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Sample records for content urine calcium

  1. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  2. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  3. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

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    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  4. Quantitative Mineralogical Composition of Calculi and Urine Abnormalities for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers: A Single-Center Results.

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    Kustov, Andrey V; Strelnikov, Alexander I

    2017-12-26

    The paper focuses on the relationship of risk factors and metabolic disorders with mineralogical composition of calculi, age and gender of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stone mineralogical composition, 24 hour biochemistry and pH-profile of urine were examined for sixty four stone formers using powder X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. The analysis indicated that 44 % of calculi were composed of pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, whereas other 56 % contained both monohydrate and dihydrate or usually their mixtures with hydroxyl apatite. Hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria were identified as the most frequent disorders. Patients with pure calcium oxalate stones and calcium oxalate mixed with apatite revealed different patterns including age, acid-base balance of urine, calcium, citrate excretion etc. Our results demonstrate that most patients simultaneously reveal several risk factors. The special attention should be paid to normalize the daily citrate, calcium and urate excretion. High risk patients, such as postmenopausal females or stone formers with a high apatite content require a specific metabolic evaluation towards in highlighting abnormalities associated with stone formation.

  5. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

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    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

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    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  7. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

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    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  8. The influence of freezer storage of urine samples on the BONN-Risk-Index for calcium oxalate crystallization.

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    Laube, Norbert; Zimmermann, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the effect of a 1-week freezer storage of urine on its calcium oxalate crystallization risk. Calcium oxalate is the most common urinary stone material observed in urolithiasis patients in western and affluent countries. The BONN-Risk-Index of calcium oxalate crystallization risk in human urine is determined from a crystallization experiment performed on untreated native urine samples. We tested the influence of a 1-week freezing on the BONN-Risk-Index value as well as the effect of the sample freezing on the urinary osmolality. In vitro crystallization experiments in 49 native urine samples from stone-forming and non-stone forming individuals were performed in order to determine their calcium oxalate crystallization risk according to the BONN-Risk-Index approach. Comparison of the results derived from original sample investigations with those obtained from the thawed aliquots by statistical evaluation shows that i) no significant deviation from linearity between both results exists and ii) both results are identical by statistical means. This is valid for both, the BONN-Risk-Index and the osmolality data. The differences in the BONN-Risk-Index results of both procedures of BONN-Risk-Index determination, however, exceed the clinically acceptable difference. Thus, determination of the urinary calcium oxalate crystallization risk from thawed urine samples cannot be recommended.

  9. Effects of diphosphonate on kidney calcium content and duodenal absorption of 45calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; Cameron, V.

    1978-01-01

    In rats the relationships between EHDP-induced changes in serum calcium concentration, kidney calcium content and duodenal transport of 45 calcium were studied. Body weights and kidney weights were similar in all groups. EHDP administration was associated with an increase in serum calcium concentration and kidney calcium content, and a decrease in duodenal 45 calcium transport. In the EHDP-treated rats, there was a significant negative correlation between kidney calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport but no correlation between either kidney calcium content and serum calcium concentration (r = 0.116) or between serum calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport (r = 0.02). Further experiments will be needed to determine whether the demonstrated increase in kidney calcium content induced by EHDP administration was the cause of, or was secondary to, inhibition of 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 synthesis. (orig./AJ) [de

  10. Effect of immobilization on urine calcium excretion in orthopedic patients with pelvic fracture treated by skin traction.

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    Derakhshan, Ali; Derakhshan, Nima; Namazi, Hamid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2015-03-31

    To determine the effects on urine calcium excretion of immobilization by skin traction in patients with pelvic fracture. In a prospective study, a consecutive series of patients with pelvic fracture treated by skin traction were enrolled. Serum (calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, sodium, potassium, uric acid, BUN, creatinine) and fasting urine calcium, creatinine, sodium, potassium and uric acid were checked within 48 hours of hospitalization and at 7, 14 and 21 days of immobilization and then after 3 months of mobilization. Trends in changes of variables were recorded. Fifty five patients were enrolled in this study; they were 45 (81.8%) males and 10 (18.2%) females with a mean age 19.4 ± 12.7 years. We found that serum levels of calcium (p = 0.004), phosphorous (p = 0.047) and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.001) increased significantly during the 3 weeks of immobilization. In the same way, urine calcium/ urine creatinine ratio increased significantly in the study period (p = 0.004). No symptomatic renal stone formation was observed during the study period. Immobilization even in short term causes hypercalciuria in orthopedic patients. Although it is transient and improves with subsequent mobilization, it is needed to be considered specifically by the team caring for this group of patients.

  11. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

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    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  12. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

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    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioisotope 45Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds and tracing calcium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To build up a new method of the radioisotope 45 Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds, observe and tracing bioavailability change of calcium labeled with radioisotope 45 Ca. Methods: The calcium gluconate (Ca-Glu), calcium citrate (Ca-Cit), calcium carbonate (Ca-Car) and calcium L-threonate (Ca-Thr)were labeled by radioisotope 45 Ca. Four calcium chemical compounds of 45 Ca labeling were used of calcium content 200 mg/kg in the rats and measure the absorption content and bioavailability of calcium in tissue of heart, lever spleen, stomach, kidney, brain, intestine, whole blood, urine, faeces. Results: 1) Radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compound has high radio intensity, more steady standard curve and recover rate. 2) The absorption of organic calcium chemical compounds is higher than the inorganic calcium chemical compound in the study of calcium bioavailability. Conclusion: The method of tracing with radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compounds has the characteristic of the sensitive, objective, accurate and steady in the study of calcium bioavailability

  14. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

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    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  15. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones

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    Mustafa Kıraç

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%, 43 (39.8%, and 38 (35.5% of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05. The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate—but not calcium—abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  16. [Comparison of the therapeutic effect on skeletal fluorosis and impact on urine fluoride value among fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3].

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    Wang, Tong; Yang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Jin-Cao; Chen, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Jing; Jiao, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the impacts on skeletal fluorosis pain, joint motor dysfunction and urine fluoride excretion in the treatment with fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3. The randomized controlled trial was adopted. Ninety-five patients were randomized into a fire needle group (31 cases), an electroacupuncture group (33 cases) and a calcium carbonate D3 group (31 cases). In the fire needle group and the electroacupuncture group, Ashi points, Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Xuehai (SP 10) points were selected and stimulated with fire needle and electroacupuncture separately, three times a week. In the calcium carbonate D3 group, calcium carbonate D3 tablets was prescribed for oral administration, 600 mg each time, twice a day. The duration of treatment was 2 months in the electroacupuncture group and calcium carbonate D3 group and 1 month in the fire needle group. VAS score, the range of motion (ROM) and urine fluoride value were compared before and after treatment in the patients of the three groups. After treatment, VAS value and ROM were improved significantly in the patients of the three groups (all P 0.05). After treatment, the urine fluoride value was increased significantly in the fire needle group [(7.89 +/- 3.61) mg/L vs (9.81 +/- 4.17) mg/L, P electroacupuncture group [(7.53 +/- 3.46) mg/L vs (8.97 +/- 4.21) mg/L, P 0.05). The fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3 all have the clinical value in the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis and the difference in the therapeutic effect has not been discovered among them yet at present. But it has been found that the fire needle therapy and electroacupuncture display the active significance in the promotion of urine fluoride excretion.

  17. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

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    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  18. Stochastic simulations of calcium contents in sugarcane area

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    Gener T. Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to quantify and to map the spatial distribution and uncertainty of soil calcium (Ca content in a sugarcane area by sequential Gaussian and simulated-annealing simulation methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Guariba, northeast of the São Paulo state. A sampling grid with 206 points separated by a distance of 50 m was established, totaling approximately 42 ha. The calcium contents were evaluated in layer of 0-0.20 m. Techniques of geostatistical estimation, ordinary kriging and stochastic simulations were used. The technique of ordinary kriging does not reproduce satisfactorily the global statistics of the Ca contents. The use of simulation techniques allows reproducing the spatial variability pattern of Ca contents. The techniques of sequential Gaussian simulation and simulated annealing showed significant variations in the contents of Ca in the small scale.

  19. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  20. The study of skeletal calcium metabolism with 41Ca and 45Ca

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    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Beck, Belinda; Bierman, June M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Heaney, Robert P.; Holloway, Leah; Marcus, Robert; Southon, John R.; Vogel, John S.

    2000-10-01

    The living skeleton can be labeled for life by the administration of radiologically trivial amounts of 41Ca tracer. After initial elimination of tracer from the readily exchangeable calcium pools subsequent skeletal calcium turnover maintains and modulates the urine 41Ca content. Uniquely, bone calcium metabolism may then be studied with tracer in near equilibrium with the body's calcium and resorbing calcium directly measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of excreta. Our experiments with 25 41Ca labeled subjects demonstrate excellent diurnal stability and remarkable response to intervention of the urine signal. Thus the tracer method may prove a competitive means of measuring the effects of antiresorptive osteoporosis treatments, for therapy development or even clinical monitoring. Novel studies of long-term skeletal evolution are also possible. We realize that routinely administered short-lived calcium radiotracers contain 41Ca impurities and that thousands of experimental participants have been historically inadvertently 41Ca labeled. The 41Ca urine index might now rapidly further be characterized by contemporary measurements of these one-time subjects, and with their by now thoroughly skeleton-equilibrated tracer they might be ideal participants in other new experiments. We are also investigating 45Ca AMS. It may prove preferable to label the skeleton with this radiotracer already familiar to bioscientists, but new to AMS.

  1. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  2. Cooperation of phosphates and carboxylates controls calcium oxalate crystallization in ultrafiltered urine.

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    Grohe, Bernd; Chan, Brian P H; Sørensen, Esben S; Lajoie, Gilles; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K

    2011-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is one of a group of proteins found in urine that are believed to limit the formation of kidney stones. In the present study, we investigate the roles of phosphate and carboxylate groups in the OPN-mediated modulation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), the principal mineral phase found in kidney stones. To this end, crystallization was induced by addition of CaOx solution to ultrafiltered human urine containing either human kidney OPN (kOPN; 7 consecutive carboxylates, 8 phosphates) or synthesized peptides corresponding to residues 65-80 (pSHDHMDDDDDDDDDGD; pOPAR) or 220-235 (pSHEpSTEQSDAIDpSAEK; P3) of rat bone OPN. Sequence 65-80 was also synthesized without the phosphate group (OPAR). Effects on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) formation were studied by scanning electron microscopy. We found that controls form large, partly intergrown COM platelets; COD was never observed. Adding any of the polyelectrolytes was sufficient to prevent intergrowth of COM platelets entirely, inhibiting formation of these platelets strongly, and inducing formation of the COD phase. Strongest effects on COM formation were found for pOPAR and OPAR followed by kOPN and then P3, showing that acidity and hydrophilicity are crucial in polyelectrolyte-affected COM crystallization. At higher concentrations, OPAR also inhibited COD formation, while P3, kOPN and, in particular, pOPAR promoted COD, a difference explainable by the variations of carboxylate and phosphate groups present in the molecules. Thus, we conclude that carboxylate groups play a primary role in inhibiting COM formation, but phosphate and carboxylate groups are both important in initiating and promoting COD formation.

  3. Calcium response to vitamin D supplementation

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    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the importance of serum vitamin D sufficient levels to prevent multiple chronic diseases. However, vitamin D supplementation and its effects on urine calcium excretion remain controversial. The objective of this prospective and interventional study was to evaluate urine calcium excretion in women with normal calciuria or hypercalciuria, once serum vitamin D sufficiency was achieved. We studied 63 women with idiopathic hypercalciuria, (9 with renal lithiasis and 50 normocalciuric women. Both groups had serum vitamin D levels low (deficiency or insufficiency. Baseline urine calcium excretion was measured before being supplemented with vitamin D2 or D3 weekly or vitamin D3 100.000 IU monthly. Once serum vitamin D levels were corrected achieving at least 30 ng/ml, a second urine calcium excretion was obtained. Although in the whole sample we did not observe significant changes in urine calcium excretion according to the way of supplementation, some of those with weekly supplementation had significant higher urine calcium excretion, 19% (n = 12 of hypercalciuric women and 12% (n = 6 of the normocalciuric group. Monthly doses, also showed higher urine calcium excretion in 40% of hypercalciuric women (n = 4/10 and in 44% (n = 4/9 of the renal lithiasis hypercalciuric patients. In conclusion, different ways of vitamin D supplementation and adequate serum levels are safe in most patients, although it should be taken into account a subgroup, mainly with monthly loading doses, that could increase the calciuria significantly eventually rising renal lithiasis risk or bone mass loss, if genetically predisposed.

  4. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

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    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  5. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

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    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  6. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly

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    Mitchell, Julie; Broyan, James; Pickering, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The urine processor assembly (UPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) recovers water from urine via a vacuum distillation process. The distillation occurs in a rotating distillation assembly (DA) where the urine is heated and subjected to sub-ambient pressure. As water is removed, the original organics, salts, and minerals in the urine become more concentrated and result in urine brine. Eventually, water removal will concentrate the urine brine to super saturation of individual constituents, and precipitation occurs. Under typical UPA DA operating conditions, calcium sulfate or gypsum is the first chemical to precipitate in substantial quantity. During preflight testing with ground urine, the UPA achieved 85% water recovery without precipitation. However, on ISS, it is possible that crewmember urine can be significantly more concentrated relative to urine from ground donors. As a result, gypsum precipitated in the DA when operating at water recovery rates at or near 85%, causing the failure and subsequent re14 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 placement of the DA. Later investigations have demonstrated that an excess of calcium and sulfate will cause precipitation at water recovery rates greater than 70%. The source of the excess calcium is likely physiological in nature, via crewmembers' bone loss, while the excess sulfate is primarily due to the sulfuric acid component of the urine pretreatment. To prevent gypsum precipitation in the UPA, the Precipitation Prevention Project (PPP) team has focused on removing the calcium ion from pretreated urine, using ion exchange resins as calcium removal agents. The selectivity and effectiveness of ion exchange resins are determined by such factors as the mobility of the liquid phase through the polymer matrix, the density of functional groups, type of functional groups bound to the matrix, and the chemical characteristics of the liquid phase (pH, oxidation potential, and ionic strength). Previous experience with ion

  7. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  8. The Determination of Thorium Contents in Urine With Neutron Activation Analysis and Alpha Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukh-Syaifudin

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by a radionuclide that entered into body through inhalation is most conveniently determined by using urine as sample. The aim of this research was developing a fast and simple method to determine thorium content in urine. The method was based on comparison of the activities between the sample added with and without standard thorium. Urine sample was divided into two parts, one of which was added with Th-232 standard, and then both were simultaneously proceed which was consist of decomposition of organic materials, precipitation of thorium by adding ammonium hydroxide, wash with aquadest, and then dissolution in nitric acid. The solution was then activated for 15 minutes with neutron flux of 10 12 ncm -2 second -1 and the activated product was co-precipitated two times with lanthanum carrier and sodium chloride by addition of ammonium hydroxide. Finally, the precipitate was dissolved in nitric acid and the gamma emission of Th-233 was analyzed with gamma spectrometry. The results of analysis showed that the concentration of four urine samples analyzed was below detection limit (BDL); 200.40; 273.88 and 22.03 pg/l, respectively. With the simple procedure, neutron activation analysis can be used in the determining the actinide contents in several types of biological sample. (author)

  9. Quantitation of stable isotopic tracers of calcium by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Smith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation and methodology developed for quantitation of stable isotopic traces in urine are described. Calcium is isolated from urine as the insoluble oxalate salt which is subsequently dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The isotopic content of the acid solution is determined by use of a conventional mass spectrometer equipped with a fast atom bombardment ion source. Calcium ions are desorbed from the sample surface by a beam of high-energy xenon atoms and detected with a high-resolution mass spectrometer. A data acquisition system has been developed to control the mass spectrometer and record the ion signals. Detailed analysis of potential sources of error indicates that the precision of the method is presently limited primarily by an isotope effect that occurs during ion desorption. Results presented here demonstrate that the relative abundances of calcium isotopes in urine can be determined with high precision (coefficient of variation < 0.2%) and that the method is a viable alternative to conventional thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The method is especially attractive because it uses a conventional high-resolution mass spectrometer which is routinely used for analysis of organic substances

  10. [Sodium, potassium and calcium content in regional dishes consumed in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Valencia, M E; Wyatt, J

    1990-06-01

    The content of sodium, potassium and calcium was determined in 15 regional dishes, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Na:K ratio was high in most of the dishes due to the high sodium content and low content of potassium found. The higher sources of the studied minerals were "tortilla de harina" with 1,372.8 mg/100 g of sodium; "chorizo con papas" with 466 mg/100 g of potassium, and "calabacitas con queso" with 244.1 mg/100 g of calcium. Two of the dishes considered as desserts, "capirotada" and "arroz con leche" showed the lowest Na:K ratio (0.66 and 0.81, respectively).

  11. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  12. Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on total antioxidant content of human breastmilk and infant urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarban, Asghar; Toroghi, Mahsa Mostafavi; Asli, Marziye; Jafari, Masumeh; Vejdan, Morteza; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-05-01

    After delivery and birth, mothers and neonates are exposed to oxidative stress. The present study examined the effect of supplementation of the diet of breastfeeding mothers with vitamin C and E to improve the antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine. The subjects were 60 healthy lactating breastfeeding mothers and their infants 1-6 months of age. They were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30) consuming a free diet or an experimental group (n=30) consuming a free diet supplemented each day with effervescent tablets of vitamin C (500 mg) and chewable tablets of vitamin E (100 IU). After 30 days, the total antioxidant content of the mothers' breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in the infants' urine were measured by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the urine samples was measured by the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Differences pre- and postintervention were compared within and between the groups. Significantly higher levels of antioxidants in the breastmilk (610±295.5 to 716±237.5 μmol/L) and infant urine (43.2±21.8 to 75.0±49.2 μmol/mg creatinine) were observed in the experimental group over the control group (pvitamin C and E supplements appears to have a positive effect on total antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of the calcium content in vivo, using a 50μg source of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Zech, P.Y.; Meary, M.F.; Leitienne, P.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the recent commercialisation of californium 252 it is now possible to obtain neutron fluxes strong enough for precise activation of the calcium content of biological targets. After the preliminary measurements necessary to establish the most suitable conditions for irradiating 3 to 5cm thick targets, two parallel sets of experiments were developed. In the first the medium-term total calcium variation was studied in 20 rats, 16 suffering from chronic kidney deficiency. In the second the precision expected as a function of the calcium content of the irradiated target was examined, using 3 sets of tissue equivalent standards of calcium contents 5, 20 and 50g respectively. The first results obtained on calcium 49 in vivo show that a calcium content variation can be followed with a sensitivity threshold below that obtained by conventional methods [fr

  14. [The fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and the relation with hypercalciuria and phosphocalcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; del Carmen Cano-García, María; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    To determine the importance of fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones and its relation with hypercalciuria and phospho-calcium metabolism. Cross-sectional study including 143 patients divided into two groups according to fasting calcium/creatinine. Group 1: 66 patients (calcium/ creatininecreatinine>0.11). A comparative study is performed between groups including phospho-calcium metabolism parameters and excretion of urinary lithogenic markers. Linear correlation studying calciuria and fasting calcium/ creatinine was performed. SPSS 17.0 statistical analysis software was used, considering p≤0.05. It is noteworthy that group 2 had increased 24 h urine calcium excretion in comparison to group 1 (229.3 vs 158.1; p=0.0001) and calcium/citrate (0.47 vs 0.34; p=0.001). There is a positive and significant correlation between calcium levels in 24 h urine and fasting calcium/creatinine (R=0.455; p=0.0001) and a cutoff is set at 0.127 (sensitivity 72%, specificity 66%) to determine hypercalciuria (>260 mg in 24 h). Increased fasting calcium/creatinine determines increased 24 hours calcium excretion, although the sensitivity and specificity to determine hypercalciuria is not high.

  15. Calcium intake in winter pregnancy attenuates impact of vitamin D inadequacy on urine NTX, a marker of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eileen C; Kilbane, Mark T; McKenna, Malachi J; Segurado, Ricardo; Geraghty, Aisling A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterised by increased bone turnover, but high bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation may lead to negative maternal bone remodelling. Recent studies are conflicting regarding the effect of calcium on skeletal health in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary calcium on a marker of bone resorption. This was prospective study of 205 pregnant women [two cohorts; early pregnancy at 13 weeks (n = 96), and late pregnancy at 28 weeks (n = 109)]. Serum 25OHD and urine cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX) were measured at both time points. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium were recorded using 3-day food diaries at each trimester. Compared to summer pregnancies, winter pregnancies had significantly lower 25OHD and significantly higher uNTX. Higher calcium intakes were negatively correlated with uNTX in winter, but not summer. In late pregnancy, compared to those reporting calcium intakes ≥1000 mg/day, intakes of <1000 mg/day were associated with a greater increase in uNTX in winter pregnancies than in summer (41.8 vs. 0.9%). Increasing calcium intake in winter by 200 mg/day predicted a 13.3% reduction in late pregnancy uNTX. In late pregnancy, during winter months when 25OHD is inadequate, intakes of dietary calcium <1000 mg/day were associated with significantly increased bone resorption (uNTX). Additional dietary calcium is associated with reduced bone resorption in late pregnancy, with greater effect observed in winter. Further research regarding optimal dietary calcium and 25OHD in pregnancy is required, particularly for women gestating through winter.

  16. Sodium Contents in Dairy Cow Urine and Soil Aggregate Sizes Influence the Amount of Nitrogen Lost from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow urine deposition on pasture soils is a major source of N-related environmental impacts in the dairy farming systems. The urine-N can potentially be lost to the ground water as nitrate (NO3- and to the atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N2O. These N-related environmental impacts are possibly related to the sodium (Na+ concentrations in urine. We sampled a pasture soil and separated it into three aggregate size groups (0–3, 3–5, and 5–7 mm. Then, cow urine with variable Na+ concentrations (4.3–6.1 g Na+ L−1 was added to the soil cores. We treated the cores with simulated heavy rains and measured the amounts of calcium (Ca2+, Na+, potassium (K+, and inorganic-N leached from the soils. N2O emission rates were also determined throughout the experimental period. Increasing Na+ concentration in urine decreased the loss of NO3- (−20%, after repeatedly applied simulated rain treatments (30 mm × 3, whereas it increased the loss of ammonium (31% and K+ (19%. For the loss of Ca2+ and the emissions of N2O, the effect of the Na+ concentrations was unclear. Field level studies and studies focusing on the mechanisms behind the changes in nutrient losses are needed.

  17. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  18. Analysis of different thermal processing methods of foodstuffs to optimize protein, calcium, and phosphorus content for dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Ivica; Panjkota Krbavčić, Ines; Bituh, Martina; Vrdoljak, Tea; Dujmić, Zoran

    2015-05-01

    To analyze how different thermal processing methods affect the protein, calcium, and phosphorus content of hospital food served to dialysis patients and to generate recommendations for preparing menus that optimize nutritional content while minimizing the risk of hyperphosphatemia. Standard Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC) methods were used to determine dry matter, protein, calcium, and phosphorus content in potatoes, fresh and frozen carrots, frozen green beans, chicken, beef and pork, frozen hake, pasta, and rice. These levels were determined both before and after boiling in water, steaming, stewing in oil or water, or roasting. Most of the thermal processing methods did not significantly reduce protein content. Boiling increased calcium content in all foodstuffs because of calcium absorption from the hard water. In contrast, stewing in oil containing a small amount of water decreased the calcium content of vegetables by 8% to 35% and of chicken meat by 12% to 40% on a dry weight basis. Some types of thermal processing significantly reduced the phosphorus content of the various foodstuffs, with levels decreasing by 27% to 43% for fresh and frozen vegetables, 10% to 49% for meat, 7% for pasta, and 22.8% for rice on a dry weight basis. On the basis of these results, we modified the thermal processing methods used to prepare a standard hospital menu for dialysis patients. Foodstuffs prepared according to the optimized menu were similar in protein content, higher in calcium, and significantly lower in phosphorus than foodstuffs prepared according to the standard menu. Boiling in water and stewing in oil containing some water significantly reduced phosphorus content without affecting protein content. Soaking meat in cold water for 1 h before thermal processing reduced phosphorus content even more. These results may help optimize the design of menus for dialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Determination of mineral radioactive strontium-{sup 90} in urines; Recherche du strontium mineral radioactif {sup 90}Sr dans les urines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    An analytical procedure for radioactive strontium in urine is described. As a first step, a precipitation of calcium oxalate performed on the urine, allows to detect the presence of various fission products and particularly of strontium which is carried by the precipitate. Strontium can then be selectively separated on ion exchange resins. By studying the growth curve of {beta} activity, it is possible to determine the activities which may be attributed to {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr respectively. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du strontium radioactif dans les urines. Dans un premier stade, une precipitation d'oxalate de calcium effectuee sur l'urine permet de deceler la presence de differents produits de fission et en particulier du strontium qui est entraine sur ce precipite. Il est possible ensuite de separer selectivement le strontium au moyen de resines echangeuses d'ions. L'examen de le courbe de croissance de l'activite {beta} permet de determiner les activites dues respectivement a {sup 89}Sr et {sup 90}Sr. (auteur)

  20. [Effects of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral content and intestinal absorption of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Righi, G A; Turchetti, V; Vattimo, A

    1984-01-28

    To evaluate the effects of a long-term treatment with nandrolone decanoate on metabolism of the skeleton, a double-blind randomized study was carried out in women with joint diseases without metabolic bone derangement. Ten patients were treated with 50 mg of nandrolone decanoate every three weeks for two years; in six subjects a treatment with placebo was performed. As it concerns plasma calcium and phosphate, serum alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and cAMP, as parathyroid index, it was not observed significant differences in the two examined groups. While in placebo group at the end of the study the intestinal radiocalcium remained unchanged and bone mineral content showed a slight decrease, on the contrary nandrolone decanoate treatment promoted a significant improvement in intestinal calcium absorption and an increase in bone mineral content.

