities in the different arctic seas which all show lower concentrations compared to earlier measurements. The influence from the Chernobyl accident were about one third of the total surface activity of {sup 137}CS at the Eurasian continental shelf in 1994 and between 10-30% in the central Arctic Ocean in 1996. The obtained results give no indication of any large extra sources for anthropogenic activity besides the well known fallout from atmospheric nuclear bombs test, discharges from European reprocessing plants and the Chernobyl accident releases. However smaller or local contributions from e.g. the dumped nuclear material in the Kara Sea and releases by the Siberian river from Russian nuclear facilities are not possible to exclude in this investigation.

  2. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brüchert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC ∕ NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr−1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3

  3. Microbial origin of the phosphorites of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.

    Phosphatised algal nodules were recovered by dredging from the western continental shelf off Goa at depths ranging from 70 to 150 m. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicates that the phosphorus present in the algal nodules is confined to brownish...

  4. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  5. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  6. Origins of Stratal Surfaces in Channel Fills on the New Jersey Continental Shelf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommerfield, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to advance an understanding of acoustic anomalies created by sub-seafloor paleochannels by investigating the geologic properties of channel-rich strata on the New Jersey continental shelf...

  7. The George V Land Continental Margin (East Antarctica): new Insights Into Bottom Water Production and Quaternary Glacial Processes from the WEGA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, A.; de Santis, L.; Lucchi, R. G.; Giorgetti, G.; Damiani, D.; Macri', P.; Tolotti, R.; Presti, M.; Armand, L.; Harris, P.

    2004-12-01

    The George Vth Land represents the ending of one of the largest subglacial basin (Wilkes Basin) of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Furthermore, its coastal areas are zone of significant production of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Piston and gravity cores and high resolution echo-sounding (3.5 kHz) and Chirp profiles collected in the frame of the joint Australian and Italian WEGA (WilkEs Basin GlAcial History) project provide new insights into the Quaternary history of the EAIS and the HSSW across this margin: from the sediment record filling and draping valleys and banks along the continental shelf, to the continuous sedimentary section of the mound-channel system on the continental rise. The discovery of a current-lain sediment drift (Mertz Drift, MD) provides clues to understanding the age of the last glacial erosive events, as well as to infer flow-pathways of bottom-water masses changes. The MD shows disrupted, fluted reflectors due to glacial advance during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) in shallow water, while undisturbed sediment drift deposited at greater water depth, indicates that during the LGM the ice shelf was floating over the deep sector of the basin. The main sedimentary environment characterising the modern conditions of the continental rise is dominated by the turbiditic processes with a minor contribution of contour currents action. Nevertheless, some areas (WEGA Channel) are currently characterised by transport and settling of sediment through HSSW, originating in the shelf area. This particular environment likely persisted since pre-LGM times. It could indicate a continuous supply of sedimentary material from HSSW during the most recent both glacial and interglacial cycles. This would be consistent with the results obtained in the continental shelf suggesting that the Ice Sheet was not grounding over some parts of the continental shelf. Furthermore, the comparison of the studied area with other Antarctic margins indicate that, contrary

  8. A retrospective analysis of trace metals, C, N and diatom remnants in sediments from the Mississippi River delta shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R. Eugene; Milan, C.S.; Rabalais, N.N.

    2004-01-01

    The development of oil and gas recovery offshore of the Mississippi River delta began in shallow water in the 1950s, expanded into deeper waters, and peaked in the 1990s. This area of the outer continental shelf (OCS) is the historical and present location of >90% of all US OCS oil and gas production and reserves. The juxtaposition of its 4000 producing platforms, recovering $10 billion yr -1 of oil, gas and produced water in the same area where about 28% of the US fisheries catch (by weight) is made and near 40% of the US coastal wetlands, makes this an area worth monitoring for regional pollutant loading. This loading may come from several sources, including sources related to OCS development, but also from the Mississippi River watershed. In this context, any contaminant loading on this shelf may be neither detectable nor significant against a background of climatic or biological variability. We examined the sedimentary record for indicators of industrial byproducts from OCS oil and gas development and of industrial products entering via the Mississippi River, primarily using vanadium (V) and barium (Ba) concentrations normalized for aluminum (Al). Barium is primarily used in drilling muds in the form of barite, whereas V is an important strengthening component of metal alloys, including steel. The fluctuations in the accumulation of Ba, but not V, were coincidental with the presumed use of barite. The fluctuations in V concentration in the sediments were coincidental with the national consumption of V. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediments fluctuate coincidentally with V, not Ba, thus indicating that the dominant source of these trace metals in offshore sediments were derived from riverine sources, and were not primarily from in situ industrial processes releasing them on the shelf. This is not to suggest that local site-specific contamination is not a significant management or health concern. The low oxygen (hypoxia; ≤2 mg l -1

  9. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport and the potential for erosion or deposition have been investigated on the Palos Verdes (PV) and San Pedro shelves in southern California to help assess the fate of an effluent-affected deposit contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Bottom boundary layer measurements at two 60-m sites in spring 2004 were used to set model parameters and evaluate a one-dimensional (vertical) model of local, steady-state resuspension, and suspended-sediment transport. The model demonstrated skill (Brier scores up to 0.75) reproducing the magnitudes of bottom shear stress, current speeds, and suspended-sediment concentrations measured during an April transport event, but the model tended to underpredict observed rotation in the bottom-boundary layer, possibly because the model did not account for the effects of temperature-salinity stratification. The model was run with wave input estimated from a nearby buoy and current input from four to six years of measurements at thirteen sites on the 35- and 65-m isobaths on the PV and San Pedro shelves. Sediment characteristics and erodibility were based on gentle wet-sieve analysis and erosion-chamber measurements. Modeled flow and sediment transport were mostly alongshelf toward the northwest on the PV shelf with a significant offshore component. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stresses ranged from 0.09 to 0.16 Pa at the 65-m sites, and the lowest values were in the middle of the PV shelf, near the Whites Point sewage outfalls where the effluent-affected layer is thickest. Long-term mean transport rates varied from 0.9 to 4.8 metric tons m-1 yr-1 along the 65-m isobaths on the PV shelf, and were much higher at the 35-m sites. Gradients in modeled alongshore transport rates suggest that, in the absence of a supply of sediment from the outfalls or PV coast, erosion at rates of ???0.2 mm yr-1 might occur in the region southeast of the outfalls. These rates are small compared to some estimates of background natural sedimentation

  10. Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2013-11-01

    An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.

  11. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the Continental Shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-07-01

    The present contract year has been one of transition from an emphasis on field work and sample gathering to the predominance of sample and data analysis and the formulation of testable hypotheses concerning specific processes in the New York Bight. We have begun to understand the seasonal transition in the role of phytoplankton vs. grazing zooplankton in forming the particles on which some reactive pollutants are removed. Using natural radioactive tracers we have estimated the removal rates of reactive metals from the surface waters and these range over an order of magnitude from most rapid nearshore to least rapid over the upper continental slope. Once removed nearshore, however, these tracers, and the pollutants for which they proxy, do not remain permanently in the sediments but appear to be remobilized (probably by oxidation) during the winter and are reintroduced into the water column. Work on transport and mixing processes of pollutants which are or behave like those in solution has continued along several fronts. Hydrographic data on the structure of the water column continues to give a description of the system that is crucial to understanding geochemical and biological processes which affect pollutants. Hydrographic characterization of water masses from the data sets of cruises has resulted in hypotheses concerning the renewal of shelf water by direct exchange between shelf and upper slope water

  12. Mining of phosphorite resources from the Indian continental shelf will help food production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Nair, R.R.

    of phosphorite deposits would depend on several technical and economic factors Phosphorites occur in water depths upto 200 meters of the western continental shelf of India These are the areas associated with upwelling The relationship between phosphorite deposits...

  13. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  14. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Alberto . E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco; Preciado, Izaskun; Parra, Santiago; Frutos, Inmaculada

    2006-01-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts

  16. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alberto [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Preciado, Izaskun [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Parra, Santiago [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain); Frutos, Inmaculada [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  17. Statistical analysis of planktic foraminifera of the surface Continental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktic foraminiferal assemblage recorded from selected samples obtained from shallow continental shelf sediments off southwestern Nigeria were subjected to statistical analysis. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to determine variants of planktic parameters. Values obtained for these parameters were ...

  18. Terrigeneous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco 14° S) during the last 1100 yr: paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño Zuluaga, F.; Sifeddine, A.; Caquineau, S.; Cardich, J.; Salvatteci, R.; Gutierrez, D.; Ortlieb, L.; Velazco, F.; Boucher, H.; Machado, C.

    2015-07-01

    In the Eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean is a response of the atmospheric and ocean system variability and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields, precipitation), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved in the Peruvian continental shelf, covering the last ~1100 yr at sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We then discuss the paleo-environmental significance and the climatic mechanisms involved. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: 53.0 μm and M4: 90.8 μm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: 9.4 μm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ~3 μm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as consequence of wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA), in response to more humid conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and of the South Pacific Sub-tropical High (SPSH) at decadal and centennial time scales.

  19. Atlantic water variability on the SE Greenland continental shelf and its relationship to SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Straneo, F.; Rosing-Asvid, A.; Stenson, G.; Davidson, F. J.; Hammill, M.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of warm, Atlantic-origin water (AW) and colder, polar origin water (PW) advecting southward in the East Greenland Current (EGC) influences the heat content of water entering Greenland's outlet glacial fjords. Here we use depth and temperature data derived from deep-diving seals to map out water mass variability across the continental shelf and to augment existing bathymetric products. We find two dominant modes in the vertical temperature structure: a cold mode, with the typical AW/PW layering observed in the EGC, and a warm mode, where AW is present throughout the water column. The prevalence of these modes varies seasonally and spatially across the continental shelf, implying distinct AW pathways. In addition, we find that satellite sea surface temperatures (SST) correlate significantly with temperatures in the upper 50 m (R=0.54), but this correlation decreases with depth (R=0.22 at 200 m), and becomes insignificant below 250 m. Thus, care must be taken in using SST as a proxy for heat content, as AW mainly resides in these deeper layers. Regional map showing the location of all seal tracks originating from Canada and Greenland (stars). Tracks passing inside (red) or outside (blue) the SE Greenland region (black) were subdivided into continental shelf regions (green boxes) near Sermilik Fjord (SF), Cape Farewell (CF) and Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (KG). GEBCO bathymetry is contoured at 200, 1000, 2000, and 3000 m.

  20. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer continental shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting... Solvents (Adopted 10/23/78) Rule 325 Crude Oil Production and Separation (Adopted 07/19/01) Rule 326... (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 805 Air Quality Impact Analysis and Modeling (Adopted 04/17/97) Rule 808 New Source...

  1. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation

  2. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report, May 31, 1980-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L R

    1981-02-01

    There are three distinct areas of research reported, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across near-shore density fronts, and advances in the understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to required distinctive biological approaches. A simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web was developed. It represents realistically both details of the energy transfers within the plankton community and the termanal production of fishes. It was discovered that the fecal ribbons of pelagic tunicates break up into flocculent material visually and chemically identical with the flocculent organic aggregates present in sea water. Subsequent experimental work with tunicate fecal matter indicates that some of the naturally occurring aggregates are indeed fecal. This makes it possible to understand and quantify for the first time the production and fate of that population of seston. An examination was made of several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms.

  3. A Numerical Study of the Plata River Plume Along the Southeastern South American Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    the effect of ambient shelf currents, level decreased by -0.20 and -0.55 in at the estuary and which would be essential in the determination of the 142...Res. SI 39, realistic wind and tidal forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (submitted). (C2):3435-3455. Piola, A. R. 2002. El impacto del Plata sobre la...discharge on the continental impactos en el Plata y en la regi6n pampeana. Vol. 1. shelf. 1. Modeling the river plume and the inner shelf Assoc. Bonaerense de

  4. Numerical Coupling of River Discharge to Shelf/Slope Sedimentation Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syvitski, James

    1997-01-01

    Scientific objectives of this project are: (1) Develop a nested set of models to study the interactions of sedimentation processes on the shelf, including the effects of river supply, plume transport and initial deposition of sediments; (2...

  5. Scripps Sediment Description File- OCSEAP Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography compiled descriptions of sediment samples in the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf area, funded through the NOAA Outer...

  6. Provenance and distribution of clay minerals in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, B.R.

    -Goa (93 samples) For the convenience of description, the Saurashtra-Goa region has been divided into the Saurashtra, Gulf of Cambay-Ratnagiri and Ratnagiri-Goa sectors based on variations in clay mineral abundances. The boundaries between these sectors... are approximate and variations in the mineral abundances tend to grade one to the other. Smectite is the most abundant mineral in the inner shelf sediments of all the sectors [Fig. 3(Ba), 3(Ca) and Provenance and distribution of clay minerals 1763 0 Sm*ctlt* m...

  7. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln

    1999-01-01

    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  8. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  9. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  10. Biodiversity hotspots on the Dutch Continental Shelf: a marine strategy framework directive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, O.G.; Witbaard, R.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Moorsel, G.W.N.M.; Teal, L.R.; Hal, van R.; Hammen, van der T.; Hofstede, ter R.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Witte, R.H.; Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Dijkman, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presenst hotspots of biodiversity for benthos, fish, birds, marine mammals and habitats on the Dutch Continental Shelf. These hotspots are based on a spatial application of biodiversity metrics developed in this study for the GES(Good Environmental Status)-descriptor 1 ‘Biological

  11. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Sand ridge morphology and bedform migration patterns derived from bathymetry and backscatter on the inner-continental shelf offshore of Assateague Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth; Brothers, Laura; Thieler, E. Robert; Sweeney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration conducted geophysical and hydrographic surveys, respectively, along the inner-continental shelf of Fenwick and Assateague Islands, Maryland and Virginia over the last 40 years. High resolution bathymetry and backscatter data derived from surveys over the last decade are used to describe the morphology and presence of sand ridges on the inner-continental shelf and measure the change in the position of smaller-scale (10–100 s of meters) seafloor features. Bathymetric surveys from the last 30 years link decadal-scale sand ridge migration patterns to the high-resolution measurements of smaller-scale bedform features. Sand ridge morphology on the inner-shelf changes across-shore and alongshore. Areas of similar sand ridge morphology are separated alongshore by zones where ridges are less pronounced or completely transected by transverse dunes. Seafloor-change analyses derived from backscatter data over a 4–7 year period show that southerly dune migration increases in magnitude from north to south, and the east-west pattern of bedform migration changes ~ 10 km north of the Maryland-Virginia state line. Sand ridge morphology and occurrence and bedform migration changes may be connected to observed changes in geologic framework including topographic highs, deflated zones, and sand availability. Additionally, changes in sand ridge occurrence and morphology may help explain changes in the long-term shoreline trends along Fenwick and Assateague Islands. Although the data presented here cannot quantitatively link sand ridges to sediment transport and shoreline change, it does present a compelling relationship between inner-shelf sand availability and movement, sand ridge occurrence and morphology, geologic framework, and shoreline behavior.

  13. Geologic Setting and Preservation of a Late Pleistocene Bald Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.

    2016-02-01

    Following landfall of Hurricane Ivan in 2004, a previously buried bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) was discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Orange Beach, Alabama, USA, in 20 m of water. The forest is preserved as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay and large pieces of trunks, roots, and branches. Analysis shows the forest is older than can be dated with conventional C-14 methods. Comparison of Pleistocene sea level curves with the study area depth suggests that the forest developed and was likely buried during marine isotope stage 3 or 4, or perhaps older stages. Condition of sampled wood suggests that the forest was buried and preserved in anoxic sediments for millennia, prior to recent exhumation. To better understand the puzzling geological conditions that could allow forest preservation during sea level fall and shelf exposure spanning >30,000 years, submersible vibracores (to 6 m length) and geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom) were collected in August 2015. Cores are being analyzed using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger, granulometric and sediment composition analyses, and a wide range of paleoenvironmental observations. This presentation focuses on the geological setting and mode of forest preservation. Preliminary analysis of sediment types and stratigraphy in cores shows that the local stratigraphy is broadly consistent with previous regional shelf-stratigraphic studies, consisting of (top to bottom) a surface layer of Holocene transgressive sands (to 3 m thick) unconformably overlying Pleistocene terrestrial and coastal deposits. However, the Pleistocene lithofacies (fluvial, backswamp, or possibly delta plain muds) differ considerably in both depositional environment and degree of environmental preservation compared to previous studies. Ongoing analysis will focus on elucidating the succession of events that allows preservation of this unique Pleistocene sedimentary archive.

  14. Infaunal macrobenthic community of soft bottom sediment in a tropical shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaraj, K.A.; Jacob, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Studies of benthic communities in tropical shelf waters are limited. In this study, we deal with the infaunal benthic community of soft bottom sediment of the tropical eastern Arabian Sea shelf. Benthic macroinfauna was sampled with a Smith...

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Following the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. Atlantic coast in 2012 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), in cooperation with state partners, instituted several regional offshore resource studies for the near outer continental shelf (OCS) on the US East Coast. This study focuses on a portion of this region, offshore of South Carolina and Georgia, with a primary goal of identifying beach renourishment sands and wind-tower placement locations, and creating a conceptual model of the evolution of the shelf in these areas. New and previously collected data are being used to identify sediment distribution patterns, paleolandscapes, sand resources for beach renourishment projects, and feasible locations for offshore wind installations. New chirp subbottom profiler data ( 1000 km), sidescan sonar data ( 7900km2), magnetometer data ( 1700 km), and multibeam bathymetry data ( 430km2) have been processed and interpreted at the University of Charleston using SonarWiz7, QPS-Qimera and QPS-Fledermaus software suites. Areas of focus for the Atlantic Sand Assessment Program (ASAP) data collection along the SC and GA coast are located within the 3 to 8 nautical mile (nm) OCS offshore of (North to South) Little River, Cape Romain, Folly Beach, Hilton Head, Wassaw, Ossabaw, Jekyll, St. Simons, and Cumberland islands. Ravinement, pre-Holocene, and other seismic surfaces, along with internal geometries, were mapped in these distinctly different tidal and wave regimes. Holocene sediment thickness gradually increases to the south with several sediment wedges in excess of 40 meters thickness. Where mapped, subsurface paleochannels/valleys were identified and analyzed for their orientation and complexity, as well as their size and distribution. These paleochannels are more numerous and increasingly complex in the southern survey areas. The channels are possibly related to transgressive channeling, Pleistocene low-stand river channeling, and braided stream formation during

  16. Chronicling ice shelf history in the sediments left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Subt, C.; Shevenell, A.; Guitard, M.; Vadman, K. J.; DeCesare, M.; Wellner, J. S.; Bart, P. J.; Lee, J. I.; Domack, E. W.; Yoo, K. C.; Hayes, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Collapsing and retreating ice shelves leave unmistakable sediment sequences on the Antarctic margin. These sequences tell unequivocal stories of collapse or retreat through a typical progression of sub-ice shelf diamicton (marking the past positions of grounding lines), sequentially overlain by a granulated facies from beneath the ice shelf, ice rafted debris from the calving line, and finally open marine sediment. The timelines to these stories, however, are troublesome. Difficulties in chronicling these stories recorded in sediment have betrayed their importance to our understanding of a warming world in many cases. The difficulties involve the concerted lack of preservation/production of calcium carbonate tests from the water column above and admixture of relict organic material from older sources of carbon. Here, we summarize our advances in the last decade of overcoming difficulties associated with the paucity of carbonate and creating chronologies of ice shelf retreat into the deglacial history of Antarctica by exploiting the range of thermochemical stability in organic matter (Ramped PyrOx) from these sediment sequences. We describe our success in comparing Ramped PyrOx 14C dates with foraminiferal dates, the relationship between sediment facies and radiocarbon age spectrum, and our ability to push limits of dating sediments deposited underneath ice shelves. With attention to the caveats of recent dating developments, we summarize expectations that geologist should have when coring the Antarctic margins to discern deglacial history. Perhaps most important among these expectations is the ability to design coring expeditions without regard to our ability to date calcium carbonate microfossils within the cores, in essence removing suspense of knowing whether cores taken from crucial paleo ice channels and other bathymetric features will ultimately yield a robust chronology for its sedimentary sequence.

  17. Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Salisbury to Nahant, Massachusetts, including the Merrimack Embayment and Western Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-10-26

    A series of maps that describe the distribution and texture of sea-floor sediments and physiographic zones of Massachusetts State waters from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts, including western Massachusetts Bay, have been produced by using high-resolution geophysical data (interferometric and multibeam swath bathymetry, lidar bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection profiles), sediment samples, and bottom photographs. These interpretations are intended to aid statewide efforts to inventory and manage coastal and marine resources, link with existing data interpretations, and provide information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change. Marine geologic mapping of the inner continental shelf of Massachusetts is a statewide cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.

  18. Considerations about the recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf on the Amazon fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Brazil submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS a Submission for the outer limit of the Brazilian continental shelf for its extension beyond the limits of 200 nautical miles. In 2007, the CLCS presented its recommendations, however it did not recommend four areas proposed by Brazil, the Amazon Fan among them. The objective of this study is to present the main legal and technical aspects of the controversy about the Amazon Fan, in order to evaluate some alternatives for a future submission, new or revised.

  19. Terrigenous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco, 14° S) during the last 1000 years: paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, Francisco Javier; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Caquineau, Sandrine; Cardich, Jorge; Salvatteci, Renato; Gutierrez, Dimitri; Ortlieb, Luc; Velazco, Federico; Boucher, Hugues; Machado, Carine

    2016-03-01

    In the eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean responds to variations in the atmospheric and oceanic system and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved from the Peruvian continental shelf that record the last ˜ 1000 years at a sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We propose novel grain size indicators of wind intensity and fluvial input that allow reconstructing the oceanic-atmospheric variability modulated by sub-decadal to centennial changes in climatic conditions. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: ˜ 54; M4: ˜ 91 µm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: ˜ 10 µm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ˜ 3 µm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as a consequence of surface wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in response to more humid conditions associated with El Niño-like conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Subtropical High (SPSH) and Walker circulation at decadal and centennial timescales.

  20. Spatial Extent of Wave-Supported Fluid Mud on the Waipaoa Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Orpin, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Data from acoustic and optical sensors provide a powerful tool to connect near-bed water-column processes with the deposits they generate. Ideally, the product of water-column and seabed interactions can then be applied more broadly to understand systems as a whole, in both space and time. Recent observational research has allowed for an improved understanding of shelf sediment-transport dynamics in many coastal systems, including the dynamic Waipaoa Sedimentary System (WSS), on the east coast of the north island of New Zealand. This narrow shelf (~20 km) on an active continental margin is subject to strong environmental forcings in the form of high waves (>5 m), strong currents (>50 cm/s), and frequent floods of the Waipaoa River, which delivers an average of 15 MT of sediment to Poverty Bay and the coastal environment each year. A year-long study of the WSS during 2010-2011 combined observational data from instrumented tripods at three locations on the continental shelf, with repeat sediment cores collected in four-month intervals, to identify and assess the mechanisms of cross- and off-shelf sediment transport. Observational data identified that cross-shelf sediment transport is stochastic, typically driven by high-wave events, with 40% of the net annual cross-shelf flux for one tripod location occurring during a single wave-supported fluid mud (WSFM) in July 2010. Fortunately, this event was recorded in the instrument data, and the resulting deposit was plainly visible in x-radiograph images. This particular WSFM was observed in x-radiographs collected as deep as ~50 m, and as far as ~28 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, and is more prevalent on the northern portion of the shelf. A critical water depth is not the only criteria for WSFM deposition, as some shallower areas on the southern shelf, which were subject to high bed stress, show no evidence of WSFM in this event, while cores collected in deeper areas (e.g. lower bed stress) on the northern shelf

  1. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10 -3 , dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1 -1 . This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1 -1 ), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 ± .09 dpm g -1 ) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g -1 ). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10 15 dpm yr -1 ) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean

  2. Marine magnetic anomalies over the Direction bank, off Bombay western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    Total magnetic intensity data were collected over the Direction Bank, off Bombay on the western continental shelf of India and the isomagnetic anomaly map prepared at a contour interval of 25nT show NNW-SSE trend resemble those of the Dharwarians...

  3. Gas hydrates:estimation of the gas potential, from reflection seismic data in the continental shelf of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santa Ana, H.; Ucha, N.; Gutierrez, L.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2004-01-01

    The uruguayan continental shelf shows geophysical indicators of gas hydrates in the Oriental del Plata, Pelotas and Punta del Este basin. The aim of this work is to present the potential presence of gas at the continental shelf in Uruguay and to evaluate the possibility of exploration of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. Analysis of the seismic surface based on regional and stratgigraphic information that proceeded from previous hydrocarbon exploration in the area have been used to estimatge resources of gas hydrates. Gas hydrates accumulation was mapped using characteristic reflectors and amplitude anomalies of seismic lines (BSR). Its quantity was estimated on this basis in about 86 TCF.

  4. Rapid sediment accumulation results in high methane effluxes from coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372629199; Lenstra, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295977; Jong, Dirk; Meysman, Filip; Sapart, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31400596X; van der Veen, C.; Röckmann, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the methane (CH4) efflux from the ocean to the atmosphere is small, despite high rates of CH4 production in continental shelf and slope environments. This low efflux results from the biological removal of CH4 through anaerobic oxidation with sulfate in marine sediments. In some settings,

  5. Continental Margins of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David

    2016-04-01

    A coastal State must define the outer edge of its continental margin in order to be entitled to extend the outer limits of its continental shelf beyond 200 M, according to article 76 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The article prescribes the methods with which to make this definition and includes such metrics as water depth, seafloor gradient and thickness of sediment. Note the distinction between the "outer edge of the continental margin", which is the extent of the margin after application of the formula of article 76, and the "outer limit of the continental shelf", which is the limit after constraint criteria of article 76 are applied. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of continental margin types reflecting both its complex tectonic origins and its diverse sedimentation history. These factors play important roles in determining the extended continental shelves of Arctic coastal States. This study highlights the critical factors that might determine the outer edge of continental margins in the Arctic Ocean as prescribed by article 76. Norway is the only Arctic coastal State that has had recommendations rendered by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS). Russia and Denmark (Greenland) have made submissions to the CLCS to support their extended continental shelves in the Arctic and are awaiting recommendations. Canada has yet to make its submission and the US has not yet ratified the Convention. The various criteria that each coastal State has utilized or potentially can utilize to determine the outer edge of the continental margin are considered. Important criteria in the Arctic include, 1) morphological continuity of undersea features, such as the various ridges and spurs, with the landmass, 2) the tectonic origins and geologic affinities with the adjacent land masses of the margins and various ridges, 3) sedimentary processes, particularly along continental slopes, and 4) thickness and

  6. Pathways of carbon oxidation in continental margin sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, B; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    1996-01-01

    Rates and oxidative pathways of organic carbon mineralization were determined in sediments at six stations on the shelf and slope off Concepcion Bay at 36.5 degrees S. The depth distribution of C oxidation rates was determined to 10 cm from accumulation of dissolved inorganic C in 1-5-d incubations...... the shelf was rich in NO3- and depleted of O2. Sediments at the four shelf stations were covered by mats of filamentous bacteria of the genera Thioploca and Beggiatoa. Carbon oxidation rates at these sites were extremely high near the sediment surface (>3 micromol cm-3 d-1) and decreased exponentially...... C oxidation between 0 and 10 cm. Carbon oxidation through Fe reduction contributed a further 12-29% of the depth-integrated rate, while the remainder of C oxidation was through SO4(2-) reduction. The depth distribution of Fe reduction agreed well with the distribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides...

  7. EBSSED database-Surficial sediments of the eastern Bering Sea continental shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to facilitate descriptions of groundfish habitat over a large portion of the EBS shelf, the NMFS/AFSC has assembled a single comprehensive database of the...

  8. Use of Geological, Geophysical and Geomorphological Information as support for the harmonization of the legal limits of the continental shelf between Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Villena, H.

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) establishes the juridical and legal frameworks which the Coastal States (C S) establish their respective outer limit of the continental shelf in which will exercise sovereignty rights under the resources in the on the seabed and seabed subsurface. The base to reach the delineation of continental shelf outer limit is ruled by the application the criteria which take into consideration mainly data and pieces of information from Geology, Geophysics and Geomorphology employed both lonely or conjunction. In the current presentation were employed both data carried out by Brazilian Continental Shelf Project (Laplace) and data from public domain. As the underwater features do not follow political limits, the goal of this proposal work is to present the integration of both data and pieces of information from geological, geophysical and geomorphologic characteristics in order to reach the harmonization of the Brazil and Uruguay continental shelf outer limit nearby their Maritime Lateral Boundary

  9. Manganese in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    shows that the contribution is practically from land. Higher rates of sedimentation was also observed on the inner shelf particularly between Alleppey and Karwar. The sediments in the slope region were slightly enriched in their manganese content than...

  10. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  11. DDE in sediments of the Palos Verdes shelf, California: In situ transformation rates and geochemical fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.

    2008-01-01

    From 1947 to 1971 the world's largest manufacturer of DDT discharged process wastes into the sewers of Los Angeles County. Roughly 870-1450 t of DDT were released to the ocean off Palos Verdes, CA, a portion of which (???100 t) resides in sediments on the continental shelf and slope. The most abundant DDT compound in the sediments, p,p???-DDE, is degrading by reductive dechlorination, butthe rate of transformation and factors controlling it are not well understood. In order to estimate in situ transformation rates and predict the long-term fate of p,p???-DDE, box cores were collected in 1992 and 2003 from a single location on the Palos Verdes Shelf and analyzed for 8 DDT compounds and 84 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The PCBs show no evidence of dechlorination, and inventories did not change between 1992 and 2003. By contrast, the inventory of p,p???-DDE decreased by 43%, whereas that of p,p???-DDMU, the putative reductive dechlorination product increased by 34%. The first-order transformation rate for p,p???-DDE at the study site is 0.051 ?? 0.006 yr-1. A multistep reaction model suggests that inventories of p,p???-DDE and p,p???-DDMU will continue to decline, whereas that of p,p???-DDNU will reach a maximum around 2014.

  12. 77 FR 10707 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... indigenous population; (4) the lack of any established shipping fairways, fueling and supply storage... location of the DRILLSHIP NOBLE DISCOVERER on the Outer Continental Shelf and its distance from both land...

  13. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geological samples collected as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project are curated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a partner in the ECS Project. To...

  14. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  15. Tracing the recently increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs into the East China Sea shelf sediments using Pb isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deli; Zhao, Zhiqi; Dai, Minhan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithogenic Pb dominated in the ECS shelf sediments. • Small but increasing anthropogenic Pb occurred in the ECS shelf sediments. • HCl-leachated Pb suggested a source from “polluted” coastal sediments. • Residual Pb was mainly contributed from the “pristine” upper Yangtze watershed. - Abstract: This study examined the Pb content and Pb isotopic composition in a sediment core taken from the East China Sea (ECS) shelf, and it was observed that since 2003 the increasing anthropogenic Pb inputs have impacted as far as the ECS shelf sediments. The ECS shelf sediments were generally characterized with low bulk Pb contents (12.5–15.0 μg/g) and relatively lithogenic Pb isotopic signatures (both HCl-leached and residual fractions). However, elevated Pb records along with lighter Pb isotopic signals have occurred in the post-2003 sediments, as a result of a small but increasing anthropogenic Pb contribution from the heavily human perturbed coastal sediments due to the sharply increasing coal consumption in mainland China since 2003

  16. Oil-spill risk analysis: Central and western Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf, Lease Sales 139 and 141. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Lear, E.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 139 and 141

  17. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  18. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  19. Assessment of resource selection models to predict occurrence of five juvenile flatfish species (Pleuronectidae) over the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew T.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Cooper, Dan W.

    2016-05-01

    According to the nursery size hypothesis, flatfish recruitment is constrained by nursery area. Thus, if resource selection models can be shown to accurately predict the location and geographic extent of flatfish nursery areas, they will become important tools in the management and study of flatfish population dynamics. We demonstrate that some resource selection models derived previously to predict the presence and absence of juvenile flatfishes near shore were applicable to the broader continental shelf. For other age-species groups, derivation of new models for the continental shelf was necessary. Our study was conducted in the western Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during October 2011 on four groups of age-0 juvenile flatfishes: Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon); and three groups of age-1 juvenile flatfishes: northern rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera). Sampling occurred at 33 sites across the continental shelf. Fish were collected using a 3-m beam trawl, and a midwater trawl. Environmental data were collected on sediment composition and water temperature and depth. Many of the age-species groups co-occurred in the Shumagin and Barnabus sea valleys; however, age-0 arrowtooth flounder occurred at more locations than other juveniles, perhaps due to a relatively broad tolerance of environmental conditions and to the utilization of midwater habitat. Thus, the large nursery area of arrowtooth flounder may be one reason why they are currently the most abundant GoA flatfish. In fact, among all species, mean recruitment at age 3 increased with the percent occurrence of age-0 juveniles at the 33 sites, a proxy for relative nursery area, in accordance with the nursery size hypothesis, suggesting that mean recruitment among GoA flatfishes is structured by nursery size.

  20. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments near the Pearl River estuary in the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xuelu; Chen Shaoyong; Xie Xueliang; Long Aimin; Ma Fujun

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment samples at 4 sites along an offshore transect from outer continental shelf off the Pearl River estuary to the shelf slope region of the northern South China Sea, have been analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. TOC, TN and EOM show distinct spatial variations. Their highest values are all recorded at the shelf slope region. EOM varies from 18.70-38.58 μg g -1 dry sediment and accounts for 0.20-0.72% of the TOC contents. The non-aromatic hydrocarbons are an important fraction of EOM. Their contents range from 3.43-7.06 μg g -1 dry sediment. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15-38 are identified. They derive from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in different proportions. Results of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. - Anthropogenic activities have influences on the composition of non-aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the northern South China Sea outer continental shelf

  1. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  2. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, M I

    1994-12-31

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  3. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  4. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic composition for fine-grained fraction of sediments from northwestern South China Sea: implications for sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, G.

    2013-12-01

    *Guanqiang Cai caiguanqiang@sina.com Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, 510760, P.R. China As the largest marginal sea in the western pacific, the South China Sea (SCS) receives large amount of terrigenous material annually through numerous rivers from surrounding continents and islands, which make it as the good place for the study of source to sink process. Yet few studies put emphasis on the northwestern continental shelf and slope in the SCS, even though most of the detrital materials derived from the Red River and Hainan Island are deposited in this area, and northwestern shelf plays a significant role in directly linking the South China, the Indochina and the South China Sea and thus controlling the source to sink process of terrestrial sediment. We presented the clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of fine-grained fraction for sediments from northwestern SCS, in order to identify sediment source and transportation. The results show that the clay mineral of northwestern SCS sediments are mainly illite (30%~59%), smectite (20%~40%) and kaolinite (8%~35%), with minor chlorite. The illite chemical index varies between 0.19 and 0.75 with an average of 0.49, indicating an intensive hydrolysis in the source region. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of sediments range from 0.716288 to 0.734416 (average of 0.724659), and ɛ Nd(0) values range from -10.31 to -11.62 (average of -10.93), which suggest that the source rocks of these sediments are derived from continental crust. The Hainan Island is an important source for sediments deposited in the nearshore and western shelf, especially for illite, kaolinite and smectite clay minerals. Furthermore, the relatively high contents of kaolinite and smectite in sediments from eastern shelf and southern slope of Hainan Island are also controlled by the supply of terrigenous materials from Hainan, which cannot be resulted from sedimentary differentiation of the Pearl and Red river sediments. And the correlation analysis

  6. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of an...

  7. Importance of isotopes for understanding the sedimentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Isotopes of either radioactive or stable depending upon radiation emitted or not respectively which have wide applications in understanding not only the history of sedimentation, but also provide information about paleoclimate. Stable isotope mass difference occurs due to changes in physicochemical conditions of the ambient environment, for instance temperature, evaporation, precipitation, redox processes, and changes in the mobility of elements during weathering processes, biological uptake, metabolism, re-mineralization of biogenic material, etc. In contrast, radionuclides emit radiation because of excess of neutrons present in the nucleus when compared to protons of an atom. The decay of radioactive isotopes is unaffected despite changes in physicochemical variations; hence, they are useful for determining ages of different types of materials on earth. The radioisotopes can be classified based on origin and half life into primordial or long-lived, cosmogenic and artificial radionuclides or fission products. In this study, the importance of 137 Cs artificial radionuclides will be highlighted to understand short-term sedimentation processes, particularly in estuaries, deltas/continental shelf of west coast of India. The distribution of 137 Cs in sediments of south-western continental margin of India indicates that coastal marginal environments are filters or sinks for fall-out radionuclides. The sparse of 137 Cs in the open continental shelf environment indicates that most of sediments are either older or sediments being diluted by components generated in the marine environment

  8. Spatiotemporal chlorophyll-a dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf derived from a dual satellite imagery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monthly time series of remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chlars) over the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) was developed and examined for its relationship to river discharge, nitrate concentration, total phosphorus concentration, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), wind...

  9. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  10. Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes in modern Sediments Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lazzari, L.; Wagener, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Godoy, J. M.; Noble, A.; Carrasco, G. G.; Moos, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on the export of trace metals and combustion residues from land to ocean and on the Southeast continental margin of Brazil and its historical variability using stable lead isotopes. Two sediment cores were collected, one in highly impacted Guanabara Bay and the other on the Southeast continental shelf. Continental shelf samples were analyzed for trace element concentrations [Mn (117±50 ppm), Ni (6.5±2.3 ppm), Zn (5.0±1.5), (233±46 ppm), ], Pb (5.4±2.4 ppm), as well as Cu, Ag, Cd, Sr, Ba, Tl, U and Pb isotope ratios & Pb-210. Most of the elements show higher concentrations on the upper part of the core compared to the bottom. Downcore changes of the concentrations of these elements were similar. The sediments of adjacent rivers and bays around the upper section of the southeast continental shelf of Brazil are considered highly enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr such as Guanabara Bay, Sepetiba Bay and Paraíba do Sul River compared with the natural concentrations and other regions in the world. A [Pb] maximum is seen between samples from 24 to 43 cm (~8 ppm). Utilization of tetraethyl lead (TEL) gasoline in Brazil was phased out beginning in 1983 and was largely completed by 1988. Continental shelf Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.174 near the core top to 1.190 at 100 cm, with a sharp difference between samples at 6 and 8 cm. Higher core top Pb, Zn, and Ni corroborate the recent anthropogenic influence on the southeast continental shelf of Brazil. For Guanabara Bay sediment samples [Pb] varies between 90 ppm near the top to 1 ppm at the bottom. Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.161 near the core top to 1.165 near the bottom. Using triple isotope plots we can discern different sources of lead to the region and how these vary with time.

  11. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on Oct 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system and observation analysis from a series of geologic surveys and oceanographic instrument deployments focused on a region offshore of Fire Island, NY. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses exceeding 10 Pa. Flow down the Hudson Shelf Valley is shown to result in convergent sediment transport and deposition along its axis

  12. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  13. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  14. Detection of gas-charged sediments and gas hydrate horizons along the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.; Almeida, F.

    in the inner shelf. These maskings suggest the presence of gas-charged sediments. Further seaward on the outer shelf-middle slope, pockmarks and prominent plumes in the overlying water column indicate a significant seepage of gas from the slope sediments...

  15. Distribution of clay minerals in marine sediments off Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India: Indicators of sediment sources and transport processes .

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Ramkumar, T.

    Clay mineralogy, texture size and statistical analyses were carried out on surface sediments from the continental shelf of Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India. The purpose of this study is to characterize the clay mineral distribution and its relation...

  16. Data Management Supporting the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Varner, J. D.; Mcquinn, E.; LaRocque, J.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration led by the U.S. Department of State whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law. Since 2003, the U.S. has been actively collecting bathymetric, seismic, and other geophysical data and geologic samples required to delineate its outer limits in accordance with Article 76 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) to serve as both the Data Management lead and the Data Archive and Integration Center for the U.S. ECS Project. NGDC, one of three National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Offices active in the ECS Project, has the primary responsibility to provide a common infrastructure and a means to integrate the data supporting, and products resulting from ECS analysis. One of the key challenges in the ECS project is the requirement to track the provenance of data and derived products. Final ECS analyses may result in hundreds of points that define a new maritime boundary that is our extended continental shelf. These points will be developed in a rigorous process of analysis encompassing potentially thousands of raw datasets and derived products. NGDC has spent the past two years planning, designing, and partially implementing the Information Management System (IMS), a highly functional, interactive software system that serves as the master database for the ECS Project. The purpose of this geospatial database is to archive, access, and manage the primary data, derivative data and products, associated metadata, information and decisions that will form the U.S. submission. The IMS enables team members to manage ECS data in a consistent way while maintaining institutional memory and the rationale behind decisions. The IMS contains two major components: First, a catalog that acts as the interface to the IMS by

  17. Characteristics of storms driving wave-induced seafloor mobility on the U.S. East Coast continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Butman, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between spatial and temporal patterns of wave-driven sediment mobility events on the U.S. East Coast continental shelf and the characteristics of the storms responsible for them. Mobility events, defined as seafloor wave stress exceedance of the critical stress of 0.35 mm diameter sand (0.2160 Pa) for 12 or more hours, were identified from surface wave observations at National Data Buoy Center buoys in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and South Atlantic Bight (SAB) over the period of 1997-2007. In water depths ranging from 36-48 m, there were 4-9 mobility events/year of 1-2 days duration. Integrated wave stress during events (IWAVES) was used as a combined metric of wave-driven mobility intensity and duration. In the MAB, over 67% of IWAVES was caused by extratropical storms, while in the SAB, greater than 66% of IWAVES was caused by tropical storms. On average, mobility events were caused by waves generated by storms located 800+ km away. Far-field hurricanes generated swell 2-4 days before the waves caused mobility on the shelf. Throughout most of the SAB, mobility events were driven by storms to the south, east, and west. In the MAB and near Cape Hatteras, winds from more northerly storms and low-pressure extratropical systems in the mid-western U.S. also drove mobility events. Waves generated by storms off the SAB generated mobility events along the entire U.S. East Coast shelf north to Cape Cod, while Cape Hatteras shielded the SAB area from swell originating to the north offshore of the MAB.

  18. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  19. Accident statistics for fixed offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funnemark, E.; Young, E.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive statistics for the accidents and incidents on fixed units engaged in oil and gas exploration/exploitation on the UK continental shelf between 1980 and 2001 have been assembled from other databases. The data includes nature of the incident, type of unit involved, geographical area and time period. The results cover a total of 5,563 events which are described as accidents, hazardous situations or near misses

  20. Seasonal evolution of the nutrient pattern on Biscay Bay continental shelf over the years 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Loyer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic shelf is subjected to strong anthropic influences (urban, industrial and agricultural discharges of two main rivers (Loire and Gironde. The extension and consequences of these continental loadings for the nutrient and chlorophyll distribution have never been studied before on the Bay of Biscay continental shelf as a whole. We present the first synoptic view of the nutrient distribution and evolution on the French Atlantic shelf. Nutrient concentrations of the surface layer were studied during four cruises in April, June, September 1999 and March 2000. Until June, the freshwater inputs induce a nitrate gradient from river mouths to offshore waters in the vicinity of the 100 m isobath. The Redfield’s ratio study highlights the nitrate excess in river loadings. The early spring situation is characterised by high N:P ratios in front of the two estuaries and by a potential Si-limitation in the northern part. Nitrate removal continues in spite of the P-limitation and the increase in silicate concentrations during summer supposes high regeneration processes. At the end of summer, the water column is thermally stratified and the surface mixed layer is totally depleted in nitrate.

  1. Carbon and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: role of water column primary production and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column net metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen respiration (R) and primary p...

  2. Net Heterotrophy in the Amazon Continental Shelf Changes Rapidly to a Sink of CO2 in the Outer Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefèvre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon continental shelf and adjacent oceanic area were sampled for inorganic and organic carbon parameters in order to improve data coverage and understanding of carbon cycling dynamics within this important region. Seasonal coverage of the Amazon plume on the French Guiana continental shelf further north, was provided by CO2 monitoring using a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guiana (2006–2016. Salinity ranged from 1 to 36 (transects in April 2013, and May 2014. At salinity below 10, strong outgassing was observed with fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 over 2,000 μatm. This region displayed net heterotrophy, fueled by organic matter with terrestrial origin, as shown by δ13C and δ15N values of suspended particles. A δ13C cross shelf average of −31% was measured during May 2014, contrasting with oceanic values in excess of −20%. The reactivity of this terrestrial material resulted in the local production of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as fluorescent humic compounds. Further offshore, the dilution of freshwater by ocean waters created a sink for CO2, enhanced by biological activity. The strongest CO2 drawdowns, associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations, were observed on the French Guiana continental shelf in the outer Amazon plume, with fCO2 values below 150 μatm. Here, a CO2 sink was present almost throughout the year, with a seasonal maximum of −9.2 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 observed in June 2015. However, both the CO2 and salinity distributions could vary significantly within a few days, confirming the presence of many eddies in this region. The Amazon continental shelf hence behaved as a transition zone between an inshore source of CO2 to the atmosphere and an offshore sink. Some marine phytoplankton production was detected but occurred mainly close to the French Guiana shelf. A mean net CO2 outgassing of 44 ± 43.6 mmol m−2d−1 was estimated for the area. Quantifying the CO2 flux for the entire Amazon

  3. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 1. Physical oceanography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Federal responsibility for oil and gas development on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) resides with the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The DOI's Environmental Studies Program (ESP) is the program through which MMS conducts environmental studies on the OCS and collects information to prepare environmental impact statements (EISs). It appeared to MMS in 1986 that the time was ripe to assess the status of the present program and to explore the needs for future studies. MMS requested an evaluation of the adequacy and applicability of ESP studies, a review of the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommendations for future studies. Three panels were established, one of which, the Physical Oceanography Panel, investigated the physical oceanographic aspects of the ESP, the subject of the report, which is the first of three in a series. In reviewing the ESP's physical oceanography program, the panel evaluated the quality and relevance of studies carried out in waters under federal control, which extend from the limits of state jurisdictions (3-12 miles offshore) and include the central and outer continental shelf waters and the continental slope

  4. The flux of 226Ra from estuarine and continental shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.H.; Mathieu, G.; Biscaye, P.; Simpson, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A pronounced desorption phenomenon of 226 Ra from sediment was observed in the Hudson River estuary. Mass balance calculations indicate that the desorption of 226 Ra from the river-borne sediment in estuarine environment is an important source of 226 Ra to the oceans. (Auth.)

  5. Variations in organic carbon fluxes from Long Island Sound to the Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, P.; Whitney, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Organic carbon balances for the Long Island Sound estuary over the years 2009-2012 are presented to assess the particulate and dissolved organic carbon contributions of the estuary to the adjacent shelf waters with respect to the Delaware and Chesapeake. Observations were coupled to a hydrodynamic model (ROMS) for both seasonal and annual estimates. During stratified summer periods, LIS was consistently a net exporter of OC to the continental shelf. LIS annual net carbon export however, varied with river flow. The heterotrophic or autotrophic nature of LIS also shifted seasonally and inter-annually. During the mass balance analysis period LIS ranged between net OC import from the continental shelf and heterotrophy in the lowest river flow year (2012) and net export of OC and autotrophy in the highest flow year (2011). Analysis suggests that LIS switches from net OC import to export when the annual river inputs exceed 19 km3 yr-1. Applying these thresholds to the annual river flow record suggests that net import occurred in 15% of the last 20 years and that LIS usually is a net exporter of OC (85%). Annually averaged LIS carbon export values based on river flow conditions over the last 20 yr are estimated at 56 ± 64 x 106 km3 yr-1. Analysis also suggests that LIS shifts from net heterotrophic to net autotrophic when annual river flow exceeds 26 km3 yr-1 (35% of the last 20 yr). Net heterotrophic conditions are most common, representing 65% of the last 20 yr.

  6. 76 FR 38294 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... affect in a material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR... Outer Continental Shelf--Civil Penalties AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

  7. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  8. Plankton community respiration, net ecosystem metabolism, and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: implications for hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a multi-year study of the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) to better understand the linkages between water column metabolism and the formation of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen respiration rates (WR) were measured on 10 cr...

  9. Oil-spill risk analysis: Gulf of Mexico (Proposed Lease Sales 131/135/137) Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, L.J.; LaBelle, R.P.; Lear, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf lands in the Gulf of Mexico for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sales 131/135/137. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sales

  10. Studies on the shelf sediments off the Madras coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    content. Grain size study has shown that the sediments off Madras are mainly sandy in nature and vary from fine to very fine sands in the nearshore and outer shelf regions to medium to coarse sands in the midshelf region. Off Karaikal they vary from coarse...