  1. The role of calcium utilization of intestinal flora on urinary calcium excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Uenak, P.; Kavukcu, S.; Soylu, A.; Tuerkmen, M.; Kasap, B.; Yucesoy, M.; Esen, N.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether calcium utilization of intestinal flora has any effect on urinary calcium excretion, like oxalate degrading effect of Oxalobacter formigenes. Materials and Methods: The data of urinary calcium excretion examinations were evaluated. 0.1 g/ml of feces samples were implanted in broths. 5 μL of 45 Ca solution was added to the samples and they were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degree C. The amount of bacteriae in the samples was determined as colony forming unit (CFU). 200 μL of the samples were filtrated by 0.45 μm membrane and rinsed by 200 μL pure water. 45 Ca activity ( 45 Ca) of bacteria in the membrane was counted by GM detector for 100 seconds. Then, activity per CFU ( 45 Ca/CFU) was calculated and compared in hypercalciuric (calciuria >4; mg/kg/hour and/or calcium/creatinine ratio>0.21; Group I) and normocalciuric (Group II) patients. Results: Samples of 29 patients with a mean age of 7.50±4.28 (1.5-16) years were evaluated. 11 of them were female (M/F: 18/11). There were 14 patients in Group I and 15 patients in Group II, 45 Ca/CFU was not different for neither aerobic nor anaerobic bacteries between the two groups (p:0.983, p:0.601, respectively). 24-hour urine calcium levels were negatively but not significantly correlated to aerobic and anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU (p:0.079, r:-0.145; p:0.260, r:-0.420, respectively) in hypercalciuric patients. Besides, in normocalciuric patients, 24-hour urine calcium levels were correlated positively to aerobic and negatively to anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU again in an insignificant manner (p:0.509, r: 0.223; p:0623, r:-0.257, respectively). Conclusion: In this, study, similar 45 Ca/CFU levels in both hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients imply that calcium utilization of intestinal flora does not have a distinct effect on urinary calcium excretion but, although not significant, there was a negative correlation between urine calcium levels and bacterial 45 Ca/CFU levels especially in hypercalciuric

  2. Determination of the /sup 210/Po content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, N.B.; Cruz, W.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of nonsmokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003 +- 0.2988 pCi/24 h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313 +- 0.1664 pCi/24 h sample.

  3. The influence of Sr content in calcium phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Carl; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Hoess, Andreas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study calcium phosphate coatings with different amounts of strontium (Sr) were prepared using a biomineralization method. The incorporation of Sr changed the composition and morphology of coatings from plate-like to sphere-like morphology. Dissolution testing indicated that the solubility of the coatings increased with increased Sr concentration. Evaluation of extracts (with Sr concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.37 μg/mL) from the HA, 0.06Sr, 0.6Sr, and 1.2Sr coatings during in vitro cell cultures showed that Sr incorporation into coatings significantly enhanced the ALP activity in comparison to cells treated with control and HA eluted media. These findings show that calcium phosphate coatings could promote osteogenic differentiation even in a low amount of strontium. - Highlights: • Calcium phosphate coating doping with low Sr contents was prepared via a biomineralization process. • The solubility of the coatings increased with increased Sr concentration. • Present findings show the potential that Sr has on promoting osteogenic differentiation even in a low amount

  4. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  5. Calcium Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  6. Accurate measurement of stable isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca in human feces, plasma, and urine in relation to human nutrition of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Sundaresan, A.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method based on Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is described which allows simultaneous measurement of two stable isotopes of calcium, 46 Ca and 48 Ca, in human feces, plasma, and urine for the purpose of studying human nutrition and metabolism of calcium. It is shown that these measurements can be made with relative analytical precision of 1-5% depending on the particulars of a given experiment. The method has been applied in humans and data are given showing that kinetics of plasma appearance of 46 Ca administered orally with food can be readily investigated. This method allows investigation of a number of important nutritional and metabolic issues in all human population groups without regard to radioisotope safety considerations, and should prove especially helpful in relation to studies of calcium bioavailability from different foods in a variety of population groups for whom use of radiocalcium is not warranted. (Auth.)

  7. [Protein content in urine of male and female water vole (Arvicola amphibious) at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, G G; Proskurniak, L P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on the captive bread water voles Arvicola amphibious kept in vivarium. At the first decade of January, March, and June, the body length and anogenital distance were measured, the body mass was determined, and urine was collected for determination of its protein content. The obtained results have shown that the protein content depends on sex of the animals and is connected with the reproductive status of males and their dimension-weight characteristics. The urinary protein excretion level in females remained stable at different months, whereas in males its sharp rise was noted at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation. The significant sexual differences were established in March and enhanced in June. In March the urine protein content in males was noted to correlate positively with the body mass and length and with the anogenital distance. The males reached sexual maturity at the earlier calendar terms than the females did; in sexually mature males the urine protein content was significantly higher than in the sexually immature ones.

  8. Analysis of uranium intake, risk assessments uranium content in blood and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh Kumar; Prasher, Sangeeta; Singh, Surinder

    2015-01-01

    Bathinda district of Punjab is in light since the last few years because of the high mortality rate due to cancer. In order to explore the possibility of uranium as one of the causes for cancer an attempt has been made to estimate the level of uranium in the environmental samples viz. soil, water, food items and to correlate it with that in the blood and urine of the cancer patients and the normal persons of the area. The fission track technique has been employed for such studies. Though the uranium content in soil is normal and close to the world average, the uranium values in most of the water samples exceed the recommended safe limits. The cancer risk estimate from drinking of uranium contaminated water during the life time of sixty year is very high. The daily intake of Uranium for the population of these villages including the drinking water has also been estimated using the daily intake of these foodstuffs recommended by WHO and is found to exceed the typical world wide dietary intake of 0.9-4.5 μg/day. The concentration of uranium in urine and blood is found higher in cancer patients, whereas the urine excretion of uranium is lower in the cancer patients compared to the normal persons. (author)

  9. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  10. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on calcium and cyclic nucleotides metabolism in rats of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, N.I.; Libenson, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    Some features of mechanism of calcium homeostasis and cyclic nucleotide exchange breakage in case of acute radiation injury of rats of various age were studied. It is established that calcium level in blood in nonpuberal animals, calcium and cAMP excretion with urine are minimal and reach maximum at puberal age. cGMP excretion with urine and concentrational levels of cAMP and cGMP in blood do not change with age. It is shown that calcium excretion with urine decreases adaptively in conditions of acute radiation injury in rats of all age groups. Maximal shifts in cAMP/cGMP ratio were noted in nonpuberal animals, whereas maximal adaptive-compensatory abilities in the regulation system of calcium homeostasis and cyclic nucleotides are typical to adolescent puberal animals

  12. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  13. Monitoring and comparison of tritium content in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Feng; Hua Wei; Zheng Chuancheng; Wang Xu; Wen Wanxin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the health of staff engaged in tritium, the purpose of experiment is to find out a fast, convenient and reliable sample preparation and measurement methods for such routine monitoring. Methods: We use the conventional distillation decolorization and non-decoloration quenching correction methods dealing with urine sample, and then carried out the urine sample liquid scintillation measurements, statistical analysis between the two measurements. Results: By using above two different methods of sample pretreatment, the results that we measure tritium in urine sample are not obviously different in comparison. Conclusion: The above two different methods can be used for nuclear facilities staff and staff related to conventional tritium detection. However, non-decoloration quenching correction method is simpler and less in time and manpower than the conventional distillation method in operation. It is suitable for a large number of samples prepared, measured, and analyzed in a short period of time. (authors)

  14. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  15. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for complexation of calcium and magnesium with chondroitin sulfate isomers using isothermal titration calorimetry: Implications for calcium kidney-stone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Jackson, Graham E.

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) occurs in human urine. It has several potential binding sites for calcium and as such may play an inhibitory role in calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (kidney stone disease by reducing the supersaturation (SS) and crystallization of these salts. Urinary magnesium is also a role player in determining speciation in stone forming processes. This study was undertaken to determine the thermodynamic parameters for binding of the disaccharide unit of two different CS isomers with calcium and magnesium. These included the binding constant K. Experiments were performed using an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at 3 different pH levels in the physiological range in human urine. Data showed that interactions between the CS isomers and calcium and magnesium occur via one binding site, thought to be sulfate, and that log K values are 1.17-1.93 and 1.77-1.80 for these two metals respectively. Binding was significantly stronger in Mg-CS than in Ca-CS complexes and was found to be dependent on pH in the latter but not in the former. Furthermore, binding in Ca-CS complexes was dependent on the location of the sulfate binding site. This was not the case in the Mg-CS complexes. Interactions were shown to be entropy driven and enthalpy unfavourable. These findings can be used in computational modeling studies to predict the effects of the calcium and magnesium CS complexes on the speciation of calcium and the SS of calcium salts in real urine samples.

  16. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkittikul, Pincha; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl 2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl 2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl 2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  17. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bochnia

    Full Text Available Hypoglycin A (HGA in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i HGA in seeds and of ii HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8 as well as urine (n = 6 from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS. The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L, and in urine from 143.8-926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L, respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01, and 0.34-2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001, respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  18. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-01-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min 45 Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of 45 Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on 45 Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and 45 Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on 45 Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea [C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984] that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium

  19. Effects of thyroid hormones on calcium contents and 45Ca exchange in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1986-09-01

    In 4-wk-old rats, pretreatment with L-triiodothyronine (T3) increased calcium content by 100% and the 30-min /sup 45/Ca uptake by 64% in the soleus, whereas the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle showed no significant change. The stimulation of /sup 45/Ca uptake was resistant to dantrolene and methoxyverapamil (D600) and could not be attributed to altered permeability of the plasma membrane to calcium, but appears to reflect increased net accumulation of calcium in intracellular pools. The stimulating effect of high K0 (20 mM) on /sup 45/Ca uptake was more pronounced in soleus than in EDL and could be suppressed by dantrolene and D600. The results indicate that the effects of T3 on calcium content and /sup 45/Ca exchange are primarily exerted on muscles containing a large proportion of slow-twitch, oxidative fibers. In soleus muscle from hyperthyroid rats the stimulating effects of high K0 on /sup 45/Ca uptake and lactate production were, respectively, 3.4 and 4.5 times larger than in those obtained from controls. These observations further support the earlier proposed idea (C. van Hardeveld and T. Clausen. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Endocrinol. Metab. 10): E421-E430, 1984) that the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone depend on the availability of cellular as well as extracellular calcium.

  20. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  1. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis. PMID:26378918

  2. Mineral contents and their solubility on calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals from cockle shell powder (Anadara granosa Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, S.; Pramushinta, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Prepared and characterized calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals improves solubility. Calcium carbonat calcite nanocrystals were synthesized using precipitation method from the waste of blood clam cockle shells (Anadara granosa Linn). This study was conducted to analyze mineral composition of nanocrystals calcium carbonat calcite cockle (Anadara granosa) shell for calcium fortification of food applications and to evaluate the solubilities of Calsium and Phospor. The sample of nanocrystals from cockle shells was evaluated to determine the content of 11 macro-and micro-elements. These elements are Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Ferrum (Fe), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Zink (Zn), Boron (B) and Silica (Si)). Cockleshell powders were found to contain toxic elements below detectable levels. The solubilities of Calcium and Phospor were p<0.05.

  3. Quantification of the risk of urinary calcium stone formation in the urine collected at 2 times of the day in a group of children studied to rule out prelithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. García Nieto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various genetic and environmental factors are involved in urolithiasis. The 2 most common metabolic abnormalities are the increase in urinary calcium and low urinary citrate excretion. The ratio calculated between the concentrations of both substances is a good risk marker for the formation of calcium stones. Objectives: To determine whether the risk of urinary calcium stone formation changes throughout the day in the same patient. Methods: We studied 56 children (23 V, 33 M to check if they had prelithiasis. Calcium, citrate, and creatinine concentrations were determined in two urine samples collected one before dinner and the other in the morning. It was collected if they had ultrasound stones and if there was a history of urolithiasis in first and/or second degree relatives. Results: In 25 patients (44.6%, renal ultrasound was positive for lithiasis (stones [n = 9] and microlithiasis [n = 16]. Forty of the 56 families (71.4% had a history of urolithiasis. The percentage of abnormal urinary calcium (28.6% concentrations and an abnormal calcium/citrate ratio (69.6% was higher in the first urine of the day. The calcium/citrate ratio was the only studied parameter that was related to a family history of urolithiasis. There were no differences in urinary parameters between patients with and without ultrasound-confirmed kidney stones. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of calcium and the calcium/citrate ratio vary throughout the day. Urine produced at night has a higher risk of urinary calcium stone formation. Resumen: Antecedentes: En la urolitiasis intervienen diversos factores genéticos y ambientales. Las 2 anomalías metabólicas más frecuentes son el incremento en la eliminación urinaria de calcio y la reducción en la de citrato. El cociente calculado entre las concentraciones de ambas sustancias es un buen marcador de riesgo de formación de cálculos cálcicos. Objetivos: Determinar si el riesgo litógeno en la orina de

  4. Calcium availability but not its content modulates metal toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Dresler, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Impact of calcium nutrition (pre-culture on solid medium with standard or elevated Ca dose, i. e. 0.17 and 4.40mM marked as low and high Ca) on acute metal toxicity (Cd, Mn and Pb, 24h of exposure to 10µM) in freshwater green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. Surprisingly, Ca content differed only slightly between low and high Ca samples and applied metals rather suppressed its amount. Na content was higher in metal-exposed high Ca samples, indicating that Ca/Na ratio may affect accumulation of metals. Content of heavy metals increased in order Cd < Mn < Pb and high Ca samples contained less metal than low Ca samples at least in absorbed fraction. Accumulation of ascorbic acid and thiols (GSH - glutathione and PC2 - phytochelatin 2) was affected mainly by Cd, GSH also by Mn and PC2 by Pb with often significant differences between low Ca and high Ca samples. Calcium nutrition also affected responses of algae to metals at the level of antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and elevated values were typically found in high Ca samples while ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical) were mainly depleted in Mn treatment. These data confirm that Ca nutrition affects accumulation of metals in algae and metabolic parameters as observed in vascular plants but, unlike them, rather Ca/Na ratio than absolute Ca content seems to regulate the uptake of metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymorphisms in Renal Ammonia Metabolism Genes Correlate With 24-Hour Urine pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Canales

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Overall, these findings suggest that variants in common genes involved in ammonia metabolism may substantively contribute to basal urine pH regulation. These variations might influence the likelihood of developing disease conditions associated with altered urine pH, such as uric acid or calcium phosphate kidney stones.

  6. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Research of pharmacokinetics of L-threonate calcium with 45Ca radiotrace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of calcium in L-threonate calcium is studied by radiotrace method. The results show the relationship between drug-time curve, pharmacokinetics parameters and dosage are positive correlation, and calcium distributes in important tissues such as stomach, intestines, blood and bone. In 24 hours, about 40% calcium is drained in urine, 30% calcium is evacuated in feces, 10%-20% calcium deposit in blood or bone. The radiotrace method is a kind of special, sensitive, accurate method of testing calcium metabolism

  8. The effect of habitat geology on calcium intake and calcium status of wild rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R F; Balment, R J; Yalden, D W

    1991-12-01

    Calcium is essential for normal physiological function, reproduction and growth in mammals but its distribution in the natural environment is heterogeneous. Spatial variation in calcium soil content is especially marked in the Peak District, United Kingdom, where both calcium-rich limestone and calcium-poor gritstone rock types occur. Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus (L) and bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber 1780) from limestone areas had significantly higher calcium concentrations in stomach contents and in faeces compared with their counterparts from gritstone areas. Calcium status was assessed from serum calcium concentration, femur weight, ash content of the body, calcium concentration in the femur and body ash. There was no significant difference in serum calcium concentration, femur calcium concentration and body ash calcium concentration between animals from the limestone and the gritstone. However, on the limestone, bank voles, but not wood mice, had significantly heavier femora and a greater proportion of ash in the body compared with their gritstone counterparts.

  9. A sub-boiling distillation method for the preparation of low carbon content water from urine samples for tritium measurement by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogawa, Norio; Makide, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    A new preparation method was developed for obtaining low carbon content water from urine samples for the measurement of tritium by a liquid scintillation counter. The method uses a simple and convenient subboiling distillation bottle. Many urine samples have been purified by this method and the change of tritium level in a tritium-handling radiation-worker was observed

  10. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  11. Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbon in three agricultural soils with different contents of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.; Skjemstad, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of organic carbon physically protected by entrapment within aggregates and through polyvalent cation organic matter bridging was determined on non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The composition of organic carbon in whole soils and 13 C NMR analysis. High energy photo-oxidation was carried out on <53 μm fractions and results from the NMR spectra showed 17-40% of organic carbon was in a condensed aromatic form, most likely charcoal (char). The concept that organic material remaining after photo-oxidation may be physically protected within aggregates was investigated by treating soils with a mild acid prior to photo-oxidation. More organic material was protected in the calcareous than the non-calcareous soils, regardless of whether the calcium occurred naturally or was an amendment. Acid treatment indicated that the presence of exchangeable calcium reduced losses of organic material upon photo-oxidation by about 7% due to calcium bridging. These results have implications for N fertiliser recommendations based upon organic carbon content. Firstly, calcium does not impact upon degradability of organic material to an extent likely to affect N fertiliser recommendations. Secondly, standard assessment techniques overestimate active organic carbon content in soils with high char content. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Publishing

  12. Collection and storage of urine specimens for measurement of urolithiasis risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Dong; Tiselius, Hans-Goran; Ou, Lili; Mai, Zanlin; Chen, Kang; Zhu, Hanliang; Xu, Shaohong; Zhao, Zhijian; Zeng, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate how different methods for storage and preservation of urine samples affected the outcome of analysis of risk factors for stone formation. Spot urine samples were collected from 21 healthy volunteers. Each fresh urine sample was divided into ten 10-mL aliquots: 2 without preservative, 2 with thymol, 2 with toluene, 2 with hydrochloric acid (HCl), and 2 with sodium azide. One sample of each pair was stored at 4 °C and the other at room temperature. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphate, urate, oxalate, citrate, and pH in each urine sample were analyzed immediately after collection (0 hour) and after 24 and 48 hours. There were no significant differences in calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium, urate or pH (without acidification) between samples with different preservation methods (P >.05). Urinary citrate, however, was significantly lower in the urine collected with HCl than when other preservatives were used, both at room temperature and at 4 °C. Urine pH was significantly higher after 48 hours than after 24 hours, whether the samples were stored at room temperature or at 4 °C. Antibacterial preservatives (eg, thymol or toluene) can be recommended as preservatives for 24-hour urine collections. Ideally, the samples should be stored at 4 °C. When HCl is used as a preservative, it seems essential to neutralize the samples before analysis. This is particularly obvious with the chromatographic method used for analysis of citrate that was used in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; McCoy, Torin; Gazda, Daniel; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R

    2012-12-18

    The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.

  14. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L ...

  15. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  17. Analysis of trace uranium in human urine by using the fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huailu; Yang Huazhang; Zhao Dongzhi; Wang Kaixue

    1988-01-01

    In order to know the contents of uranium in human urine, urine samples from 10 healthy persons with different ages and sexes in Lanzhou area were analysed with the fisson track method. The results, in contrast with the contents of uranium in Yellow River water (in Lanzhou section), tap-water and rainwater, indicated that the content of uranium in human urine was lower than that in tap-water. From the ratio of uranium in human urine to that in tap-water, the maximum excreted rate of uranium from urine is evaluated to be 42.2%

  18. Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, J.

    1975-01-01

    The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85 Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85 SrCl 2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85 Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.) [de

  19. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  20. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  1. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  2. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaocong; Deng, Xiangwen; Xiang, Wenhua; Lei, Pifeng; Ouyang, Shuai; Wen, Hongfang; Chen, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca) content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification). Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas). We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa) and exchangeable Ca (ECa) at depths of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p 1). The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants, and low-Ca plants. These findings provide a vital theoretical basis and practical guide for vegetation restoration and ecosystem reconstruction in rocky desertification areas.

  3. Calcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rocky desertification is a major ecological problem of land degradation in karst areas. In these areas, the high soil calcium (Ca content has become an important environmental factor that can affect the restoration of vegetation. Consequently, the screening of plant species that can adapt to high Ca soil environments is a critical step in vegetation restoration. In this study, three grades of rocky desertification sample areas were selected in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, China (LRD: light rocky desertification; MRD: moderate rocky desertification; and IRD: intense rocky desertification. Each grade of these sample areas had three sample plots in different slope positions, each of which had four small quadrats (one in rocky-side areas, three in non-rocky-side areas. We measured the Ca content of leaves, branches, and roots from 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca (TCa and exchangeable Ca (ECa at depths of 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm in each small quadrat. The results showed that the soil Ca2+ content in rocky-side areas was significantly higher than that in non-rocky-side areas (p < 0.05. The mean soil TCa and ECa content increased gradually along with the grade of rocky desertification, in the order IRD > MRD > LRD. For all plant functional groups, the plant Ca content of aboveground parts was significantly higher than that of the belowground parts (p < 0.05. The soil ECa content had significant effects on plant Ca content of the belowground parts but had no significant effects on plant Ca content of the aboveground parts. Of the 41 plant species that were sampled, 17 were found to be dominant (important value > 1. The differences in Ca2+ content between the aboveground and belowground parts of the 17 dominant species were calculated, and their correlations with soil ECa content were analyzed. The results showed that these 17 species can be divided into three categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high

  4. Increasing serotonin concentrations alter calcium and energy metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Jimena; Moore, Spencer A E; Weaver, Samantha R; Cronick, Callyssa M; Olsen, Megan; Prichard, Austin P; Schnell, Brian P; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2015-07-01

    A 4×4 Latin square design in which varied doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg) of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) were intravenously infused into late-lactation, non-pregnant Holstein dairy cows was used to determine the effects of serotonin on calcium and energy metabolism. Infusion periods lasted 4 days, with a 5-day washout between periods. Cows were infused at a constant rate for 1 h each day. Blood was collected pre- and 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-infusion, urine was collected pre- and post-infusion, and milk was collected daily. All of the 5-HTP doses increased systemic serotonin as compared to the 0 mg/kg dose, and the 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg doses increased circulating glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHBA) concentrations. Treatment of cows with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg 5-HTP doses decreased urine calcium elimination, and the 1.5 mg/kg dose increased milk calcium concentrations. No differences were detected in the heart rates, respiration rates, or body temperatures of the cows; however, manure scores and defecation frequency were affected. Indeed, cows that received 5-HTP defecated more, and the consistency of their manure was softer. Treatment of late-lactation dairy cows with 5-HTP improved energy metabolism, decreased loss of calcium into urine, and increased calcium secretion into milk. Further research should target the effects of increasing serotonin during the transition period to determine any benefits for post-parturient calcium and glucose metabolism. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  6. Does apricot seeds consumption cause changes in human urine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances, such as amygdalin, used in alternative medicine gained high popularity. Common people as well as patients with different diseases have almost unlimited access to various natural supplements. To protect human health, it is very important to study effect of these substances. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from seeds of rosaceous plants, for example seeds of bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis, or apricot, cherry, apple, peach, plum, etc. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces a kind of antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after six weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adult volunteers (21 females and 13 males. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg.kg-1 of amygdalin during 6 weeks. During the experiment, three urine collections were carried out (first collection - at the beginning of the experiment; second collection - after 21 days; third collection - after 42 days. Quantification of urine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl-, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Statistical analysis of variance showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 42 days had a significant (p <0.01 effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. Significant changes were observed in urea (p <0.05 and phosphorus (p <0.01 levels in urine after apricot seed ingestion, but gender was also considered to be a source of their variation.