  11. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  12. A PLATAFORMA CONTINENTAL BRASILEIRA E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A ZONA COSTEIRA E A PESCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Muehe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian continental shelf, with about 8.000 km length, includes several climatic zones expressed in differentiated solid and liquid sediment input. Excepting the important input of sediments and nutrients from the Amazon in the North and the Prata in the South the rest of the shelf is characterized by low productivity due the reduced availability of nutrients. Considering the morphology of the bottom and fishing equipment, the shelf can be divided into two regions: north of Cabo Frio, with warm waters, irregular carbonate bottom, with fishery predominantly through long line and traps; and Southwest of Cabo Frio, with cold waters, flat bottom and fishery predominantly through fishing nets.

  13. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  14. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY... OPDs. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with this publication two NAD 83-based OCS...

  15. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    margin bathymetry, and 3) what processes determine the observed variability of total organic carbon (TOC) content in shelf sediments underlying the upwelling system, with implications for the formation of petroleum source rocks. Here, a numerical ocean modeling approach is used in this thesis to explore...... processes and the development of anoxia/euxinia under the present day or past geological conditions. Thirdly and last, processes controlling distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments across the continental margin is evaluated by application of the model to the Benguela upwelling system....... In the model, biological primary production and shelf bottom-water anoxia result in enhanced sedimentary TOC concentrations on the mid shelf and upper slope. The simulated TOCs implicate that bottom lateral transport only has a significant effect on increasing the deposition of the organic carbon on the mid...

  16. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  17. Spatial variability of primary organic sources regulates ichthyofauna distribution despite seasonal influence in Terminos lagoon and continental shelf of Campeche, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo Rios, J. A.; Aguíñiga-García, S.; Sanchez, A.; Zetina-Rejón, M.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Tripp-Valdéz, A.; Galeana-Cortazár, A.

    2013-05-01

    Human activities have strong impacts on coastal ecosystems functioning through their effect on primary organic sources distributions and resulting biodiversity. Hence, it appears to be of utmost importance to quantify contribution of primary producers to sediment organic matter (SOM) spatial variability and its associated ichthyofauna. The Terminos lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) is a tropical estuary severely impacted by human activities even though of primary concern for its biodiversity, its habitats, and its resource supply. Stable isotope data (d13C, d15N) from mangrove, seaweed, seagrass, phytoplankton, ichthyofauna and SOM were sampled in four zones of the lagoon and the continental shelf through windy (November to February), dry (March to June) and rainy (July to October) seasons. Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) mixing model were used to determine relative contributions of the autotrophic sources to the ichthyofauna and SOM. Analysis of variance of ichthyofauna isotopic values showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in the four zones of lagoon despite the variability introduced by the windy, dry and rainy seasons. In lagoons rivers discharge zone, the mangrove contribution to ichthyofauna was 40% and 84% to SOM. Alternative use of habitat by ichthyofauna was evidenced since in the deep area of the lagoon (4 m), the contribution of mangrove to fish is 50%, and meanwhile contribution to SOM is only 77%. Although phytoplankton (43%) and seaweed (41%) contributions to the adjacent continental shelf ichthyofauna were the main organic sources, there was 37% mangrove contribution to SOM, demonstrating conspicuous terrigenous influence from lagoon ecosystem. Our results point toward organic sources spatial variations that regulate fish distribution. In Terminos lagoon, significant correlation (p-value = 0.2141 and r=0.79) of Ariopsis felis and Sphoeroides testudineus abundances and seaweed and seagrasses contributions (30-35%) during both dry and rainy seasons

  18. Continental Shelf Morphology and Stratigraphy Offshore San Onofre, CA: The Interplay Between Rates of Eustatic Change and Sediment Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotsko, Shannon; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    New high-resolution CHIRP seismic data acquired offshore San Onofre, southern California reveal that shelf sediment distribution and thickness are primarily controlled by eustatic sea level rise and sediment supply. Throughout the majority of the study region, a prominent abrasion platform and associated shoreline cutoff are observed in the subsurface from ~ 72 to 53 m below present sea level. These erosional features appear to have formed between Melt Water Pulse 1A and Melt Water Pulse 1B, when the rate of sea-level rise was lower. There are three distinct sedimentary units mapped above a regional angular unconformity interpreted to be the Holocene transgressive surface in the seismic data. Unit I, the deepest unit, is interpreted as a lag deposit that infills a topographic low associated with an abrasion platform. Unit I thins seaward by downlap and pinches out landward against the shoreline cutoff. Unit II is a mid-shelf lag deposit formed from shallower eroded material and thins seaward by downlap and landward by onlap. The youngest, Unit III, is interpreted to represent modern sediment deposition. Faults in the study area do not appear to offset the transgressive surface. The Newport Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system is active in other regions to the south (e.g., La Jolla) where it offsets the transgressive surface and creates seafloor relief. Several shoals observed along the transgressive surface could record minor deformation due to fault activity in the study area. Nevertheless, our preferred interpretation is that the shoals are regions more resistant to erosion during marine transgression. The Cristianitos fault zone also causes a shoaling of the transgressive surface. This may be from resistant antecedent topography due to an early phase of compression on the fault. The Cristianitos fault zone was previously defined as a down-to-the-north normal fault, but the folding and faulting architecture imaged in the CHIRP data are more consistent with a

  19. Early diagenesis of phosphorus in continental margin sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the organic material in the oceans that reaches the sea floor is deposited on continental margins and not in the deep sea. This organic matter is the principal carrier of phosphorus (P) to sediments. A part of the organic material is buried definitely. The other part decomposes,

  20. The NSW Steam Trawl Fishery on the South-East Continental Shelf of Australia, 1915–1961

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jacobsen, A. Lif

    2014-01-01

    How was modern fishing methods, in the form of steam trawling, introduced in Australia? And what were the consequences for the fish stocks found on the South-East Continental Shelf? Through historical catch records and archival resources, the history of the NSW Steam Trawl Industry from 1915...

  1. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  2. The continental shelf benthic ecosystem: Current status, agents for change and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Continental shelf benthic ecosystems play an important role in the economy of many coastal states through the provision of food, non-living resources and through control of climate. Changes in the status of these ecosystems, through either natural or human-induced environmental drivers can be expected to have important economic and social consequences. Agents that could induce change include climate and oceanography, hydrology (river discharge), land-use and waste disp...

  3. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  4. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  5. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on October 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system that covered spatial scales ranging from the entire US east coast (1000 s of km) to local domains (10 s of km). Additionally, the modeled response for the region offshore of Fire Island, NY was compared to observational analysis from a series of geologic surveys from that location. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses

  6. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarretta, Alessandro; Pillon, Simone; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Guerzoni, Stefano; Fontolan, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of the paper "Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy", published ad final paper in "Continental Shelf Research Volume 30, Issue 8, 15 May 2010, Pages 934-9499" (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.07.002)

  7. Increased marine production of N sub(2)O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W; Jayakumar, D.A.; Narvekar, P.V.; Naik, H.; Sarma, V.V.S.S; DeSouza, W; Joseph, S; George, M.D.

    . The intensification of one of the largest low-oxygen zones in the ocean, which develops naturally over the western Indian continental shelf during late summer and autumn is reported here. The highest accumulations yet observed of hydrogen sulphide (H sub(2)S...

  8. Environmental magnetism and application in the continental shelf sediments of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    contamination in soils and sediments and in the investigation of the compositional properties of rocks, sediments and soils (Thompson and Oldfield, 1986; Walden et al., 1999; Maher and Thompson, 1999). Magnetic minerals in soils are derived either from... to the magnetic properties of soils. Accumulation of anthropogenic ferrimagnetic particles, originating during high temperature combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. Vassilev 1992; Dekkers and Pietersen 1992), results in significant enhancement of topsoil magnetic...

  9. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  10. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  11. Particle residence times in waters of the Yangtze and Amazon continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; Nittrouer, C.A.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Water column and seabed samples were analyzed for naturally occurring Th-234 to determine particle residence times in Yangtze and Amazon continental-shelf waters. On the Yangtze shelf, the water column was vertically well-mixed and suspended-sediment concentrations decreased offshore (from 230 mg/l near the river mouth to 2 mg/l in mid-shelf waters). Particle residence times increased offshore and ranged from 3.2 hours (12 m water depth) to 7.3 days (60 m water depth). Particle residence times ranged from 3 to 30 times shorter than values predicted by settling of discrete (4-8 micron) particles, suggesting that particles were settling in aggregate form. On the Amazon shelf, a two-layer estuarine flow dominated shelf circulation. Suspended-sediment concentrations on the inner shelf (10-12 m water depth) were much greater in bottom waters (range: 100-880 mg/l) than in surface waters (range 5-60 mg/l) as a result of resuspension. Particle residence times ranged from 1.1 days in surface waters to 2.5 days in bottom waters. Particles probably underwent several cycles of resuspension before permanent removal from the water column

  12. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  13. The potential for satellite and marginal field developments on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raustein, O.; Abrahamsen, L.E.; Einang, G.

    1994-01-01

    Norway is faced with decreasing field sizes in hostile waters. On the other hand, approximately 620 billion 1993-NOK have been invested in field installations and transport systems. These installations will have significant available processing and transport capacity in the future, and thus represent a valuable infrastructure. This paper describes the resource situation and the installed infrastructure on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Then the potential of still maintaining a high activity level in field developments is outlined

  14. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  15. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  16. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  17. Provenance, Source Rock Characteristics And Paleoweathering Conditions Of The Nearshore Continental Sediments Off Pondicherry, South East Coast Of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, T.; Seshachalam, S.; Ponniah, J.; Varadhan, R.; M, S.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical studies, comprising major elements and trace elements, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), have been carried out on the modern sediments of inner continental shelf representing nearshore marine environments. Concentrations were normalized with Chondrite and PAAS show LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with slight positive Eu anomaly which is due to the influence of feldspar rich source materials. The LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with positive Eu anomaly have been considered as the typical character of post- Archaean Sediments. The La/Th ratio ranges from 1.66 to 8.84 with an average value of 4.09, which indicates a heterogenitic source for the sediments of the study area. The La-Th-Sc ternary plot suggests all the samples fall close to the field dominated by tonalite to granite and away from the basalt and komatiite compositions and appear to be derived from sources enriched in felsic components. The transition metal ratios such as Cr/V, Ni/CO and V/Ni indicate both Archaean and Post-Archaean nature to the sediments indicating that the sediments have been derived from heterogenitic sources. The ternary diagram plot of Th-Hf-Co and La-Th-Sc falls in the field of upper continental crust of post Archaean age. This clearly indicates the terrestrial source for the sediments from the nearby landmass. The data are slightly offset from the upper crustal composition away from the Hf apex. This is probably a result of Zircon concentration. Geochemical data have also helped in ascertaining the weathering trends. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) has been used to quantify the degree of weathering. The calculated CIA values for sediments demonstrate both low CIA values of less than 50 percent (low silicate weathering) and intermediate CIA values (60-70 percent) indicating that the sediments are possibly the product of sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks that have undergone intermediate chemical weathering. On an A—CN—K diagram, the data

  18. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the ...

  19. Interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at an artificial reef site on the inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, Nicole A.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Miller, Douglas C.; Capone, Vince

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reef structures on seafloor surface sediments has implications for marine spatial planning and coastal development, including use of the coastal zone for offshore wind energy. We present results of interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at the Redbird artificial reef site, located on the continental shelf offshore of Delaware Bay. The Redbird reef is composed of NYC subway cars, barges, tugboats, and other sunken objects. Since objects were added sporadically between 1996 and 2009, the survey area acts as a natural laboratory to study the evolution of the surrounding seafloor at a structural reef habitat through time. Annual side-scan surveys from 2008 through 2011, and one bathymetric survey in 2010 provide information about surface geology and morphology. Local wave and current data for this time period were analyzed to determine the main morphological agents. Automated backscatter segmentation show that three bottom types dominate and that these large-scale (>10 m) surface sediment patterns persist from year to year. Grab samples reveal that the bottom types are silty sand with clay and sandy gravel. Clear sediment and biological patterns emerged revealing the influence of the objects on the seafloor. Comet-shaped moats of sandy gravel surround single objects and grow to form large-scale coalesced patches around groups of objects. Alignment of sediment patches suggests the periodic hydrodynamic influence of seasonal storms. The abundance and diversity of organisms increases with decreasing clay/silt content. Evidence of scour includes the removal of fine sediments, the formation of moats 1-30 m in diameter and 0.5-1 m deep around the reef objects, and the >1 m settling of objects into the seafloor. Data suggest subway cars reached equilibrium with the environment in 6-7 years, but that larger objects or clusters of objects take a longer time to equilibrate and have farther-reaching effects. Knowledge of local wave and current climate

  20. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  1. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  2. Using a Near-Bed Sediment Flux Sensor to Measure Wave Formed Bedform Migrations and Formation Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Traykovski, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    My research program focuses on identifying and quantifying sediment erosion, transport, and deposition processes on the continental shelf through state of the art observational techniques in both fine...

  3. Radon-222 and radium-226 in southeastern Bering Sea shelf waters and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, D.M.; Reeburgh, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radon-222 and 226 Ra activities were measured in the waters and sediment of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer of gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange. Cross-shelf distributions of 222 Rn and 226 Ra are presented. Gas transfer coefficients were estimated using near-surface 222 Rn deficiency measurements. A statistically significant linear relationship between averaged wind speed and transfer coefficient was found. Vertical eddy diffusivities were evaluated by applying a one-dimensional model to near-bottom excess 222 Rn distributions; these diffusivities were compared to independently determined values. The one-dimensional model applied to the near-bottom 222 Rn data was found to be inadequate and a two-dimensional model was applied to improve the fit between model and data. Exchange across the sediment-water interface was computed from the deficiency of 222 Rn measured in sediment cores, standing crop estimates of excess 222 Rn in the water column and 222 Rn production rates of sediment surface grab samples. Biological irrigation of the sediments appeared to be the primary exchange mechanism between the sediment and water columns. Distributions in the water column showed finestructure reported previously and suggested biological removal of 226 Ra. (author)

  4. Detection of introduced sessile species on the near shore continental shelf in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Araújo Bumbeer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by marine species, often considered a grave threat to marine ecosystems, occurs throughout the world as a consequence of many anthropogenic activities. In coastal Paraná, many factors including shipping, aquaculture and the use of artificial substrates provide suitable environments for the establishment and rapid spread of introduced marine species. To better understand this process, the encrusting community was studied on polyethylene plates (n = 120, 10 x 10 cm that were placed seasonally at fixed locations on the inner continental shelf to detect non-native species. Of the 62 taxa found, 40 were identified to species, 14 of which were native, 9 introduced and 17 cryptogenic. We found a new introduction while most introduced species were previously reported at a nearby estuary with an international port. Possible complementary explanations for these detections are 1 estuaries influence ecological processes on the inner continental shelf, 2 the study area is near the route of cargo and other ships entering the port, 3 other local vectors, such as hulls of fishing and recreational boats, and artificial reefs link the estuary to the offshore areas. Thus, not only are estuaries invaded by exotic species, but also non-indigenous marine species may be present in the open sea where they are likely to colonize artificial substrates.

  5. The Northeast Greenland Shelf - Evidence of the existence of a pronounced salt-province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Northeast Greenland shelf (NEGS) is the part of the continental margin of east Greenland located between the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone at about 72°N in the south and the Spitzbergen Fracture Zone at 81°N in the north. The eastern boundary, at the shelf edge, is the approximate position of the boundary between continental and oceanic crust and the western boundary is the coastline of Greenland. The shelf has a N-S orientation, is about 1000 km long, and between 125 km (southern part) and 380 km (at 78°N) wide. Based on present data the NEGS can be subdivided into a southern part influenced by Tertiary tectonism and volcanism (approx. 72°N to 75°N) and a northern, nonvolcanic, part (approx. 75°N to 81°N). Today the sedimentary history, stratigraphy, structure and origin of the basement below the sedimentary shelf south of 74°N are reasonable known, but only sparse information exists about the northern part of the shelf. Until 1990 there weren't any seismic lines north of 74°N, and all interpretations of stratigraphy and basin structures of the northern part of the NEGS were based on aeromagnetic data. During the last decade, the first seismic lines were shot over the northern part of the shelf to give more detailed information about sediment thickness, stratigraphy, and the structure of the sedimentary shelf. The area under investigation lies on the nonvolcanic northern part of the shelf between 78°30'N and 81°N. The sea floor topography indicates some submarine banks with water depth as shallow as 30 m, which are separated by valleys up to 500 m deep. These valleys were formed through erosion processes caused by cyclic movements of big grounded glacier tongues during the last ice-ages with a maximum expansion during the Wisconsin-Weichselian glaciation. During two scientific expeditions with the German research icebreaker Polarstern in 1997 and 1999, more than 1100 km of multichannel seismic data were collected. The cruise tracks during seismic

  6. Size distribution and carbonate content of the sediments of the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Pylee, A.

    %). (2) The outer shelf (approximately 20 to 70 fms) is a zone of relict sediments, having relatively low rates of sedimentation and composed of fine to medium sands. Occasional patches of coarse iron stained sands and pebbles are also present...

  7. Clay mineralogy indicates the muddy sediment provenance in the estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Qing; Wang, Chenglong; Ge, Chendong; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    The estuarine-inner shelf mud regions of the East China Sea (ECS) are valuable for studying the source-to-sink processes of fluvial sediments deposited since the Holocene. In this study, we present evidence of the provenance and environmental evolution of two cores (S5-2 and JC07) from the estuarine-inner shelf regions of the ECS over the past 100 years based on 210Pb dating, high-resolution grain size measurements and clay mineral analyses. The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblages of cores S5-2 and JC07 are dominated by illite, followed by kaolinite and chlorite, and present scarce amounts of smectite. A comparison of these clay mineral assemblages with several major sources reveals that the fine sediments on the estuarine-inner shelf of the ECS represent a mixture of provenances associated with the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, as well as smaller rivers. However, the contribution of each provenance has varied greatly over the past hundred years, as indicated by the down-core variability due to strong sediment reworking and transport on the inner shelf and the reduction of the sediment load from the Yangtze River basin. In the mud region of the Yangtze River estuary, the sediment from 1930 to 1956 was primarily derived from the Yangtze River, although the Yellow River was also an important influence. From 1956 to 2013, the Yellow River contribution decreased, whereas the Yangtze River contribution correspondingly increased. In the Zhe-Min mud region, the Yangtze River contributed more sediment than did other rivers from 1910 to 1950; however, the Yangtze River contribution gradually decreased from 1950 to 2013. Moreover, the other small rivers accounted for minor contributions, and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) played an important role in the sediment transport process in the ECS. Our results indicate that the weakening/strengthening of the EAWM and a decrease in the sediment load of the Yangtze River influenced the transport and fate of sediment

  8. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore North Carolina--Call for... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power Offshore North Carolina (Call), published on December 13, 2012 (77 FR 7204). DATES: BOEM must receive your nomination describing your interest in obtaining a commercial wind lease...

  9. Morphodynamics and stratigraphic architecture of shelf-edge deltas subject to constant vs. dynamic environmental forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    When deltas dock at the edge of continental margins they generally construct thick stratigraphic intervals and activate channelized continental slope systems. Deposits of shelf-edge deltas have the capacity to store detailed paleo-environmental records, given their location in the source to sink system. However, present day highstand sea-level conditions have pushed most deltaic systems well inbound of their shelf-edges, making it difficult to study their space-time dynamics and resulting stratigraphic products. Several competing theories describe how deltas and their downslope environments respond to sea-level cycles of varying magnitude and periodicity. We explore these hypotheses in a physical experiment where the topographic evolution of a coupled delta and downdip slope system was monitored at high temporal and spatial resolution. The experiment had three stages. In the first stage a delta aggraded at the shelf-edge under constant water and sediment supply, in addition to a constant generation of accommodation through a sea-level rise. In the second stage the sediment transport system responded to low magnitude and high frequency sea-level cycles. Finally, in the third stage the transport system responded to a high magnitude and long period sea-level cycle. In each stage, fine sediment from the input grain size distribution and dissolved salt in the input water supply promoted plunging hyperpycnal flows. Specifically, we compare the mean and temporal variability of the sediment delivered to the slope system between stages. In addition, we compare stratigraphic architecture and sediment sizes delivered to the slope system in each stage. These results are used to improve inversion of slope deposits for paleo-environmental forcings.

  10. The Impact of Internal Wave Seasonality on the Continental Shelf Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihsgott, Juliane U.; Sharples, Jonathan; Hopkins, Joanne; Palmer, Matthew R.; Mattias Green, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Heating-stirring models are widely used to simulate the timing and strength of stratification in continental shelf environments. Such models are based on bulk potential energy (PE) budgets: the loss of PE due to thermal stratification is balanced by wind and tidal mixing. The model often fails to accurately predict the observed vertical structure, as it only considers forces acting on the surface and bottom boundary of the water column. This highlights the need for additional internal energy sources to close this budget, and produce an accurate seasonal cycle of stratification. We present new results that test the impact of boundary layer and internal wave forcing on stratification and vertical density structure in continental shelves. A new series of continuous measurements of full water depth vertical structure, dynamics and meteorological data spanning 17 months (March'14-July'15) provide unprecedented coverage over a full seasonal cycle at a station 120 km north-east from the continental shelf break. We observe a highly variable but energetic internal wave field from the onset of stratification that suggests a continuous supply of internal PE. The heating-stirring model reproduces bulk characteristics of the seasonal cycle. While it accurately predicts the timing of the onset in spring and peak stratification in late summer there is a persistent 20 J m-3 positive offset between the model and observations throughout this period. By including a source of internal energy in the model we improve the prediction for the strength of stratification and the vertical distribution of heat. Yet a constant source of PE seems to result in a seasonal discrepancy resulting in too little mixing during strong stratification and too much mixing during transient periods. The discrepancy seen in the model is consistent with the seasonality observed in the internal wave field. We will establish the role that changing stratification (N2) exerts on the internal wave field and vice

  11. Statistics of Acoustic Pulse Signals Through Nonlinear Internal Waves on the Continental Shelf of the Northeastern South China Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Justin M

    2008-01-01

    ...) was conducted from 13 - 15 April 2005 on the continental shelf in the northeast portion of the South China Sea to study the effects of nonlinear internal waves on the transmission of a 400-Hz signal...

  12. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2013 (NCEI Accession 0162440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2013 Shelfwide Hypoxia cruise off the Louisiana continental shelf. Hydrographic data were obtained with the LUMCON SeaBird...

  13. Gravity anomalies over a segment of Pratap ridge and adjoining shelf margin basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line km on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, west of India have been studied. The free-air gravity anomalies vary between -60 to 25 mgals with prominent NNW-SSE trends in the outer shelf region...

  14. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  15. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 5. Program logic manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume is the Programmer's Manual. It covers: a system overview, attractiveness component of gravity model, trip-distribution component of gravity model, economic-effects model, and the consumer-surplus model. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism.

  16. Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California Mark G. Cantwell, David R. Katz, Julia Sullivan, Robert P. Eganhouse, Monique M. Perron, Robert M. Burgess The Palos Verdes shelf is located off the Southern California coa...

  17. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  18. Climatic aridity over India 11,000 years ago: Evidence from feldspar distribution in shelf sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Feldspars and quartz contents of sand and silt fractions of forty three samples from the western continental shelf of India were determined by the X-ray diffraction method. The results indicate that the feldspar content in the relict (9000...

  19. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  20. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in the sediments of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhople, V.M.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  1. Morphology and sedimentology of glacigenic submarine fans on the west Greenland continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly A.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Jennings, Anne E.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Along the West Greenland continental margin adjoining Baffin Bay, bathymetric data show a series of large submarine fans located at the mouths of cross-shelf troughs. Two of these fans, the Uummannaq Fan and the Disko Fan are trough-mouth fans built largely of debris delivered from ice sheet outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet during past glacial maxima. On the Uummannaq Fan glacigenic debris flow deposits occur on the upper slope and extend to at least 1800 m water depth in front of the trough-mouth. The debris flow deposits are related to the remobilisation of subglacial debris that was delivered onto the upper slope at times when an ice stream was positioned at the shelf edge. In contrast, sedimentary facies from the northern sector of the fan are characterised by hemipelagic and ice-rafted sediments and turbidites; glacigenic debris flows are notably absent in cores from this region. Further south along the Greenland continental margin the surface of the Disko Fan is prominently channelised and associated sediments are acoustically stratified. Although glacigenic debris flow deposits do occur on the upper Disko Fan, sediments recovered in cores from elsewhere on the fan record the influence of turbidity current and meltwater sedimentation. The channelised form of the Disko fan contrasts markedly with that of the Uummannaq Fan and, more widely, with trough mouth fans from the Polar North Atlantic. Collectively these data highlight the variability of glacimarine depositional processes operating on trough-mouth fans on high-latitude continental slopes and show that glacigenic debris flows are but one of a number of mechanisms by which such large glacially-influenced depocentres form.