  7. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  8. Analysis and optimisation of calcium content in menus and dairy offer in Croatian kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rumora

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of healthy diet from the earliest age as well as its influence on human health is indisputable. Unbalanced diet in childhood can, along with unhealthy lifestyle (stress, smoking, physical inactivity, cause a number of diseases at a later age. Two week menus in 26 kindergartens from continental and coastal Croatia have been analysed, taking into consideration the type of kindergarten (public, private, or religious. The aim of this research is to determine the quality of the offer regarding the intake of milk and dairy products, which, regarding their bioavailability, represent a major source of calcium, an essential nutrient in the intensive growth phase of children and young people. Using basic statistics, significant differences were not determined neither in the regional offer of milk and dairy products in the different types of kindergartens nor in the content of calcium and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products were adequately represented in the weekly offer in both regions under observation, and the average offer contained 9.7±1.5 servings. Average content of calcium in daily menues is 714.5±235.9 mg, which is in agreement with dietary reference intake recommendations (300-800 mg and Croatian recommendations (400-700 mg. Use of fuzzy logic in creating new daily menus, by combining the existing offers enabled significant enlargement of the set of nutritionally acceptable menus as well as a greater diversity of meals.

  9. Amphetamine concentrations in human urine following single-dose administration of the calcium antagonist prenylamine-studies using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas; Roditis, Susanne K; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-03-01

    Prenylamine (R,S-N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl-methyl-2-phenethylamine), a World Health Organization class V calcium antagonist, is known to be metabolized to amphetamine. In this study, amphetamine concentrations after a single-dose administration of prenylamine were determined to check if they reached values that could be of analytical and/or pharmacological importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. Enantiomeric composition of amphetamine was also studied. Five volunteers received a single 120-mg oral dose of prenylamine. Urine samples were analyzed using the Abbott TDx immunoassay Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II and using our routine systematic toxicological analysis (STA) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure. For quantitation purposes, GC-MS was used in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode (ions m/z 118, 122, 240, 244) after solid-phase extraction (Isolute Confirm HCX) and derivatization (heptafluorobutyric anhydride). Amphetamine-d5 was used as internal standard (IS). Chiral separation of the heptafluorobutyrated amphetamine enantiomers was achieved using an Astec Chiraldex G-PN column. The TDx results showed a great variability for the different volunteers. A urine sample of one volunteer showed results as high as 3200 ng/mL, whereas the urine samples of another volunteer never gave results greater than the TDx detection limit (100 ng/mL). Using the STA procedure, the presence of amphetamine could be confirmed in all urine samples with TDx results greater than the cutoff value (300 ng/mL). Using the GC-MS SIM method, amphetamine concentrations up to 1280 ng/mL were determined. Chiral analysis revealed that both enantiomers of amphetamine were present in the samples with a surplus of the S(+)-enantiomer in the early phase of excretion. Forensic implications are discussed.

  10. Chapter 15. Measurement of the main calcium metabolism processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring the chief calcium metabolism processes in man is described and is based on the following techniques and theory: intraveinous injection of 45 Ca; determination of the specific radioactivity of serum calcium, total radioactivity of urine and stools, ingested and excreted calcium; mathematical analysis of the specific radioactivity decay curve for serum calcium. The following data were obtained in this way: intestinal absorption fraction of calcium in the chemical state in which it is found in foods; quantity of calcium excreted by the intestin, as distinct from the non-absorbed fraction; physiological turnover rates in the skeleton by osteolysis and osteoblastosis; mass of rapidly exchangeable calcium in the organism, i.e. the calcium pool; rates of exchange with serum calcium of calcium from the different pool components, mass of bone calcium subjected to recrystallisation. Some applications of the method in man and the verification of the theory in rats are reported [fr

  11. Analytical precision of the Urolizer for the determination of the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) for calcium oxalate urolithiasis and evaluation of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wolfgang; Bechler, Robin; Laube, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Since its first publication in 2000, the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) has been successfully used to determine the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization risk from urine samples. To date, a BRI-measuring device, the "Urolizer", has been developed, operating automatically and requiring only a minimum of preparation. Two major objectives were pursued: determination of Urolizer precision, and determination of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI. 24-h urine samples from 52 CaOx stone-formers were collected. A total of 37 urine samples were used for the investigation of Urolizer precision by performing six independent BRI determinations in series. In total, 30 samples were taken for additional investigation of urine storability. Each sample was measured thrice: directly after collection, after 24-h storage at T=21 degrees C, and after 24-h cooling at T=4 degrees C. Outcomes were statistically tested for identity with regard to the immediately obtained results. Repeat measurements for evaluation of Urolizer precision revealed statistical identity of data (p-0.05). 24-h storage of urine at both tested temperatures did not significantly affect BRI (p-0.05). The pilot-run Urolizer shows high analytical reliability. The innovative analysis device may be especially suited for urologists specializing in urolithiasis treatment. The possibility for urine storage at moderate temperatures without loss of analysis quality further demonstrates the applicability of the BRI method.

  12. Effects of rapeseed meal fiber content on phosphorus and calcium digestibility in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournazel, M; Lessire, M; Duclos, M J; Magnin, M; Même, N; Peyronnet, C; Recoules, E; Quinsac, A; Labussière, E; Narcy, A

    2018-01-01

    The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) supply requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary fiber content of co-products on the digestive utilization of minerals. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary fiber content from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on P and Ca digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase. In total, 48 castrated male pigs (initial BW=36.1±0.4 kg) were housed in metabolic crates for 29 days. After an 8-day adaptation period, pigs were allocated to one of the eight treatments. The impact of dietary fiber was modulated by adding whole RSM (wRSM), dehulled RSM (dRSM) or dRSM supplemented with 4.5% or 9.0% rapeseed hulls (dRSMh1 and dRSMh2). Diets contained 0 or 500 phytase unit of microbial phytase per kg. From day 14 to day 23, feces and urine were collected separately to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent retention (AR) of P and Ca. At the end of the experiment, femurs and digestive contents were sampled. No effect of variables of interest was observed on growth performance. Microbial phytase increased ATTD and AR of P (Pphytase (Pphytase which increased AR of Ca and femur characteristics (Pphytase but cecal recovery was considerably reduced by microbial phytase (Pphytase and R 2=0.24, P=0.026 with microbial phytase). The inclusion of hulls improved the solubility of iP (Pphytase in releasing phosphate in the stomach. Moreover, dietary fiber may affect solubilization process in the cecum which potentiates the effect of microbial phytase on P digestibility.

  13. Relationship between urine albumin and endothelin in children with anaphylactoid purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Chen Nianfa

    2009-01-01

    To study the function of urine albumin and endothelin (ET-1) in the occurrence and progress of ansphylactoid purura (HSP) and anaphylaxis purura nephritis (HSPN) in children, the serum level of ET-1 and urine albumin excretion rate in 29 children with HSP and 21 normal controls was detected by RIA and salicylic acid nephelometry respectively. The results showed that the content of urine albumin in 24 hours in HSP group has no significant difference compared with that of control group (P>0.05) , but the corresponding content in HSPN group has significant difference compared with that of control and HSP group (P<0.01). The serum ET-1 in HSP group has significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05), and the corresponding content in HSPN group has significant difference compared with control group and HSP group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The levels of urine albumin of 24 hours and serum ET-1 in HSPN group after treatment were decreased obviously compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). The content of urine albumin of 24 hours was positively correlated with serum levels of ET-1. The ET-1 participated the formation of HSP and HSPN, and was related to the occurrence and progress of urine albumin. (authors)

  14. Protein, Calcium, Zinc, and Iron Contents of Finger Millet Grain Response to Varietal Differences and Phosphorus Application in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wekha N. Wafula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the influence of phosphorus fertilizers on the concentrations of nutrients, particularly calcium, protein, zinc, and iron in finger millet grains grown in different agro-ecologies in Kenya. The on-station experiments were carried out at Kiboko (Eastern Kenya, Kakamega, and Alupe (Western Kenya in 2015 during the short and long rainy seasons. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The treatments comprised of four levels of phosphorus (0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 and three finger millet varieties (U-15, P-224 and a local variety. Application of phosphorus significantly (p ≤ 0.05 increased the protein content of finger millet grain in varieties in all the three sites. Variety U-15 had the highest protein content (11.0% at 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 with the control (zero P on variety P-224 eliciting the lowest (4.4% at Kiboko. At Kakamega, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 treatment with U-15 variety had the highest protein content (15.3% while the same variety at 12.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 rate elicited the highest protein content (15.0% at Alupe. Phosphorus application significantly enhanced the nutritional quality of finger millet grains specifically protein, calcium, iron, and zinc. Variety P-224 had the highest calcium content in all sites and highest iron content at Kakamega while the local varieties had the highest zinc content in all sites. The varieties responded differently to each quality component but generally, based on the protein content, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 is recommended.

  15. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  16. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  18. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pasture expansion in Brazil has shown an increase in 4.5% per year, and a total cattle herd of about 200 millions in 2010. Associated to animal husbandry there are emissions of N2O (nitrous oxide) and other gases to the atmosphere. The liquid manure contributes to emitte 5% of the total N2O emissions. The urea content of cattle urine will readily hydrolyze to form ammonium after deposition to the soil. Nitrous oxide may then be emitted through the microbiological processes of nitrification and denitrification. Important factors can influence on these processes and consequently in nitrous oxide emissions, as soil water content and temperature (Bolan et al., 2004; Luo et al., 2008). The main goal of this research was to determine the soil water content and temperature influence on N2O emissions from urine depositions on the soil. In order to achieve the objective, soil incubation experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions at three levels of water-filled pore space (40%, 60% and 80% WFPS) and two temperatures (25ºC and 35ºC) with and without urine, with five replicates each. The soil used in this study was collected from the 0-10 cm layer of a grassland field in Southeast of Brazil and classified as Nitisols. For each measurement, the Kilner jar was hermetically sealed by replacing the lid and a first gas sample was immediately taken (time-zero, t0 sample) using a syringe and stored in a pre-evacuated gas vial. After 30 minutes the headspace of each jar was sampled again (time-thirty, t_30 sample). The lids were then removed and kept off until the next sampling day. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the sampled air were measured using a SRI Gas Chromatograph (Model 8610C). Gas fluxes were calculated by fitting linear regressions through the data collected at t0 and t_30 and were corrected for temperature and amount of soil incubated. Gas measurements were carried out up to 55 days. To determine the statistical significance, Tukey tests were carried out at 0

  19. Estimation of 239Pu in urine, influence of Sulkowich reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium is known to be co-precipitated with Sulkowich reagent as calcium ammonium oxalate. In adopting this technique for bio-assay of plutonium, its accuracy depends on the self-absorption of the resulting precipitate in each urine sample. Pu recovery experiments were carried out with varying concentration of Ca and Mg, using different volumes of Sulkowich reagent. When the sample volume is 500 ml, Pu in urine can be estimated with an accuracy and precision of 74.38%+-7.4%, with a detection limit of 0.06 Bq (1.6 pCi) per dm 3 . (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Phosphorus Balance in Adolescent Girls and the Effect of Supplemental Dietary Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, Colby J; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro; Gallant, Kathleen M Hill

    2018-03-01

    There are limited data on phosphorus balance and the effect of dietary calcium supplements on phosphorus balance in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine phosphorus balance and the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake with a supplement on net phosphorus absorption and balance in healthy adolescent girls. This study utilized stored urine, fecal, and diet samples from a previously conducted study that focused on calcium balance. Eleven healthy girls ages 11 to 14 years participated in a randomized crossover study, which consisted of two 3-week periods of a controlled diet with low (817 ± 19.5 mg/d) or high (1418 ± 11.1 mg/d) calcium, separated by a 1-week washout period. Phosphorus intake was controlled at the same level during both placebo and calcium supplementation (1435 ± 23.5 and 1453 ± 28.0 mg/d, respectively, p = 0.611). Mean phosphorus balance was positive by about 200 mg/d and was unaffected by the calcium supplement ( p = 0.826). Urinary phosphorus excretion was lower with the calcium supplement (535 ± 42 versus 649 ± 41 mg/d, p = 0.013), but fecal phosphorus and net phosphorus absorption were not significantly different between placebo and calcium supplement (553 ± 60 versus 678 ± 63 versus mg/d, p = 0.143; 876 ± 62 versus 774 ± 64 mg/d, p = 0.231, respectively). Dietary phosphorus underestimates using a nutrient database compared with the content measured chemically from meal composites by ~40%. These results show that phosphorus balance is positive in girls during adolescent growth and that a calcium dietary supplement to near the current recommended level does not affect phosphorus balance when phosphorus intake is at 1400 mg/d, a typical US intake level. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  2. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kuen Yu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO3 from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate.

  3. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in sheep fed diets either adequate or restricted in calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Mrochen, N; Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2010-04-01

    It was the aim of the present study to collect basic data on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) homoeostasis in sheep. Two series of experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitammin D(3) (calcitriol) in supraphysiological dosage in combination with varying alimentary Ca supply. In the first series, blood samples were collected over 72 h to determine the concentrations of total Ca (Ca), ionized Ca (Ca(2+)), inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and the bone resorption marker CrossLaps (CL). In the second series, measurements were carried out over 12h. In addition, urine samples were collected to calculate the fractional excretions (FE) of Ca and P(i). Changes in plasma macromineral concentrations (Psheep (Pbone by calcitriol exclusively in this group. From these data, it can be concluded that the sheep can be a suitable animal model for studying catabolic effects of Ca deficiency and calcitriol on bone metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2 daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05 but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05. In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength.

  5. Development and molecular characterization of genic molecular markers for grain protein and calcium content in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirgude, M; Babu, B Kalyana; Shambhavi, Y; Singh, U M; Upadhyaya, H D; Kumar, Anil

    2014-03-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn), holds immense agricultural and economic importance for its high nutraceuticals quality. Finger millets seeds are rich source of calcium and its proteins are good source of essential amino acids. In the present study, we developed 36 EST-SSR primers for the opaque2 modifiers and 20 anchored-SSR primers for calcium transporters and calmodulin for analysis of the genetic diversity of 103 finger millet genotypes for grain protein and calcium contents. Out of the 36 opaque2 modifiers primers, 15 were found polymorphic and were used for the diversity analysis. The highest PIC value was observed with the primer FMO2E33 (0.26), while the lowest was observed FMO2E27 (0.023) with an average value of 0.17. The gene diversity was highest for the primer FMO2E33 (0.33), however it was lowest for FMO2E27 (0.024) at average value of 0.29. The percentage polymorphism shown by opaque2 modifiers primers was 68.23%. The diversity analysis by calcium transporters and calmodulin based anchored SSR loci revealed that the highest PIC was observed with the primer FMCA8 (0.30) and the lowest was observed for FMCA5 (0.023) with an average value of 0.18. The highest gene diversity was observed for primer FMCA8 (0.37), while lowest for FMCA5 (0.024) at an average of 0.21. The opaque2 modifiers specific EST-SSRs could able to differentiate the finger millet genotypes into high, medium and low protein containing genotypes. However, calcium dependent candidate gene based EST-SSRs could broadly differentiate the genotypes based on the calcium content with a few exceptions. A significant negative correlation between calcium and protein content was observed. The present study resulted in identification of highly polymorphic primers (FMO2E30, FMO2E33, FMO2-18 and FMO2-14) based on the parameters such as percentage of polymorphism, PIC values, gene diversity and number of alleles.

  6. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  7. Survival of enteric bacteria in source-separated human urine used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAKAYA

    Urine in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Cultivation. Agric. Food Sci. 18:57-68. Pronk W, Koné D (2010). Options for urine treatment in developing countries. Desalination 251:360-368. Schönning C, Leeming R, Stenström TA (2002). Faecal contamination of source-separated human urine based on the content of faecal sterols ...

  8. Studies in radioselenium 75Se distribution in tissues and rumen content and on its excretion with bile, urine and faeces in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneka, J.; Nowosad, R.; Simoni, J.

    1979-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 11 mature sheep fistulated and cannulated from the gall bladder or rumen. Radioactive sodium selenate in aqueous solution was administered intravenously. Before selenium was given to the animal, rumen content or bile, as well as blood, urine and faeces were collected as control material. After selenium had been given, 10 ml of rumen content or 3 ml of bile were taken at 15-minute intervals during the first two hours, and then every 60 minutes up to the 96th hour of the trials. Urine and faeces were collected at 3-hour intervals. Blood was taken from the zygomatic vein once a day. After the 4th day of the trials, the sheep were anaesthetized and bled, and then samples were collected from various organs. Measurements of radioactivity were made in the samples. The greatest amount of selenium was found in the cortical part of the kidney, and the smallest amount in the vitreous body of the eye. (author)

  9. Impact of Prolonged Fasting on the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation in the Urine: Calcium Phosphate Lithogenesis during Prolonged Fasting in a Healthy Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad A; Aarabi, Mehdi; Shaker, Pouyan; Ghafarian, Amir M; Chamanian, Pouyan; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2018-03-02

    Intermittent fasting and curtailing water intake for extended periods were likely common in Paleolithic times. Today it occurs for religious and dietary reasons. This restriction in intake should cause a decrease in the urine flow rate while raising the concentration of certain substances in urine to the point of precipitation. In this study we measured the risk of CaHPO 4 precipitation following 18 hours of food and water deprivation. Urine samples were periodically collected from 15 healthy subjects who fasted and abstained from drinking any liquid for 18 hours. The urine constituents Ca 2+ , HPO 4 2- and pH involved in CaHPO 4 formation were measured at various times throughout the fasting day. A comparison was made with control data, which consisted of diurnal urine collections taken throughout a separate nonfasting day prior to the fasting day. The mean ± SEM urine flow rate decreased significantly from 0.93 ± 0.1 ml per minute in the control group to 0.37 ± 0.05 ml per minute in the fasting group (p water deprivation, there was no evidence that the calculated risk of CaHPO 4 precipitation in the healthy subjects had increased. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  11. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  12. Effect of calcium content on the microstructure, hardness and in-vitro corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Ca binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Eslami Harandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of calcium addition on microstructure, hardness value and corrosion behavior of five different Mg-xCa binary alloys (x = 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 4 wt. (% was investigated. Notable refinement in microstructure of the alloy occurred with increasing calcium content. In addition, more uniform distribution of Mg2Ca phase was observed in a-Mg matrix resulted in an increase in hardness value. The in-vitro corrosion examination using Kokubo simulated body fluid showed that the addition of calcium shifted the fluid pH value to a higher level similar to those found in pure commercial Mg. The high pH value amplified the formation and growth of bone-like apatite. Higher percentage of Ca resulted in needle-shaped growth of the apatite. Electrochemical measurements in the same solution revealed that increasing Ca content led to higher corrosion rates due to the formation of more cathodic Mg2Ca precipitate in the microstructure. The results therefore suggested that Mg-0.7Ca with the minimum amount of Mg2Ca is a good candidate for bio-implant applications.

  13. The interactive effects of various nitrogen fertiliser formulations applied to urine patches on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krol D.J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based livestock agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG nitrous oxide (N2O. Although a body of research is available on the effect of urine patch N or fertiliser N on N2O emissions, limited data is available on the effect of fertiliser N applied to patches of urinary N, which can cover up to a fifth of the yearly grazed area. This study investigated whether the sum of N2O emissions from urine and a range of N fertilisers, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN or urea ± urease inhibitor ± nitrification inhibitor, applied alone (disaggregated and re-aggregated approximated the N2O emission of urine and fertiliser N applied together (aggregated. Application of fertiliser to urine patches did not significantly increase either the cumulative yearly N2O emissions or the N2O emission factor in comparison to urine and fertiliser applied separately with the emissions re-aggregated. However, there was a consistent trend for approximately 20% underestimation of N2O loss generated from fertiliser and urine applied separately when compared to figures generated when urine and fertiliser were applied together. N2O emission factors from fertilisers were 0.02%, 0.06%, 0.17% and 0.25% from urea ± dicyandiamide (DCD, urea + N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT + DCD, urea + NBPT and urea, respectively, while the emission factor for urine alone was 0.33%. Calcium ammonium nitrate and urea did not interact differently with urine even when the urea included DCD. N2O losses could be reduced by switching from CAN to urea-based fertilisers.

  14. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  15. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  16. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological concentrations of iodine were determined in milk and urine. Recovery studies are reported along with results for the analysis of milk and urine samples. Iodine contents ranged from 10 - 110 (mean 52.88 ± 22.60mg/l) and 10 - 90 (mean 27.64 ±16.70) g/l in milk and urine respectively. A significant difference is ...

  17. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa.

  18. 210Po content in human urine of people living in south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    The death of the former secret service agent Alexander Livitnenko in 2006 due to a lethal intake of 210 Po, presumably via ingestion, sparked renewed interest in the field of 210 Po toxicity to humans. 210 Po occurs widely in nature and is an important component of man' s natural radiation background. The main route of 210 Po intake by the human body is the ingestion with foodstuffs, although ingestion with drinking water especially of underground origin represents another route of 210 Po intakes. Inhalation of 222 Rn released from the soil also contributes in 210 Po body burden. However, the body burden of 210 Po in normal human body may differ from one person to another depending upon the mode life including diet habits, origin of drinking water, residence place (radon exposure rate) and also smoking habits. Therefore, many factors may affect the 210 Po intake and lead to variations in the body burden in different individuals, and consequently in their urine. To see the influence of the diet habits in the amount of 210 Po excreted by urine, some volunteers in Seville (south of Spain) follow defined diets during approximately one month, with daily urine collection followed by 210 Po determination by alpha-particle spectrometry. Depending on the type of diet ingested by the different volunteers, it was observed differences approaching even an order of magnitude in their levels of 210 Po in urine. This fact difficult enormously the adoption of a predefined value of this nuclide in urine with natural origin with the consequence difficulties for screening through urine the possible anthropogenic intake of this element. (author)

  19. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  20. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine 137 Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137 Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137 Cs] = [urinary 137 Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137 Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137 Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  2. The use of semi-quantitative tests at Cesarean section delivery for the differentiation of canine fetal fluids from maternal urine on the basis of biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Orsolya; Roch, Marie; Keller, Stefanie; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M

    2017-01-15

    In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during Cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test ® ). Combined calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) content were evaluated with the Total Hardness Test. The AmniSure test, which detects rupture of fetal membranes in women on the basis of the presence of human placental alpha microglobulin-1, was also performed on canine AMF, ALF, and urine. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Pearson's correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated for parameters with significant difference between urine and both fetal fluids. Maternal urine had higher SG and lower leukocyte, protein, Hb, and Ca/Mg content than AMF and ALF. Glucose was more often present in AMF (n = 17) and ALF (n = 12) than in urine (n = 1), whereas ketone bodies were rarely detected in ALF compared with urine. Bilirubin content was higher in urine and ALF than in AMF. AMF pH was less variable and higher than the pH of ALF or urine. The AmniSure was negative in all samples tested. Sensitivity and specificity for SG and for the detection of leukocytes, protein, glucose, Hb, Ca/Mg, and glucose without ketones in urine and fetal fluids were between 42% to 100% and 65% to 100%, respectively. Best positive LR was achieved for the detection of glucose without ketones

  3. Lactic acid fermentation of human urine to improve its fertilizing value and reduce odour emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N; Ronteltap, M; Boincean, B; Wernli, M; Zubcov, E; Bagrin, N; Borodin, N; Lens, P N L

    2017-08-01

    During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH 4 + -N = 1.2-1.3 g L -1 ) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine. In the lacto-fermented urine, the pH was reduced to 3.8-4.7 and the ammonium content by 22-30%, while the pH of the untreated urine rose to 6.1 and its ammonium content increased by 32% due to urea hydrolysis. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in lacto-fermented urine was 7.3 CFU ml -1 , suggesting that urine is a suitable growth medium for lactic acid bacteria. The odour of the stored urine was subjectively perceived by four people to be twice as strong as that of lacto-fermented samples. Lacto-fermented urine induced increased radish germination compared to stored urine (74-86% versus 2-31%). Adding a lactic acid bacterial inoculum to one week old urine in the storage tanks in a urine-diverting dry toilet reduced the pH from 8.9 to 7.7 after one month, while the ammonium content increased by 35%, probably due to the high initial pH of the urine. Given that the hydrolyzed stale urine has a high buffering capacity, the lactic acid bacterial inoculum should be added to the urine storage tank of a UDDT before urine starts to accumulate there to increase the efficiency of the lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium creatinine ratio and urinary magnesium creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal

  6. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  7. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Andrew W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1 low urine pH, or 2 acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a fragility fractures; and b five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651. Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk.