  2. Sup(210)Pb and 210Po distributions and disequilibrium in the coastal and shelf waters of the southern North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizheng, Zuo; Eisma, Doeke

    1993-01-01

    Concentration profiles of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured at 10 stations in the coastal and shelf areas of the southern North Sea. Scavenging processes in this study area are revealed by 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium and their distributions in the water column. Results for 210 Po show strong excess, relative to 210 Pb, in both dissolved and particulate forms, indicating an additional flux of 210 Po from the coastal and shelf sediment. A significant maximum of the dissolved 210 Po and 210 Pb over the fine grained depositional area (Oyster Ground) was observed to correspond with resuspension of the underlying muddy sediments. A comparison of the data between the water and sediment columns shows that the excess of 210 Po found in the water body could be balanced by only a small amount of deficit of 210 Po in the sediment, due to the characteristics of this continental shelf area. (author)

  3. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  4. A multi-factor approach for process-based seabed characterization: example from the northeastern continental margin of the Korean peninsula (East Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Um, In-Kwon; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Kim, So-Ra; Lee, Gwang-Soo; Kim, Yuri; Kong, Gee-Soo; Horozal, Senay; Kim, Seong-Pil

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates sediment transport and depositional processes from a newly collected dataset comprising sub-bottom chirp profiles, multibeam bathymetry, and sediment cores from the northeastern continental margin of Korea in the East Sea (Japan Sea). Twelve echo-types and eleven sedimentary facies have been defined and interpreted as deposits formed by shallow-marine, hemipelagic sedimentation, bottom current, and mass-movement processes. Hemipelagic sedimentation, which is acoustically characterized by undisturbed layered sediments, appears to have been the primary sedimentary process throughout the study area. The inner and outer continental shelf (shallow-marine sedimentary processes. Two slope-parallel canyons, 0.2-2 km wide and up to 30 km long, appear to have acted as possible conduits for turbidity currents from the shallower shelf into the deep basins. Bottom current deposits, expressed as erosional moats immediately below topographic highs, are prevalent on the southern lower slope at water depths of 400-450 m. Mass-movements (i.e., slides/slumps, debris flow deposits) consisting of chaotic facies characterize the lower slope and represent one of the most important sedimentary processes in the study area. Piston cores confirm the presence of mass-transport deposits (MTDs) that are characterized by mud clasts of variable size, shape, and color. Multibeam bathymetry shows that large-scale MTDs are chiefly initiated on the lower slope (400-600 m) with gradients up to 3° and where they produce scarps on the order of 100 m in height. Sandy MTDs also occur on the upper continental slope adjacent to the seaward edge of the shelf terrace. Earthquakes associated with tectonic activity and the development of fluid overpressure is considered as the main conditioning factor for destabilizing the slope sediments. Overall, the sedimentary processes show typical characteristics of a fine-grained clastic slope apron and change down-slope and differ within each

  5. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  6. Physical (Hydrography), chemical (CTD), and biological (Water Quality) processes of the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf, 2012 (NCEI Accession 0162101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two sets of CTD data were taken during the 2012 surveys of the Louisiana continental shelf—Transect C off Terrebonne Bay and Transect F off Atchafalaya Bay and the...

  7. Spatial distribution of Munida intermedia and M. sarsi (crustacea: Anomura) on the Galician continental shelf (NW Spain): Application of geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, J.; González-Gurriarán, E.; Olaso, I.

    1992-12-01

    Geostatistical methodology was used to analyse spatial structure and distribution of the epibenthic crustaceans Munida intermedia and M. sarsi within sets of data which had been collected during three survey cruises carried out on the Galician continental shelf (1983 and 1984). This study investigates the feasibility of using geostatistics for data collected according to traditional methods and of enhancing such methodology. The experimental variograms were calculated (pooled variance minus spatial covariance between samples taken one pair at a time vs. distance) and fitted to a 'spherical' model. The spatial structure model was used to estimate the abundance and distribution of the populations studied using the technique of kriging. The species display spatial structures, which are well marked during high density periods and in some areas (especially northern shelf). Geostatistical analysis allows identification of the density gradients in space as well as the patch grain along the continental shelf of 16-25 km diameter for M. intermedia and 12-20 km for M. sarsi. Patches of both species have a consistent location throughout the different cruises. As in other geographical areas, M. intermedia and M. sarsi usually appear at depths ranging from 200 to 500 m, with the highest densities in the continental shelf area located between Fisterra and Estaca de Bares. Althouh sampling was not originally designed specifically for geostatistics, this assay provides a measurement of spatial covariance, and shows variograms with variable structure depending on population density and geographical area. These ideas are useful in improving the design of future sampling cruises.

  8. Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Tae Jin; Kwak, Young Hun; Oh, Jae Ho; Bong, Pil Youn; Son, Jin Dam; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byoung Kook; Hwang, In Geul; Kwon, Young In; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Hak Ju; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. Tectonics of the rifting phase in both regions have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. In the northwestern region, the large rifting activity appears to be occurred during Oligocene and pre-Oligocene, while in the southeastern region it occurred from late Miocene to early Pliocene. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated

  9. Verdine and glaucony facies from surficial sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Thamban, M.; Lamboy, M.

    -trioctahedral Fe-rich 1:l clay mineral. Clay Miner., 23: 237-247. Murthy, K.S.R., 1989. Seismic stratigraphy of Ongole-Paradip continental shelf East coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 16: 47-58. Murthy, K.S.R., Rao, T.C.S., Subramanyam, AS., Rao, M... at the continent- ocean boundary: the verdine facies. Clay Miner. 25: 477-483. Rao, K.M. and Rao, T.C.S., 1994. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, East Coast of India. J. Geol. Sot. India, 44: 685-689. Rao, V.P., 1991. Clay mineral distribution...

  10. Trophic model of the outer continental shelf and upper slope demersal community of the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela C. Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that demersal communities are important for the functioning of continental shelf and slope ecosystems around the world, including tropical regions. Demersal communities are most prominent in areas of high detritus production and transport, and they link benthic and pelagic biological communities. To understand the structure and role of the demersal community on the southeastern Brazilian Bight, we constructed a trophodynamic model with 37 functional groups to represent the demersal community of the outer continental shelf and upper slope of this area, using the Ecopath with Ecosim 6 (EwE approach and software. The model indicates high production and biomass of detritus and benthic invertebrates, and strong linkages of these components to demersal and pelagic sub-webs. The level of omnivory indexes in this ecosystem was high, forming a highly connected trophic web reminiscent of tropical land areas. Although high levels of ascendency may indicate resistance and resilience to disturbance, recent and present fisheries trends are probably degrading the biological community and related ecosystem services.

  11. 75 FR 63345 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... the Outer Continental Shelf in light of the Deepwater Horizon event on April 20, 2010, and resulting...) develop this report as a result of the Deepwater Horizon event on April 20, 2010. This event, which... investigations into the Deepwater Horizon event, that certain equipment, systems, and improved practices are...

  12. Terrigenous sediment supply along the Chilean continental margin: modern regional patterns of texture and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Wefer, G.

    The regional patterns of texture and composition of modern continental slope and pelagic sediments off Chile between 25°S and 43°S reflect the latitudinal segmentation of geological, morphological, and climatic features of the continental hinterland. Grain-size characteristics are controlled by the grain-size of source rocks, the weathering regime, and mode of sediment input (eolian off northern Chile vs fluvial further south). Bulk-mineral assemblages reveal a low grade of maturity. Regional variations are governed by the source-rock composition of the different geological terranes and the relative source-rock contribution of the Coastal Range and Andes, as controlled by the continental hydrology. The relative abundance of clay minerals is also predominantly influenced by the source-rock composition and partly by continental smectite neoformation. Latitudinal variations of illite crystallinities along the Chilean continental slope (and west of the Peru-Chile trench) clearly reflect modifications of the weathering regime which correspond to the strong climatic zonation of Chile.

  13. Seismic data processing for domestic seismic survey over the continental shelf of Korea using the Geobit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Yong [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The `Geobit`, a new seismic data processing software introduced by the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials recently, is the token of the achievement for the development of technology in the oil exploration over the Korean continental shelf. In comparison with the foreign seismic data processing systems previously used in Korea, the Geobit system has some advanced facilities; it provides an interactive mode which makes the seismic processing easier and has the user-friendly programs which allow the construction of a job control file simpler. Most of all, the Geobit can be run with many computer hardware systems, from PC to supercomputer. The current version of the Geobit can take care of the two-dimensional multi-channel seismic data and is open to the public for an education tool and a research purpose. To demonstrate the ability of the Geobit, a multi-channel field data acquired in the domestic continental shelf over the Yellow Sea in 1970 has been selected and processed with standard seismic data processing techniques. In this report, the Geobit job files and the corresponding results for the construction of a stack are provided. (author). 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  15. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  16. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, at Walker Ridge 249 in the Outer Continental Shelf. The purpose of the safety zone is to protect the FPSO from vessels operating... reduces the threat of allisions, oil spills, and releases of natural gas, and thereby protects the safety...

  17. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  18. Re-assessing the nitrogen signal in continental margin sediments: New insights from the high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Jochen; Brookes, Steven; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2007-01-01

    Organic and inorganic nitrogen and their isotopic signatures were studied in continental margin sediments off Spitsbergen. We present evidence that land-derived inorganic nitrogen strongly dilutes the particulate organic signal in coastal and fjord settings and accounts for up to 70% of the total nitrogen content. Spatial heterogeneity in inorganic nitrogen along the coast is less likely to be influenced by clay mineral assemblages or various substrates than by the supply of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) within eroded soil material into selected fjords and onto the shelf. The δ15N signal of the inorganic nitrogen ( δ15N inorg) in sediments off Spitsbergen seems to be appropriate to trace TOM supply from various climate- and ecosystem zones and elucidates the dominant transport media of terrigenous sediments to the marine realm. Moreover, we postulate that with the study of sedimentary δ15N inorg in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway, climatically induced changes in catchment's vegetations in high northern latitudes may be reconstructed. The δ15N org signal is primarily controlled by the availability of nitrate in the dominating ocean current systems and the corresponding degree of utilization of the nitrate pool in the euphotic zone. Not only does this new approach allow for a detailed view into the nitrogen cycle for settings with purely primary-produced organic matter supply, it also provides new insights into both the deposition of marine and terrestrial nitrogen and its ecosystem response to (paleo-) climate changes.

  19. Sediment Transport on Continental Shelves: Storm Bed Formation and Preservation in Heterogeneous Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    occurred during the Cretaceous period. The simulated storm bed for such an extratropical cyclone that lasts 4 days was deposited as deep as 75 m and had...Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ. (2012) 44, 295-310 Sediment transport on continental shelves: storm bed formation and preservation in...xDept. of Earth Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada ABSTRACT Many storm beds are constructed of silt/sand

  20. Changes in the diet composition of transitory fishes in coastal systems, estuary and continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Paulo T. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of five species of teleosts in the southern coast of Brazil were analyzed comparatively between estuary and continental shelf. The displacement between the two sites caused expressive qualitative alterations, the proportion of different items varying from 50% in the diet of Micropogonias furnieri to 89% in Isopisthus parvipinnis. In the group of species, 57% of the items were exclusive to one of the environments and, within the three most common items in the estuary - fish, Polychaeta and plants, only the former was also among the most common items in the shelf. In spite of these differences, the high spectrum of items in both environments and the nature of the item that was most consumed in each one, indicate that there was a certain similarity of patterns between estuary and shelf: Chloroscombrus chrysurus had a carnivorous diet, with a predominance of copepods; M. furnieri and Menticirrhus americanus showed a tendency towards an omnivorous diet; and Cynoscion leiarchus and I. parvipinnis showed a tendency towards ichthyophagy.

  1. Impacts of sediment supply and local tectonics on clinoform distribution: the seismic stratigraphy of the mid Pleistocene-Holocene Indus Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David R.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; Tabrez, Ali R.; Macdonald, David I. M.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-09-01

    We present results from the first high-resolution seismic reflection survey of the inner Western Indus Shelf, and Indus Delta, Arabian Sea. The results show major regional differences in sedimentation across the shelf from east to west, as well as north to south, both since the Last Glacial Maximum (~20 ka) and over longer time scales. We identify 10 major regional reflectors, interpreted as representing sea level lowstands. Strong compressive folding is observed underlying a reflector we have called Horizon 6 in the north-western shelf, probably compression associated with the transpressional deformation of the Murray Ridge plate boundary. Downslope profiles show a series of well developed clinoforms, principally at the shelf edge, indicating significant preservation of large packages of sediment during lowstands. These clinoforms have developed close to zones of deformation, suggesting that subsidence is a factor in controlling sedimentation and consequently erosion of the Indus Shelf. These clinoforms fan out from dome features (tectonic anticlines) mostly located close to the modern shoreline.

  2. Global change effects on early holocene sedimentation of the Brazilian continental shelf determined from TM-LANDSAT 5 data of the seafloor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, A.P.; Vianna, M.L.; Gherardi, D.F.M.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the shaping of the seafloor morphology on the Brazilian northeast continental shelf caused by climatic changes in the beginning of the Holocene is being made with the support of TM-Landsat 5 data. Special emphasis is given on analysis of data from ancient shorelines between 20-45m depth, to be correlated with abrupt global climate change between 10,000-8,000 BP. The transport of a quartz sand deposit by the ocean currents through time, effected by active sandwave fields at the 20 m isobath is also described. Two images were used corresponding to two dates: 1984 and 1989. Geometric correction, filter application and contrast enhancement were performed. A comparison between 84' and 89' images was carried out, to detect changing patterns of the sand waves, along a 5 year period, caused by the seasonal wintertime wind-forced ocean currents. Based on this registration, estimates of displacement rates for the sand deposit could be made

  3. Direct observations of American eels migrating across the continental shelf to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Castonguay, Martin; Shan, Shiliang; Benchetrit, José; Dodson, Julian J

    2015-10-27

    Since inferring spawning areas from larval distributions in the Sargasso Sea a century ago, the oceanic migration of adult American eels has remained a mystery. No adult eel has ever been observed migrating in the open ocean or in the spawning area. Here, we track movements of maturing eels equipped with pop-up satellite archival tags from the Scotian Shelf (Canada) into the open ocean, with one individual migrating 2,400 km to the northern limit of the spawning site in the Sargasso Sea. The reconstructed routes suggest a migration in two phases: one over the continental shelf and along its edge in shallow waters; the second in deeper waters straight south towards the spawning area. This study is the first direct evidence of adult Anguilla migrating to the Sargasso Sea and represents an important step forward in the understanding of routes and migratory cues.

  4. Topographic registers of paleo-valleys on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Américo Conti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of paleo-incised-valleys in the São Paulo State region of the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf is presented in this study in relation to the post Last Glacial Maximum (LGM sea-level rises based on the submarine topography modeled by a detailed Digital Elevation Model and evidences noted in high resolution seismic profiles. The hypothesis that has guided this study is that the set of paleo-valley characteristics (i.e. the fluvial parameters of modern coastal drainage systems, the topographical shape and dimensions of the valleys and of the subsurface channels may indicate aspects of the relation between the influence of the fluvial and the eustatic variation regime in geomorphological-stratigraphic registers. Models described in the literature sustain the view that faster marine transgressions tend to increase erosion in estuaries, which may explain the lack of registers of paleo-drainage both in topography and the sub-surface in areas with wider shelves. On the other hand, on narrower shelves, with a higher slope angle, the transgression process can preserve, or even enhance, the incised valley registers during shoreface retreat. In the area studied, we observed that the dimensions and form of the continental shelf varies from the northern to the southern part of the area, affecting aspects of the geomorphological registers of the submerged incised valleys.Este trabalho apresenta aspectos da relação entre a evolução da paleo-drenagem e evolução do nível do mar pós Último Máximo Glacial (UMG para a região da plataforma continental do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, foram analisados modelos topográficos de detalhe da região de Plataforma Continental a partir de Modelos Digitais de Terreno além de dados de subsuperfície obtidos a partir de linhas sísmicas de alta resolução. A hipótese que guiou este trabalho é de que o conjunto de características relativas aos paleo-vales (i.e. sua relação com a rede de

  5. Estuarine Facies Model Revisited: Conceptual Model of Estuarine Sediment Dynamics During Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; McKee, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of estuarine systems show deposition occurs primarily within the central basin. There, accommodation space is high within the deep central valley, which is below regional wave base and where current energy is presumed to reach a relative minimum, promoting direct deposition of cohesive sediment and minimizing erosion. However, these models often reflect long-term (decadal-millennial) timescales, where accumulation rates are in relative equilibrium with the rate of relative sea-level rise, and lack the resolution to capture shorter term changes in sediment deposition and erosion within the central estuary. This work presents a conceptual model for estuarine sedimentation during non-equilibrium conditions, where high-energy inputs to the system reach a relative maximum in the central basin, resulting in temporary deposition and/or remobilization over sub-annual to annual timescales. As an example, we present a case study of Core Sound, NC, a lagoonal estuarine system where the regional base-level has been reached, and sediment deposition, resuspension and bypassing is largely a result of non-equilibrium, high-energy events. Utilizing a 465 cm-long sediment core from a mini-basin located between Core Sound and the continental shelf, a 40-year sub-annual chronology was developed for the system, with sediment accumulation rates (SAR) interpolated to a monthly basis over the 40-year record. This study links erosional processes in the estuary directly with sediment flux to the continental shelf, taking advantage of the highly efficient sediment trapping capability of the mini-basin. The SAR record indicates high variation in the estuarine sediment supply, with peaks in the SAR record at a recurrence interval of 1 year (+/- 0.25). This record has been compared to historical storm influence for the area. Through this multi-decadal record, sediment flushing events occur at a much more frequent interval than previously thought (i.e. annual rather than

  6. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 4. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism in California. This volume is the User's Guide. It includes the following topics: Introduction and Summary Guide; Input Data Files; Gravity Model Programs; Economic Effects Model Programs; Consumer Surplus Model Programs; References; and Appendices.

  7. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  8. The Southern Brazilian shelf: general characteristics, quaternary evolution and sediment distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending from latitude 34ºS to 22ºS the Southern Brazilian shelf constitutes the only part of the Brazilian shelf with a subtropical to temperate environment. The studies on the different geological aspects of the area began in the 1960's and have recently been reassessed after studies related to the determination of the Economic Exclusive Zone. In terms of morphology, the Southern Brazilian shelf may be divided into three sectors, the São Paulo Bight, the Florianópolis-Mostardas Sector and the Rio Grande Cone, characterized by conspicuous differences in terms of geological determining factors, bathymetry, declivities and the presence of canyons and channels. Despite the existence of hundreds of radiocarbon datings the sea level changes curve of southern Brazil during the Last Glacial Cycle is still a matter of debate. A recent controversy on the Middle and late Holocene sea level changes curve raised the question of the amplitude of the oscillations which occurred in the period. Also, a few but relatively consistent radiocarbon datings suggest the occurrence of a high sea level during Isotope Stage 3. In terms of sedimentary cover the Southern Brazilian shelf exhibits a very strong hydrodynamic control, both latitudinal and bathymetrical. The sector southward from 25ºS is characterized by the influence of the plume of water carrying sediments originating from the Río de La Plata. Actually its presence is conspicuous up to 28ºS, with the area between this latitude and 25ºS constituting a transitional zone. In terms of bathymetry the outer shelf is marked by the "floor-polisher" effect of the Brazil Current, which is responsible for the maintenance of a relict facies in areas deeper than 100 meters.Estendendo-se entre as latitudes 34ºS e 22ºS, a plataforma continental sul-brasileira constitui o único setor que corresponde a um ambiente subtropical a temperado. Os estudos dos diferentes aspectos geológicos da área iniciaram-se na d

  9. Sedimentation on continental margins: An integrated program for innovative studies during the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrourer, Charles A.; Coleman, James M.; Rouge, Baton; Flood, Roger D.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Hine, Albert C.; Sternberg, Richard W.; Swift, Donald J. P.; Wright, L. Donelson

    Continental margins are of great scientific interest, and they represent the focus of human interaction with the ocean. Their deep structure forms the transition from continental to oceanic crust, and their surface expression extends from coastal environments of estuaries and shorelines across the continental shelf and slope to either the base of a continental rise or a marginal trough. Modern continental margins represent natural laboratories for investigation of complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, which are sensitive to environmental conditions both on the land and in the ocean. The history of these conditions is preserved within the sedimentary deposits of continental margins. The deposits form repositories for much of the particulate material transported off the world's land masses and produced from dissolved components in the world ocean. Past deposits of continental margins have been uplifted to form many mountain ranges and sedimentary terrains of the world, which record details of Earth history and contain valuable natural resources, such as petroleum and natural gas. Modern deposits of continental margins record the more recent events that have influenced Earth and also contain natural resources (for instance, minerals, sand, and gravel), as well as anthropogenic pollutants (for example, heavy metals and pesticides). The fates of many materials beneficial and deleterious to humans are dependent on the pathways followed by sedimentary particles on continental margins.

  10. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of

  11. Micro contaminants in surface sediments and macrobenthic invertebrates of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Fischer, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    Trace metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) were measured in the silt fraction (grainsize < 63 µm) of surface sediment of the North Sea. The concentrations varied in different areas of the Dutch continental shelf of the North Sea. The trace metal concentrations were highly related

  12. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeh, H.H.; Crispe, A.J.; Heggie, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230 Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn ++ , indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Diatom Surface Sediment Assemblages from the Bering Sea Shelf: a Tossed Salad or Faithful Recorder of 50 Years of Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, B.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent environmental change in the Bering Sea includes a shift from the negative to positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/77, a secondary shift in sea level pressure and sea surface temperatures in 1998, increasing sea surface temperatures, an earlier spring, an increase in the number of days that sea ice is present along the shelf-slope break, and a decrease in the number of days that sea ice is present in the Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean. These physical changes have manifest biological changes such as a northward migration of invertebrates and fish from the southern Bering Sea and shifts in the timing and duration of sea-ice related primary productivity and the spring bloom. We aim to see if diatom sediment assemblages are faithful recorders of these ecological changes in the Bering Sea or if bioturbation has essentially mixed today’s rapid change down core such that the signal is either muted or no longer apparent. Six continental shelf areas were examined in the Bering Sea ranging from northeast of St. Lawrence Island to the shelf-slope break in the south-central Bering Sea. Diatom assemblages from core tops collected as part of the PROBES program in the 1960s were compared to core tops taken nearby (7 m) multi-year ice so their decline may be related to the decrease in multi-year ice over the past 30 years. Additionally, in most cases, species diversity has declined over the past 50 years with Fragilariopsis oceanica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus accounting for a greater percentage of the sediment assemblages today. These two species are collectively considered indicators of seasonal sea ice; their relative abundance peaks when ice is present for 5 months per year. Ongoing down core analyses in these six areas will further reveal the nature of these assemblage changes.

  14. Impact of the oil price and fiscal facilities on offshore mining at the Dutch Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, Arie ten; Mulder, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    The surge in the oil price has raised questions about the magnitude of global reserves of oil. According to some analysts, the current high oil prices indicate a looming decline in the global production of oil. Others believe, however, that the increased level of the oil price encourages exploration and production activities, bringing the oil price to a lower equilibrium level in the near future. In this paper, we assess the impact of the unit profit (depending on the oil price) as well as fiscal facilities on the level of exploration and development drillings in the Dutch Continental Shelf. We conducted an econometric analysis of exploration and development drillings in the Dutch Continental Shelf over the period 1981-2003. Except a few fiscal changes, the regulatory framework for offshore activities in the Netherlands, the so-called 'small fields policy' was unchanged in this period. We find that the expected unit profit based on a moving average of the oil price significantly explains the level of both exploration and development drillings. In addition, the analysis suggests that fiscal facilities have only a temporary effect on exploration activities but are more important for development activities. We conclude that the oil price is a major economic incentive for activities of the mining industry

  15. Benthic assemblages of mega epifauna on the Oregon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2018-01-01

    broad fish assemblages and the deep flat soft sediments invertebrate assemblage) seem to represent deeper examples of assemblages already known on the Oregon continental shelf, especially on soft sediments, while the assemblages in the pockmarks habitat (the narrower depth ranges) might be unique to the area. This diversity of assemblages in a relatively small section of the Oregon continental upper slope and shelf shows the importance of environmental assessment studies in helping limit future impacts of industrial activities on benthic communities.