  8. Radioimmunological vasopressin determination in the urine of patients suffering from hypertension and lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freisenhausen, H.D.; Frahm, H.; Wiethold, G.; Desaga, U.; Ebeling, J.; Schrader, D.

    1976-01-01

    The AVP content of the 24 h urine was investigated in 43 patients suffering from hypertension and 80 patients suffering from bronchial carcinoma. With 103.2 +- 52.4 ng, the AVD content of the 24 h urine of 21 untreated hypertensives was highly significantly (p [de

  9. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to investigate the role for measurement of 24-h renal oxalate excretion in the evaluation of idiopathic calcium stone formers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal excretion rates of oxalate and creatinine were measured in 24-h urines in 46 consecutive male recurrent...

  10. Calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphism (rs7652589) is associated with calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Jianhua; Long, Jiang; Shi, Jiarun; Luo, Yuhui

    2018-04-16

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene plays an important role in regulating the Ca 2+ balance and reducing the risk for calcium stones. In this study, we evaluated the association of CaSR polymorphisms with calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China. Biochemical variables were evaluated in 624 calcium nephrolithiasis patients and 470 age-matched healthy controls without a history of nephrolithiasis. CaSR polymorphisms rs7652589, rs1501899, rs1801725 (Ala986Ser), rs1042636 (Arg990Gly) and rs1801726 (Gln1011Glu) were investigated between the calcium nephrolithiasis patients and healthy controls, using direct sequencing. Compared with the healthy controls, serum creatinine and 24-hour urine calcium levels were significantly higher in calcium nephrolithiasis patients. Among these five polymorphisms, the genotypic and allelic frequency distributions of rs7652589 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of calcium nephrolithiasis. However, there were no genotypic or allelic distribution differences for rs1501899, rs1801725, rs1042636, and rs1801726 polymorphisms between calcium nephrolithiasis patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the association between rs7652589 SNP genotypes and the biochemical variables was not found. Our study showed that CaSR rs7652589 polymorphism had a significant effect on the risk of developing calcium nephrolithiasis in the population of Yi nationality in Southwestern China. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  11. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  12. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  13. The calcium oxide influence on formation of manganese, calcium pyrovanadate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatolin, N.A.; Volkova, P.I.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.; Ovchinnikova, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The X-ray graphic, derivatographic, microscopic and chemical methods are used to study solid solutions of manganese, calcium pyrovanadates containing 1-10 mass% CaO and the products of interaction of reprocessing charges of vanadium-containing converter slags intended for he formation of manganese and calcium pyrovanadates with additions of calcium oxide within 10-90 mass%. It is established that in the case of 1-6 mass% CaO content in manganese pyrovanadate solid interstitial solutions appear, while at 6-20 mass% CaO - solid substitution solutions form. The results of calculating elementary cell parameters as well as melting temperatures and pyrovanadate solid solution solubility depending on CaO content are presented. The best solubility of introduction solid solutions during vanadium extraction according to the lime technology is found

  14. Behavior of heavy metals in human urine and blood following calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate injection: observations in metal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, F; Araki, S; Murata, K; Aono, H

    1998-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the behavior of 8 heavy metals in human urine and blood, CaEDTA was administered for 1 h by intravenous injection to 18 male metal foundry workers, whose blood lead concentrations (PbB) were between 16 and 59 (mean 34) microg/dl. Significant increases were found in urinary excretion of manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, and copper after the start of CaEDTA injection. Urinary chromium excretion reached a maximal level within 1 h after the start of injection, while urinary manganese, lead, and zinc excretion reached their highest concentrations between 1 and 2 h. Urinary copper excretion reached the highest level between 2 and 4 h. The rapid increases in urinary excretion of five metals were different from the "circadian rhythms," which are the normal, daily variations in renal glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretory mechanisms. Plasma lead concentrations were highest 1.5 h after the start of the 1-h injection, while plasma zinc concentration became lowest 5 h after the start of CaEDTA injection. Data suggest that manganese and chromium absorbed in human tissues might be mobilized by CaEDTA.

  15. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Samantha; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: ► 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. ► The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. ► It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. ► Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. ► Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  16. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  17. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. ) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, S; Krishnamoorthy, K K [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry

    1977-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium.

  18. Uptake of radiactive calcium by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and efficiency of utilisation of applied calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganathan, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with groundnut applying labelled calcium as its sulphate and carbonate at two levels namely 75 and 150 kg Ca per ha with varying levels of P, K and Mg. Plant samples were taken at different stages of crop growth and analysed for the content of radioactive calcium. Calcium sulphate treatment has resulted in larger uptake of calcium compared to calcium carbonate. An application of 150 kg Ca per ha has caused significantly higher uptake by groundnut plant than 75 kg Ca per ha. The percentage of utilisation of added calcium ranged from 2.2 to 5.4 Recovery of calcium by plants was more in calcium sulphate treatment rather than in calcium carbonate. The plants showed a preference for absorbing applied calcium rather than native calcium

  19. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of urine mercury level of dentists in Tehran and its influencial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei M.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dentists are exposed to mercury from dental amalgam in their routine occupational practice. Excess exposure to mercury is harmful and the measurement of mercury content of urine is a reliable and valid assessment of the level of mercury exposure from dental amalgam. The aim of this study was the measurement of urine mercury in dentists of Tehran and assessment of some possible related factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed randomly on 211 dentists in all regions in Tehran city (center, north, south, west, and east between 1381 and 1383. Dentists were asked to give a sample of urine in the day of visit and to complete a questionnaire consisting of variables such as age, working history, handling of amalgam, environmental parameters and general health situation. Urine samples were analyzed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Walis, Kendall and Mann Whitney tests, with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean of urine mercury content in Tehran dentists was 3.1 (± 3.95 which was lower than the international TLV (Threshold Limit Value. There was a significant relation between urine mercury level and working hours per day (P=0.006. This relation was observed with working hours per week too (P=0.006. In general dentists, there was a positive relation between urine mercury and age (0.008 as well as the practicing years (P=0.034. A significant relation was found between urine mercury and the number of amalgam repairs and replacements in restorative specialists (p=0.039. There was a significant relation between the number of amalgam fillings in the mouth and urine mercury in general practitioners (p=0.027. The type of amalgam (predosed capsules or bulk powder had a significant effect on the urine mercury content (P=0.001. There was no significant relation between urine mercury and other variables of the study such as the squeezing of

  1. Update on probiotics for the treatment of calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is one of the common diseases in urinary system, among which calcium oxalate stone is the most common one with a high recurrence rate. An important pathological factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stone is the increased absorption of oxalate from intestine, which leads to a high urine oxalate concentration. Intestinal bacteria known to be able to degrade oxalate includes Oxalobacter formigenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium lentum, Providencia rettgeri, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, etc. Among those, Oxalobacter formigenes is the first oxalate-degrading obligate anaerobe found in human, while the rest are just conditioned bacteria with the function to degrade intestinal oxalate. There are three kinds of enzymes in Oxalobacter formigenes involved in the metabolism of oxalate, namely oxalate-formate antiporter (OxlT, formyl-CoA transferase (Frc and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc. Animal experiments have verified that Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce intestinal oxalate absorption by promoting the secretion of oxalate and degradation as well, thus decrease the excretion of urine oxalate. The present review will focus on the research progress of probiotics treatment for the calcium oxalate stones so as to provide reference for further research and development. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.16

  2. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  3. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  4. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  5. [The effects of strontium in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Fan, M

    1997-05-01

    Effects of strontium at a high level in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone were studied. The results showed that Sr2+ concentration from 5 to 500 mg/L in drinking water could increase the contents of strontium in blood serum, urine, femur, mixilla and tooth in Wistar rats exposed to Sr2+ for 12 weeks with an obvious dose-response relationship. In addition, strontium at over 50 mg/L could decrease the contents of calcium in bone, increase the contents of calcium in tooth and bone density, and decrease the levels of calcium in blood serum except female rats at the 12th week. Effects of Sr2+ on body weight, body length, AKP activity of serum, calcium content of urine and breaking load of bended femur for rats were not found. However, there are differences in the effects of strontium on growth and development of bone between male and female rats. At the 12th week the content of calcium in blood serum decreased in male rats but increased in female rats in exposed groups. At the 4th and 8th weeks, urine Hop/Cr in male rats increased but it remained normal level in female rats. Sr2+ increased the bone density of mixilla in male rats but it did not increase that of femur in female rats. It is suggested that such changes may be a result of the differences in endocritic regulation and metabolic process between two sexes.

  6. Measurement of urinary calcium using AT89C51RD2 microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, P; Jamaludeen, A; Rajendran, A; Raghunathan, R

    2009-04-01

    A simple and inexpensive absorption technique for determination of calcium ion in urine samples is developed, comprising a light emitting diode (650 nm) as the light source and photodiode as the detector with AT89C51RD2 microcontroller. The design of the system and details of interface, calibration, and procedure of operation are explained in this paper. Software is developed to monitor sample processing and to display the results in liquid crystal display screen. With 15 microl sample volume, a linear output is obtained in the range of 2.5-7.5 mM calcium with a detection limit of 0.06 mM. Interferences from other cations such as monovalent ion and divalent ion are investigated in the expected range, which are normally present in clinical samples, and absorption changes over the pH range of 3-12 are also determined. This system has been demonstrated successfully for the successive assay of calcium in urine samples, with the results comparing well to those achieved and in good agreement with values obtained with the current clinical spectrophotometric method at 95% of confidence level.

  7. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  8. Availability of calcium from chemically pure potassium oxalate to the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Sareen, V.K.; Marwah, S.R.; Sharma, K.C.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true dige'stibility of calcium in the buffalo calves fed chemically pure potassium oxalate. In each experiments 6 calves were divided into two groups, viz. control and oxalate-fed. The control group was given basal ration consisting of wheat straw, mustard-cake and maize grains. The oxalate-fed group was fed the basal ration supplemented with 60, 100 and 140 g potassium oxalate per day in experiments 1,2, and 3 respectively. The percent true digestibility of calcium was 51.7 and 52.5 in experiment 1, 60.5 and 44.1 in experiment 2, and 59.3 and 44.1 in experiment 3 in the control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. In all the experiments the oxalate was completely broken down in the rumen. The volume of water intake and urine excretion was more in the oxalate-fed groups. The daily alkali output in the urine in terms of N-acid was 0.7 and 1.3 in experiment 1, 1.5 and 2.5 in experiment 2, and 2.1 and 3.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. The daily bicarbonate concentration in the urine (in g) was 26.5 and 53.4 in experiment 1, 83.2 and 146.2 in experiment 2, and 132.6 and 222.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. Likewise the excretion of oxalate in the urine was more in oxalate-fed groups. On the basis of the results obtained, the reason for the somewhat low true digestibility of calcium in the calves consuming more than 60 g of potassium oxalate/day are discussed. Isotope-dilution technique using 45 CaCl 2 was employed in the study. (auth.)

  9. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  10. Effect of Moisture Content of Chitin-Calcium Silicate on Rate of Degradation of Cefotaxime Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimry, Suhair S; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state. The moisture content was determined at the beginning and the end of the kinetic study using TGA. The degradation in solution was studied for comparison. Increasing the moisture content of the excipient of size range 63-180 μm (surface area 7.2 m 2 /g) from 3.88 to 8.06% increased the rate of degradation of the drug more than two times (from 0.0317 to 0.0718 h -1 ). While an opposite trend was observed for the excipient of size range moisture content moisture content of 8.54%, and the degradation in solid state at both moisture contents was higher than that in solution (0.0871 h -1 ). In conclusion, the rate of degradation in solid should be studied taking into consideration the specific surface area and moisture content of the excipient at the storage condition and it may be higher than that in solution.

  11. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted...

  12. An exploratory study on seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery (SUPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji; Tang, Wen-Tao; Zheng, Yi-Se; Mackey, Hamish R; Chui, Ho Kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a crucial and non-renewable resource, while it is excessively discharged via sewage, significant amounts originating from human urine. Recovery of P from source-separated urine presents an opportunity not only to recover this precious resource but also to improve downstream sewage treatment works. This paper proposes a simple and economic method to recover urine derived P by using seawater as a low-cost precipitant to form struvite, as Hong Kong has practised seawater toilet flushing as an alternative water resource since 1958. Chemical reactions, process conditions and precipitate composition for P precipitation in urine have been investigated to develop this new urine P recovery approach. This study concluded that ureolysis extent in a urine-seawater mixture determines the reaction pH that in turn influences the P recovery efficiency significantly; 98% of urine P can precipitate with seawater within 10 min when 40-75% of the urea in urine is ureolysed; the urine to seawater ratio alters the composition of the precipitates. The P content in the precipitates was found to be more than 9% when the urine fraction was 40% or higher. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) was confirmed to be the predominant component of the precipitates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  14. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teir, Sebastian; Eloneva, Sanni; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating 200 kt of carbon dioxide emissions per year, considering only the PCC used in the pulp and paper industry. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility to produce PCC from calcium silicates and the potential to replace calcium carbonate as the raw material was made. Calcium carbonate can be manufactured from calcium silicates by various methods, but only a few have been experimentally verified. The possibility and feasibility of these methods as a replacement for the current PCC production process was studied by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using HSC software and process modelling using Aspen Plus[reg]. The results from the process modelling showed that a process that uses acetic acid for extraction of the calcium ions is a high potential option for sequestering carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. The main obstacle seems to be the limited availability and relatively high price of wollastonite, which is a mineral with high calcium silicate content. An alternative is to use the more common, but also more complex, basalt rock instead

  15. Identification and characterization of calcium transporter gene family in finger millet in relation to grain calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uma M; Metwal, Mamta; Singh, Manoj; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-07-15

    Calcium (Ca) is an essential mineral for proper growth and development of plants as well as animals. In plants including cereals, calcium is deposited in seed during its development which is mediated by specialized Ca transporters. Common cereal seeds contain very low amounts of Ca while the finger millet (Eleusine coracana) contains exceptionally high amounts of Ca in seed. In order to understand the role of Ca transporters in grain Ca accumulation, developing seed transcriptome of two finger millet genotypes (GP-1, low Ca and GP-45 high Ca) differing in seed Ca content was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and members of Ca transporter gene family were identified. Out of 109,218 and 120,130 contigs, 86 and 81 contigs encoding Ca transporters were identified in GP-1 and GP-45, respectively. After removal of redundant sequences, a total of 19 sequences were confirmed as Ca transporter genes, which includes 11 Ca(2+) ATPases, 07 Ca(2+)/cation exchangers and 01 Ca(2+) channel. The differential expressions of all genes were analyzed from transcriptome data and it was observed that 9 and 3 genes were highly expressed in GP-45 and GP-1 genotypes respectively. Validation of transcriptome expression data of selected Ca transporter genes was performed on different stages of developing spikes of both genotypes grown under different concentrations of exogenous Ca. In both genotypes, significant correlation was observed between the expression of these genes, especially EcCaX3, and on the amount of Ca accumulated in seed. The positive correlation of seed mass with the amount of Ca concentration was also observed. The efficient Ca transport property and responsiveness of EcCAX3 towards exogenous Ca could be utilized in future biofortification program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  17. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  18. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  19. Development of a degradable cement of calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate composite for bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H; Wei, J; Liu, C S

    2006-01-01

    A new type of composite bone cement was prepared and investigated by adding calcium sulfate (CS) to calcium phosphate cement (CPC). This composite cement can be handled as a paste and easily shaped into any contour, which can set within 5-20 min, the setting time largely depending on the liquid-solid (L/S) ratio; adding CS to CPC had little effect on the setting time of the composite cements. No obvious temperature increase and pH change were observed during setting and immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cement decreased with an increase in the content of CS. The degradation rate of the composite cements increased with time when the CS content was more than 20 wt%. Calcium deficient apatite could form on the surface of the composite cement because the release of calcium into SBF from the dissolution of CS and the apatite of the cement induced the new apatite formation; increasing the content of CS in the composite could improve the bioactivity of the composite cements. The results suggested that composite cement has a reasonable setting time, excellent degradability and suitable mechanical strength and bioactivity, which shows promising prospects for development as a clinical cement

  20. Determination of calcium in foot, hand and vertebrae of man by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajchik, V.E.; Kondrashev, A.E.; Dubrovin, A.P.; Korelo, A.M.; Morukov, B.V.; Orlov, O.I.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and devices for in vivo neutron activation determination of calcium content in human foot, hand and vertebrae were developed. It is ascertained that calcium content in skeleton is subjected to seasonal cyclicity. Bones of foot have the minimum content of the element in winter-spring period and the maximum one in summer-autumn period. For vertebrae and hand the inverse dependence is characteristic. Average level of seasonal variations in calcium content in the bones of hand and vertebrae is 10-11%, that of foot - 18-19%. Amplitudes of seasonal variations in the content of calcium in vertebrae, hand and foot are interrelated. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  2. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  3. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi 45 Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of 45 Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and 45 Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on 45 Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and 45 Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly

  4. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  5. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  6. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  7. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  8. Dietary calcium phosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF THE DIET THERAPY FOR THE PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF THE CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AMONG INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Sannikova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the efficiency of the specialized milk formula inclusion into the diet to prevent and correct the calcium deficiency among infants (aged between 1 and 3 years old. The authors discovered the positive impact of the milk formula on the values of the phosphoric and calcic exchange: the level of the ionized calcium, daily excretion of calcium with urine, osteocalcin. They identified the significant effect of the diet therapy for the prevention of the pathologic symptoms on the part of the musculoskeletal system (bearing disorder, reduction of the muscular tonus and etc..Key words: children, milk formula, calcium, exchange, diet therapy.

  10. Effect of freeze/thaw cycles on several biomarkers in urine from patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Luo, Yi; Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Niansong; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Wang, Congrong; Jia, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Urine samples were collected from eleven randomly selected patients with kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy, chronic nephritis, and nephritic syndrome. Urine samples were treated with one of four protocols for freezing and thawing: freeze directly and thaw directly; freeze directly and thaw by temperature gradient; freeze by temperature gradient and thaw directly; and freeze by temperature gradient and thaw by temperature gradient. After one to six freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C or -80°C, different biomarkers showed differential stabilities. The concentrations of total protein, calcium, and potassium did not change significantly after five freeze/thaw cycles at either -20°C or -80°C. Albumin could only sustain three freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C before it started to degrade. We recommend that urine be stored at -80°C as albumin and the organic ions could sustain five and six freeze/thaw cycles, respectively, using the simple "direct freeze and direct thaw" protocol. Furthermore, in most cases, gradient freeze/thaw cycles are not necessary for urine sample storage.

  11. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  12. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  13. Reference intervals for stone risk factors in 24-h urine among healthy adults of the Han population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zanlin; Li, Xiaoxia; Cui, Zelin; Wu, Wenqi; Liu, Yongda; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yueping; Zhao, Zhijian; Liu, Yang; Mai, Xing; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Chao; Yang, Houmeng; Zeng, Guohua

    2018-03-28

    The aim of the study was to establish reference intervals for 24-h urinary stone risk factors in the healthy Chinese Han population. From May 2013 to July 2014, we collected and analyzed 24-h urine samples from healthy adult Han population during a cross-sectional study across China. The protocol for analysis of 24-h urine included volume, pH, oxalate, citrate, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, urate, magnesium, the ion activity products of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) indexs) and calcium phosphate (AP(CaP) indexs). We calculated the reference intervals according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2008 guidelines and compared them with those recorded in other studies. A total of 132 male and 123 female healthy subjects with a mean (SD, range) age of 52.4 (15.2, 19-89) years were eligible in the final analysis. Men had higher 24-h excretion of creatinine, calcium, urate and phosphorus and lower levels of citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium than women. AP(CaOx) indexs and AP(CaP) indexs were significantly higher among men than women. When urinary findings were compared with the reference intervals, most of our data showed a high abnormality rate, especially for creatinine, calcium, citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium. The present study revealed the normal metabolic status for stone risk factors of the Chinese Han population. It is therefore necessary for each country or region to define their own reference intervals for comparison of stone risk factors between patients and healthy subjects.

  14. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  15. PHOSPHATE CRYSTALLURIA IN VARIOUS FORMS OF UROLITHIASIS AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS PROGNOSTICATION IN PATIENTS WITH PHOSPHATE STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Konstantinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition of types of crystalluria in various forms of urolithiasis and biochemical signs of phosphate crystals in the urine, while phosphate urolithiasis (infectious origin.Patients and methods. The study involved 144 patients with recurrent urolithiasis — 75 women and 69 men. Of these, 46 — diagnosed calculi with uric acid, 44 — calcium oxalate or mixed with a prevalence of calcium oxalate, in 54 — phosphate rocks (carbonate-apatite and/or struvite. The age of patients ranged from 21 to 74 years. 93 people have been under long-term, within 2–15 years, outpatient observation. The examination included the collection of anamnesis, general and microbiological analysis of urine, biochemical blood serum and urine on 10 indicators, reflecting renal function, state of the protein, water and electrolyte metabolism, uric acid metabolism, the chemical composition of the stone analysis.Results. It was found that in patients with calcium oxalate stones phosphaturia has been diagnosed in 2% of cases. And, along with calcium phosphate crystals they had oxalate crystals. In patients with phosphate urolithiasis phosphaturia observed in 96% of patients, in two patients (4% they determined except phosphates also oxalate salt in urine sediment. Patients with phosphate urolithiasis at occurrence of phosphate crystalluria have metabolic state changes: increased serum uric acid concentration from 0.322 ± 0.009 to 0.367 ± 0.018 mmol/l daily renal excretion of inorganic phosphate 23.94 ± 2.93 mmol/day to 32.12 ± 4.39 mmol/day, and reduced total calcium content in urine 6.61 ± 0.94 mmol/day to 3.37 ± 0.89 mmol/day. The results led to the following conclusion.Conclusion. Biochemical signs of occurrence of phosphate crystalluria in patients with stones of infectious origin can be: the approaching level of excretion in the urine of inorganic phosphates to 32,12 ± 4,39 mmol/day, serum uric acid concentration to 0,367 ± 0,018 mmol/l, and the

  16. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in the deficiency of testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S.M.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of calcium mobilization in rats were determined to estimate the role of testosterone in the metabolism of this ion. Calcium multicompartimental theory was combined to and used in measurements of metabolic balance (for 45 CaCl 2 or 40 CaCl 2 ). Three groups of 60 day old rats were used: G I-control; G II-castrated; G III-castrated and treated with testosterone propionate. Data were obtained from measurements of Ca ++ in samples of plasma, feces and urine. Balance studies suggest that calcium level in blood plasma remained constant in all groups, the increase of bone reabsorption in groups II and III being counterbalanced by the elevation of the urinary excrection. This result implies the equilibrium occurring at renal level. Intestinal calcium absorption remained the same in the three groups of animals, indicating that testosterone has no consistent effect at intestinal level. The increase of total calcium in feces of groups II and III arises from a great endogenous secretion. A significant negative balance of calcium was also observed in these groups. This fact permits the conclusion that in the absence of testosterone the organism doesn't retain calcium efficiently. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Experimental evaluation of the detection threshold of uranium in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, M. D.; Suarez Mendez, Sebastian; Tossi, Mirta H.

    1999-01-01

    The routine internal dosimetric tests for nuclear installations workers includes the determination of uranium in urine. The analysis is carried out, after chemical treatment, by UV fluorometry, comparing the results with urine blank samples from workers not exposed professionally to contamination. The fluctuation of the results of the uranium content in the blank samples greatly affects the determinations. In 30 blank samples the uranium content was determined and the results were evaluated by three calculation methods: 1) The procedure recommended by IUPAC; 2) The graphical method; 3) and The error propagation method. The last one has been adopted for the calculation of the detection threshold. (authors)

  18. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  1. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  2. Highly Sensitive Micellar Enhanced Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Mirtazapine in Tablets and Human Urine: Application to In Vitro Drug Release and Content Uniformity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany W. Darwish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetric method was developed for assaying mirtazapine (MRZ in REMERON® tablets and spiked human urine directly without the need of derivatizing agent. The basis of the current procedure is the examination of the relative fluorescence intensity (RFI of MRZ in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS micellar medium. The RFI of MRZ in water was enhanced markedly on addition of SLS. The RFI was measured at 403 nm after excitation at 320 nm. The fluorescence-concentration relationship was linear over the range 1–500 ng/mL, with lower detection limit of 0.399 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of MRZ in dosage form and spiked human urine. Recovery percentages of MRZ utilizing the current method were 99.05±1.83, 98.37±1.96, and 100.41±2.61% for pure powder, pharmaceutical dosage form, and spiked human urine, respectively. The application of the proposed method was extended to test content uniformity and the in vitro drug release of REMERON tablets, according to USP guidelines.

  3. Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing

  4. Research of calcium oxide hydration in calcium nitrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliynyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizers are one of the important factors of agriculture intensification and increasing of food products quantity. The volume of fertilizers production and its domestic consumption in Ukraine indicate that nitrogen fertilizer using only comes nearer to the required number of science-based. One of the most widespread artificial fertilizers is the calcium nitrate. Aim: The aim is to study and theoretically substantiate the processes occurring in the preparation of suspensions of calcium hydroxide Са(ОН2 in solution of calcium nitrate Ca(NО32. Materials and Methods: The technical calcium oxide (quicklime DSTU BV.2.7-90-99, solutions of calcium nitrate of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% Ca(NО32 concentrations were used in the work. The content of lime in the preparation of a suspension in the solution changed (in terms of calcium oxide CaO from 150 g/dm3 to the maximum possible. Each of these solutions saturated at 40°С in lime to maximum concentration. Suitable for use in these experiments and in the technology of calcium nitrate obtaining are considered the solutions (suspensions that within 12 hours did not lose their mobility (transportability. Results: The experimental results show that increasing of the concentration of calcium nitrate in solution within the range 15...40%, the amount of lime that you can put into the solution without loss of transportability decreases. Further increasing of lime quantity in solutions concentrations causes to its solidifying, loss of mobility (transportability. Calculations showed that in the presence of calcium nitrate the solubility of Са(ОН2 is reduced nearly by order that can lead to the formation of calcium oxide CaO the solid phase Са(ОН2 on the surface, which also can form hydrogen bonds with the components of the solution. As the probability of formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions is high, there is a possibility of formation of clusters.

  5. Relationships between caused by drinking of bioactive water Naftussya changes in urine lithogenicity and neuro-humoral-immune factors in humans with theirs abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Flyunt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Spa Truskavets' (Ukraine considered to be indicated for the treatment and metaphylaxis renal stone disease. However, data on the effect of balneotherapy on the parameters of urine Lithogenicity ambiguous. This is due, perhaps, ambiguous influence balneotherapy on the neuroendocrine factors regulating exchange of electrolytes and uric acid. Aim: to find out the influence drinking of bioactive water Naftussya on urine lithogenicity and neuro-humoral-immune factors in humans with theirs abnormalities. Methods. The object of observation were ten women and ten men aged 33-76 years without clinical diagnose but with dysfunction of neuro-endocrine-immune complex and metabolism. In daily urine and blood we determined the content of electrolytes and nitrogenous metabolites, estimated parameters of immunity, recorded conductivity of acupuncture points and heart rate variability (HRV. After examination volunteers within 7 days used bioactive water Naftussya (250 ml three times a day, then repeated the tests listed. Results. Lithogenicity urine Index (Lith calculated by formula: Lith=(Uric acid•Calcium/Magnesium•Creatinine0,25. In 3 people initial normal Lith (0,65÷0,81 units increased by 0,08÷0,16 units. In 4 people with normal or high Lith its changes were not detected (-0,01÷+0,01. In 12 people from a wide range of primary Lith (0,62÷1,07 it lowered by 0,03÷0,12 un. Even in a man maximum level of Lith (1,45 un. down to the upper limit of normal (0,84 un.. Found a strong correlation between changes in Lith and a number parameters of HRV, metabolism and immunity. Conclusion. The use of bioactive water Naftussya causes ambiguous changes in Lithogenicity of urine, related to ambiguous changes in HRV, metabolism and immunity.

  6. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  7. Identification of a macromolecular crystal growth inhibitor in human urine as osteopontin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Justesen, S J; Johnsen, A H

    1995-01-01

    , an unidentified protein rich in uronic acid, and uropontin have all been described as possessing such activity. We have recently isolated an unknown inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth that co-eluted with trypsin inhibitor in several separation steps, which suggested its identity. The aim of the present......Macromolecules occurring in human urine inhibit the growth and/or aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and may prevent the formation of kidney stones. Attention has focused particularly on proteins, as these seem to be most responsible for the inhibitory activity; three proteins, nephrocalcin...... study was to outline a simple procedure for isolating and identifying this inhibitor. Purification was done as follows: precipitation of the major proteins (albumin and uromucoid) with trichloroacetic acid, followed by anion exchange chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, anion exchange...

  8. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  10. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on intestinal calcium absorption and vitamin D metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribovich, M.L.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    To understand better dietary regulation of intestinal calcium absorption, a quantitative assessment of the metabolites in plasma and duodenum of rats given daily doses of radioactive vitamin D 3 and diets differing in calcium and phosphorus content was made. All known vitamin D metabolites were ultimately identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition to the known metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 ), several new and unidentified metabolites were found. In addition to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 , the levels of some of the unknown metabolites could be correlated with intestinal calcium transport. However, whether or not any of these metabolites plays a role in the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption by low dietary calcium or low dietary phosphorus remains unknown

  11. Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro

    2014-09-15

    Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium.

  12. Trace element analysis of whole blood and urine samples of diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodhi, A S; Rashiduzzaman Khan, M [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre

    1979-01-01

    A number of samples of whole blood, and urine from diabetic and non-diabetic persons have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents using the proton-induced X-ray emission. The elemental contents of the diabetic and non-diabetic samples are compared.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide films using calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Haenninen, Timo; Leskelae, Markku

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxide and calcium hafnium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on borosilicate glass and silicon substrates in the temperature range of 205-300 o C. The calcium oxide films were grown from novel calcium cyclopentadienyl precursor and water. Calcium oxide films possessed refractive index 1.75-1.80. Calcium oxide films grown without Al 2 O 3 capping layer occurred hygroscopic and converted to Ca(OH) 2 after exposure to air. As-deposited CaO films were (200)-oriented. CaO covered with Al 2 O 3 capping layers contained relatively low amounts of hydrogen and re-oriented into (111) direction upon annealing at 900 o C. In order to examine the application of CaO in high-permittivity dielectric layers, mixtures of Ca and Hf oxides were grown by alternate CaO and HfO 2 growth cycles at 230 and 300 o C. HfCl 4 was used as a hafnium precursor. When grown at 230 o C, the films were amorphous with equal amounts of Ca and Hf constituents (15 at.%). These films crystallized upon annealing at 750 o C, showing X-ray diffraction peaks characteristic of hafnium-rich phases such as Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 or Ca 6 Hf 19 O 44 . At 300 o C, the relative Ca content remained below 8 at.%. The crystallized phase well matched with rhombohedral Ca 2 Hf 7 O 16 . The dielectric films grown on Si(100) substrates possessed effective permittivity values in the range of 12.8-14.2

  14. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  15. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  16. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  17. Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Oenema, O; van Groenigen, J W; Spek, J W; van Vuuren, A M; Bannink, A

    2013-06-01

    urine deposition or manure application strongly influence N2O release. Major dietary strategies to mitigating N2O emission from cattle operations include reducing dietary N content or increasing energy content, and increasing dietary mineral content to increase urine volume. For further reduction of N2O emission, an integrated animal nutrition and excreta management approach is required.

  18. Diurnal variation and reliability of the urine lactate concentration after maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Sougioultzis, Michail; Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Mougios, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    The postexercise urine lactate concentration is a novel valid exercise biomarker, which has exhibited satisfactory reliability in the morning hours under controlled water intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diurnal variation of the postexercise urine lactate concentration and its reliability in the afternoon hours. Thirty-two healthy children (11 boys and 21 girls) and 23 adults (13 men and 10 women) participated in the study. All participants performed two identical sessions of eight 25 m bouts of maximal freestyle swimming executed every 2 min with passive recovery in between. These sessions were performed in the morning and afternoon and were separated by 3-4 days. Adults performed an additional afternoon session that was also separated by 3-4 days. All swimmers drank 500 mL of water before and another 500 mL after each test. Capillary blood and urine samples were collected before and after each test for lactate determination. Urine creatinine, urine density and body water content were also measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used as a reliability index between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as between the afternoon test and retest. Swimming performance and body water content exhibited excellent reliability in both children and adults. The postexercise blood lactate concentration did not show diurnal variation, showing a good reliability between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as high reliability between the afternoon test and retest. The postexercise urine density and lactate concentration were affected by time of day. However, when lactate was normalized to creatinine, it exhibited excellent reliability in children and good-to-high reliability in adults. The postexercise urine lactate concentration showed high reliability between the afternoon test and retest, independent of creatinine normalization. The postexercise blood and urine lactate concentrations were significantly correlated in all

  19. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost−/−) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion. PMID:23530237

  20. Study of the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption with isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.M.; Mao, X.Y.; Feng, W.Y.; OY, H.; Wang, M.; Xu, D.D.; Zhang, F.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption. Female Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-275 g, were randomly divided into ten groups of 5 rats each. The rats were individually housed in stainless steel metabolic cages in an environmentally controlled room (temperature, 20 degree C; relative humidity, 30%-60%; reversed light : dark cycle, 12:12 hr). Isotopic tracer technique was conducted to study the absorption of calcium acetate and calcium acetate + Chinese medicine in rats. The two calcium supplements were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 4.95 d at neutron flux of φ=6.1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 ·s. Then they were prepared from concentrated 47 Ca solution (10 mg/ml) with cyclodextrin. The animals received oral doses of 25 mg calcium as calcium acetate or calcium acetate + Chinese medicine via an intragastric gavage. The animals were fasted overnight preceding and food was resumed 3 hrs after the gavage. Blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, small intestine, large intestine and femur samples of the rats were taken upon sacrifice at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168 hrs after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. Urine and feces samples were collected separately after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. The radioactivity of the samples was counted with a high pure Ge detector and a PC-based Ortec MCA. Its energy resolution was l.85 keV at 1332.5 keV and the relative detection efficiency was 30 %. The dead time was controlled within 10 % to reduce the count loss. Weighed 47 CaCO 3 was used as reference materials. A big distance between the samples and detector was kept to overcome the geometric effect caused by different shape and size of the samples. The gamma energy spectra were analyzed with a multipurpose gamma ray spectrum analysis software package. The parameters were evaluated by means of general linear model, using analysis of covariance with SAS 6.12 for Windows. The results showed that peroral 47 Ca was

  1. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  2. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  3. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  4. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  5. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  6. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weisheng; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA-LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer.

  7. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA–LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer. (letter)

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Altered sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase 2a content: Targets for heart failure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Si Qi; Hu, Ping Ping; Tong, Xiao Yong

    2018-05-01

    Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is responsible for transporting cytosolic calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum to maintain calcium homeostasis. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is the dominant isoform expressed in cardiac tissue, which is regulated by endogenous protein inhibitors, post-translational modifications, hormones as well as microRNAs. Dysfunction of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is associated with heart failure, which makes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase a promising target for heart failure therapy. This review summarizes current approaches to ameliorate sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase function and focuses on phospholamban, an endogenous inhibitor of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase, pharmacological tools and gene therapies.

  10. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption. PMID:28231080

  11. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5–1660 μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25 μg/L (range 1.9–145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (−6.1 nmol/L [95%CI −9.5; −2.6] for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30 nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. - Highlights: • Elevated drinking water lithium (Li) concentrations are increasingly reported. • We studied a Li

  12. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, Florencia [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta [Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Casimiro, Esperanza [Atención Primaria de la Salud, Área Operativa XXIX, Hospital Dr. Nicolás Cayetano Pagano, San Antonio de los Cobres, Salta (Argentina); Lu, Ying [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5–1660 μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25 μg/L (range 1.9–145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (−6.1 nmol/L [95%CI −9.5; −2.6] for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30 nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25 μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. - Highlights: • Elevated drinking water lithium (Li) concentrations are increasingly reported. • We studied a Li

  13. Kombinasi Calcitriol dan Ethynil Ethyl Estradiol Meningkatkan Ekskresi Kalsium Urin dan Risiko Urolitiasis pada Tikus Ovariektomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih Hartiningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high excretion of calcium (Ca in the urine can trigger the formation of urolith. Estrogen and calcitriol decrease urinary Ca excretion. This study aims to examine the combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol against Ca urinary excretion and urolithiasis risk of ovariectomized rats. Twentyfive female Wistar rats eight weeks old were divided into five groups: i normal control (NK; ii ovariectomized control (OVK; iii ovariectomized + calcitriol (OVD; iv ovariectomized + ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVE; and v ovariectomized + combination calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVDE. Seven weeks post-ovariectomy, each rat was put in an individual metabolic cage for the study of Ca balance. At day 4 to 7 of the study, residual feed, urine, and feces were collected daily for Ca analysis. At day 8, the rats were euthanized, the left kidney were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol in OVDE rats caused Ca intake and Ca intestinal absorption significantly higher, and urinary Ca excretion tended to be higher although not significantly different compared to OVK rats. Calcium excretion in OVK rat urine was higher compared to the NK rats. The kidney histopathological changes of OVK rats were not different from the NK rats. Histopathological examination of the OVDE group kidney showed protein deposition in the capsular of Bowman’s capsule and proximal tubules, atrophy of the proximal tubules, and necrosis, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of calcitriol with ethinyl ethyl estradiol in ovariectomized rats increased urinary Ca excretion and increased the risk of urolithiasis. ABSTRAK Tingginya ekskresi kalsium (Ca dalam urin dapat menjadi pemicu terbentuknya urolit. Estrogen dan calcitriol menurunkan ekskresi Ca urin. Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengkaji kombinasi calcitriol dan ethynil ethyl estradiol terhadap ekskresi Ca dalam urin

  14. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  15. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  16. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  17. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2010-01-01

    , or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from...

  18. Impact of the uranium (VI) speciation in mineralised urines on its extraction by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups used in chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Ritt, A; Peroux, A; Fevrier, L; Rebiere, F; Agarande, M; Cote, G

    2015-11-01

    Actinides determination in urine samples is part of the analyses performed to monitor internal contamination in case of an accident or a terrorist attack involving nuclear matter. Mineralisation is the first step of any of these analyses. It aims at reducing the sample volume and at destroying all organic compounds present. The mineralisation protocol is usually based on a wet ashing step, followed by actinides co-precipitation and a furnace ashing step, before redissolution and the quantification of the actinides by the appropriate techniques. Amongst the existing methods to perform the actinides co-precipitation, alkali-earth (typically calcium) precipitation is widely used. In the present work, the extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from the redissolution solutions (called "mineralised urines") on calix[6]arene columns bearing hydroxamic groups was investigated as such an extraction is a necessary step before their determination by ICP-MS or alpha spectrometry. Difficulties were encountered in the transfer of uranium(VI) from raw to mineralised urines, with yield of transfer ranging between 0% and 85%, compared to about 90% for Pu and Am, depending on the starting raw urines. To understand the origin of such a difficulty, the speciation of uranium (VI) in mineralised urines was investigated by computer simulation using the MEDUSA software and the associated HYDRA database, compiled with recently published data. These calculations showed that the presence of phosphates in the "mineralised urines" leads to the formation of strong uranyl-phosphate complexes (such as UO2HPO4) which compete with the uranium (VI) extraction by the calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups. The extraction constant of uranium (VI) by calix[6]arene bearing hydroxamic groups was determined in a 0.04 mol L(-1) sodium nitrate solution (logK=4.86±0.03) and implemented in an extraction model taking into account the speciation in the aqueous phase. This model allowed to

  19. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  20. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for the Enumeration and Characterization of Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles in Feline Urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mellema

    Full Text Available Urinary stone disease, particularly calcium oxalate, is common in both humans and cats. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNP are spherical nanocrystallite material, and are composed of proteins (fetuin, albumin and inorganic minerals. CNP are suggested to play a role in a wide array of pathologic mineralization syndromes including urolithiasis. We documented the development of a clinically relevant protocol to assess urinary CNP in 9 healthy cats consuming the same diet in a controlled environment using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA®. NTA® is a novel method that allows for characterization of the CNP in an efficient, accurate method that can differentiate these particles from other urinary submicron particulates. The predominant nanoscale particles in feline urine are characteristic of CNP in terms of their size, their ability to spontaneously form under suitable conditions, and the presence of an outer layer that is rich in calcium and capable of binding to hydroxyapatite binders such as alendronate and osteopontin. The expansion of this particle population can be suppressed by the addition of citrate to urine samples. Further, compounds targeting exosomal surfaces do not label these particulates. As CNP have been associated with a number of significant urologic maladies, the method described herein may prove to be a useful adjunct in evaluating lithogenesis risk in mammals.

  1. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  2. Calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues of rats under condition of subchronic lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana; Dozic, Ivan; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra

    2008-03-01

    Lead manifests toxic effects in almost all organs and tissues, especially in: the nervous system, hematopoietic system, kidney and liver. This metal has a special affinity for deposition in hard tissue, i.e., bones and teeth. It is generally believed that the main mechanism of its toxicity relies on its interaction with bioelements, especially with Ca and Mg. This article analyses the influence of Pb poisoning on Ca and Mg content in hard tissues, (mandible, femur, teeth and skull) of female and young rats. Experiments were carried out on 60 female rats, AO breed, and on 80 of their young rats (offspring). Female rats were divided into three groups: the first one was a control group, the second one received 100 mg/kg Pb2+ kg b.wt. per day in drinking water, the third one received 30 mg/kg Pb(2+) kg b.wt. per day in drinking water. Young rats (offspring) were divided into the same respective three groups. Lead, calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues (mandible, femur, teeth-incisors and skull) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in mineralized samples. There was a statistically significant Pb deposition in all analyzed female and young rat hard tissues. Ca and Mg contents were significantly reduced in all female and young rat hard tissues. These results show that Pb poisoning causes a significant reduction in Ca and Mg content in animal hard tissues, which is probably the consequence of competitive antagonism between Pb and Ca and Mg.

  3. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

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    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  4. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  5. [Effect of cadmium stress on physiological characteristics of garlic seedlings and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lian, Hai-feng; Liu, Shi-qi; Yu, Xin-hui; Sun, Ya-li; Guo, Hui-ping

    2015-04-01

    In the experiment, the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in nutrient solution on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, enzymes activities, main mineral elements absorption of garlic seedlings were studied. The results showed that cadmium could obviously inhibit the growth of garlic seedlings, decrease the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves, reduced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and increase the MDA content of leaves, and also could reduce the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and increase the Cd content of roots. The growth was promoted after adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress, which reflected that the morphological indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous calcium concentrations, and were maximized when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). At the same time, the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves showed a similar tendency with the morphological indexes, and they were the highest when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). In addition, adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress enhanced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and decreased the MDA content of leaves, also added the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and reduced the Cd content of roots, and the effect was best when the exogenous calcium concentration was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1).

  6. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using 236 Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  8. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  9. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit

    2009-08-01

    Embryos of oviparous squamate reptiles typically obtain calcium from both yolk and eggshell but differ from other oviparous amniotes (turtles, birds and crocodilians) because they are heavily dependent on calcium-rich yolk. Eggs of viviparous squamates lack calcareous eggshells, and embryos receive calcium solely from yolk or from both yolk and placenta. The pattern of calcium mobilization by amniote embryos has been predicted to influence the evolution of viviparity if embryos are dependent on calcium from the eggshell and calcium placentotrophy evolves subsequent to viviparity. We studied the pattern of maternal provision and embryonic utilization of calcium of an oviparous and a viviparous population of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara to test the hypotheses: (1) oviparous embryos are not dependent on eggshell calcium and (2) calcium content of viviparous hatchlings does not differ from oviparous hatchlings. Our findings do not support either of these hypotheses because oviparous females oviposited eggs with heavily calcified shells and calcium-poor yolk, and embryonic mobilization of shell calcium was greater than for other oviparous squamates. The calcium content of yolk from viviparous females did not differ from oviparous yolk, but viviparous eggs lacked calcareous eggshells. Uterine secretion by viviparous females compensated for the low calcium content of yolk, and placental calcium transfer was among the highest recorded for squamates. The pattern of calcium provision in these two populations suggests that dependence on uterine calcium, either stored temporarily in an eggshell or transferred directly across a placenta, did not constrain the evolution of reproductive mode in this lineage.

  10. An attempt to understand kidney's protein handling function by comparing plasma and urine proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the help of proteomics technology, the human plasma and urine proteomes, which closely represent the protein compositions of the input and output of the kidney, respectively, have been profiled in much greater detail by different research teams. Many datasets have been accumulated to form "reference profiles" of the plasma and urine proteomes. Comparing these two proteomes may help us understand the protein handling aspect of kidney function in a way, however, which has been unavailable until the recent advances in proteomics technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After removing secreted proteins downstream of the kidney, 2611 proteins in plasma and 1522 in urine were identified with high confidence and compared based on available proteomic data to generate three subproteomes, the plasma-only subproteome, the plasma-and-urine subproteome, and the urine-only subproteome, and they correspond to three groups of proteins that are handled in three different ways by the kidney. The available experimental molecular weights of the proteins in the three subproteomes were collected and analyzed. Since the functions of the overrepresented proteins in the plasma-and-urine subproteome are probably the major functions that can be routinely regulated by excretion from the kidney in physiological conditions, Gene Ontology term enrichment in the plasma-and-urine subproteome versus the whole plasma proteome was analyzed. Protease activity, calcium and growth factor binding proteins, and coagulation and immune response-related proteins were found to be enriched. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The comparison method described in this paper provides an illustration of a new approach for studying organ functions with a proteomics methodology. Because of its distinctive input (plasma and output (urine, it is reasonable to predict that the kidney will be the first organ whose functions are further elucidated by proteomic methods in the near future. It

  11. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

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    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same internal standard. Linearity, precision, and results from two methods were compared. Results showed that 19F qNMR has similar precision and sensitivity to 1H qNMR. Both methods generate similar results compared to mass balance method. Major advantage from 19F qNMR is that the analyte signal is with less or no interference from impurities. 19F qNMR is an excellent approach to quantify fluorine-containing analytes.