  16. Benthic assemblages of mega epifauna on the Oregon continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2018-05-01

    flat soft sediments invertebrate assemblage) seem to represent deeper examples of assemblages already known on the Oregon continental shelf, especially on soft sediments, while the assemblages in the pockmarks habitat (the narrower depth ranges) might be unique to the area. This diversity of assemblages in a relatively small section of the Oregon continental upper slope and shelf shows the importance of environmental assessment studies in helping limit future impacts of industrial activities on benthic communities.

  17. Heat flow in the rifted continental margin of the South China Sea near Taiwan and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Andrew T.; Liu, Char-Shine; Oung, Jung-Nan; Wang, Yunshuen

    2014-10-01

    Temperature measurements carried out on 9 hydrocarbon exploration boreholes together with Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) from reflection seismic images are used in this study to derive geothermal gradients and heat flows in the northern margin of the South China Sea near Taiwan. The method of Horner plot is applied to obtain true formation temperatures from measured borehole temperatures, which are disturbed by drilling processes. Sub-seafloor depths of BSRs are used to calculate sub-bottom temperatures using theoretical pressure/temperature phase boundary that marks the base of gas hydrate stability zone. Our results show that the geothermal gradients and heat flows in the study area range from 28 to 128 °C/km and 40 to 159 mW/m2, respectively. There is a marked difference in geothermal gradients and heat flow beneath the shelf and slope regions. It is cooler beneath the shelf with an average geothermal gradient of 34.5 °C/km, and 62.7 mW/m2 heat flow. The continental slope shows a higher average geothermal gradient of 56.4 °C/km, and 70.9 mW/m2 heat flow. Lower heat flow on the shelf is most likely caused by thicker sediments that have accumulated there compared to the sediment thickness beneath the slope. In addition, the continental crust is highly extended beneath the continental slope, yielding higher heat flow in this region. A half graben exists beneath the continental slope with a north-dipping graben-bounding fault. A high heat-flow anomaly coincides at the location of this graben-bounding fault at the Jiulong Ridge, indicating vigorous vertical fluid convection which may take place along this fault.

  18. Manganese cycling and its implication on methane related processes in the Andaman continental slope sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Rajkumar, V.; Sheba, M.

    In the deep subsurface sediments of the Andaman continental slope, in situ methane generation/oxidation could be coupled to the cycling of Mn, as the fluid flow characterized by high methane and Mn could occur in accretionary wedge sediments...

  19. Organic carbon-sulfur relationships in sediment cores from the western and eastern continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Two sediment cores from the western continental margin (WMI, WM2) and one core from the eastern continental margin (EM) of India have been analysed to determine the relativ importance of factors such as oxidizing/reducing environment, mass...

  20. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  1. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental assessment (EA) for proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas Lease Sale... Environmental Impact Statement; Volumes I and II (Multisale EIS, OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-018) and in the Gulf of...; Western Planning Area Sales 210, 215, and 218--Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

  2. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  3. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  4. Sediment geochemistry and accumulation rates on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guerra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geochemistry, total organic carbon and total nitrogen of three sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Cádiz and the Guadalquivir prodelta areas in Spain were investigated. The C/N ratio, mostly around 10, seems to indicate a predominantly marine origin for the sedimentary organic matter. Major and minor elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na, P, S and trace elements (Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Pb, Hg showed significant differences in bulk chemical composition between the two areas. Despite the effects of bioturbation, vertical changes in downcore profiles of heavy metals occur only in the cores of the Cádiz area, although the concentrations keep to low levels. The relatively high concentrations of Zr and Y, elements commonly associated with the heavy minerals fraction, at the top of cores from the Cádiz area are attributed to an enrichment of heavy minerals related to selective transport that concentrates this fraction. 137Cs and 210Pb activities in one of the two sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Cádiz were also measured. The distribution of excess 210Pb was used to determine the modern (last 100 yr mass accumulation rate and the depth of sediment mixing on the continental shelf of the gulf. Estimated sediment accumulation rate was 0.1 g cm-2 yr-1. The uppermost 4 cm had uniform excess 210Pb activity profiles above a region of steadily decreasing 210Pb activity, and this phenomenon was attributed to sediment mixing (bioturbation. 137Cs activity was lower than 3 Bq kg-1 and the profile does not show evidence of fallout peaks.

  5. Shelf evolution along a transpressive transform margin, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Dartnell, Peter; Ritchie, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution bathymetric and seismic reflection data provide new insights for understanding the post–Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21 ka) evolution of the ∼120-km-long Santa Barbara shelf, located within a transpressive segment of the transform continental margin of western North America. The goal is to determine how rising sea level, sediment supply, and tectonics combine to control shelf geomorphology and history. Morpho­logic, stratigraphic, and structural data highlight regional variability and support division of the shelf into three domains. (1) The eastern Santa Barbara shelf is south of and in the hanging wall of the blind south-dipping Oak Ridge fault. The broad gently dipping shelf has a convex-upward shape resulting from thick post-LGM sediment (mean = 24.7 m) derived from the Santa Clara River. (2) The ∼5–8-km-wide Ventura Basin obliquely crosses the shelf and forms an asymmetric trough with thick post-LGM sediment fill (mean = 30.4 m) derived from the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. The basin is between and in the footwalls of the Oak Ridge fault to the south and the blind north-dipping Pitas Point fault to the north. (3) The central and western Santa Barbara shelf is located north of and in the hanging wall of the North Channel–Pitas Point fault system. The concave-up shape of the shelf results from folding, marine erosion, and the relative lack of post-LGM sediment cover (mean = 3.8 m). Sediment is derived from small steep coastal watersheds and largely stored in the Gaviota bar and other nearshore mouth bars. Three distinct upper slope morphologies result from a mix of progradation and submarine landsliding.Ages and rates of deformation are derived from a local sea-level-rise model that incorporates an inferred LGM shoreline angle and the LGM wave-cut platform. Post-LGM slip rates on the offshore Oak Ridge fault are a mini­mum of 0.7 ± 0.1 mm/yr. Slip rates on the Pitas Point fault system are a minimum of 2.3 ± 0.3 mm

  6. Comparative organic geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea) sediments: Estuary to continental slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; White, C.; Anderson, A.; Vergnaud, B.; Johnstone, G.; Brear, S.; Woulds, C.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kitazato, H.

    %) was found at slope sites within the OMZ of similar depth and near-identical bottom-water O2 concentrations. A strong re- lationship between %Corg and sediment grain size was seen for sediments within the OMZ, but lower relative Corg con- tents were found... by O2 availability, can explain the large ma- jority of %Corg variability when the shelf and slope are con- sidered as a whole. However, while O2 becomes the primary influence on %Corg for sediments below the OMZ, %Silt is the primary influence across...

  7. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  8. Distribution of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water on the warming continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Nicole; Martinson, Douglas G.; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar

    2017-07-01

    We use autonomous underwater vehicles to characterize the spatial distribution of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) on the continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and present the first near-synoptic measurements of mesoscale features (eddies) containing UCDW on the WAP. Thirty-three subsurface eddies with widths on the order of 10 km were detected during four glider deployments. Each eddy contributed an average of 5.8 × 1016 J to the subpycnocline waters, where a cross-shelf heat flux of 1.37 × 1019 J yr-1 is required to balance the diffusive loss of heat to overlying winter water and to the near-coastal waters. Approximately two-thirds of the heat coming onto the shelf diffuses across the pycnocline and one-third diffuses to the coastal waters; long-term warming of the subpycnocline waters is a small residual of this balance. Sixty percent of the profiles that contained UCDW were part of a coherent eddy. Between 20% and 53% of the lateral onshore heat flux to the WAP can be attributed to eddies entering Marguerite Trough, a feature in the southern part of the shelf which is known to be an important conduit for UCDW. A northern trough is identified as additional important location for eddy intrusion.

  9. The role of deep-water sedimentary processes in shaping a continental margin: The Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Campbell, D.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Piper, D.J.W.; Chaytor, Jason; Rebesco, M.

    2017-01-01

    The tectonic history of a margin dictates its general shape; however, its geomorphology is generally transformed by deep-sea sedimentary processes. The objective of this study is to show the influences of turbidity currents, contour currents and sediment mass failures on the geomorphology of the deep-water northwestern Atlantic margin (NWAM) between Blake Ridge and Hudson Trough, spanning about 32° of latitude and the shelf edge to the abyssal plain. This assessment is based on new multibeam echosounder data, global bathymetric models and sub-surface geophysical information.The deep-water NWAM is divided into four broad geomorphologic classifications based on their bathymetric shape: graded, above-grade, stepped and out-of-grade. These shapes were created as a function of the balance between sediment accumulation and removal that in turn were related to sedimentary processes and slope-accommodation. This descriptive method of classifying continental margins, while being non-interpretative, is more informative than the conventional continental shelf, slope and rise classification, and better facilitates interpretation concerning dominant sedimentary processes.Areas of the margin dominated by turbidity currents and slope by-pass developed graded slopes. If sediments did not by-pass the slope due to accommodation then an above grade or stepped slope resulted. Geostrophic currents created sedimentary bodies of a variety of forms and positions along the NWAM. Detached drifts form linear, above-grade slopes along their crests from the shelf edge to the deep basin. Plastered drifts formed stepped slope profiles. Sediment mass failure has had a variety of consequences on the margin morphology; large mass-failures created out-of-grade profiles, whereas smaller mass failures tended to remain on the slope and formed above-grade profiles at trough-mouth fans, or nearly graded profiles, such as offshore Cape Fear.

  10. Composition of the metazooplankton community and structure across the continental shelf off tropical NW Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Maar, Marie

    This talk focuses on the distribution pattern and grazing impact of different functional metazooplankton groups in a tropical marine ecosystem. We studied the metazooplankton distribution across the continental shelf from eutrophic mangrove areas to the oligotrophic deep blue ocean off NW Australia....... Chlorophyll a concentrations were reduced by factor 10 along the transect including a shift towards small sized primary producers. The metazooplankton biomass followed the same pattern. Even though low in abundance, copepods were most frequent followed by larvaceans, doliolids other thaliacea and chaetognaths...

  11. Biodiversity of a wreck from the Belgian Continental Shelf: monitoring using scientific diving: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Massin, Cl.; Norro, A.; Mallefet, J.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific diving from aboard the r/v Belgica has been employed to carry out a preliminary study of the macrofauna living on a wreck (the Birkenfels) located on the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS). The study revealed an extremely rich sessile and slow moving fauna (at least 40 species), 3 jellyfish species and 8 fish species. The presence of at least 51 species represents a biodiversity of macrofauna on the wreck that is much higher than that found in nearly all known surrounding soft bottorn...

  12. Interrelation between rifting, faulting, sedimentation, and mantle serpentinization during continental margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupke, L.; Schmid, D. W.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Hartz, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the conditions under which mantle serpentinization may take place during continental rifting with 2D thermotectonostratigraphic basin models. The basic concept follows the idea that the entire extending continental crust has to be brittle for crustal scale faulting and mantle serpentinization to occur. The new model tracks the rheological evolution of the continental crust and allows for kinetically controlled mantle serpentinization processes. The isostatic and latent heat effects of the reaction are fully coupled to the structural and thermal solutions. A systematic parameter study shows that a critical stretching factor exists for which complete crustal embrittlement and serpentinization occurs. Sedimentation shifts this critical stretching factor to higher values as both deeper burial and the low thermal conductivity of sediments lead to higher crustal temperatures. Serpentinization reactions are therefore only likely in settings with low sedimentation rates and high stretching factors. In addition, we find that the rate of sediment supply has first order controls on the rheology of the lower crust, which may control the overall margin geometry. We further test these concepts in ideas in a case study for the Norwegian margin. In particular, we evaluate whether the inner lower crustal bodies (LCB) imaged beneath the More and Voring margin could be serpentinized mantle. For this purpose we reconstruct multiple 2D transects through a 3D data set. This reconstruction of the Norwegian margin shows that serpentinization reactions are indeed possible and likely during the Jurassic rift phase. Predicted present-day thicknesses and locations of partially serpentinized mantle rocks fit well to information on LCBs from seismic and gravity data. We conclude that some of the inner LCBs beneath the Norwegian margin may, in fact, be partially serpentinized mantle.

  13. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  14. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  15. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  16. Combined use of Nassarius reticulatus imposex and statolith age determination for tracking temporal evolution of TBT pollution in the NW Portuguese continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Carlos M; Rato, Milene; Veríssimo, Alfredo; Sousa, Ana; Santos, José António; Coelho, Sónia; Gaspar, Miguel B; Maia, Francisco; Galante-Oliveira, Susana

    2011-11-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of tributyltin (TBT) pollution on the northern continental shelf of Portugal (5-34 m depth) were assessed using Nassarius reticulatus as a bioindicator. Imposex levels were determined in 2006 and 2010, and integrated with age readings from statoliths for a better chronological analysis of the data. Females affected with imposex were detected in 84% of the sites surveyed in 2006, with levels higher than the Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) set by the OSPAR Commission for N. reticulatus (VDSI TBT water contamination in 2010 may in fact be lower than that extrapolated from the imposex levels. We conclude that the legislation was indeed very effective in reducing TBT pollution in the NW Portuguese continental shelf, not only in terms of the magnitude but also in terms of fast field repercussion.

  17. Spatial distribution of southern brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus subtilis on the Amazon continental shelf: a fishery, marine geology and GIS integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah E. G. Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatial distribution of the southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 was studied based on industrial fishing fleet activities and is associated with geological and oceanographic characteristics of the benthonic environments on the Amazon continental shelf. Using a geographical information system (GIS this paper sought to calculate the relative abundance of brown shrimp based on catch per unit effort (CPUE and compare it with bathymetry, type of sedimentary structure, sedimentation rate and bottom salinity. As a result, we have concluded that the relative abundance (in terms of CPUE is not uniformly distributed in space. Spatial analysis indicates that commercial trawling efforts were made in the (foreset region of the subaqueous Amazon delta at depths of 40 to 60 m. In this region, prawn are responsible for the bioturbation of the sediments and the creation of a sedimentary structure called mottled mud. In the foreset region, sedimentation rates progressively increased up to 10 cm.yr-1; re-suspension was reduced and bottom salinity was high (~ 36. It appears that all of these factors define a stable muddy area with intense bioturbation. This notable biological activity is to be explained by the occurrence of a high F. subtilis abundance that appears to originate in a microbial loop. We concluded that by combining fishery information with environmental data from a GIS, it was possible to identify abundance distribution patterns for southern brown shrimp and other economically important fishery resources and to understand how they change on a large spatial-scale.

  18. Benthic Foraminifers identify the source of displaced sediment from a sediment density flow at 1840 m near the Seafloor Instrument Node of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Barry, J.; Carvajal, C.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Parsons, D. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are found along the slopes of most continental margins and turbidity currents are thought to be the primary mechanism responsible for transporting sediment through them to deep-sea fans. The initiation sites of these flows are difficult to locate with any degree of precision from lithology alone. Fortunately, the presence of allochthonous microscopic remains, such as benthic foraminifers, can aid in the identification of the source of the displaced sediments. In Monterey Canyon, offshore California, a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) and adjacent mooring in the Coordinated Canyon Experiment indicate that a February 2017 turbidity current reached 1840 m water depth. In April 2017, one push core was obtained on each of four sides of the SIN just outside its frame and six others from 30-100 m away. Each was cut into 1 cm slices, stained with rose Bengal, washed, and analyzed for their microscopic constituents. Material recovered included terrestrial debris (wood, leaves, seeds, highway safety spheres, and volcanic glass) as well as foraminiferal tests. Dead benthic foraminifers from the estuarine (0-10 m), inner shelf (0-50 m), outer shelf (50-150 m), slope break (150 m), upper bathyal (150-500 m), and middle bathyal (500-2000 m) biofacies were present, suggesting a staged progression of sediment downslope from the continental shelf and slope. Living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifers recovered represent estuarine (Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum), inner shelf (Buccella frigida, B. tenerrima, Buliminella elegantissima, Cibicides fletcheri, Nonionella spp., Rotorbinella turbinata), and upper bathyal (Bolivina pacifica, B. spissa, Epistominella exigua, Uvigerina peregrina) species as well as an in-situ middle bathyal biofacies (Bolivina argentea, B. spissa, Buliminella tenuata, Epistominella pacifica, Globobulimina spp., Uvigerina peregrina, U. hispida). The presence of living allochthonous benthic foraminifers from these shallower biofacies suggests

  19. Sedimentation of Particulate Organic Matter in the Dona Paula Bay, West Coast of India during November to May 1995-97.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Cardozo, E.; Giriyan, A.; Garg, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    particle flux study in the Santa Monica San Pedro Basin off Los Angeles: particle flux, primary production and transmissometer study. Continental Shelf Research 7: 307-328. Olesen, M. and Lundsgaard, C. 1996 Seasonal sedimentation of autochthonous...

  20. Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela, April 2001 - January 2002 (NODC Accession 0001078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements were collected using bottle casts in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 30 April 2001 to...

  1. Mineralogy and Origin of Sediments From Drill Holes on the Continental Margin Off Florida, 1965-1969 (NODC Accession 7100714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake...

  2. Environmental controls on the distribution of organic matter in recent sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    trends along and across the shelf region. The C/N ratios suggest that the inner shelf sediments consist of an admixture of organic matter derived from detrital and marine sources. It is also indicated that the influence of the detrital organic matter...

  3. EMAP/NOAA 2003 SURVEY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN U.S. CONTINENTAL SHELF, INCLUDING GULF OF FARALLONES NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June of 2003 a partnership between EPA, NOAA, and the western coastal states conducted a joint survey of ecological condition of aquatic resources along the U.S. western continental shelf (30-120 m), using multiple indicators of ecological condition. The study is an element o...

  4. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  5. The use of 234Th/238U disequilibrium to examine the fate of particle-reactive species on the Yangtze continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of 234 Th (tsub(1/2)=24.1 d) in water column and seabed samples from an area near the mouth of the Yangtze River (People's Republic of China) provide the following information: Most of the 234 Th in waters near the mouth of the Yangtze River is in particulate form, and horizontal transport and sedimentation of 234 Th-bearing particles dominate the 234 Th budget in this area. A model incorporating processes in at least two dimensions is required to understand the fate of particle-reactive species on the Yangtze continental shelf. The residence times of particle-reactive species (with respect to scavenging) range from 0.3 days (nearshore) to 4.0 days (offshore). The residence times (with respect to removal to the seabed) range from 0.5 day (nearshore) to 11.0 days (offshore). Scavenging residence times for 234 Th decrease as the concentration of suspended particles increases. The time for removal of 234 Th to the seabed increases with distance from shore (a variable which integrates such factors as scavenging rate, bathymetry, and frequency of resuspension). (orig.)

  6. Transport and deposition of plutonium in the ocean: Evidence from Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.; Halverson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A study of sediments in the Gulf of Mexico shows dramatic gradients in Pu content and isotope ratios from the continental shelf to the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain. In terms of predicted direct fallout inventory of Pu, one shelf core contains 745% of the predicted inventory, while abyssal plain sediments contain only 15-20% of the predicted value. Absolute Pu concentrations of shelf sediments are also conspicuously high, up to 110 dpm/kg, compared to 13.5 dpm/kg in Mississippi River suspended sediment. There is no evidence of Pu remobilization in Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments, based on comparison of Pu profiles with Mn/Al and Fe/Al profiles. Horizontal transport of fallout nuclides from the open ocean to removal sites in ocean margin sediments is concluded to be the source of both the high concentrations and high inventories of Pu reported here. The shelf sediments show 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios close to 0.179, the average stratospheric fallout value, but the ratios decrease progressively across the Gulf to low values of 0.06 in abyssal plain sediments. The source of low-ratio Pu in deep-water sediments may be debris from low yield tests transported in the troposphere. Alternatively, it may represent a fraction of the Pu from global stratospheric fallout which has been separated in the water column from the remainder of the Pu in the ocean. In either case, the low-ratio material must have been removed rapidly to the sea floor where it composes a major fraction of the Pu in abyssal plain sediments. Pu delivered by global atmospheric fallout from the stratosphere has apparently remained for the most part in the water or has been transported horizontally and removed into shallow-water sediments. (orig.)

  7. Particulate and dissolved spectral absorption on the continental shelf of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James R.; Guarda, Sonia

    1995-05-01

    Visible absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved materials were characterized on the continental shelf off the southeastern United States (the South Atlantic Bight), emphasizing cross-shelf and seasonal variability. A coastal front separates turbid coastal waters from clearer midshelf waters. Spatial and seasonal patterns were evident in absorption coefficients for phytoplankton, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); spectral shape parameters for CDOM and detritus; and phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption. The magnitude of CDOM absorption reflected seasonal differences in freshwater discharge and the salinity of the midshelf waters. In the spring of 1993 (high discharge), CDOM absorption at 443 nm was >10 times that of total particulate absorption between 12 and 50 km offshore (0.28-0.69 m-1 versus 0.027-0.062 m-1) and up to 10 times the CDOM absorption measured in the previous summer (low discharge). Phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption in the blue increased with distance from shore (from shift in phytoplankton species composition (from predominantly diatoms inshore to a cyanobacteria-dominated assemblage midshelf in summer), pigment packaging, and higher carotenoid:chlorophyll with distance from shore.

  8. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  9. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  10. Sea level anomaly on the Patagonian continental shelf: Trends, annual patterns and geostrophic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Strub, P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We study the annual patterns and linear trend of satellite sea level anomaly (SLA) over the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf (SWACS) between 54ºS and 36ºS. Results show that south of 42°S the thermal steric effect explains nearly 100% of the annual amplitude of the SLA, while north of 42°S it explains less than 60%. This difference is due to the halosteric contribution. The annual wind variability plays a minor role over the whole continental shelf. The temporal linear trend in SLA ranges between 1 and 5 mm/yr (95% confidence level). The largest linear trends are found north of 39°S, at 42°S and at 50°S. We propose that in the northern region the large positive linear trends are associated with local changes in the density field caused by advective effects in response to a southward displacement of the South Atlantic High. The causes of the relative large SLA trends in two southern coastal regions are discussed as a function meridional wind stress and river discharge. Finally, we combined the annual cycle of SLA with the mean dynamic topography to estimate the absolute geostrophic velocities. This approach provides the first comprehensive description of the seasonal component of SWACS circulation based on satellite observations. The general circulation of the SWACS is northeastward with stronger/weaker geostrophic currents in austral summer/winter. At all latitudes, geostrophic velocities are larger (up to 20 cm/s) close to the shelf‐break and decrease toward the coast. This spatio‐temporal pattern is more intense north of 45°S. PMID:27840784

  11. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  12. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  13. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  14. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  15. Environmental studies results: 1973-1992. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Environmental Studies Program was initiated in 1973 under the Bureau of Land Management by the Secretary of the Interior. The Purpose of the program was to conduct studies needed to predict, assess and manage impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments of the OCS and nearshore areas that may be affected by oil and gas activities. The narrative summary updates the version printed in 1986, which covered studies managed by the MMS in the Atlantic OCS region between 1973 and 1985. Descriptions of the study results are divided into the following categories: baseline studies and environmental inventories, biology/ecology, drill site monitoring, endangered species, geology/chemistry, oil spill studies, physical oceanography/meteorology, and social and economic studies. Results of each major type of study are subdivided into North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, and multiregional studies in chronological sequence

  16. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  17. Arctic continental shelf morphology related to sea-ice zonation, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E.; Toimil, L.; Barnes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-1 and NOAA satellite imagery for the winter 1972-1973, and a variety of ice and sea-floor data were used to study sea-ice zonation and dynamics and their relation to bottom morphology and geology on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf of arctic Alaska. In early winter the location of the boundary between undeformed fast ice and westward-drifting pack ice of the Pacific Gyre is controlled by major coastal promontories. Pronounced linear pressure- and shear-ridges, as well as hummock fields, form along this boundary and are stabilized by grounding, generally between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. Slippage along this boundary occurs intermittently at or seaward of the grounded ridges, forming new grounded ridges in a widening zone, the stamukhi zone, which by late winter extends out to the 40-m isobath. Between intermittent events along the stamukhi zone, pack-ice drift and slippage is continuous along the shelf edge, at average rates of 3-10 km/day. Whether slippage occurs along the stamukhi zone or along the shelf edge, it is restricted to a zone several hundred meters wide, and ice seaward of the slip face moves at uniform rates without discernible drag effects. A causal relationship is seen between the spatial distribution of major ice-ridge systems and offshore shoals downdrift of major coastal promontories. The shoals appear to have migrated shoreward under the influence of ice up to 400 m in the last 25 years. The sea floor seaward of these shoals within the stamukhi zone shows high ice-gouge density, large incision depths, and a high degree of disruption of internal sedimentary structures. The concentration of large ice ridges and our sea floor data in the stamukhi zone indicate that much of the available marine energy is expended here, while the inner shelf and coast, where the relatively undeformed fast ice grows, are sheltered. There is evidence that anomalies in the overall arctic shelf profile are related to sea-ice zonation, ice dynamics, and bottom

  18. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2018-01-09

    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  19. Vertical and lateral flux on the continental slope off Pakistan: correlation of sediment core and trap results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H.; von Rad, U.