  12. Resolution of intracellular calcium metabolism in intact segments of rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phair, R.D.; Hai, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    A new method, based on computer-assisted kinetic analysis of 45 Ca efflux data, was used to measure calcium contents and fluxes for extracellular and intracellular compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. After a 1-hour loading period, efflux data were collected for 8 hours using a flow-through tissue chamber. These long-term effluxes were necessary because information on intracellular calcium metabolism was concentrated in the slow components of the efflux curves while earlier components appeared to be dominated by washout of extracellular calcium. Intracellular compartments were identified as those whose calcium contents were altered by 10 microM phenylephrine. This method complements previous approaches by providing simultaneous estimates of compartmental calcium contents and fluxes without requiring the assumption of isotopic equilibrium and without recourse to standard wash techniques for removal of extracellular calcium. In normal, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-buffered physiological salt solution these compartments contained a total of approximately 300 nmol Ca/g wet aorta. Of this total, 55 nmol/g were associated with the slowest resolvable compartment whose turnover time was 170 minutes and whose exchange flux was 0.32 nmol min-1g-1. Two other intracellular compartments had turnover times of 30 minutes. One of these was phenylephrine releasable and contained 145 nmol/g; it exchanged calcium at 4.9 nmol min-1g-1. In normal physiological salt solution the plasma membrane was, surprisingly, not rate limiting for Ca efflux; and in 10 microM phenylephrine the membrane Ca flux was even greater, increasing 3.5-fold compared to control

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum and urine β2-microglobulin (β2-m) in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luhua; Mai Mang; Ouyang Xiaoqing; Wang Shuhua; Lin Cen; Fang Linli

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the serum, urine contents of β 2 -m and serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum, urine β 2 -m contents (with RIA), serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels (with CLIA), TGA, TMA positive rates (with RIA) were determined in 82 patients with Graves' disease both before and after treatment as well as in 40 controls. Results: The serum and urine β 2 -m contents as well as the serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels in the 82 hyperthyroid patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 2 -m, FT 3 , FT 4 levels dropped to approaching normal (vs controls, P>0.05). In the 13 treatment failures, the levels remained significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 -m contents after treatment paralleled those of FT 3 , FT 4 levels. β 2 -m could be used as a diagnostic indicator for hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  14. Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Chew, Dennis J; Gaillard, Philippe R; Busler, Jessica N; Lee, Hollie P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ 2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric). RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

  15. [Relationship between the ionic composition of blood and urine and the salinity of the external environment of the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busev, V M; Semen'kov, P G; Mishchenko, T Ia

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been made on the dependence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations of the blood and urine on the salinity of the external milieu in the crab H. sanguineus. Effective regulation of sodium and potasssium balance at low salinities was found. Within the salinity range investigated, magnesium level in the blood is maintained at lower level as compared to that in the environment. At low salinities, regulation of potassium and sodium concentrations in the blood is monitored by extrarenal mechanisms. Uber high salinity conditions, regulation of magnesium and potassium concentrations in the blood is accomplished at the expense of the activity of antennal glands. Calcium concentration in the blood is regulated by extra-renal mechanisms. The antennal glands affect regulation of calcium balance.

  16. Development of novel titanium nitride-based decorative coatings by calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodroj, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Departement CP2S, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, 54042 Nancy cedex (France); Pierson, J.F., E-mail: jean-francois.pierson@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Departement CP2S, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, 54042 Nancy cedex (France)

    2011-08-01

    Calcium was added into titanium nitride coatings deposited using a hybrid magnetron sputtering-arc evaporation process. The calcium content in the films was adjusted by the variation of the pulsed DC current applied to the Ca sputtering target. X-ray diffraction analyses suggested that the increase of the calcium content induced the partial substitution of titanium atoms by calcium ones in the TiN lattice and a refinement of the grain size. Optical reflectance investigations showed that the absorption band of TiN was shifted towards higher wavelengths and that (Ti,Ca)N coatings may be suitable for decorative applications. Finally, the decrease of the film reflectivity was interpreted as a consequence of a free electron concentration decrease as confirmed from electrical resistivity measurements.

  17. Development of novel titanium nitride-based decorative coatings by calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodroj, A.; Pierson, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium was added into titanium nitride coatings deposited using a hybrid magnetron sputtering-arc evaporation process. The calcium content in the films was adjusted by the variation of the pulsed DC current applied to the Ca sputtering target. X-ray diffraction analyses suggested that the increase of the calcium content induced the partial substitution of titanium atoms by calcium ones in the TiN lattice and a refinement of the grain size. Optical reflectance investigations showed that the absorption band of TiN was shifted towards higher wavelengths and that (Ti,Ca)N coatings may be suitable for decorative applications. Finally, the decrease of the film reflectivity was interpreted as a consequence of a free electron concentration decrease as confirmed from electrical resistivity measurements.

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  19. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and.

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Lozano-Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9. The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  1. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  2. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  3. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  4. Glass-water interphase reactivity with calcium rich solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.; Frugier, P.; Gin, S.; Chave, T.; Ayral, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of calcium on synthetic glass alteration mechanisms has been studied. It is known that the higher the calcium content in the glass, the higher the forward rate. However, in a confined medium reaching apparent saturation state and a pH (90 degrees C) around 9, synthetic calcium-bearing glasses are those with the lowest alteration rates. This work brings new and fundamental evidence toward understanding the alteration mechanisms: the rate-decreasing effect of calcium exists even if the calcium comes from the solution. Calcium from solution reacts with silica network in the hydrated layer at the glass surface. The calcium effect on the alteration kinetics is explained by the condensation of a passivating reactive interphase (PRI) whose passivating properties are strongly enhanced when calcium participates in its construction. These experiments provide new evidence of the role of condensation mechanisms in glass alteration. This better understanding of the calcium effect on glass long-term behavior will be useful both for improving glass formulations and for understanding the influence of the water composition. (authors)

  5. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  6. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  7. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  8. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  9. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  10. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor. Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  11. Polonioum 210 levels in urine of different groups of italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of urine obtained from different groups of the italian population has been analized to determine the content of polonium-210. The analysis has been carried out with samples from people with high probability of exposure to radon and hits daughters

  12. Sorption of sulphur dioxide in calcium chloride and nitrate chloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzepierczynska, I.; Gostomczyk, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization via application of suspensions has one inherent disadvantage: fixation of sulphur dioxide is very poor. This should be attributed to the low content of calcium ions which results from the solubility of the sorbing species. The solubility of sparingly soluble salts (CaO, CaCO 3 ) may be increased by decreasing the pH of the solution; yet, there is a serious limitation in this method: the corrosivity of the scrubber. The objective of this paper was to assess the sorbing capacity of two soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, as a function of calcium ion concentration in the range of 20 to 82 kg/m 3 . It has been found that sorbing capacity increases with the increasing calcium ion concentration until the calcium concentration in the calcium chloride solution reaches the level of 60 kg/m 3 which is equivalent to the chloride ion content of ∼ 110 kg/m 3 . Addition of calcium hydroxide to the solutions brings about an increase in the sorbing capacity up to 1.6 kg/m 3 and 2.2 kg/m 3 for calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, respectively, as a result of the increased sorbent alkalinity. The sorption capacity of the solutions is considerably enhanced by supplementing them by acetate ions (2.8 to 13.9 kg/m 3 ). Increase in the sorption capacity of calcium nitrate solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions supplemented in the same way. (author). 12 refs, 7 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Calcium binding properties of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1) from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ajay Kumar; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-05-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in all aspects of plant growth, development and survival. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are the major calcium decoders, which couple the changes in calcium level to an appropriate physiological response. The mechanism by which calcium regulates CDPK protein is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions of Ca(2+) ions with the CDPK1 isoform of Cicer arietinum (CaCDPK1) using a combination of biophysical tools. CaCDPK1 has four different EF hands as predicted by protein sequence analysis. The fluorescence emission spectrum of CaCDPK1 showed quenching with a 5 nm red shift upon addition of calcium, indicating conformational changes in the tertiary structure. The plot of changes in intensity against calcium concentrations showed a biphasic curve with binding constants of 1.29 μM and 120 μM indicating two kinds of binding sites. Isothermal calorimetric (ITC) titration with CaCl2 also showed a biphasic curve with two binding constants of 0.027 μM and 1.7 μM. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed two prominent peaks at 208 and 222 nm indicating that CaCDPK1 is a α-helical rich protein. Calcium binding further increased the α-helical content of CaCDPK1 from 75 to 81%. Addition of calcium to CaCDPK1 also increased fluorescence of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) indicating exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Thus, on the whole this study provides evidence for calcium induced conformational changes, exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and heterogeneity of EF hands in CaCDPK1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  15. Tropical forests can suffer from a serious deficiency of calcium after logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykvist, Nils

    2000-01-01

    All harvesting of biomass results in a loss of plant nutrients from the soil. The impact of this loss on forest productivity can be determined only if the total amounts of plant nutrients in logs, other biomass and soil are known. In investigations of tropical rain forest ecosystems the total analysis of calcium is common with regard to logs and other biomass, whereas for soils only the content of exchangeable calcium has been determined. This study, involving a calcium-poor bedrock area in Sabah, Malaysia, shows that the contents of total calcium in the soil can be estimated from figures of exchangeable calcium. In the state of Sabah, these estimated amounts were lower in 19 out of 115 soil profiles compared with the amount measured at our research area at Mendolong in Sabah where a sustainable forestry is not possible with the present rotation period without compensating for the harvest-related loss of calcium

  16. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  17. Monitoring the progression of calcium and protein solubilisation as affected by calcium chelators during small-scale manufacture of casein-based food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Irene; O'Sullivan, Michael; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-12-15

    Calcium and protein solubilisation during small-scale manufacture of semi-solid casein-based food matrices was investigated and found to be very different in the presence or absence of calcium chelating salts. Calcium concentrations in the dispersed phase increased and calcium-ion activity (A Ca ++ ) decreased during manufacture of the matrices containing calcium chelating salts; with ∼23% of total calcium solubilised by the end of manufacture. In the absence of calcium chelating salts, these concentrations were significantly lower at equivalent processing times and remained unchanged as did A Ca ++ , throughout manufacture. The protein content of the dispersed phase was low (≤3% of total protein), but was significantly higher for matrices containing calcium chelating salts. This study elucidates the critical role of calcium chelating salts in modulating casein hydration and dispersion and gives an indication of the levels of soluble calcium and protein required to allow matrix formation during manufacture of casein-based food structures e.g. processed and analogue cheese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in plasma calcium and in radiocalcium kinetics after termination of 5-week infusions of synthetic parathyroid peptide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, R.W.; Parsons, J.A.; Podbesek, R.D.; Reeve, J.

    1983-01-01

    Nine dogs were infused at constant rates with the synthetic parathyroid peptide hPTH 1-34 (initially sc) to produce consistent hypercalcaemia. Over the final week, the infusions were iv. Radioisotopic tracers were injected iv 30 days (5 dogs) and 2 days (9 dogs) before the infusions were suddenly terminated. In 5 dogs, complete urine collections were obtained via a bladder catheter over 8 h beginning 2 h before stopping the infusions. Cessation of treatment caused small rises in the urinary Ca: creatinine ratio. Plasma calcium levels fell by a mean of 0.44 mmol/l, of which total urine calcium excretion only accounted for 55%. Immediately after the PTH infusions were stopped, consistent but transient increases were seen in the ratio of ''new'' 47 Ca to ''old'' 45 Ca label, suggesting inflow of 40 Ca of high 47 Ca specific activity from a fairly rapidly exchangeable bone pool. These data confirm and extend previous evidence that the immediate response of the calcium equilibrium between bone and bloodstream to rapid changes in plasma PTH concentrations in the supra-physiological ranges is paradoxical relative to the classical later response. (author)

  19. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola) (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA) FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan; Maria Bintang

    2014-01-01

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatm...

  20. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  1. Mucin 4 Gene Silencing Reduces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Through the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway in Nephrolithiasis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephrolithiasis plagues a great number of patients all over the world. Increasing evidence shows that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC dysfunction and attrition are central to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Mucin 4 (MUC4 is reported as an activator of ERK signaling pathway in epithelial cells. In this study, using rat models of calcium oxalate (CaOx nephrolithiasis, the present study aims to define the roles of MUC4 and ERK signaling pathway as contributors to oxidative stress and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Methods: Data sets of nephrolithiasis were searched using GEO database and a heat flow map was drawn. Then MUC4 function was predicted. Wistar rats were prepared for the purpose of model establishment of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. In order to assess the detailed regulatory mechanism of MUC4 silencing on the ERK signaling pathway and RTEC, we used recombinant plasmid to downregulate MUC4 expression in Wistar rat-based models. Samples from rat urine, serum and kidney tissues were reviewed to identify oxalic acid and calcium contents, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels, calcium crystal formation in renal tubules and MUC4 positive expression rate. Finally, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA were employed to access oxidative stress state and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Results: Initially, MUC4 was found to have an influence on the process of nephrolithiasis. MUC4 was upregulated in the CaOx nephrolithiasis model rats. We proved that the silencing of MUC4 triggered the inactivation of ERK signaling pathway. Following the silencing of MUC4 or the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway, the oxalic acid and calcium contents in rat urine, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels in rat serum, p-ERK1/2, MCP-1 and OPN expressions in RTEC and H2O2 and MDA levels in the cultured supernatant were downregulated, but the GSH

  2. Comparison of secondary signs as shown by unenhanced helical computed tomography in patients with uric acid or calcium ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii-Her Chou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT has evolved into a well-accepted diagnostic method in patients with suspected ureterolithiasis. UHCT not only shows stones within the lumen of the ureter, it also permits evaluation of the secondary signs associated with ureteral obstruction from stones. However, there we could find no data on how secondary signs might differ in relation to different compositions of ureteral stones. In this study, we compared the degree of secondary signs revealed by UHCT in uric acid stone formers and in patients forming calcium stones. We enrolled 117 patients with ureteral stones who underwent UHCT examination and Fourier transform infra-red analysis of stone samples. Clinical data were collected as follows: age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urine pH, and radiological data on secondary signs apparent on UHCT. The uric acid stone formers had significantly lower urine pH and eGFR in comparison to calcium stone formers, and on UHCT they also had a higher percentage of the secondary signs, including rim sign (78.9% vs. 60.2%, hydroureter (94.7% vs. 89.8%, perirenal stranding (84.2% vs. 59.2% and kidney density difference (73.7% vs. 50.0%. The radiological difference was statistically significant for perirenal stranding (p=0.041. In conclusion, we found that UHCT scanning reveals secondary signs to be more frequent in patients with uric acid ureteral stones than in patients with calcium stones, a tendency that might result from an acidic urine environment.

  3. Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared between Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Preliminary testing of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and creatinine appeared valid for use in plasma and creatinine in urine in both species. Furthermore, measurements of bone alkaline phosphatase and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen appeared valid for use in Asian elephants. Mean heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration and pH were not significantly affected by 3 cycles of freezing and thawing. Storage at 4 °C, room temperature, and 37 °C for 6, 12, and 24 hr did not alter the heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration in Asian elephants. The following linear regression equation using pH (range: 6.858-7.887) and ionized calcium concentration in heparinized plasma was utilized: iCa(7.4) (mmol/l) = -2.1075 + 0.3130·pH(actual) + 0.8296·iCa(actual) (mmol/l). Mean basal values for pH and plasma in Asian elephant whole blood were 7.40 ± 0.048 and 7.49 ± 0.077, respectively. The urinary specific gravity and creatinine concentrations in both Asian and African elephants were significantly correlated and both were significantly lower in Asian elephants. © 2011 The Author(s)

  4. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  5. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  6. Measurement of total phospholipids in urine of patients treated with gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D A; Begg, E J; Kirkpatrick, C M; Yeo, J; Graham, G G; Bailey, R R

    1997-04-01

    The excretion of phospholipids in urine may be a marker of the early renal toxicity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Urinary phospholipids are formed in myeloid bodies which develop in the lysosomes of proximal tubules during treatment with the aminoglycosides, and overflow into the urine. Published assays were modified in order to measure the total phospholipid concentrations in human urine. Phospholipids were extracted from freeze-dried urine samples, digested in concentrated sulphuric acid, and the inorganic phosphorus content determined by complexing with ammonium molybdate and measuring the absorbance at 820 nm. Ten septicaemic patients treated with gentamicin for 5-7 days had significantly higher urine phospholipid concentrations than 10 healthy untreated control subjects (P < 0.0001). There was a negative linear relationship between phospholipid excretion and creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.71). In 34 patients with acute pyelonephritis, increased phospholipid concentrations were observed prior to treatment compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001) and did not alter during treatment with gentamicin. However, the phospholipid concentrations decreased significantly after treatment was completed (P < 0.03). These studies suggest that urinary phospholipids may indicate early aminoglycoside toxicity but with poor specificity, as many of the infections being treated may themselves be associated with phospholipiduria.

  7. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine sample. In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby’s diaper area to collect a urine sample. If you have any questions about urine tests, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD ...

  8. Magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water, and its relationship to geological features and the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Kodama, M; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T

    1989-11-01

    We examined the relationship among magnesium and calcium content in tap water, the geological features and urinary stone incidence in Japan. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis. There was no correlation between calcium and magnesium concentration in tap water and urinary stone incidence. Geological features in Japan were classified into 5 groups. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in the basalt areas was higher than in the other areas, while ratio in the granite areas was low. In the sedimentary rock areas calcium and magnesium concentrations were high; the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in these areas was between those of the basalt and granite areas. The limestone areas had a much higher calcium concentration. The incidence of urinary stones in the sedimentary rock and basalt areas was lower than that of the granite areas, while that in the limestone areas was the highest. Thus, the incidence of urinary stone is related to the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water and the geological area.

  9. Transcriptome wide identification and validation of calcium sensor gene family in the developing spikes of finger millet genotypes for elucidating its role in grain calcium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uma M; Chandra, Muktesh; Shankhdhar, Shailesh C; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype) and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype), were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the genomic information of gene family in non-model species.

  10. Calcium levels and calcium: available phosphorus ratios in diets for white egg layers from 42 to 58 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques Pastore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional requirement of calcium and the best calcium:available phosphorus ratio for commercial layers at the post-laying peak. A total of 324 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were utilized in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, composed of three levels of calcium (39, 42 and 45 g/kg and three calcium:phosphorus ratios (12.12:1; 10.53:1; and 9.30:1, totaling nine treatments with six replications and six birds per experimental unit. There was no significant effect from the calcium levels × calcium:phosphorus ratio interaction for any of the variables studied. The calcium levels and the calcium:phosphorus ratios did not affect the variables performance or egg and bone quality. At the evaluation of the calcium:phosphorus balance, as the levels of calcium of the diet were raised, the intake of calcium and phosphorus and the contents of mineral matter and calcium in the excreta increased linearly, and the retention of calcium by birds decreased linearly. With the reduction of the calcium:phosphorus ratios of the diet, intake, retention and excretion of phosphorus by layers increased. Diets containing calcium at 39 g/kg and a calcium:phosphorus ratio of 12.12:1, corresponding to an increase in calcium of 3.51 g/bird/day and available phosphorus of 289 mg/bird/day, meet the requirements of calcium and available phosphorus of white egg layers in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age.

  11. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  13. The Effects of a Dairy Probiotic Product, Espar, on Salivary Calcium and Mutans Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Espar is a dairy product of probiotic nature that contains useful bacteria and high calcium content. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of daily consumption of Espar on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content in a population of 15 to 17 year-old female students. Materials and methods. A double-blind randomized crossover study (n = 50 of healthy female adolescents was implemented in four stage intervals. The first and third stages were ‘run-in’ and ‘wash-out’ intervals. For the second and fourth stages, two weeks long in duration, the participants consumed 100 grams of Espar or 200 grams of plain yogurt. At the end of each stage, the number of salivary mutans streptococci and the level of calcium content were documented. Results. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of salivary mutans streptococci subsequent to Espar consumption when compared to ordinary yogurt (p < 0.01. Additionally, salivary calcium content increased significantly subsequent to the consumption of Espar and yogurt. However, Espar yielded a higher level of significant increase in salivary calcium when compared to plain yogurt (p < 0.01. Conclusion. This study found that daily consumption of Espar increased the salivary calcium level while decreasing mutans streptococci of the saliva.

  14. Effect of tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto on bone microstructure, calcium content, and biomechanical strength in a model of male osteoporosis induced by buserelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad NV

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Kok-Yong Chin Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy experience secondary hypogonadism, associated bone loss, and increased fracture risk. It has been shown that tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto prevents skeletal microstructural changes in rats experiencing primary hypogonadism. However, its potential in preventing bone loss due to androgen deprivation therapy has not been tested. This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal protective effects of annatto tocotrienol using a buserelin-induced osteoporotic rat model. Methods: Forty-six male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3 months were randomized into six groups. The baseline control (n=6 was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The normal control (n=8 received corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol orally daily and normal saline (the vehicle of buserelin subcutaneously daily. The buserelin control (n=8 received corn oil orally daily and subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg daily. The calcium control (n=8 was supplemented with 1% calcium in drinking water and daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg. The remaining rats were given daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg (n=8 or 100 mg/kg (n=8 plus daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg (n=8. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized and their blood, tibia, and femur were harvested. Structural changes of the tibial trabecular and cortical bone were examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Femoral bone calcium content and biomechanical strength were also evaluated. Results: Annatto tocotrienol at 60 and 100 mg/kg significantly prevented the deterioration of trabecular bone and cortical thickness in buserelin-treated rats (P<0.05. Both doses of annatto tocotrienol also improved femoral biomechanical strength and bone calcium content

  15. Effect of curd washing on the properties of reduced-calcium and standard-calcium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia; McSweeney, Paul L H; Beresford, Thomas P; Guinee, Timothy P

    2014-10-01

    SCaNW. Washing of curd during manufacture provides a means of reducing the contents of lactic acid and residual lactose, increasing pH, and altering the sensory properties of Cheddar cheese, with the level of these effects being significantly less pronounced as the calcium content was reduced. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High fluoride and low calcium levels in drinking water is associated with low bone mass, reduced bone quality and fragility fractures in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M J K; Beil, F T; Rüther, W; Busse, B; Koehne, T; Steiner, M; Pogoda, P; Ignatius, A; Amling, M; Oheim, R

    2014-07-01

    Chronic environmental fluoride exposure under calcium stress causes fragility fractures due to osteoporosis and bone quality deterioration, at least in sheep. Proof of skeletal fluorosis, presenting without increased bone density, calls for a review of fracture incidence in areas with fluoridated groundwater, including an analysis of patients with low bone mass. Understanding the skeletal effects of environmental fluoride exposure especially under calcium stress remains an unmet need of critical importance. Therefore, we studied the skeletal phenotype of sheep chronically exposed to highly fluoridated water in the Kalahari Desert, where livestock is known to present with fragility fractures. Dorper ewes from two flocks in Namibia were studied. Chemical analyses of water, blood and urine were executed for both cohorts. Skeletal phenotyping comprised micro-computer tomography (μCT), histological, histomorphometric, biomechanical, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Analysis was performed in direct comparison with undecalcified human iliac crest bone biopsies of patients with fluoride-induced osteopathy. The fluoride content of water, blood and urine was significantly elevated in the Kalahari group compared to the control. Surprisingly, a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bones was found in sheep chronically exposed to fluoride. Furthermore, osteoid parameters and the degree and heterogeneity of mineralization were increased. The latter findings are reminiscent of those found in osteoporotic patients with treatment-induced fluorosis. Mechanical testing revealed a significant decrease in the bending strength, concurrent with the clinical observation of fragility fractures in sheep within an area of environmental fluoride exposure. Our data suggest that fluoride exposure with concomitant calcium deficit (i) may aggravate bone loss via reductions in mineralized trabecular and cortical bone

  17. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  20. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  1. Copper Is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine during Urinary Tract Infection To Impair Bacterial Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyre, Amanda N.; Kavanagh, Kylie; Kock, Nancy D.; Donati, George L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI. PMID:28031261

  2. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  4. Validation and calculation of uncertainties of the method of determination of creatinine in urine in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used Lo conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by specLrophoLomeLry creatinine in urine sarnples of exposed workers at risk of internal counterirritant, and the sludgy of ah sources uncertainty that influence in the proceas. This technique is used Lo carry ouL Lhe normahizaLion of Lhe amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimeLric purposes, as well as a criterion for accepLance ox rejecLion of urine specimens received by the laboraLory.

  5. [Thallium content in adults older than 45 ages at Hezhang County of Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Yao, Dancheng; Feng, Jiali; Zeng, Dong; Fan, Di; Shang, Qi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feature of Thallium content in adults of heavy metal contaminated district due to mining of Hezhang County, Guizhou Province. METHODS The subjects older than 45 ages were randomly recruited from the mineralized district (Magu village) and no-mineralized district (Salaxi viillage) , urine of villagers were collected and thallium content in urine were detected with ICP-MS. The average thallium contents in urine of Magu villagers were higner than those of Salaxi villagers,The urinary thallium contents of female were higner than those of male. The urinary thallium contents of residents in two districts were mostly under the upper limit of exposure in human bodies. There was no villager suffered from chronic poisoning of thallium in the two observing districts, the 95% upper limits of urinary thallium content for nonoccupational women older than 45 ages in Magu village was 8 microg/gCr and those for other nonoccupational subjects older than 45 ages was 5 microg/gCr.