    2014-06-01

    Due to the lack of bioturbation, the varve-laminated muds from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Pakistan provide a unique opportunity to precisely determine the vertical and lateral sediment fluxes in the nearshore part of the northeastern Arabian Sea. West of Karachi (Hab area), the results of two sediment trap stations (EPT and WPT) were correlated with 16 short sediment cores on a depth transect crossing the OMZ. The top of a distinct, either reddish- or light-gray silt layer, 210Pb-dated as AD 1905 ± 10, was used as an isochronous stratigraphic marker bed to calculate sediment accumulation rates. In one core, the red and gray layer were separated by a few (5-10) thin laminae. According to our varve model, this contributes water column above. All traps on the steep Makran continental slope show exceptionally high, pulsed winter fluxes of up to 5000 mg m-2 d-1. Based on core results, the flux at the seafloor amounts to 4000 mg m-2 d-1 and agrees remarkably well with the bulk winter flux of material, as well as with the flux of the individual bulk components of organic carbon, calcium carbonate and opal. However, due to the extreme mass of remobilized matter, the high winter flux events exceeded the capacity of the shallow traps. Based on our comparisons, we argue that high-flux events must occur regularly during winter within the upper OMZ off Pakistan to explain the high accumulations rates. These show distribution patterns that are a negative function of water depth and distance from the shelf. Some of the sediment fractions show marked shifts in accumulation rates near the lower boundary of the OMZ. For instance, the flux of benthic foraminifera is lowered but stable below ~1200-1300 m. However, flux and sedimentation in the upper eastern Makran area are dominated by the large amount of laterally advected fine-grained material and by the pulsed nature of the resuspension events at the upper margin during winter.

  20. Impact of Satellite Remote Sensing Data on Simulations of Coastal Circulation and Hypoxia on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Dong S. Ko; Richard W. Gould; Bradley Penta; John C. Lehrter

    2016-01-01

    We estimated surface salinity flux and solar penetration from satellite data, and performed model simulations to examine the impact of including the satellite estimates on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen distributions on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) near the annual hypoxic zone. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used for the salinity flux, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  1. Recent sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré Canyon, Portuguese continental margin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Stigter, H.C.; Boer, W.; de Jesus Mendes, P.A.; Jesus, C.C.; Thomsen, L.; van den Bergh, G.D.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Processes, pathways and fluxes of sediment transport and deposition in the Nazaré submarine canyon, Portuguese continental margin, were investigated by water column profiling of suspended particulate matter, recording of near-bottom currents and suspended particulate matter fluxes with benthic

  2. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  3. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  4. Sediment texture, distribution and transport on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf, Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Thwin, S.

    . Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Nether- lands, pp. 63–85. Milliman, J.D., Meade, R.H., 1983. World-wide delivery of river sediment to the oceans. J. Geol. 91, 1–21. Ramaswamy, V., Rao, P.S., Rao, K.H., Swe Thwin, Srinivasa Rao, N., Raiker, V., 2004. Tidal...

  5. Geomorphic Thresholds of Submarine Canyons Along the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Chaytor, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Vast networks of submarine canyons and associated channels are incised into the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise. Submarine canyons form by differential erosion and deposition, primarily from sedimentary turbidity flows. Theoretical and laboratory studies have investigated the initiation of turbidity flows and their capacity to erode and entrain sedimentary material at distances far from the shelf edge. The results have helped understand the nature of turbidite deposits on the continental slope and rise. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the linkages between down-canyon sediment transport and the morphology of canyon/channel networks using mesoscale analyses of swath bathymetry data. We present quantitative analysis of 100-m resolution multibeam bathymetry data spanning ~616,000 km2 of the slope and rise between Georges Banks and the Blake Plateau (New England to North Carolina). Canyons are categorized as shelf-indenting or slope-confined based on spatial scale, vertical relief and connection with terrestrial river systems during sea level low stands. Shelf-indenting canyons usually represent the trunk-canyon of submerged channel networks. On the rise, shelf-indenting canyons have relatively well-developed channel-levees and sharp inner-thalwag incision suggesting much higher frequency and volume of turbidity flows. Because of the similarities between submarine canyon networks and terrestrial river systems, we apply methods originally developed to study fluvial morphology. Along-canyon profiles are extracted from the bathymetry data and the power-law relationship between thalwag gradient and drainage area is examined for more than 180 canyons along an ~1200 km stretch of the US Atlantic margin. We observe distinct thresholds in the power-law relationship between drainage area and gradient. Almost all canyons with heads on the upper slope contain at least two linear segments when plotted in log-log form. The first segment along the upper slope is flat

  6. Benthic hypoxia and early diagenesis in the Black Sea shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Audrey; Roevros, Nathalie; Capet, Arthur; Grégoire, Marilaure; Fagel, Nathalie; Chou, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Marine waters of semi-enclosed seas are affected by a major environmental issue which is oxygen depletion in bottom waters. Deoxygenation is one of the most widespread man-induced consequences which can be catastrophic for living species. Between 1970 and 1990, the benthic compartment of the Black Sea underwent modifications due to the occurrence and increase of hypoxia. Indeed, these changes might cause a deterioration of the structure and functioning of the ecosystems. Nowadays, some regions, such as the north-western shelf, are still affected seasonally by this phenomenon. Within the framework of the BENTHOX project, a biogeochemical study focusing on the early diagenesis is conducted in the Black Sea. It aims (1) to obtain a better understanding of the impact of benthic hypoxia on the diagenetic pathways, (2) to contribute to a new dataset of biogeochemical measurements in the sediments including porewaters. During a cruise (Emblas II - May 2016), on board the RV Mare Nigrum, sediment cores were taken at 4 stations on the Ukrainian shelf. Porewaters were extracted on board the ship using Rhizon technique under N2 atmosphere and will be analyzed for dissolved nutrients and major ions. In addition, sediments were sliced and will be determined for major solid phases and trace element contents. A multi-proxies (biological, sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical) approach will be used to identify the hypoxic events and to reconstruct the history of bottom hypoxia. The results obtained will be presented and discussed with emphasis on the first outcomes and the major biogeochemical processes involved in the early diagenesis.

  7. Thirty-Three Years of Ocean Benthic Warming Along the U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf and Slope: Patterns, Drivers, and Ecological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Rheuban, Jennie E.; Luis, Kelly M. A.; Doney, Scott C.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf is experiencing rapid warming, with potentially profound consequences to marine ecosystems. While satellites document multiple scales of spatial and temporal variability on the surface, our understanding of the status, trends, and drivers of the benthic environmental change remains limited. We interpolated sparse benthic temperature data along the New England Shelf and upper Slope using a seasonally dynamic, regionally specific multiple linear regression model that merged in situ and remote sensing data. The statistical model predicted nearly 90% of the variability of the data, resulting in a synoptic time series spanning over three decades from 1982 to 2014. Benthic temperatures increased throughout the domain, including in the Gulf of Maine. Rates of benthic warming ranged from 0.1 to 0.4°C per decade, with fastest rates occurring in shallow, nearshore regions and on Georges Bank, the latter exceeding rates observed in the surface. Rates of benthic warming were up to 1.6 times faster in winter than the rest of the year in many regions, with important implications for disease occurrence and energetics of overwintering species. Drivers of warming varied over the domain. In southern New England and the mid-Atlantic shallow Shelf regions, benthic warming was tightly coupled to changes in SST, whereas both regional and basin-scale changes in ocean circulation affect temperatures in the Gulf of Maine, the Continental Shelf, and Georges Banks. These results highlight data gaps, the current feasibility of prediction from remotely sensed variables, and the need for improved understanding on how climate may affect seasonally specific ecological processes.

  8. Morpho-stratigraphic features of the northern shelf of the Strait of Gibraltar: Tectonic and sedimentary processes acting at different temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, M.; Lobo, F. J.; Bruno, M.; de Castro, S.

    2018-06-01

    The northern shelf of the Strait of Gibraltar adjacent to Camarinal Sill, defined here as the Cape Paloma continental shelf, has been investigated by analyzing a set of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetric images, a side-scan sonar mosaic and high-resolution seismic profiles, and the simulation of water-mass circulation patterns along the northern coastal margin. The aim of the study was to establish the significance of factors determining the evolution of this shallow margin at different temporal scales and to assess the implications for bedform generation in strait settings, taking into account the complex tectonic evolution and the energetic hydrodynamic regime of the strait. Deformed basement rocks are part of the Betic-Rif thrust wedge, western Gibraltar Arc, mainly formed by the materials of the Flysch Complex units and covered by Pliocene to Quaternary post-orogenic deposits. A central high (Bajo de los Cabezos High) is delimited by lateral depressions, that nucleated two major depocentres with distinctive filling histories. The eastern depocentre is controlled by WNW-ESE faults cutting the Cretaceous-Miocene basement rocks; these faults generate horsts and grabens that could have contributed to the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar during the Pliocene. The largest and westernmost depocentre is related to the complete infilling of a shelf palaeovalley. The sediment cover is molded by different fields of submarine dunes and comet marks that indicate the influence of hydrodynamic processes on sediment transport at the coastal margin. The observations in the study area regarding bedform development must be placed into a wider context of strait sediment dynamics. The Cape Paloma continental shelf exhibits both erosional and depositional forms, due to its intermediate location between the strait, mostly dominated by erosional processes, and the Barbate Platform (northwest of the study area), mostly characterized by depositional forms. The long

  9. Geology of the continental margin beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from seismic-reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Bohannon, R.G.; Sliter, R.W.; Calvert, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection data, which were collected in Santa Monica Bay using a 70-in3 generator-injector air gun, to show the geologic structure of the continental shelf and slope and of the deep-water, Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins. The goal of this research is to investigate the earthquake hazard posed to urban areas by offshore faults. These data reveal that northwest of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the Palos Verdes Fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron that postdates the last sea level rise. Other evidence indicates that this fault extends northwest beneath the shelf in the deep subsurface. However, other major faults in the study area, such as the Dume and San Pedro Basin Faults, were active recently, as indicated by an arched seafloor and offset shallow sediment. Rocks under the lower continental slope are deformed to differing degrees on opposite sides of Santa Monica Canyon. Northwest of this canyon, the continental slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main structures that deform this apron are two lower-slope anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by faults showing reverse or thrust separation. Southeast of Santa Monica Canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex arrangement of strike-slip, normal, and reverse faults. The San Pedro Escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Reverse faults and folds underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward. Locally they form flower structures and cut downward into basement rocks. These faults merge downward with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and strike slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures diverge from this strike-slip fault zone and extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the deep-water basins. The deep-water Santa Monica Basin has large extent but is filled with only a thin (less than 1.5-km

  10. Megabenthic assemblages in the continental shelf edge and upper slope of the Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Greenacre, Michael; Requena, Susana; Canepa, Antonio; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-03-01

    Highly diverse megabenthic assemblages dominated by passive and active suspension feeders have been recently reported in shelf edge environments of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their frequent association with species of commercial interest, these assemblages have been heavily impacted by fishing. The vulnerability and low resilience of these assemblages, composed mainly by long-living and slow-growing species, have motivated the implementation of management measures such as the restriction of bottom trawling, and the establishment of large protected areas embracing these environments. The Menorca Channel is one of such areas recently included in the European Union Natura 2000 network. Quantitative analysis of video transects recorded at 95-360 m depth by manned submersible and remotely operated vehicles were used to characterize megabenthic assemblages and to assess their geographical and bathymetric distribution. Six different assemblages were identified, mainly segregated by substrate type and depth. Hard substrates hosted coral gardens and sponge grounds, whereas soft sediments were mainly characterized by large extensions of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium and the brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The good preservation of most of the observed assemblages is probably related to a low bottom trawling pressure, which mainly concentrates deeper on the adjacent continental slope. Because of their biological and ecological value, management and conservation measures need to be established to preserve these benthic assemblages.

  11. Sea floor morphology of the Ebro Shelf in the region of the Columbretes Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A.; Lastras, G.; Ballesteros, M.; Canals, M.; Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.

    2005-12-01

    Widespread volcanism off eastern Spain in the western Mediterranean is associated with Cenozoic crustal attenuation and sinistral motion along the Trans-Moroccan-Western Mediterranean-European mega shear, extending from northern Morocco to the North Sea via the Alboran Basin, eastern Iberia, the Valencian and Lyons basins, France and Germany. The Quaternary Columbretes Islands volcanic field is the most prominent example of this volcanism associated with this mega shear. The islands are located in the Ebro continental shelf on top of a structural horst probably made of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Surrounding the emerged islands are volcanic structures and associated flows partially mantled by a sediment drift whose morphology is controlled by the southwestward flowing Catalan Current. This association is rather unique and appears to have never been described from a continental shelf in the Mediterranean Sea or outside the sea. The morphology of both kinds of structures, obtained by means of swath bathymetry data and very-high resolution seismic profiles, is presented in this study. They provide striking images of this previously unstudied part of the western Mediterranean seafloor. These images suggest that the volcanic structures are intruded into the surficial Holocene sediments indicating that volcanism in the Columbretes has extended into Holocene.

  12. Geomorphology and Sediment Stability of a Segment of the U.S. Continental Slope off New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, J M; Hampson, J C; Twichell, D C

    1981-02-27

    The morphology of complex deposits of Pleistocene sediments covering the upper continental slope between Lindenkohl Canyon and South Toms Canyon results from both depositional and erosional processes. Small slump or slide features were detected primarily on the flanks of canyons or valleys and were observed to occur only within Pleistocene-aged sediments. Eocene to Miocene sediments are exposed over much of the mid- and lower slope in this area.

  13. Verdine and other associated authigenic (glaucony, phosphate) facies from the surficial sediments of the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Dupeuble, P.A.

    spaced contorted clay blades and globules. X-ray mineralogy suggests that these grains are a mixture of verdine dominated minerals. Phyllite C is the principal verdine mineral in the shelf zone. On the continental slope phyllite V dominates between 100... grains from the shelf are mostly homogeneous at low magnification (Fig. 4A). However, at high magnification the authigenic clays are characterized by small con- torted blades (1 Ixm long) at some places and compact clays (Fig. 4B and C) at others...

  14. Modeling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta area (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ oxygen microprofiles, sediment organic carbon content, and pore-water concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, iron, manganese, and sulfides obtained in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta and its adjacent continental shelf were used to constrain a numerical diagenetic model. Results showed that (1 the organic matter from the Rhône River is composed of a fraction of fresh material associated to high first-order degradation rate constants (11–33 yr−1; (2 the burial efficiency (burial/input ratio in the Rhône prodelta (within 3 km of the river outlet can be up to 80 %, and decreases to ~20 % on the adjacent continental shelf 10–15 km further offshore; (3 there is a large contribution of anoxic processes to total mineralization in sediments near the river mouth, certainly due to large inputs of fresh organic material combined with high sedimentation rates; (4 diagenetic by-products originally produced during anoxic organic matter mineralization are almost entirely precipitated (>97 % and buried in the sediment, which leads to (5 a low contribution of the re-oxidation of reduced products to total oxygen consumption. Consequently, total carbon mineralization rates as based on oxygen consumption rates and using Redfield stoichiometry can be largely underestimated in such River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar environments.

  15. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    Pore waters of marine sediments usually have salinities and chlorinities similar to the overlying sea water, ranging around 34-35 psu (Practical Salinity Units) and around 550 mM Cl-, respectively. This is because these parameters are conservative in the sense that they do not significantly participate in biogeochemical cycles. However, pore water studies carried out in the frame of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors have shown that salinities and chlorinities of marine pore waters can substantially deviate from the modern bottom water composition in a number of environmental settings, and various processes have been suggested to explain these phenomena. Also during the recent IODP Expedition 341 that drilled five sites in the Gulf of Alaska (Northeast Pacific Ocean) from the deep Surveyor Fan across the continental slope to the glaciomarine shelf deposits, several occurrences of pore waters with salinities and chlorinities significantly different from respective bottom waters were encountered during shipboard analyses. At the pelagic Sites U1417 and U1418 (~4,200 and ~3,700 m water depth, respectively), salinity and chlorinity maxima occur around 20-50 m sediment depth, but values gradually decrease with increasing drilling depths (down to 30 psu in ~600 m sediment depth). While the pore water freshening at depth is most likely an effect of clay mineral dehydration due to increasing burial depth, the shallow salinity and chlorinity maxima are interpreted as relicts of more saline bottom waters that existed in the North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (Adkins et al., 2002). In contrast, the glaciomarine slope and shelf deposits at Site U1419 to U1421 (~200 to 1,000 m water depth) are characterised by unexpectedly low salinitiy and chlorinity values (as low as 16 psu and 295 mM Cl-, respectively) already in very shallow sediment depths (~10 m), and their records do not show systematic trends with sediment depth. Freshening

  16. Sulfate reduction in Black Sea sediments: in situ and laboratory radiotracer measurements from the shelf to 2000m depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Riess, W.; Wenzhoefer, F.

    2001-01-01

    anoxic basin. The highest rates measured on an areal basis for the upper 0-15 cm were 1.97 mmol m(-2) d(-1) on the shelf and 1.54 mmol m(-2) d(-1) at 181 m water depth just below the chemocline. At all stations sulfate reduction rates decreased to values 50% just above the chemocline to 100% just below...... sediments showed that the present results tend to be higher in shelf sediments and lower in the deep-sea than most other data. Based on the present water column H2S inventory and the H2S flux out of the sediment, the calculated turnover time of H2S below the chemocline is 2100 years. (C) 2001 Elsevier...

  17. Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Human Activity on a Tropical Continental Shelf, RN State, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, H.; Barros Pereira, T. R.; Lira, H. F.; Tabosa, W. F.; Eichler, P.; Stattegger, K.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Gomes, M. P.; Nogueira, M. L. D. S.; Pierri, G. C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The northeastern Brazilian, tropical coast-shelf system along the Atlantic Ocean is a sediment-starved zone, because of low relief, small drainage basins, and a semiarid climate. This work presents the major results of a study of environmental changes, particularly those related to Holocene sea-level rise, affecting the coast and shallow waters of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) State, NE Brazil. The methods included bottom-sediment characterization, bioindicator tracking, and integrated shallow-water geophysical investigation. This coastline is marked by active sea cliffs carved into tablelands alternating with reef- or dune-barrier sections, beach rocks and lagoons, whereas the shelf is a narrow, very shallow, and highly energetic system. Overall, the area is under the natural influence of tides (with a semidiurnal mesotidal regime) and the anthropogenic influence of salt exploration, oil industry, shrimp farms, tourism, and wind-farms. Sedimentation during the Holocene has been controlled mainly by sea-level variation, longshore currents, and the advance and westward propagation of active dunes along the coast. As in other areas around the world, growing numbers of permanent and seasonal residents choose to live at or near the ocean. Coastal erosion is a cause for concern along many Brazilian beaches, and several erosion hot spots are already recognized in RN State. Curves of Holocene relative sea-level variation were established for RN State, but the absence of long-term oceanographic observations in the last centuries or that of detailed altimetry maps hinders the evaluation of different risk scenarios at the local level. Nevertheless, impacts of the current sea-level rise and human activity can be observed along the RN coastal-shelf system. Particular aspects of the study, such as oil-spill monitoring, coastal-water sewage contamination, and coastal erosion, will be highlighted.

  18. Delineating the relationship between chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability and biogeochemical parameters in a shallow continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav Das; Sugata Hazra; Aneesh A. Lotlikar; Isha Das; Sandip Giri; Abhra Chanda; Anirban Akhand; Sourav Maity; T. Srinivasa Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 440 nm [aCDOM (440)], sea surface salinity (SSS), total suspended matter (TSM) and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were measured during October, 2014 to March, 2015 in the shallow continental shelf waters of the Hugli Estuary, adjacent to West Bengal coast, India. The primary objective of the study was to characterize the relationship between aCDOM (440) and the above mentioned biogeochemical parameters. Upon analyzing the result...

  19. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  20. Benthic iron and phosphorus release from river dominated shelf sediments under varying bottom water O2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaisas, N. A.; Maiti, K.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in coastal ocean is predominantly controlled by river discharge and biogeochemistry of the sediments. In coastal Louisiana, sediment biogeochemistry is strongly influenced by seasonally fluctuating bottom water O2, which, in turn transitions the shelf sediments from being a sink to source of P. Sediment P-fluxes were 9.73 ± 0.76 mg / m2 /d and 0.67±0.16 mg/m2/d under anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively, indicating a 14 times higher P-efflux from oxygen deprived sediments. A high sedimentary oxygen consumption rate of 889 ± 33.6 mg/m2/d was due to organic matter re-mineralization and resulted in progressively decreasing the water column dissolved O2 , coincident with a P-flux of 7.2 ± 5.5 mg/m2/d from the sediment. Corresponding water column flux of Fe total was 19.7 ± 7.80 mg/m2/d and the sediment-TP decreased from 545 mg/Kg to 513 mg/Kg. A simultaneous increase in pore water Fe and P concentrations in tandem with a 34.6% loss in sedimentary Fe-bound P underscores the importance of O2 on coupled Fe- P biogeochemistry. This study suggests that from a 14,025 sq. km hypoxia area, Louisiana shelf sediments can supply 1.33x105 kg P/day into the water column compared to 0.094 x 105 kg P/day during the fully aerobic water column conditions.

  1. Sediment characteristics of the 2800 meter Atlantic nuclear waste disposal site: Radionuclide retention potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiheisel, James

    1979-09-01

    The sediments of the abandoned 2800 meter Atlantic nuclear waste dumpsite have been analyzed for texture mineral composition, physical properties, cation exchange capacity and factors effecting sediment deposition, as part of an extensive program by the Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate ocean disposal as an alternative nuclear waste disposal method. The sediments physical and chemical properties are evaluated in the light of the geologic setting for their potential role in retarding radionuclide leachate migration from the waste drums to the water column. The sediments are relatively uniform silty clays and clayey silts comprised of approximately one-third biogenous carbonate materials, one-third terrigenous materials and one-third clay minerals. The biogenous materials in the sand and upper silt-size fraction are predominantly foraminifera with minor amounts of diatoms while coccoliths dominate the finer silt and clay size fractions. The terrigenous materials in the course sediment fractions are predominantly quartz and feldspar with minor amounts of mica, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Clay minerals, of the clay-size fraction, in order of abundance, include illite, kaolinite, chlorite and montmorillonite. Relatively high cation exchange capacity in the sediment (15.2-25.4 meq/100g) is attributed to the clay minerals comprising approximately one-third of the sediment. Correspondingly high Kd values might also be expected as a result of sorption of radionuclides onto clay minerals with most favorable conditions related to pH, Eh, and other environmental factors. The biogenous fraction might also be expected to retain some strontium-90 by isomorphous substitution of this radionuclide for calcium. Diagnostic heavy minerals in the sand-size fraction reflect the source areas as predominantly the adjacent continental shelf, and provide important clues concerning the mechanisms effecting transport and deposition of the sediment. Longshore currents along the

  2. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  3. EPXMA survey of shelf sediments (Southern Bight, North Sea): A glance beyond the XRD-invisible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Maeyer-Worobiec, A.; Dekov, V.M.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; van Grieken, R.

    2009-01-01

    Shelf sediments of the southern North Sea, were studied with a microanalytical [electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA)] and two bulk [X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)] techniques. The investigation proved that the promptness of the microanalytical method is combined with a

  4. Regulation and efficiency: an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom continental shelf petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The petroleum industry of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) has been subject to various degrees of regulation. Self-sufficiency, security of supply and developing offshore supply industry triggered government regulations that were seen as interventionary and protectionist. This paper tests the extent to which regulations targeting involvement of British offshore supply industry in the UKCS activity created inefficiencies. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis are used to measure the amount and address the source of inefficiencies. We will show that such inefficiencies could not be ruled out. The results provide an important insight into the UKCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  5. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  6. Discharges and Emissions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf : Oil, chemicals and emissions to air; Utslipp paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 2000. Olje, kjemikalier og utslipp til luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report gives an overview of the discharges of oil and chemicals to sea and emissions to air from the Norwegian Continental Shelf for 2000. This report is based on the operators annual report to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authorities. (author)

  7. Preliminary Facies Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Caporaso, A.; Obelcz, J. B.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Truong, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    We are investigating the origin and preservation of an ancient bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was likely buried in the late Pleistocene, possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay before recent marine exposure. Radiocarbon analyses show that the forest age is near (and in some cases beyond) the limits of 14C dating, at least 41-45 ky BP. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (up to 5 m in length) were collected. Ongoing core analyses include: organic content (loss on ignition), granulometry, and core logging using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger to generate imagery, bulk density, and x-ray fluorescence data. To bolster 14C analyses, cores collected in 2016 are presently being dated using optically stimulated luminescence. Local stratigraphy consists of a surface facies of Holocene transgressive sands, underlain by possible estuarine sediments of interbedded sand and mud (potentially Holocene or Pleistocene), overlying a swamp or delta plain facies (likely Pleistocene) containing woody debris and mud. Deeper woody facies are thought to include the soil horizons of the ancient cypress forest. Cores collected in 2016 revealed a Pleistocene paleosol beneath Holocene sands in a nearby trough. Elevation differences between swamp and paleosol horizons will be evaluated from bathymetric and subbottom data, to help characterize the preserved ancient landscape. Initial interpretation based on close proximity of Pleistocene swamp and oxidized paleosol sediments, and regional geomorphic gradients suggest that this relatively diverse assemblage of facies developed up to tens of km from the glacial-age coastline, and relatively rapid burial prevented erosion by coastal processes during the Holocene transgression thus preserving the tree stumps and wood debris.

  8. Seasonal Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Under Complex Circulation Schemes on a Large Continental Shelf: The Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Feifei; Dai, Minhan; Cao, Zhimian; Wu, Kai; Zhao, Xiaozheng; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Junhui; Gan, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    We examined the distribution and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) based on a large data set collected from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) shelf under complex circulation schemes influenced by river plume, coastal upwelling, and downwelling. The highest surface values of ˜117 μmol L-1 were observed nearshore in summer suggesting high DOC supplies from the river inputs, whereas the lowest surface values of ˜62 μmol L-1 were on the outer shelf in winter due to entrainment of DOC-poor subsurface water under strengthened vertical mixing. While the summer coastal upwelling brought lower DOC from offshore depth to the nearshore surface, the winter coastal downwelling delivered higher surface DOC to the midshelf deep waters from the inner shelf fueled by the China Coastal Current (CCC) transporting relatively high DOC from the East China Sea to the NSCS. The intensified winter downwelling generated a cross-shelf DOC transport of 3.1 × 1012 g C over a large shelf area, which induced a significant depression of the NSCS DOC inventory in winter relative to in autumn. In addition to the variable physical controls, net biological production of DOC was semiquantified in both the river plume (2.8 ± 3.0 μmol L-1) and coastal upwelling (3.1 ± 1.3 μmol L-1) in summer. We demonstrated that the NSCS shelf had various origins of DOC including riverine inputs, inter-shelf transport and in situ production. Via cross-shelf transport, the accumulated DOC would be exported to and stored in the deep ocean, suggesting that continental shelves are a potentially effective carbon sink.

  9. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  10. Modelling of storm-driven shelf waves north of Scotland—I. Idealized models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, N. S.; Huthnance, J. M.; Jones, J. E.; Wolf, J.

    1988-11-01

    Storm-driven currents observed over the Scottish continental shelf were described by GORDON and HUTHNANCE (1987 , Continental Shelf Research, 7, 1015-1048). Their suggestion of continental shelf-wave responses is investigated here using semi-analytic and numerical models of a straight continental shelf. Grid resolution, boundary conditions, truncations and differences of depth profile are considered with the semi-analytic model, from which dispersion curves and wave forms are derived. These forms are closely matched by the fully numerical model forced by specified elevations at one end. Further numerical calculations are described, for idealized wind forcing along or across limited regions of the shelf or slope. Localized forcing of short duration gives currents of the type observed, being rotary (clockwise) with roughly 22 h period. More extensive alongshelf forcing gives predominantly alongshelf currents with a strength tending to follow the forcing; the second form of observed response. Frictional effects are considered. A companion paper ( FLATHER and PROCTOR, 1988 , in preparation) describes the results of numerical simulations using realistic meteorological forcing and bathymetry.

  11. The behavior of particle-reactive tracers in a high turbidity environment: 234Th and 210Pb on the Amazon continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoak, J.M.; DeMaster, D.J.; Pope, R.H.; Kuehl, S.A.; McKee, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Excess 234 Th and 210 Pb seabed inventories were measured in cores collected from the Amazon continental shelf to examine particle scavenging and seabed dynamics. Typical excess 210 Pb inventories range from 100 to 300 dpm cm -2 , and the total excess 210 Pb inventory for the Amazon shelf was determined to be 2.7 x 10 17 dpm. The 210 Pb measurements indicate that particle-reactive species are scavenged not only form the Amazon River but also from the lateral advection of offshore water. In order to sustain the 210 Pb inventories, the volume of water supplied by the lateral advection from offshore must be approximately five to ten times the water discharge of the Amazon River. This lateral advection supplies about 67% of the total excess 210 Pb to the Amazon continental shelf with relatively small contributions from riverine input (31%), atmospheric fallout (2.3%), and in-situ production (0.1%). The 234 Th inventories were measured on four cruises, which occurred during periods of differing river discharge, wind stress, and flow rates of the North Brazil Current. The 234 Th excess seabed inventories show large spatial and seasonal variability, with a range from 0 to 22 dpm cm -2 . This approach indicates that for most of the shelf, the inventories of the shorter-term tracer ( 234 Th) are less than predicted by the inventories of the longer-term tracer ( 210 Pb). There are two explanations for this trend. The first is that a larger portion of the 234 Th inventory occurs in the fluid muds or the water column relative to 210 Pb. The second is that the supply of offshore water, scavenging efficiency, and/or deposition have been lower over the two year study period relative to the last one hundred years. 38 refs., 7 figs

  12. Mesozoic Continental Sediment-dispersal Systems of Mexico Linked to Development of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. F.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Barboza-Gudiño, R.; Rogers, R. D.

    2013-05-01

    Major sediment dispersal systems on western Pangea evolved in concert with thermal uplift, rift and drift phases of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, and were influenced by development of a continental arc on Pangea's western margin. Existing literature and preliminary data from fieldwork, sandstone petrology and detrital zircon analysis reveal how major drainages in Mexico changed from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time and offer predictions for the ultimate destinations of sand-rich detritus along the Gulf and paleo-Pacific margins. Late Triassic rivers drained away from and across the present site of the Gulf of Mexico, which was then the location of a major thermal dome, the Texas uplift of recent literature. These high-discharge rivers with relatively mature sediment composition fed a large-volume submarine fan system on the paleo-Pacific continental margin of Mexico. Predictably, detrital zircon age populations are diverse and record sources as far away as the Amazonian craton. This enormous fluvial system was cut off abruptly near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary by extensive reorganization of continental drainages. Early and Middle Jurassic drainage systems had local headwaters and deposited sediment in extensional basins associated with arc magmatism. Redbeds accumulated across northern and eastern Mexico and Chiapas in long, narrow basins whose locations and dimensions are recorded primarily by inverted antiformal massifs. The Jurassic continental successions overlie Upper Triassic strata and local subvolcanic plutons; they contain interbedded volcanic rocks and thus have been interpreted as part of the Nazas continental-margin arc. The detritus of these fluvial systems is volcanic-lithic; syndepositional grain ages are common in the detrital zircon populations, which are mixed with Oaxaquia-derived Permo-Triassic and Grenville age populations. By this time, interior Pangea no longer supplied sediment to the paleo-Pacific margin, possibly because the

  13. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  14. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  15. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    a unique Antarctic slope fauna, but the paucity of our samples could not demonstrate this in the Scotia Sea. It is very likely that various ecological and evolutionary factors (such as topography, water-mass and sediment characteristics, input of particulate organic carbon (POC) and glaciological history) drive slope distinctness. Isopods showed greatest species richness at slope depths, whereas bryozoans and ostracods were more speciose at shelf depths; however, significance varied across Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea and depending on bathymetric vs. geomorphological definitions. Whilst the slope may harbour some source populations for localised shelf recolonisation, the absence of many shelf species, genera and even families (in a poorly dispersing taxon) from the continental slope indicate that it was not a universal refuge for Antarctic shelf fauna.

  16. Sources and turnover of organic carbon and methane in fjord and shelf sediments off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Hong, Wei-Li; Knies, Jochen; Lepland, Aivo; Forwick, Matthias; Klug, Martin; Eichinger, Florian; Baranwal, Soma; Crémière, Antoine; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2016-10-01

    To better understand the present and past carbon cycling and transformation processes in methane-influenced fjord and shelf areas of northern Norway, we compared two sediment cores from the Hola trough and from Ullsfjorden. We investigated (1) the organic matter composition and sedimentological characteristics to study the sources of organic carbon (Corg) and the factors influencing Corg burial, (2) pore water geochemistry to determine the contribution of organoclastic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to total organic carbon turnover, and (3) the carbon isotopic signature of hydrocarbons to identify the carbon transformation processes and gas sources. High sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates in Ullsfjorden support the notion that fjords are important Corg sinks. The depth of the sulfate-methane-transition (SMT) in the fjord is controlled by the supply of predominantly marine organic matter to the sediment. Organoclastic sulfate reduction accounts for 60% of the total depth-integrated sulfate reduction in the fjord. In spite of the presence of ethane, propane, and butane, we suggest a purely microbial origin of light hydrocarbons in the sediments based on their low δ13C values. In the Hola trough, sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates changed during the deglacial-to-post-glacial transition from approximately 80 cm ka-1 to erosion at present. Thus, Corg burial in this part of the shelf is presently absent. Low organic matter content in the sediment and low rates of organoclastic sulfate reduction (only 3% of total depth-integrated sulfate reduction) entail that the shallow depth of the SMT is controlled mostly by ascending thermogenic methane from deeper sources.

  17. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid and outer continental shelf, head of De Soto Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Meyer, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The mid to outer continental shelf off Mississippi-Alabama and off northwest Florida were the focus of US Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping cruises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. These areas were mapped to investigate the extent of "deep-water reefs" first suggested by Ludwick and Walton (1957). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama were initially described in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957) but the 2000 mapping found reef and hardgrounds to be much more extensive than previously thought (Gardner et al., 2001). The persistent trend of reef-like features along the outer shelf of Mississippi-Alabama suggested the trend might continue along the northwest Florida mid and outer shelf so a MBES-mapping effort was mounted in 2001 to test this suggestion. It is critical to determine the accurate location, geomorphology, and types of the ridges and reefs that occur in this region to understand the Quaternary history of the area and to assess their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The 2001 survey found a series of shelf-depth platforms with ridges (possibly reefs) constructed on their surfaces (Gardner et al., 2002). The area known as the "head of De Soto Canyon" is the large unmapped region between the 2000 and 2001 mapped areas. The head of De Soto Canyon is an outer shelf zone with a relatively steep western wall and a much gentler eastern wall. It was unknown prior to this cruise whether the reefs of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf continue eastward into the head of De Soto Canyon and connect with the ridges and reefs mapped on the northwest Florida outer shelf. The existence of carbonate-cemented latest Quaternary to Holocene sandstones along the western wall of the head of De Soto Canyon (Shipp and Hopkins, 1978; Benson et al., 1997; W.W. Schroeder, personnel comm., 2002) is of interest because of the potential benthic habitats they may represent. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of

  18. Evaluation of sediment trace metal records as paleoproductivity and paleoxygenation proxies in the upwelling center off Concepción, Chile (36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Lange, Carina; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Salamanca, Marco A.; Maldonado, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the records of several trace metals sensitive to redox conditions in continental shelf sediments off Concepción, Chile (36°S). The continental margin off Concepción (36°S; 73°W) lies beneath an important upwelling center characterized by high primary production rates and, consequently, high fluxes of organic matter. In spring and summer, this material settles to the seafloor where it decays, producing periods of very low oxygen content in bottom waters (oxygen minimum zone develops at ∼100-400 m water depth, where dissolved oxygen levels are oxygen at the bottom increases drastically (>1 mL L -1). The goals of this study were to determine the input of trace metals to the sediment and to decipher how this information can be used to reveal variations in primary productivity or bottom oxygenation. Gravity cores collected at two stations - VG06-2 over the mid-shelf station (88 m water depth, upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone) and VG06-3 over the outer shelf (120 m water depth, within the oxygen minimum zone) - were sampled for high resolution profiles (1 cm) of trace metals, biogenic opal, stable isotopes, and total organic carbon. The results suggest that the variability in the trace metal distribution on the continental shelf off Concepción is determined by redox conditions and the organic carbon flux to the bottom. Some sections of the sediment cores from the outer shelf showed appreciable authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 5-10, 2-5, and 10-16 respectively) along with heavier values of δ 15N, suggesting periods of suboxic conditions. During these periods, fluxes of organic material to the bottom were higher, as indicated by elevated TOC and opal contents. Alternating periods of higher and lower trace metal contents were not observed mid-shelf as they were on the outer shelf. Rather, the mid-shelf samples showed authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 1-6, 4-5, and 10-20, respectively) throughout the core except in a

  19. Comment on “Large-scale bedforms along a tideless outer shelf setting in the western Mediterranean” by Lo Iacono et al. (2010) in Continental Shelf Research vol 30, pp. 1802-1813

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Lo Iacono et al. (2010) report the discovery of large (but degraded) subaqueous dunes on the outer continental shelf NE of Valencia, western Mediterranean Sea. They argue that the dunes, after having been generated sometime in the past, are being episodically rejuvenated by high-energy flow events to the present day. Because the height vs. wavelength relation of the dunes falls below the global mean trend predicted by the equation of Flemming (1988), they claim to have discovered a new, low-amplitude type of flow-transverse bedform which typically occurs on microtidal current-swept outer continental shelves. A close inspection of the evidence shows that the reasoning of Lo Iacono et al. (2010) is flawed and that their interpretations and conclusions are premature and unjustified.

  20. Environmental drivers of epibenthic megafauna on a deep temperate continental shelf: A multiscale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the role of abiotic factors in influencing the distribution of deep-water (>75-100 m depth) epibenthic megafaunal communities at mid-to-high latitudes is needed to estimate effects of environmental change, and support marine spatial planning since these factors can be effectively mapped. Given the disparity in scales at which these factors operate, incorporating multiple spatial and temporal scales is necessary. In this study, we determined the relative importance of 3 groups of environmental drivers at different scales (sediment, geomorphology, and oceanography) on epibenthic megafauna on a deep temperate continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic). Twenty benthic photographic transects (range: 611-1021 m; total length surveyed: 18,902 m; 996 images; average of 50 ± 16 images per transect) were performed in July and August 2009 to assess the abundance, composition and diversity of these communities. Surficial geology was assessed using seafloor imagery processed with a novel approach based on computer vision. A bathymetric terrain model (horizontal resolution: 100 m) was used to derive bathymetric variability in the vicinity of transects (1.5, 5 km). Oceanography at the seafloor (temperature, salinity, current speed, current direction) over 10 years (1999-2008) was determined using empirical (World Ocean Database 2013) and modelled data (Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model; 45 vertical layers; horizontal resolution: 1.7-9.5 km). The relative influence of environmental drivers differed between community traits. Abundance was enhanced primarily by swift current speeds, while higher diversity was observed in coarser and more heterogeneous substrates. In both cases, the role of geomorphological features was secondary to these drivers. Environmental variables were poor predictors of change in community composition at the scale of the eastern Gulf of Maine. This study demonstrated the need for explicitly incorporating scales into

  1. Antifoulant (butyltin and copper) concentrations in sediments from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, David; Loong, Dominica

    2002-01-01

    Antifoulant concentrations are generally low in the Great Barrier Reef, although ship grounding sites present a previously unidentified significant source of antifoulant pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef. - Antifoulant concentrations were determined in marine sediments collected from commercial harbours, marinas, mooring locations on mid-shelf continental islands, and outer reef sites in four regions within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in 1999. Highest copper concentrations were present in sediments collected from commercial harbour sampling sites (28-233 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.). In contrast, copper concentrations in sediments collected from boat mooring sites on mid-shelf continental islands and outer reef sites were at background concentrations (i.e. -1 dry wt.). Butyltin was only detectable in four of the 42 sediments sampled for analysis, and was only present in sediments collected from commercial harbours (18-1275 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) and from marinas (4-5 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.). The detection of tributyltin at marina sites implies that this antifoulant may continue to be used illegally on the hulls of smaller recreational vessels. Sediment samples were also collected opportunistically from the site of a 22,000 t cargo ship grounding in May 1999 at Heath Reef, in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Butyltin concentrations were grossly elevated (660-340,000 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) at the grounding site. The impact of residual antifoulants at large ship grounding sites should be recognised as a significant, long-term environmental problem unless antfoulant clean-up strategies are undertaken

  2. 77 FR 71612 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore...), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Sale Notice for commercial leasing for wind power on the Outer Continental Shelf... sale of commercial wind energy leases on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Rhode Island and...

  3. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singsaas, I.; Reed, M.; Nygaard, T.; Sundnes, G.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Well construction team approach creates a new future for one company's operations on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, R.B.; Bakker, T.W.; Mejnertsen, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rising costs and low energy prices were inhibiting the development of marginal fields on the Dutch Continental Shelf, resulting in a major reduction in drilling activity. This triggered a change from traditional operating and contracting strategies to a Well Construction Team approach based on partnering agreements with the principal drilling and service contractors. The change has resulted in major cost reductions coupled to improved well quality that are justifying the re-evaluation of previously sub-economic development prospects. This paper describes the strategies employed and presents the results achieved during the first year of the partnership

  5. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  6. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  7. Interactions between sediment chemistry and frenulate pogonophores (Annelida) in the north-east Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.; Lamont, P.; Harvey, R.

    2008-08-01

    The small frenulate pogonophores (Annelida: Pogonophora a.k.a. Siboglinidae) typically inhabit muddy sediments on the continental slope, although a few species occur near hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We present data on the distribution and habitat characteristics of several species on the European continental shelf and slope from 48°N to 75°N and show how the animals interact with the chemistry of the sediments. The environments inhabited include: shallow (30 m), organic-rich, fjord sediments; slope sediments (1000-2200 m) and methane seeps at 330 m depth. All the species studied obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic bacteria. They take up reduced sulphur species, or in one case, methane, through the posterior parts of their tubes buried in the anoxic sediment. We conclude that most species undertake sulphide 'mining', a mechanism previously demonstrated in the bivalves Lucinoma borealis and Thyasira sarsi. These pogonophores participate in the sulphur cycle and effectively lower the sulphide content of the sediments. Our results show that the abundance of frenulate pogonophores increases with increasing sedimentation and with decreasing abundance of other benthos, particularly bioturbating organisms. The maximum sustainable carrying capacity of non-seep sediments for frenulate pogonophores is limited by the rate of sulphate reduction.

  8. Geochemistry of trace metals in shelf sediments affected by seasonal and permanent low oxygen conditions off central Chile, SE Pacific (˜36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Lange, Carina B.; Inostroza, Jorge; Muratli, Jesse; Salamanca, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, U, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn), total organic carbon (TOC) and C and N stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) were determined in short sediments cores from the inner and outer shelf off Concepción, Chile (˜36°S). The objectives were to establish the effect of environmental conditions on trace metal distributions at two shelf sites, one affected by seasonal oxygenation and the other by permanent low oxygen conditions due to the presence of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We evaluate trace metals as proxies of past changes in primary productivity and the bottom water oxygen regime. Concentrations of pore water sulfides and NH4+ were also measured as indicators of the main diagenetic pathways at each site. Our results for the inner shelf (seasonal suboxia) suggest that the oxidative state of the sediments responds to seasonal pulses of organic matter and that seasonal oxygenation develops during high and low primary productivity in the water column. Here, positive fluxes (to the water column) estimated from pore water concentrations of several elements were observed (Ba, Co, Ni, Fe and Mn). The less reduced environment at this site produces authigenic enrichment of Cu associated with the formation of oxides in the oxic surface sediment layer, and the reduction of U within deeper sediment sections occur consistently with negative estimated pore water fluxes. In the outer shelf sediments (permanent suboxia, OMZ site), negative fluxes (to the sediment) were estimated for all elements, but these sediments showed authigenic enrichments only for Cd, Cu and U. The short oxygenation period during the winter season did not affect the accumulation of these metals on the shelf. The distribution of Cu, Cd and U have been preserved within the sediments and the authigenic accumulation rates estimated showed a decrease from the deep sections of the core to the surface sediments. This could be explained by a gradual decrease in the strength of the OMZ in the

  9. Ecological policy, assessment and prediction of the fate of Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The mathematical model has been designed to investigate the fate and distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides in sediments of the Black Sea. One of the regions of intensive radioactive precipitation during the Chernobyl disaster was the nothwestern Black Sea region. There are some canyon systems in this region, where bottom sediments of the shelf zone are removed to the continental slope region and finally to the abyssal part of the sea. The lack of reliable information on the removal intensity of the shelf sediments, which contain different kinds of radioactive precipitation, does not allow changes in the radioactive situation to be predicted reliably enough in the given region. On the other hand, the surface sedimentary layers dated by characteristic Chernobyl precipitation made it possible to obtain information on sediment movement rates and directions, as well as other quantitative and qualitative parameters for the mechanisms of canyon processes. This region was selected for our study

  10. Distribution patterns and enrichment of lead, zinc and copper in surface sediments of the central Portuguese shelf and upper slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesus, C.C.; de Stigter, H.; Miranda, P.; Oliveira, A.; Rocha, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic patterns of Cu, Pb and Zn enrichment on the Lisbon-Setúbal-Sines continental shelf and upper slope (central Portuguese margin) were studied in this paper to gain insight into current pathways of trace metal dispersal. Our study is based on the analysis of elemental concentrations and

  11. Recent Sedimentary Processes Along the Western Continental Margin of the South Korea Plateau, East Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, D.; Um, I. K.; Bahk, J. J.; Chun, J. H.; Lee, G. S.; Soo, K. G.; Horozal, S.; Kim, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The continental margins of the marginal seas is largely shaped by a complex interplay of sediment transport processes directed both downslope and along-slope. Factors influence the sediment transport from shelf to the deep basin include: (i) seabed morphology, (ii) climate, (iii) sea level changes, (iv) slope stability, (v) oceanographic regime, and (vi) sediment sources. In order to understand the recent sedimentary processes along the western margin of the South Korea Plateau in the East Sea, we collected multiple geophysical datasets including the subbottom profiler and multibeam echosounder as well as geological sampling. Twelve echo types have been defined and interpreted as deposits formed by shallow marine, hemipelagic sedimentation, bottom currents, combined- (mass-movement/hemipelagic and hemipelagic/turbidites) and mass-movement-processes. Hemipelagic sedimentation, which is reflected as undisturbed layered sediments, appears to have been the primary sedimentary process throughout the study area. Two major slope-parallel channels appear to have acted as major conduits for turbidity currents from shallower shelf into the deep basins. Bottom current deposits, which is expressed as undulating seafloor morphology, are prevalent in the southern mid-slope at water depths between 250 to 450 m. Mass-transport deposits, consisting of chaotic seismic facies, occur in the upper and lower parts of the continental slope. Piston cores confirm the presence of MTDs that are characterized by mud clasts of variable size and shape. Multibeam bathymetry data show that these MTDs chiefly initiate on lower-slopes (400-600 m) where the gradient is up to 3°. In addition, subbottom profiles suggest the presence of numerous faults in close vicinity of headwall scarps; some are extending to the seafloor suggesting their recent activity. Earthquakes associated with tectonic activity are considered as the main triggering mechanism for these MTDs. Overall, the acoustic facies