  6. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  7. Effect of feeding various forms of oxalate on the rumen metabolism and the fate of calcium in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddi, L.K.; Ahuja, S.P.; Sareen, V.K.; Singh, Sudarshan; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The degradation of 45 Ca oxalate in the rumen and the absorption of 45 Ca released (experiment 2), the production of bicarbonates and TVFA in the rumen, and the rumen pH value (experiment 1) were studied in male buffalo calves consuming paddy straw (group 1), wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate (group 2) and wheat straw supplemented with calcium oxalate plus potassium oxalate (group 3). The radioactivity 1n the blood appeared with 1 hr in all the animals. Maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the blood was observed at 18,24 and 36 hr in groups 1 to 3, respectively, after intraruminal infusion of 15 mCi 45 Ca oxalate. Paddy-straw feeding caused polyurea. In all the animals the very first micturition showed the presence of radioactivity, and maximum 45 Ca specific activity in the urine and feaces was obtained around 31 and 25 hr, respectively, after infusion. However, during the following 5 days, the decline in 45 Ca specific activity in the feaces was sharper in group 1 than in the other groups indicating less absorption of calcium in group 1. Higher bicarbonates contents and pH of the rumen fluid were observed in group 3. The results indicated a slow and continuous release of oxalates from paddy straw. The ruminal TVFA concentration was lower and pH was relatively higher in group 3. Group 1 showed uniformly higher amounts of TVFA. (auth.)

  8. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  9. Influence of synthetic calcium silicates on the strength properties of fine-grained concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarusova, S. B.; Gordienko, P. S.; Kozin, A. V.; Zhevtun, I. G.; Perfilev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of additives based on acicular calcium hydrosilicates (xonotlite and tobermorite) and wollastonite, obtained from boric acid production waste in autoclave synthesis at a temperature of 220 °C, on the strength of fine-grained concrete, has been studied in this paper. It was shown that when the calcium hydrosilicates and wollastonite are introduced, an increase in the strength characteristics of concrete is observed. After heat and moisture treatment, the maximum increase in strength is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of calcium hydrosilicates and 6% of mass content of wollastonite. After 28 days of hardening under normal conditions, the maximum increase in strength of concrete is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of both types of additives. It was shown that the water absorption of concrete decreases with a maximum when 4% of mass content is added, as in the case of the introduction of calcium hydrosilicates, and wollastonite. With a further increase in the number of additives, the amount of water absorption increases, but these values remain below the values for the control sample without additives.

  10. High-precision measurement of variations in calcium isotope ratios in urine by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J.L.L.; Gordon, G.W.; Arrua, R.C.; Skulan, J.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Bullen, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new chemical separation method to isolate Ca from other matrix elements in biological samples, developed with the long-term goal of making high-precision measurement of natural stable Ca isotope variations a clinically applicable tool to assess bone mineral balance. A new two-column procedure utilizing HBr achieves the purity required to accurately and precisely measure two Ca isotope ratios (44Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/43Ca) on a Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in urine. Purification requirements for Sr, Ti, and K (Ca/Sr > 10000; Ca/Ti > 10000000; and Ca/K > 10) were determined by addition of these elements to Ca standards of known isotopic composition. Accuracy was determined by (1) comparing Ca isotope results for samples and standards to published data obtained using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), (2) adding a Ca standard of known isotopic composition to a urine sample purified of Ca, and (3) analyzing mixtures of urine samples and standards in varying proportions. The accuracy and precision of δ44/42Ca measurements of purified samples containing 25 μg of Ca can be determined with typical errors less than ±0.2‰ (2σ).

  11. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  12. Transcriptome Wide Identification and Validation of Calcium Sensor Gene Family in the Developing Spikes of Finger Millet Genotypes for Elucidating Its Role in Grain Calcium Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uma M.; Chandra, Muktesh; Shankhdhar, Shailesh C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. Principal Finding In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype) and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype), were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. Conclusion Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the genomic information of

  13. Transcriptome wide identification and validation of calcium sensor gene family in the developing spikes of finger millet genotypes for elucidating its role in grain calcium accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype, were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. CONCLUSION: Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the

  14. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  15. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  16. Calcium regulation in frog peripheral nerve by the blood-nerve barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwani, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (a) to investigate the characteristics of calcium transport across the perineurium and the endoneurial capillaries, and (b) to gain a better understanding of the extent of calcium homeostasis in the endoneurial space. To study the nature of calcium transport across the perineurium, the flux of radiotracer 45 Ca was measured through the perineurial cylinder, isolated from the frog sciatic nerve, and through the perineurium into the nerve in situ. To study the nature of calcium transport across the endoneurial capillaries, the permeability-surface area product (PA) of 45 Ca was determined as a function of the calcium concentration in the blood. To study calcium homeostasis, the calcium content of the frog sciatic nerve was determined as a function of chronic changes in plasma [Ca

  17. PeakCaller: an automated graphical interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium obtained by high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artimovich, Elena; Jackson, Russell K; Kilander, Michaela B C; Lin, Yu-Chih; Nestor, Michael W

    2017-10-16

    Intracellular calcium is an important ion involved in the regulation and modulation of many neuronal functions. From regulating cell cycle and proliferation to initiating signaling cascades and regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release, the concentration and timing of calcium activity governs the function and fate of neurons. Changes in calcium transients can be used in high-throughput screening applications as a basic measure of neuronal maturity, especially in developing or immature neuronal cultures derived from stem cells. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neurons and dissociated mouse cortical neurons combined with the calcium indicator Fluo-4, we demonstrate that PeakCaller reduces type I and type II error in automated peak calling when compared to the oft-used PeakFinder algorithm under both basal and pharmacologically induced conditions. Here we describe PeakCaller, a novel MATLAB script and graphical user interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium transients in neuronal cultures. PeakCaller allows the user to set peak parameters and smoothing algorithms to best fit their data set. This new analysis script will allow for automation of calcium measurements and is a powerful software tool for researchers interested in high-throughput measurements of intracellular calcium.

  18. Hubungan Kadar Pb Udara, Kandungan Pb dalam Urine dengan Keluaran Maternal dan Neonatus Pada Pedagang Diterminal Tirtonadi Surakarta Tahun 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ratna Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : The increasing number of motor vehicle in Central Java  has seriously brought the health effects to community because of the increasing pollution of the Lead (Pb in the air. The objectives  of this research is to find the relationship between the content of the Lead (Pb in the air, the content of the Lead (Pb in urine with the outcome of maternal and neonatus of the sellers in the bus terminal Tirtonadi Surakarta, 2002. Method : This was an explanatory research using  cross sectional approach. The population of this research was all women who worked as sellers at the age of 20 - 40 years old. Thirty-one samples (total population were taken. The measuring of the Lead (Pb content in the air and urine were analyzed using AAS method. The interviewing of the respondents collected the outcome data of maternal and neonatus. The result analysis used the multiple-correlation test with significance level on 0,05 and used prevalence ratio. Result : Based on statistical analysis, it is known that the content of the Lead (Pb in the air has significant relationship with the outcome of neonatus (p value 1 and the Lead (Pb in urine is predicted as the risk factor for neonatus outcome (RP > 1. Conclusion : There is a  significant relationship between the content of the Lead (Pb in the air with the outcome of neonatus of the sellers in the bus terminal Tirtonadi in Surakarta, 2002. Key words   : Lead in the air, urine, maternal and neonatus outcome, sellers, bus  station.

  19. Long-term urine biobanking: storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Thomas; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Shi, Lijie

    2014-12-01

    To examine the long-term stability and validity of analyte concentrations of 21 clinical biochemistry parameters in 24-h urine samples stored for 12 or 15 yr at -22°C and preservative free. Healthy children's 24-h urine samples in which the respective analytes had been measured shortly after sample collection (baseline) were reanalyzed. Second measurement was performed after 12 yr (organic acids) and 15 yr (creatinine, urea, osmolality, iodine, nitrogen, anions, cations, acid-base parameters) with the same analytical methodology. Paired comparisons and correlations between the baseline and repeated measurements were done. Recovery rates were calculated. More than half of the analytes (creatinine, urea, iodine, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, bicarbonate, citric & uric acid) showed measurement values after >10 yr of storage not significantly different from baseline. 15 of the 21 parameters were highly correlated (r=0.99) between baseline and second measurement. Poorest correlation was r=0.77 for oxalate. Recovery ranged from 73% (oxalate) to 105% (phosphate). Our results suggest high long-term stability and measurement validity for numerous clinical chemistry parameters stored at -22°C without addition of any urine preservative. Prospective storage of urine aliquots at -22°C for periods even exceeding 10 yr, appears to be an acceptable and valid tool in epidemiological settings for later quantification of several urine analytes. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Identification of Methamphetamine Abuse and Selegiline Use: Chiral Analysis of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, P; Bu, J; Qiao, Z; Zhuo, X Y; Wu, H J; Shen, M

    2017-12-01

    To study the content variation of selegiline and its metabolites in urine, and based on actual cases, to explore the feasibility for the identification of methamphetamine abuse and selegiline use by chiral analysis. The urine samples were tested by chiral separation and LC-MS/MS method using CHIROBIOTIC™ V2 chiral liquid chromatography column. The chiral analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine were performed on the urine samples from volunteers of selegiline use and drug addicts whom suspected taking selegiline. After 5 mg oral administration, the positive test time of selegiline in urine was less than 7 h. The mass concentrations of R(-)-methamphetamine and R(-)-amphetamine in urine peaked at 7 h which were 0.86 μg/mL and 0.18 μg/mL and couldn't be detected after 80 h and 168 h, respectively. The sources of methamphetamine and amphetamine in the urine from the drug addicts whom suspected taking selegiline were analysed successfully by present method. The chiral analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine, and the determination of selegiline's metabolites can be used to distinguish methamphetamine abuse from selegiline use. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  1. Calcium oxalate druses affect leaf optical properties in selenium-treated Fagopyrum tataricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Aleksandra; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Kreft, Ivan; Hočevar, Anja; Gaberščik, Alenka; Germ, Mateja

    2018-03-01

    Plants of the genus Fagopyrum contain high levels of crystalline calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits, or druses, that can affect the leaf optical properties. As selenium has been shown to modify the uptake and accumulation of metabolically important elements such as calcium, we hypothesised that the numbers of druses can be altered by selenium treatment, and this would affect the leaf optical properties. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) was grown outdoors in an experimental field. At the beginning of flowering, plants were foliarly sprayed with sodium selenate solution at 10 mg selenium L -1 or only with water. Plant morphological, biochemical, physiological and optical properties were examined, along with leaf elemental composition and content. Se spraying did not affect leaf biochemical and functional properties. However, it increased leaf thickness and the contents of Se in the leaves, and decreased the density of calcium oxalate druses in the leaves. Except Se content, Se spraying did not affect contents of other elements in leaves, including total calcium per dry mass of leaf tissue. Redundancy analysis showed that of all parameters tested, only the calcium oxalate druses parameters were significant in explaining the variability of the leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra. The density of CaOx druses positively correlated with the reflectance in the blue, green, yellow and UV-B regions of the spectrum, while the area of CaOx druses per mm 2 of leaf transection area positively correlated with the transmittance in the green and yellow regions of the spectrum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  3. Calcium-Responsive Liposomes via a Synthetic Lipid Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jinchao; Carr, Adam J; Watson, Alexa J; Mattern-Schain, Samuel I; Best, Michael D

    2018-03-07

    Liposomal drug delivery would benefit from enhanced control over content release. Here, we report a novel avenue for triggering release driven by chemical composition using liposomes sensitized to calcium-a target chosen due to its key roles in biology and disease. To demonstrate this principle, we synthesized calcium-responsive lipid switch 1, designed to undergo conformational changes upon calcium binding. The conformational change perturbs membrane integrity, thereby promoting cargo release. This was shown through fluorescence-based release assays via dose-dependent response depending on the percentage of 1 in liposomes, with minimal background leakage in controls. DLS experiments indicated dramatic changes in particle size upon treatment of liposomes containing 1 with calcium. In a comparison of ten naturally occurring metal cations, calcium provided the greatest release. Finally, STEM images showed significant changes in liposome morphology upon treatment of liposomes containing 1 with calcium. These results showcase lipid switches driven by molecular recognition principles as an exciting avenue for controlling membrane properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  5. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. Inflorescence Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Ge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673 as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926 after calcium applications.

  6. Calcium determination in bone by proton activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.; Adelstein, S.

    1974-01-01

    The incidence of post-menopausal osteoporosis in almost epidemic proportions makes the early diagnosis and development of effective therapy a matter of considerable concern. Current status of the project is reviewed and new applications of calcium determination by in vivo proton activation analysis are discussed. The proton activation method promises to give precise and reproducible measurements of calcium content for a single vertebra or several vertebrae in vivo. By controlling the number and energy of protons incident on a vertebra and by accurately detecting the number of 2.17 MeV gamma rays emitted, one may determine the 40Ca content. The proton technique offers advantages by directly measuring calcium in a very well-defined region. On-going studies by the construction of a lead shield for in vivo counting and for the analysis of the results are also given

  7. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D

    1990-08-21

    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  8. Determination of the calcium salt content on the trunk skeleton and on the peripheral bone applying the Compton backscattering method and the ashing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    The Compton backscattering method is applied to determine the bone decalcification. Post mortal excised calcanei and vertebral bodies of 50 people are taken as investigation objects which are examined for their calcium salt content and are then ashed for control measurement. The results show that the method would be better suited to early diagnosis of calcipenic osteopathy than the densitometric method used today on extremity bones. (ORU/LH) [de

  9. Perkiraan Asupan Iodium dan Natrium Menggunakan Urin 24 Jam pada Anak dan Dewasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basic health research (Riskesdas 2007 found high rate of hypertension (31.7%. The question is, whether iodine fortification program in the salt still relevant because salt intake correlated with hypertension. This study is a cross sectional, assessing the levels of iodine and sodium in urine with estimation of iodine and sodium intake. This was a cross sectional study. Sample of this study were 99 families, including father, mother, and 6-12 years children. The study was conducted in three villages in Getasan Sub-district, Semarang District. Variables collected included body height and weight, iodine content of household salt, 24 hours urine volume, urine iodine and urine sodium excretion. Intake of iodine and sodium estimated with urinary iodine and sodium excretion values and urine volume. Type of salt consumed (97% was brick form, the average of iodine content in salt was 20.4 ppm potassium iodate and consumption of salt was 8.0 ± 4.7 grams per day. Median and mean urine volume was 1500 (1523 mL ± 623 mL. The median urinary iodine excretion (EIU is 93 (105 ± 61 μg/L. Proportion of subjects with < 100 μg/L UIE was 55.6% and ≥ 300 μg/L UIE was 1%. Median and mean urinary sodium excretion (USE was 2588 mg/L (2732 ± 986 mg/L. The proportion of USE ≥ 2300 mg/L was 62%. Frequency of iodine and sodium food source consumption: 47.5% of subjects eating instant noodles and snacks 1-2 times a week, 98% consume MSG/ketchup/sauce ≥ 1 times a day. Frequency of salty foods consumption: 53.9% of subjects consumed 1-2 times a week and 26.9% consumed bread/biscuit/cake 1-2 times a week. Median and mean intake of iodine of subject (father, mother, child was 113 ug/L and 126 ± 73 mg/L. Median and mean sodium intake were 3131 mg/L and 3306 ± 1193 mg/L. In sum, salt is a major source of iodine and sodium intakes although the level of iodine was considered low compared to the national standard of industry. The study location is a mild iodine

  10. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  11. Effects of storage time and temperature on pH, specific gravity, and crystal formation in urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasan, Hasan; Lulich, Jody P; Osborne, Carl A; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Ulrich, Lisa K; Carpenter, Kathleen A

    2003-01-15

    To determine effects of storage temperature and time on pH and specific gravity of and number and size of crystals in urine samples from dogs and cats. Randomized complete block design. 31 dogs and 8 cats. Aliquots of each urine sample were analyzed within 60 minutes of collection or after storage at room or refrigeration temperatures (20 vs 6 degrees C [68 vs 43 degrees F]) for 6 or 24 hours. Crystals formed in samples from 11 of 39 (28%) animals. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 1 cat and 8 dogs. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystals formed in vitro in samples from 2 dogs. Compared with aliquots stored at room temperature, refrigeration increased the number and size of crystals that formed in vitro; however, the increase in number and size of MAP crystals in stored urine samples was not significant. Increased storage time and decreased storage temperature were associated with a significant increase in number of CaOx crystals formed. Greater numbers of crystals formed in urine aliquots stored for 24 hours than in aliquots stored for 6 hours. Storage time and temperature did not have a significant effect on pH or specific gravity. Urine samples should be analyzed within 60 minutes of collection to minimize temperature- and time-dependent effects on in vitro crystal formation. Presence of crystals observed in stored samples should be validated by reevaluation of fresh urine.

  12. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, A; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R M

    2015-01-01

    models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea......In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange...... hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two...

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    connect ion conformationally rearranged, thus passing the signal through the chain of intermediaries. The most important function of calcium is its participation in many cell signaling pathways. Channels, pumps, gene expression, synthesis of alkaloids, protective molecules, NO etc. respond to changes in [Ca2+]cyt, while transductors are represented by a number of proteins. The universality of calcium is evident in the study in connection with other signaling systems, such as NO, which is involved in the immune response and is able to control the feedback activity of protein activators channels, producing nitric oxide. Simulation of calcium responses can determine the impact of key level and their regulation, and also depends on the type of stimulus and the effector protein that specifically causes certain changes. Using spatiotemporal modeling, scientists showed that the key components for the formation of Ca2+ bursts are the internal and external surfaces of the nucleus membrane. The research was aimed at understanding of the mechanisms of influence of Ca2+-binding components on Ca2+ oscillations. The simulation suggests the existence of a calcium depot EPR with conjugated lumen of the nucleus which releases its contents to nucleoplasm. With these assumptions, the mathematical model was created and confirmed experimentally. It describes the oscillation of nuclear calcium in root hairs of Medicago truncatula at symbiotic relationship of plants and fungi (rhizobia. Calcium oscillations are present in symbiotic relationships of the cortical layer of plant root cells. Before penetration of bacteria into the cells, slow oscillations of Ca2+ are observed, but with their penetration into the cells the oscillation frequency increases. These processes take place by changing buffer characteristics of the cytoplasm caused by signals from microbes, such as Nod-factor available after penetration of bacteria through the cell wall. Thus, the basic known molecular mechanisms for

  14. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  15. Measurement of purine derivatives and creatinine in urine by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piani, B.; Fabro, C.; Susmel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two HPLC methods to measure the purine derivatives (PD, including allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine) and creatinine content in urine are described. PD separation and quantification were achieved using two Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase columns connected in series (4.6 x 250 mm) and a Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), which was used at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and the detection wavelength was at 190 nm. The average recoveries of standard compounds added to urine samples were satisfactory (92-106%) and the low detection limits (0.7-3.4 μM) permitted the precise determination of these compounds in urine. Separation and quantification of creatinine was achieved using one Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase column (4.6 x 250 mm) and one Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), used at a flow rate of 1.00 ml/min and the detection was at 190 nm. The mean recovery (3 measurements) of standard solution added to urine samples was 101%; detection limit was 7.9 μM. (author)

  16. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  17. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K 3 cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K 3 cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K 3 cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K 3 cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K 3 cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K 3 cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K 3 cit

  18. Effect of thermal treatment on rutin content in selected buckwheat products using calcium as an internal tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Krejzová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was used for rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside determination in selected buckwheat products (whole meal flour, broken seeds, seed hulls, herbs and baked cereal breads. The effect of various thermal procedures on content of rutin was evaluated using calcium as an internal tracker to correct changes in mass and composition of the buckwheat products. These factors are very seldom taken into account. The results show non-significant changes in rutin levels obtained in whole meal flour and broken seed samples after thermal treatment up to 150°C. Higher temperature already caused sudden fall in the observed rutin concentrations. The evaporation of some volatile compounds and degradation products can decrease the mass of the samples and formally increase the content of rutin (35.5 ±4.7 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 10.2 ±0.4 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 150°C. Serious decrease of rutin contents at elevated temperatures (>150°C can be explained by its degradation (by breaking off the C-C bond in quercetin-3-rutinoside moiety and/or evaporation (24.3 ±1.4 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 3.06 ±0.3 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 180°C. In case of baked cereal breads the level of rutin changed in dependence on the ratio between buckwheat and corn flour. Longer time leaching and higher temperature implicate higher rutin content in infusions prepared from buckwheat seed hulls and herbs.

  19. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  20. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, S.; Stefanon, B.; Susmel, P.; Haddi, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W 0.75 ) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  1. Electrochemical studies of calcium-lithium alloys in thionyl chloride electrolyte systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.; Fritts, D. H.

    The corrosion of the calcium anode in the calcium thionyl chloride cell has been a persistent problem, which has kept this otherwise attractive couple from use. Investigations of cells with anodes made from calcium/calcium-lithium alloys are reported. These anodes were chosen in hopes of obtaining synergistic results, namely a stable anode surface film vs. pure calcium, and a higher melting point than lithium anodes. Results indicate that some degree of synergism does exist, but that the surface film is not sufficiently stable to protect the anode from continuous corrosion. It is concluded that the stability problem is one of a mechanical shedding of the film which occurs independent of lithium content. Also, a change in the electrolyte salt is the most promising approach to the calcium corrosion problem.

  2. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  3. Influence of calcium depletion on iron-binding properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, V A; Ellis, A; Ye, A; Das, S; Singh, H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of calcium depletion on the binding of iron in milk. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to remove 3 different levels (18-22, 50-55, and 68-72%) of calcium from milk. Five levels of iron (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mM) were added to each of these calcium-depleted milks (CDM) and the resultant milks were analyzed for particle size, microstructure, and the distribution of protein and minerals between the colloidal and soluble phases. The depletion of calcium affected the distribution of protein and minerals in normal milk. Iron added to normal milk and low-CDM (~20% calcium depletion) bound mainly to the colloidal phase (material sedimented at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 20 °C), with little effect on the integrity of the casein micelles. Depletion of ~70% of the calcium from milk resulted in almost complete disintegration of the casein micelles, as indicated by all the protein remaining in the soluble phase upon ultracentrifugation. Addition of up to ~20 mM iron to high CDM resulted in the formation of small fibrous structures that remained in the soluble phase of milk. It appeared that the iron bound to soluble (nonsedimentable) caseins in high-CDM. We observed a decrease in the aqueous phosphorus content of all milks upon iron addition, irrespective of their calcium content. We considered the interaction between aqueous phosphorus and added iron to be responsible for the high iron-binding capacity of the proteins in milk. The soluble protein-iron complexes formed in high-CDM (~70% calcium depletion) could be used as an effective iron fortificant for a range of food products because of their good solubility characteristics. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporation of bitumen and calcium silicate in cement and lime stabilized soil blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, W. H.; Cheah, C. B.; Ramli, M.; Al-Sakkaf, Y. K.

    2017-04-01

    Providing affordable housing is the most critical problem in many of the developing countries. Using earth materials in building construction is one of the feasible methods to address this issue and it can be a way towards sustainable construction as well. However, the published information on the stabilized soil blocks is limited. Therefore, the present study is conducted to examine the characterization of the soils and engineering properties of the stabilized soil blocks. Four types of stabilizer were used in the study, namely; cement, slaked lime, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate. Cement and slaked lime were added at different percentages in the range of 5% to 15%, with interval of 2.5%. The percentage was determined based on weight of soil. Meanwhile, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate were incorporated at various percentages together with 10% of cement. Dosage of bitumen emulsion is in the range of 2% to 10% at interval of 2% while calcium silicate was incorporated at 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 2.00%. Results show that cement is the most viable stabilizer for the soil block among all stabilizers in this study. The bulk density, optimum moisture content and compressive strengths were increased with the increasing cement content. The most suitable cement content was 10% added at moisture content of 12%. Lime, bitumen and calcium contents were recommended at 5.0%, 6.0% and 1.25%, respectively.