  12. Sediment-Mass Accumulation Rate and Variability in the East China Sea Detected by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The East China Sea (ECS is a region with shallow continental shelves and a mixed oceanic circulation system allowing sediments to deposit on its inner shelf, particularly near the estuary of the Yangtze River. The seasonal northward-flowing Taiwan Warm Current and southward-flowing China Coastal Current trap sediments from the Yangtze River, which are accumulated over time at rates of up to a few mm/year in equivalent water height. Here, we use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE gravity products from three data centres to determine sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs and variability on the ECS inner shelf. We restore the atmospheric and oceanic effects to avoid model contaminations on gravity signals associated with sediment masses. We apply destriping and spatial filters to improve the gravity signals from GRACE and use the Global Land Data Assimilation System to reduce land leakage. The GRACE-derived MARs over April 2002–March 2015 on the ECS inner shelf are about 6 mm/year and have magnitudes and spatial patterns consistent with those from sediment-core measurements. The GRACE-derived monthly sediment depositions show variations at time scales ranging from six months to more than two years. Typically, a positive mass balance of sediment deposition occurs in late fall to early winter when the southward coastal currents prevail. A negative mass balance happens in summer when the coastal currents are northward. We identify quasi-biennial sediment variations, which are likely to be caused by quasi-biennial variations in rain and erosion in the Yangtze River basin. We briefly explain the mechanisms of such frequency-dependent variations in the GRACE-derived ECS sediment deposition. There is no clear perturbation on sediment deposition over the ECS inner shelf induced by the Three Gorges Dam. The limitations of GRACE in resolving sediment deposition are its low spatial resolution (about 250 km and possible contaminations by

  13. Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the processes by which sediment is transported through a submarine canyon incised in a glaciated margin, the bottom boundary layer quadrapod RALPH was deployed at 276-m depth in the West Halibut Canyon (off Newfoundland) during winter 2008-2009. Two main sediment transport processes were identified throughout the deployment. Firstly, periodic increases of near-bottom suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) were recorded associated with the up-canyon propagation of the semidiurnal internal tidal bore along the canyon axis, carrying fine sediment particles resuspended from deeper canyon regions. The recorded SSC peaks, lasting less than one hour, were observed sporadically and were linked to bottom intensified up-canyon flows concomitant with sharp drops in temperature. Secondly, sediment transport was also observed during events of intensified down-canyon current velocities that occurred during periods of sustained heat loss from surface waters, but were not associated with large storms. High-resolution velocity profiles throughout the water column during these events revealed that the highest current speeds (~1 m s-1) were centered several meters above the sea floor and corresponded to the region of maximum velocities of a gravity flow. Such flows had associated low SSC and cold water temperatures and have been interpreted as dense shelf water cascading events channelized along the canyon axis. Sediment transport during these events was largely restricted to bedload and saltation, producing winnowing of sands and fine sediments around larger gravel particles. Analysis of historical hydrographic data suggests that the origin of such gravity flows is not related to the formation of coastal dense waters advected towards the canyon head. Rather, the dense shelf waters appear to be generated around the outer shelf, where convection during winter is able to reach the sea floor and generate a pool of near-bottom dense water that cascades into the canyon

  14. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  15. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  16. A longitudinal study of fallow dynamics in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Alexander G.; Kasim, Sola A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies the causes of and solutions to the problems posed by the fallow assets' phenomenon in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS). Using data available in the public domain, including the Fifth Fallow Release, the province's assets were grouped into two broad cross-sections of fallow and non-fallow assets, with further sub-divisions. The dependent variable of interest was the median fallow duration of the assets. Fallow duration was measured in two ways, namely those relating to censored and uncensored data. An empirical panel econometric model was formulated, estimated and simulated to establish the principal causal factors and the effective remedial policy measures. The model estimation results provide evidence that the interactive effects of the key influencing variables are stronger than their individual effects. Thus, the combined effects of reserves and distance from infrastructure have a greater weight on the fallow spell than their individual effects. Several policy simulation runs established that, contrary to some theoretical propositions (a) stronger rather than weaker government intervention, on occasion, is preferable, and (b) price is not a central determinant of investment timing

  17. Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) submitted October, 1972 (NODC Accession 7300575)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data were collected by the Skidway Institute of Oceanography (SKIO). Data were collected...

  18. A new era for the offshore oil and gas industry on the UKCS [United Kingdom Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the development of the offshore oil and gas industry on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) and particularly the role played by science and technology in that development. An historical perspective is taken in the first instance to place recent developments in context, before exploring the role of science and technology in the 1990s. Three areas of key importance form the basis of the discussion: the maintenance of production from the traditional provinces, the development of new provinces and the mitigation of environmental impacts. The paper demonstrates the crucial role that science and technology plays in each of these areas. (author)

  19. The effects of thick sediment upon continental breakup: seismic imaging and thermal modeling of the Salton Trough, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lázaro-Mancilla, O.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting ultimately creates a deep accommodation space for sediment. When a major river flows into a late-stage rift, thick deltaic sediment can change the thermal regime and alter the mechanisms of extension and continental breakup. The Salton Trough, the northernmost rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary, has experienced the same extension as the rest of the Gulf, but is filled to sea level by sediment from the Colorado River. Unlike the southern Gulf, seafloor spreading has not initiated. Instead, seismicity, high heat flow, and minor volcanoes attest to ongoing rifting of thin, transitional crust. Recently acquired controlled-source seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data in the Salton Trough provide constraints upon crustal architecture and active rift processes. The crust in the central Salton Trough is only 17-18 km thick, with a strongly layered but relatively one-dimensional structure for ~100 km in the direction of plate motion. The upper crust includes 2-4 km of Colorado River sediment. Crystalline rock below the sediment is interpreted to be similar sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow and geothermal activity. Meta-sediment extends to at least 9 km depth. A 4-5 km thick layer in the middle crust is either additional meta-sediment or stretched pre-existing continental crust. The lowermost 4-5 km of the crust is rift-related mafic magmatic intrusion or underplating from partial melting in the hot upper mantle. North American lithosphere in the Salton Trough has been almost or completely rifted apart. The gap has been filled by ~100 km of new transitional crust created by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. These processes create strong lithologic, thermal, and rheologic layering. While heat flow in the rift is very high, rapid sedimentation cools the upper crust as compared to a linear geotherm. Brittle extension occurs within new meta-sedimentary rock. The lower crust, in comparison, is

  20. Condições hidrográficas na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba: variações sazonais e em média escala Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf off Ubatuba: seasonal and meso-scale variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Mendes de Castro Filho

    1987-01-01

    estruturas térmica e halina, tem provavelmente um importante papel na troca de massas de água entre a costa e o talude, contribuindo para o enriquecimento das águas da plataforma continental através dos movimentos ascendentes que ocorrem em seu núcleo.Hydrographic conditions on the continental shelf offshore of Ubatuba have shown different water mass distributions for summer (December, 1985 and winter (July, 1986. Two physical domains were identified: inner shelf and outer shelf, both separated by a front particularly well defined during the winter, The inner shelf has a two layer vertical stratification during summer, with a strong thermocline at mid-depths. During winter this region shows almost no stratification, During summer the upper layer (depths smaller than 20 m is filled with Coastal Water (CW, which interacts with Tropical Water (TW offshore. South Atlantic Central Water (SACA predominates in the lower layer during surrmer. Vertical interaction between CW and SACA is restricted to a band near the coast. During winter SACA does not penetrate towards the coast in the lower layer and, as a consequence, the inner shelf shows the presence of CW only. For winter interactions between CW and SACA are observed only across the front that separates inner and outer shelf. For this season there is also a noticeable intrusion of TW towards the coast on the upper layer of the outer shelf. A descriptive model for the wind driven seasonal circulation of the inner shelf is sugested, based on: 1 the water mass distributions observed and: 2 meteorological conditions from a coastal station located southward of Ubatuba, The outer shelf dynamics seems to suffer strong influence from the Brazil Current. Eddies or meanders with characteristics of frontal eddies, have been observed on both seasons on the outer shelf. These eddies should play an important role on the water mass exchange between the shelf and the slope, contributing for the enrichment of shelf waters by the upward

  1. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  2. Investigation of the role of gas hydrates in continental slope stability west of Fiordland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Crutchley, Gareth; Gorman, Andrew R.; Fohrmann, Miko

    2007-01-01

    Sediment weakening due to increased local pore fluid pressure is interpreted to be the cause of a submarine landslide that has been seismically imaged off the southwest coast of New Zealand. Data show a distinct and continuous bottom‐simulating reflection (BSR)—a seismic phenomena indicative of the presence of marine gas hydrate—below the continental shelf from water depths of c. 2400 m to c. 750 m, where it intersects the seafloor. Excess pore fluid pressure (EPP) generated in a free gas zon...

  3. REMOTE SENSING OF THE SEDIMENTATION PLUME OF THE RIVER SAN JUAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ballestero, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The River San Juan (RSJ), in the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, is one the major rivers in Central America and drains the largest basin in the region (38570 km²) in terms of volume. Extending from Lago Cicibolca to the Caribbean Sea, the RSJ is an important source of freshwater, sediments, nutrients and pollutants to the continental shelf. Ecosystems degradation, contamination of water bodies and overexploitation of natural resources, particularly deforestation in the southern part ...

  4. Shelf-to-basin iron shuttling enhances vivianite formation in deep Baltic Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is a growing and persistent problem largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) loading. Recent studies suggest phosphorus removal through burial of iron (II) phosphates, putatively vivianite, plays an important role in nutrient cycling in the Baltic Sea - the world's largest anthropogenic dead zone - yet the dynamics of iron (II) phosphate formation are poorly constrained. To address this, a reactive-transport model was used to reconstruct the diagenetic and depositional history of sediments in the Fårö basin, a deep anoxic and sulphidic region of the Baltic Sea where iron (II) phosphates have been observed. Simulations demonstrate that transport of iron from shelf sediments to deep basins enhances vivianite formation while sulphide concentrations are low, but that pyrite forms preferentially over vivianite when sulphate reduction intensifies due to elevated organic loading. Episodic reoxygenation events, associated with major inflows of oxic waters, encourage the retention of iron oxyhydroxides and iron-bound phosphorus in sediments, increasing vivianite precipitation as a result. Results suggest that artificial reoxygenation of the Baltic Sea bottom waters could sequester up to 3% of the annual external phosphorus loads as iron (II) phosphates, but this is negligible when compared to potential internal phosphorus loads due to dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides when low oxygen conditions prevail. Thus, enhancing vivianite formation through artificial reoxygenation of deep waters is not a viable engineering solution to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Finally, simulations suggest that regions with limited sulphate reduction and hypoxic intervals, such as eutrophic estuaries, could act as important phosphorus sinks by sequestering vivianite. This could potentially alleviate eutrophication in shelf and slope environments.

  5. The SPARDIG project - Transforming analogue sparker records from the Norwegian continental shelf into SEG-Y format, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Marc; Rise, Leif; Chand, Shyam; Reidulv, Bøe; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Redfield, Tim

    2017-04-01

    the upper part of the records. Some lines show no details of the Quaternary stratigraphy, especially when the Quaternary overburden is thin, and in that case the sparker lines are of inestimable value. Off mid Norway, the SEG-Y transformed sparker lines were interpreted together with 2D seismic lines, and an updated geological map was made for the coastal area. We were able to classify the basement-sediment contact as fault related or stratigraphic. Several new faults were mapped based on detailed bathymetry and seismic data. Exposures of weathered basement at the seafloor and juxtaposition of basement and sediments across inherited faults were observed for several kilometers along strike. These relationships provide important links to the deeper structure and stratigraphy of the Mid-Norwegian margin. The SPARDIG project secured a national treasure for future investigations. This type of high-resolution regional grid will probably never be collected again in Norway. References Chand et al. 2016 - Transforming analogue sparker records from the Norwegian continental shelf into SEG-Y format. Technical report, Spardig project, 2016.038, http://www.ngu.no/upload/Publikasjoner/Rapporter/2016/2016_038.pdf. Miles et al., 2007 - Resurrecting vintage paper seismic records. Mar Geophys Res 28, 319-329, DOI:10.1007/s11001-007-9034-5.

  6. The Role of the Submarine Channel Pernambuco in the Brazilian Continental Margin East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Villena, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Continental Margin, which coastline measures more than 8,500km gives to Brazil continental dimensions. This huge region is conditioned by the action of process such as, sedimentals, tectonics, geomorphological and climatical, as example, which direct or in conjunction with other ones, since of continental break up between South America and Africa are going on and may be responsible for the current morphology of the margin. In accordance with this point of view, the Oriental part of the Brazilian Continental Margin, presents characteristics of a passive margin and fisiographically ''starved'', in which the continental break occur no more than 100km from de coastline and the sedimentary coverage is mainly carbonatic. The continental slope does not present great extension if compared with other parts of the Brazilian Margin and sharp gradient. The remark presence of the continental plateaus (Rio Grande Plateau and Pernambuco Plateau), which link with the continental rise and additionally the Paraiba, Pernambuco e Bahia seamounts, are the majors features in the morphology of the region between the slope and the continental rise. This paper will concentrate its focus on Bahia Seamount, with emphasis in the mainly erosive feature which cut transversally the seamounts, named Pernambuco Submarine Channel. It will be employed bathymetric multibeam and seismic data carried out by the Brazilian Continental Shelf Project (LEPLAC) in the current year and pieces of information from bibliographic researches in order to present a discussion by the hole of the Pernambuco Submarine Channel in the Occidental region of the Brazilian Continental Margin

  7. Trophic Groups Of Demersal Fish Of Santos Bay And Adjacent Continental Shelf, São Paulo State, Brazil: Temporal And Spatial Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeti Y. Muto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial variations of feeding habits and trophic groups of demersal fish species of Santos Bay and the adjacent continental shelf were investigated. The samples were taken in September 2005 and March 2006 by bottom otter trawling. The stomach content analysis of 2,328 specimens of 49 species showed most fish fed on a large range of food items but relied heavily on shrimp, crabs/swimming-crabs, amphipods, mysids, polychaetes, ophiuroids, squids, and teleosteans. The species were classified into ten trophic groups. Shrimp were an important food source in the Santos bay and inner shelf, while ophiuroids were important prey for predators of the middle shelf. Many species relied on crabs/swimming-crabs during the summer, especially on the middle shelf. The spatial and temporal variability in food resource utilization by fish were related to the pattern of distribution and abundance of their prey. The predation on shrimp and crabs/swimming-crabs seems to be related to the water mass dynamics of the region. Intraspecific comparisons demonstrated that most of the species display spatial and/or temporal variation in their diet. The demersal ichtyofauna can also be divided into the more general categories of piscivores, nektonic invertebrate feeders, benthic invertebrate feeders and planktonic invertebrate feeders.

  8. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  9. Structural lineaments from the magnetic anomaly maps of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) and NW Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Subrahmanyam, A; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    extension of 85 degrees E ridge, abutting the continental shelf off Chilka Lake and (3) trend 3, locted over the continental shelf/slope between Visakhapatnm and Paradip represents a folded (ridges and depressions) nature of the continental basement...

  10. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Riboulleau, A.; du Châtelet, E. Armynot; Lorenzoni, L.; Tribovillard, N.; Murray, R. W.; Müller-Karger, F.; Astor, Y. M.

    2013-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin. The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. These maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin. This approach allows (1) identifying the most distinctive clay-mineral species/ratios that determine particle provenance, (2) evaluating the respective contribution of local rivers, and (3) confirming the minimal present-day influence of the Orinoco plume on the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. The Tuy, Unare, and Neveri Rivers are the main sources of clay particles to the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin. The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence. These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

  11. Magmatism and sedimentation in an area in the Continental Shelf of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the Upper Cretaceous - Tertiary interval; Magmatismo e sedimentacao em uma area na Plataforma Continental de Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no intervalo Cretaceo Superior - Terciario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreiro, Sergio Goulart [PETROBRAS S.A., Santos, SP (Brazil). E e P. Ativo de Exploracao Santos - Polo Sul], E-mail: oreiro@petrobras.com.br

    2005-11-15

    The Continental Shelf of the Cabo Frio Area shows unique features in its tectono-sedimentary evolution when compared to the other areas of the Campos and Santos basins. The presence of a regular pattern of antithetic faults in the basement and in the sin-rift and post-rift sedimentary sections, are some of these features. In addition, the area shows important magmatic events in the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences, which climax took place in the earliest portion of the Middle Eocene. The description of these magmatic events and their influence in the post-rift sedimentation is the main objective of this paper. The analyses of seismic reflection and well log data, in the work area, points to a set of diagnostic features that can lead to the identification of magmatic events and the distinction of intrusive from extrusive rocks, as well as their intercalations with epiclastic sedimentary sequences. Volcanic edifices have preserved their conical shapes when they were formed under submarine conditions; under subaereal conditions, they show irregular shapes due to erosion. In this way, these observations indicate the paleobathymetry for the time of the formation of these edifices. In the case of the work area, the integration of the analyzed data indicates that extrusive events are more widespread than intrusive events. The sedimentary pattern of the work area is similar to that of the Campos Basin. The sedimentary sequences that overlap this volcano-sedimentary section are not directly related to the magmatic pulses in the area; however, they affected the palaeo-relief of the sea floor, which controlled turbiditic deposition. (author)

  12. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    of the northern and western Gulf of Mexico, the north coast of Alaska and the Niger Delta [Gearing et al., 1977], surface sediments from the Beaufort shelf, Beaufort Sea [Goni et al., 2000], coastal sediments from the Gulf of Trieste, N Adriatic Sea [Ogrinc et... the chemical composition of SOC off the Washington margin [Keil et al. 1994; Prahl et al. 1994], Amazon [Goni, 1997], Bengal fans [Lanord and Derry, 1994], and Gulf of Mexico [Goni et al. 1997]. Other possible reason could be preferential removal of N...

  13. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  14. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  15. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Gravity studies over the continental margin of the central west coast of India show a sediment thickness of 2-3 km on the shelf associated with deeper hoest and graben structures, of 6 km... sequence ranges from Palaeocene to Recent. Stratigraphy as obtained from the explor atory wells BH-I, DCS-IA, HI2-1, and R6-110cated in the Bombay offshore basin is shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 depicts the seismogeological section of the Bombay offshore...

  16. Observations of the Variability of Floc Sizes on the Louisiana Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cihan; Sheremet, Alexandru

    2014-05-01

    profiles were obtained at each range bin and propagated along the backscattered profile using the implicit iterative approach, which is based on calculation of SSC and mean size iteratively until the values in the last two iterations converge (Sahin, under review). Estimated SSC profiles are in agreement with OBS point measurements with a correlation coefficient of 0.88 and 0.12 kg/m3 RMS error. The range of floc size estimates is consistent with the floc-size measurements in 2006 at the same site. Turbulent shear profiles were estimated using the current velocity profiles measured by the PC-ADP. As a first step, the friction velocities are estimated following Lacy et. al. (2005) by fitting the logarithmic profiles in a least-square sense to the current velocity profiles outside the wave boundary layer (Safak et al., 2013), which can then be used to approximate the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent shear for each bin. The detailed investigation of the resulting SSC, floc-size and the turbulent shear rate profiles showed that low-to-mid values of shear rate promotes flocculation by increasing cohesive sediment particle collision. However, higher turbulent shear strongly affects large flocs, which have weaker internal bonds than those of the primary particles. These field observations support the findings observed in several previous experimental and numerical studies (Parker et al., 1972; Dyer, 1989). Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research funding of contracts N00014-10-1-0363 and N00014-11-1-0269. References Berhane, I., Sternberg R.W., Kineke G.C., Milligan T.G., Kranck, K., 1997. The variability of suspended aggregates on the Amazon Continental Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 17, 267-285. Dyer, K. R., 1989. Sediment processes in estuaries: future research requirements. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 14327-14339. Dyer, K. R., Manning A.J., 1999. Observation of size, settling velocity and effective

  17. Geochemistry of rare earths in main media of clay formation and sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnot-Courtois, C.

    1981-01-01

    This work aims i) at a better knowledge of rare earth behavior in surface conditions and ii) possible use of rare earth as a marker for argilaceous mineral genesis. Chemical properties of rare earths and geochemistry of these elements in main rocks are recalled. Rare earth behaviour during continental alteration process, experimental hydrolysis of various magmatic materials and rare earth geochemistry in argilaceous minerals in continental shelf are examined. Then some aspects of rare earth behaviour in oceans are studied: alteration of sea bed and hydrothermalism rare earth distribution in pelagic sediments red clays of deep seas and manganese nodules. In conclusion rare earth behaviour in sedimentary processes of the exogenous cycle is summarized [fr

  18. Record of continental to marine transition from the Mesoproterozoic Ampani basin, Central India: An exercise of process-based sedimentology in a structurally deformed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Saha, Subhojit; Das, Kaushik

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Ampani Group of rocks, a structurally deformed sedimentary package hosted within the Bastar Craton in central India, was studied for process-based facies and paleoenvironmental analyses. Outcrop mapping on 1:1500 scale, deconvolution of deformation pattern, and process-based facies analyses have led to the identification of fifteen facies types, clubbed under four facies associations. A range of paleoenvironmental settings varying from continental fluvial to distal marine shelf is inferred. Deductive paleohydrology revealed poorly-efficient 'dirty river' character for the Ampani River system with low water discharge. However, at times of catastrophic sheet floods release of sediments trapped at the river mouth in form of hyperpycnal underflows triggered formation of river mouth delta. Reworking of delta front sediment in wave-dominated coastline resulted development of beach-foreshore and shoreface (proximal to distal). Variation in the relative proportion of bar and interbar products within the shoreface successions exposed at different studied sections is interpreted as signature of relative bathymetric variation. The pro-deltaic Ampani shelf was storm infested. Tectonic perturbance in the basin hinterland in course of Ampani sedimentation is inferred from occurrence of a disparately thick lobate high-density flow deposit towards the top of shoreface succession and increase in feldspar content upward within the shoreface succession. Addition of detritus from a ∼1600 Ma Mesoproterozoic provenance in upper part of shoreface also strengthen the contention. Deconvolution of deformation pattern and delineation of environmental products ranging between continental and deep marine allowed us to infer the Ampani sediment package as fining-upward in character evolved in a transgressive mode.

  19. Semi-Automated Classification of Seafloor Data Collected on the Delmarva Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, E. M.; Pendleton, E. A.; Brothers, L. L.; Mahmud, A.; Thieler, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    We tested automated classification methods on acoustic bathymetry and backscatter data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on the Delmarva inner continental shelf to efficiently and objectively identify sediment texture and geomorphology. Automated classification techniques are generally less subjective and take significantly less time than manual classification methods. We used a semi-automated process combining unsupervised and supervised classification techniques to characterize seafloor based on bathymetric slope and relative backscatter intensity. Statistical comparison of our automated classification results with those of a manual classification conducted on a subset of the acoustic imagery indicates that our automated method was highly accurate (95% total accuracy and 93% Kappa). Our methods resolve sediment ridges, zones of flat seafloor and areas of high and low backscatter. We compared our classification scheme with mean grain size statistics of samples collected in the study area and found that strong correlations between backscatter intensity and sediment texture exist. High backscatter zones are associated with the presence of gravel and shells mixed with sand, and low backscatter areas are primarily clean sand or sand mixed with mud. Slope classes further elucidate textural and geomorphologic differences in the seafloor, such that steep slopes (>0.35°) with high backscatter are most often associated with the updrift side of sand ridges and bedforms, whereas low slope with high backscatter correspond to coarse lag or shell deposits. Low backscatter and high slopes are most often found on the downdrift side of ridges and bedforms, and low backscatter and low slopes identify swale areas and sand sheets. We found that poor acoustic data quality was the most significant cause of inaccurate classification results, which required additional user input to mitigate. Our method worked well

  20. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  1. Submission of Republica Oriental del Uruguay to the Commission on the limits of the continental shelf pursuant to provisions of article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata Prates, C.; Tajes, J.; Burgos, M.; Caamaño; Lamartheé; Montiel, D.; Preciozzi, F.; De Santa Ana, H.

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to provisions of article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter the Convention), and to article 4 of Annex II of same, República Oriental del Uruguay (Uruguay) hereby submits to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (the Commission) particulars on the outer limit of its continental shelf, extending beyond 200 nautical miles (M) from the baselines from which the breadth of territorial sea is measured. On December 10, 1982 Uruguay signed the Convention, which was subsequently approved by Uruguayan Law Nº 16,287, and ratified on December 10, 1992. The porvisions of article 76 invoked in Uruguay submission fixed points delimiting Uruguay’s Continental Shelf. There exist, at present, no unresolved disputes over the maritime border with either of Uruguay’s neighbouring countries, Argentina or Brazil. It was received assistance in the elaboration of this Submission April 2008, from member of the Commission and also assistance from other, non-member consultants and institutions from Germany, Brazil, Portugal and Norway

  2. 137Cs as tracer of the origin of allochthonous sediments in the Southeast Continental Margin of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Ma