  5. Effect of Sulfur in Steel on Transient Evolution of Inclusions During Calcium Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Ying; Duan, Haojian; Ren, Ying; Yang, Wen

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the effect of S content in the molten steel on inclusions during calcium treatment was studied using an induction furnace. The calcium in steel decreased from 48 to 2 ppm, and the sulfur in steel changed a little with time. When sulfur content in steel was as low as 25 ppm during calcium treatment, inclusions shifted from CaO-Al2O3-CaS to Al2O3-CaO with about 35 pct CaO. When the sulfur increased over 90 ppm, more CaS-CaO formed just after the addition of calcium, and then the CaS content decreased from over 45 pct to lower than 15 pct and inclusions were mostly Al2O3-CaO-CaS and Al2O3-CaO with a high Al2O3 content. Thermodynamic calculation predicted the variation of the composition of inclusions, indicating good agreement with the measurement, while a certain deviation existed, especially for heats with 90 and 180 ppm sulfur. A reaction model was proposed for the formation of CaO and CaS, which considered the reaction between calcium vapor bubbles in the zone and the dissolved oxygen and sulfur in the molten steel, as described by a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm with a reaction occurring on the remaining vacant sites. The variation of transient CaS inclusions was discussed based on the thermodynamic calculation and the morphology evolution of typical inclusions containing CaS.

  6. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  7. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000373.htm Maple syrup urine disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder in ...

  8. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  9. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  10. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  11. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange...

  12. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of calcium and ash from char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathumba, E. E.; Mbaya, R. K. K.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study characterized and removed calcium and ash content from char to improve the chemical quality of char as reductant for titanium smelting application. Calcium in char can be classified in two parts: mineral matter and cationic metals associated with organic matrix. Virgin and chemically treated char was characterized by using ISO 1171, wet chemistry methods, ISO 19579, XRF, and B.E.T. methods. In this present work, demineralization of char with mild chemical leachants such as acetic acid, citric acid, gluconic acid and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid with three different ultrasonic power input (150 W, 270 W and 300 W) and semi-dual frequency of 40 kHz tank was investigated. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. An optimum set of process parameters are identified and validated. The ultrasound technology was compared with soaking technology to determine the efficiency of ultrasound system for the removal of calcium. The removal of calcium was exponentially higher with ultrasonic treatment than without it. Results revealed that mild chemical reagents do not harm the carbon content of char. It is evident from the results that amongst the leachants used; acetic and citric acid has caused significant removal of mineral phases.

  13. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed

  14. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  15. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  17. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    (these 3 sections, a) b) c) represent the first one centimeter of the specimen from the bottom); d) and the fourth and top section, which shows no influence by the effect of urine capillary absorption. The obtained results showed, from bottom to top, the following crystallized salts: a) abundant prismatic crystals enriched in P and Ca (calcium phosphate); b) amorphous round-shaped potassium sulfate crystals and cubic sodium chloride crystals embedded in an organic matrix; d) cubic sodium chloride crystals are dominant. In the unaffected area, no other crystals were detected different from the carbonate minerals forming the rock. These results are in accordance to which has already been published by the authors in granitic materials (Cámara et al 2014). Acknowledgements: to Geomateriales 2 programme (S2013/MIT-2914) funded by the Community of Madrid. Cámara B., Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Ascaso, C. de los Rios, A.; Gomez-Heras, M. 2014. Another source of soluble salts in urban environments due to recent social behaviour pattern in historical centres. In: Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage (edited by M.A. Rogerio-Candelera), 89-94. CRC Press-Balkema, Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781138027442 - CAT# K25502

  18. A model of propagating calcium-induced calcium release mediated by calcium diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, P. H.; de Tombe, P. P.; van Deen, J. H.; Mulder, B. J.; ter Keurs, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sudden local fluctuations of the free sarcoplasmic [Ca++]i in cardiac cells on calcium release and calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated with the aid of a simplified model of SR calcium handling. The model was used to evaluate whether propagation of calcium

  19. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  20. Tumor, serum and urine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Ignjatovic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possible diagnostic value of a CEA test in cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. Thirty-eight patients with upper urinary tract cancer, 15 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, 6 kidney carcinoma patients and 25 healthy adults were studied. CEA was determined in tumor tissue, serum and urine, by using a monoclonal radioimmunoassay. Increased serum CEA level was found in 7 out of 27 patients (26%) with active cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. None of 11 patients with inactive cancer had an increased serum CEA level. No significant correlation was found between the serum CEA level and the histological grading. The tumor CEA content varied markedly, from values obtainted in normal urothelium up to 840 ng/g wet weight. CEA content of tumor tissue did not correlate with the serum level. Our data suggest that serum and urine CEA have not diagnostic accuracy for clinical diagnosis of upper tract urothelial cancer. (orig.) [de

  1. Performance of Separation Processes for Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Produced with an Innovative Method from Steelmaking Slag and Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teir, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.teir@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo (Finland); Auvinen, Toni [Outotec Dewatering Technology Center, Lappeenranta (Finland); Said, Arshe [Department of Energy Technology, School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Kotiranta, Tuukka; Peltola, Heljä [Outotec Research Center, Pori (Finland)

    2016-02-22

    In this work, experiments were performed to determine the filterability of calcium carbonate produced with an alternative calcium carbonate production concept. The concept uses steelmaking slag as raw material and has potential to fix CO{sub 2} emissions and utilize steelmaking slag, simultaneously. As calcium carbonate is precipitated in a solution containing ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonia, the product needs to be washed and hence filtered. In this work, different separation processes, including washing, filtering, and drying, were tested on two calcium carbonate slurries produced from steel converter slag and CO{sub 2} by a laboratory-scale pilot facility, with the aim of obtaining a solid product with a low chloride content using a minimum amount of washing water. The order of maximum filtration rates achievable of the calcium carbonate slurries was determined by experimental work. The tests included pressure filtration and vacuum filtration and the test series contained altogether 21 different filtration cycles with varying combinations of filtering, washing, and drying steps. The filtered cakes were analyzed by their residual moisture content, chloride content, and conductivity, and the filtrates by their residual solids content, chloride content, and conductivity. Pressure filtration gave a high capacity (400–460 kg/m{sup 2}h) and a low cake residual moisture content (12–14 wt-%). Vacuum filtration gave slightly higher filtration rates (500–610 kg/m{sup 2}h at the lowest residual chloride contents of the cakes), but the cake residual moisture also stayed higher (25–26 wt-%). As the vacuum filtration tests used a filter cloth with higher permeability than that of the pressure filtration tests, a slightly higher filtration rate was expected. However, both filtration technologies seem suitable for filtering and washing calcium carbonate prepared with the studied method as a residual chloride content as low as 10 ppm of the filtered

  2. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  3. Effect of citrus-based products on urine profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Rahman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urolithiasis is a disease with high recurrence rate, 30-50% within 5 years. The aim of the present study was to learn the effects of citrus-based products on the urine profile in healthy persons and people with urolithiasis compared to control diet and potassium citrate. Methods. A systematic review was performed, which included interventional, prospective observational and retrospective studies, comparing citrus-based therapy with standard diet therapy, mineral water, or potassium citrate. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, COCHRANE, and Google Scholar with “citrus or lemonade or orange or grapefruit or lime or juice” and “urolithiasis” as search terms. For statistical analysis, a fixed-effects model was conducted when p > 0.05, and random-effects model was conducted when p < 0.05. Results. In total, 135 citations were found through database searching with 10 studies found to be consistent with our selection criteria. However, only 8 studies were included in quantitative analysis, due to data availability. The present study showed a higher increased in urine pH for citrus-based products (mean difference, 0.16; 95% CI 0.01-0.32 and urinary citrate (mean difference, 124.49; 95% CI 80.24-168.74 compared with a control group. However, no differences were found in urine volume, urinary calcium, urinary oxalate, and urinary uric acid. From subgroup analysis, we found that citrus-based products consistently increased urinary citrate level higher than controls in both healthy and urolithiasis populations. Furthermore, there was lower urinary calcium level among people with urolithiasis. Conclusions. Citrus-based products could increase urinary citrate level significantly higher than control. These results should encourage further research to explore citrus-based products as a urolithiasis treatment.

  4. Effects of different phosphorus and potassium fertilization on contents and uptake of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in winter wheat I. Content of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata GAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study carried out under field conditions was to evaluate the effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization level on nutritional status of winter wheat at stem elongation (BBCH 31 and flowering (BBCH 65 development stages as well as on macronutrient contents in yield obtained (grain and straw. The research was conducted in 2007-2010, within an individual agricultural holding, on lessive soil with medium and high richness in potassium and phosphorus, respectively. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in wheat changed depending on the organ assessed and plant development stage. At BBCH 31, regardless fertilization level, the plants observed were malnourished with potassium, phosphorus and calcium and at the control site also with nitrogen. Furthermore, there were found significant correlation relationships among the contents of nutrient pairs: nitrogen-potassium, nitrogen-phosphorus, nitrogen-magnesium and nitrogen-calcium. The content of nitrogen in wheat grain and straw differed mainly due to weather conditions during the study. Irrespective of the years of observation, differentiated rates of P and K applied had no significant effect on N accumulation in wheat at full ripening stage. In contrast to nitrogen, the level of P and K fertilization significantly differentiated the contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in wheat grain and straw. In case of calcium, the effect of fertilization factor was indicated only as regards the content of this nutrient in grain.

  5. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  6. Comparison between the urine dipstick and the pH-meter to assess urine pH in sheep and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Katsogiannou, Eleni G; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Diamantaki, Myrto; Kamatsos, Constantinos; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2018-02-06

    Urine pH is an integral part of a complete urinalysis, and is commonly measured in veterinary practice using semiquantitative reagent strips. The aim of this study was to compare the urine pH of dogs and sheep, using visual interpretation of dipstick reactions, and using a pH-meter as the reference method. Agreement between the 2 methods was also assessed. An additional objective was to compare the urine pH before and after centrifugation. A total of 50 voided urine samples from sheep and 52 from dogs were collected into sterile containers. For pH measurements, 2 methods were used, a pH-meter and urine dipstick reagent pads. Measurements were performed using urine samples before (whole urine) and after centrifugation (urine supernatant). For comparison of the 2 methods, Passing and Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used. The equation created to assess agreement between the 2 methods in dogs showed a constant bias at -0.14 and a positive proportional bias at 0.98. From a clinical standpoint, total bias was below and above the maximum acceptable bias in sheep and dogs, respectively. Clinically acceptable bias was also found using centrifuged urine samples in sheep, but the urine pH values before and after centrifugation were nearly identical in dogs. Urine dipstick reagent pads and pH-meters can be used interchangeably to determine urine pH in sheep without needing centrifugation. In contrast, pH-meters provide more accurate pH measurements than urine dipstick pads in canine urine, which is not improved by centrifugation. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  8. The role of calcium ions in cytological effects of hypogravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.; Belyavskaya, N. A.; Nedukha, E. M.; Palladina, T. A.; Tarasenko, V. A.

    Electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods made it possible to reveal certain differences in ATPase activity stimulation by calcium ions in root apex cells of pea seedlings and moss protonema Funaria hygrometrica grown under stationary and slow clinostatic (2 rev/min) conditions. It was showed that under clinostatic conditions in comparison with the control variant the ATPase activity decreases in plasmalemma. The protein content in the plasmalemma fraction was also twice as low under these conditions. The root apex cells of the pea seedlings grown under spaceflight conditions were found to contain high concentrations of membrane-bound calcium. The data obtained are discussed in relation to problems of possible mechanisms of disturbance in calcium balance and the system of active calcium ion transport through plasmalemma under hypogravity.

  9. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  10. Determinations of tritium levels in urine and blood samples, medical checkups of persons employed at RC Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlweck, K.; Teherani, D.K.

    1975-07-01

    Tritium determinations in urine and blood samples were performed with a liquid scintillation counter (Tri Carb No. 3375, PACKARD). In urine samples tritiated water (HTO) was measured after separation of organic substances by adsorption with activated charcoal and following distillation to dryness. In some urine and blood samples total Tritium content was determinated by conbustion in a sample Oxidizer (Mod. 306, PACKARD). Detection limits for HTO and total Tritium measurements were 2,5 pCi/ml and 7 or 15 pCi/ml respectively, taking 2 sigma of statistical error of background values. Tritiumconcentrations in daily urine of occupational exposed persons, employed in RC Seibersdorf occurred up to 8 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,85+-2,11 pCi/ml from investigations on 16 persons. Tritiumcontent in urine samples of occupational non exposed persons were about the same level up to 10 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,70+-2,65 pCi/ml from measurements on 20 persons. Statistical error of single values was sigma=+-1,85 pCi/ml. There was found no significantly higher concentration in urine of occupational exposed persons compared with a group of non exposed ones. Total Tritium content in urine samples seemed to be somewhat higher than HTO concentrations, also for occupational non exposed persons. Tritium levels in blood were notably higher than have to be expected assuming homogeneous distribution of HTO in body fluids. For occupational exposed persons in RC Seibersdorf Tritium concentrations between 26-58 pCi/ml were found. An estimation about Tritium intake based on such results showed no more than 0,5% of maximum permissible intake for occupational exposed persons in the most unfavorable case. For occupational non exposed persons total Tritium levels in blood were only about 10,7+-5,8 pCi/ml (arithmetic mean of measurements on 15 persons). (author)

  11. Reduction of sodium and increment of calcium and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry fermented sausages: effects on the mineral content, lipid profile and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Íñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2013-03-15

    A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for a(w) (0.85 and 0.87) and pH (4.98 and 5.21), and low lipid oxidation values (1.4 × 10(-4) and 1.5 × 10(-5) g malondialdehyde (MDA) kg(-1)). The lipid modification led to a significantly higher supply of ω-3 (23.3 g kg(-1) ) compared to the control (3.2 g kg(-1) ). Simultaneously, reductions of 38% and 50% in sodium content and a calcium supply of 4 and 5.2 g kg(-1) were achieved in the 14gSalt and 10gSalt formulations, respectively, compared to the control products (26 g salt and 0.87 g kg(-1) Ca). Instrumental analysis of colour and texture and sensory studies demonstrated that the organoleptic quality of the new formulations was similar to that of traditional products. The developed dry fermented sausages showed healthier properties than traditional ones owing to their reduced sodium and higher calcium content and a significant supply of ω-3 fatty acids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Tetany: quantitative interrelationships between calcium and alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J W; Brashear, R E; Li, T K

    1975-04-01

    Tetany occurs with hypocalcemia and alkalosis or both. The interrelationship of calcium and acid-base balance necessary for inducing tetany, the role of the central nervous system, and the rate of development of hypocalcemia have been investigated. Tetany occurred in less than 50 percent of one group of dogs made alkalotic by hyperventilation or made hypocalcemic by infusion of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino ethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetate. In contrast, hypocalcemia combined with hypocapnic alkalosis always produced tetany. Slowly evolving hypocalcemia was achieved inanother group of dogs by thyroparathyroidectomy, and tetany was induced postoperatively by hypocapnic alkalosis. An identical relationship between serum calcium ion concentration and arterial pH or CO2 tension was found in both groups. Tetany could not be related to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) calcium ion content in either group. Hypocalcemia and alkalosis are therefore coparticipants in the development of tetany and are independent of the rate of development of hypocalcemia and of CSF calcium ion concentration. The importance of alkalosis in tetany with hypoparathyroidism is emphasized.

  13. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  14. Aluminum deoxidation equilibria and inclusion modification mechanism by calcium treatment of stainless steel melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Sang Beom

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic equilibrium between aluminum and oxygen along with the inclusion morphology in Fe-16%Cr stainless steel was investigated to understand the fundamentals of aluminum deoxidation technology for ferritic stainless steels. Further, the effects of calcium addition on the changes in chemistry and morphology of inclusions were discussed. The measured results for aluminum-oxygen equilibria exhibit relatively good agreement with the calculated values, indicating that the introduction of the first- and second-order interaction parameters, recently reported, is reasonable to numerically express aluminum deoxidation equilibrium in a ferritic stainless steel. In the composition of dissolved aluminum content greater than about 60 ppm, pure alumina particles were observed, while the alumino-manganese silicates containing Cr 2 O 3 were appeared at less than 20 mass ppm of dissolved aluminum. The formation of calcium aluminate inclusions after Ca treatment could be discussed based on the thermodynamic equilibrium with calcium, aluminum, and oxygen in the steel melts. In the composition of steel melt with relatively high content of calcium and low aluminum, the log(X CaO /X Al 2 O 3 ) of inclusions linearly increases with increasing the log [a Ca /a Al 2 ·a O 2 ] with the slope close to unity. However, the slope of the line is significantly lower than the expected value in the composition of steel melt with relatively low calcium and high aluminum contents

  15. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  16. Estimation of uranium isotope in urine samples using extraction chromatography resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Smita S.; Yadav, J.R.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Internal exposure monitoring for alpha emitting radionuclides is carried out by bioassay samples analysis. For occupational radiation workers handling uranium in reprocessing or fuel fabrication facilities, there exists a possibility of internal exposure and urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring such exposure. Estimation of lower concentration of uranium at mBq level by alpha spectrometry requires preconcentration and its separation from large volume of urine sample. For this purpose, urine samples collected from non radiation workers were spiked with 232 U tracer at mBq level to estimate the chemical yield. Uranium in urine sample was pre-concentrated by calcium phosphate coprecipitation and separated by extraction chromatography resin U/TEVA. In this resin extractant was DAAP (Diamylamylphosphonate) supported on inert Amberlite XAD-7 support material. After co-precipitation, precipitate was centrifuged and dissolved in 10 ml of 1M Al(NO 3 ) 3 prepared in 3M HNO 3 . The sample thus prepared was loaded on extraction chromatography resin, pre-conditioned with 10 ml of 3M HNO 3 . Column was washed with 10 ml of 3M HNO 3 . Column was again rinsed with 5 ml of 9M HCl followed by 20 ml of 0.05 M oxalic acid prepared in 5M HCl to remove interference due to Th and Np if present in the sample. Uranium was eluted from U/TEVA column with 15 ml of 0.01M HCl. The eluted uranium fraction was electrodeposited on stainless steel planchet and counted by alpha spectrometry for 360000 sec. Approximate analysis time involved from sample loading to stripping is 2 hours when compared with the time involved of 3.5 hours by conventional ion exchange method. Seven urine samples from non radiation worker were radio chemically analyzed by this technique and the radiochemical yield was found in the range of 69-91 %. Efficacy of this method against conventional anion exchange technique earlier standardized at this laboratory is also being highlighted. Minimum detectable activity

  17. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [ Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops.

  18. Urine Exosomes: An Emerging Trove of Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J M; Koritzinsky, E H; Glispie, D M; Star, R A; Yuen, P S T

    Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction. Many prospective urinary exosomal biomarkers have been successfully identified for a variety of kidney or genitourinary tract conditions; detection of systemic conditions may also be possible. Isolation and analysis of exosomes can be achieved by several approaches, although many require specialized equipment or involve lengthy protocols. The need for timely analysis in the clinical setting has driven considerable innovation with several promising options recently emerging. Consensus on exosome isolation, characterization, and normalization procedures would resolve critical clinical translational bottlenecks for existing candidate exosomal biomarkers and provide a template for additional discovery studies. 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  20. Caesium transfer to placenta, urine and human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Rogani, A.; Tancredi, F.; Grisanti, A.; Grisanti, G.; Baronciani, D.; Del Prete, A.; Zanini, R.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident few measurements on radioactive contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine of nursing mothers were carried out. Two previous studies on breast milk contamination were conducted in different Italian areas by the Physics Department of the National Institute of Health (Laboratorio di Fisica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita). In the first study conducted in collaboration with the Epidemiological Unit of the Lazio District, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations were measured in mixed breast milk samples pooled from 5-10 women in the first week after delivery, from May 1986 to December 1987, in the Rome area. The second research was conducted, in collaboration with the Lecco Hospital, in 1989 on a group of women living in the Como Lake area (Lombardia), which was one of the areas of Northern Italy most heavily affected by Chernobyl fallout, because of intensive rainfall in the first few days after the accident. The specific diet and caesium content in maternal milk were studied recruiting pregnant women at the ''respiratory autogen training'' course. In this case, Cs-l37, Cs-134 and K-40 concentration in placenta and urine of the mothers under study had also been measured. Aim of this paper is to discuss these data and investigate the relationship between Cs-137 contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine as a contribution to a better understanding of caesium metabolism in pregnant and nursing women

  1. Solid Phases Precipitating in Artificial Urine in the Absence and Presence of Bacteria Proteus mirabilis—A Contribution to the Understanding of Infectious Urinary Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Prywer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, called struvite, is the dominant component of infectious urinary stones. In addition to struvite, infectious urinary stones include solid phases with poor crystallinity as well as amorphous matter. This article is devoted to the analysis of these solid phases, because they have not been characterized well until now. The solid phases tested were obtained from artificial urine in the absence and presence of Proteus mirabilis. The solid phases were characterized by different techniques (X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as Raman and Infrared Spectroscopies. According to the results these phases are carbonate apatite (CA, hydroxylapatite (HAP, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP and/or amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate (ACCP. Carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite may occur in non-stoichiometric forms, i.e., various anions can be substituted for CO32−, OH−, and PO43− groups in them. The non-stoichiometry of carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite also implies a deficiency of calcium ions, i.e., calcium ions may be partially replaced by other cations. Experimental techniques and chemical speciation analysis demonstrate that the presence of magnesium influences the formation of CA and HAP.

  2. Estimated net acid excretion inversely correlates with urine pH in vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Oliver, Lauren M; Goldin, Barry R; Woods, Margo N; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2008-09-01

    Diet affects urine pH and acid-base balance. Both excess acid/alkaline ash (EAA) and estimated net acid excretion (NAE) calculations have been used to estimate the effects of diet on urine pH. This study's goal was to determine if free-living vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores have increasingly acidic urine, and to assess the ability of EAA and estimated NAE calculations to predict urine pH. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study assessed urine samples of 10 vegan, 16 lacto-ovo vegetarian, and 16 healthy omnivorous women in the Boston metropolitan area. Six 3-day food records from each dietary group were analyzed for EAA content and estimated NAE, and correlations with measured urine pH were calculated. The mean (+/- SD) urine pH was 6.15 +/- 0.40 for vegans, 5.90 +/- 0.36 for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 5.74 +/- 0.21 for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .013). Calculated EAA values were not significantly different among the three groups, whereas mean estimated NAE values were significantly different: 17.3 +/- 14.5 mEq/day for vegans, 31.3 +/- 8.5 mEq/day for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 42.6 +/- 13.2 mEq/day for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .01). The average deattenuated correlation between urine pH and EAA was 0.333; this value was -0.768 for estimated NAE and urine pH, with a regression equation of pH = 6.33 - 0.014 NAE (P = .02, r = -0.54). Habitual diet and estimated NAE calculations indicate the probable ranking of urine pH by dietary groups, and may be used to determine the likely acid-base status of an individual; EAA calculations were not predictive of urine pH.

  3. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  4. Glutamyl aminopeptidase in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate if the content of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAp in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.Urine samples were collected 24 hours after injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg, n = 10 or saline serum (n = 10, and they were subjected to differential centrifugation at 1.000, 17.000 and 200.000 g to obtain microvesicular and exosomal fractions. GluAp was measured with a commercial ELISA kit in both fractions. Serum creatinine (SCr and body weight were measured 15 days after treatment. We analyzed if early excretion of GluAp in microsomal and exosomal fractions was correlated with final SCr and body weight increase. In a second experiment, enzymatic activities of GluAp and alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAp in urine, microvesicular and exosomal fractions were measured three days after injection. We analyzed the correlation of both markers with SCr determined at this point. Finally, we studied the expression of GluAp and extracellular vesicles markers Alix and tumor susceptibility gene (TSG101 in both fractions by immunoblotting.GluAp excretion was increased in all fractions of urine after cisplatin treatment, even if data were normalized per mg of creatinine, per body weight or per total protein content of each fraction. We found significant predictive correlations with SCr concentration, and inverse correlations with body weight increase determined 15 days later. Three days after injection, aminopeptidasic activities were markedly increased in all fractions of urine in cisplatin-treated rats. The highest correlation coefficient with SCr was found for GluAp in microvesicular fraction. Increase of GluAp in microvesicular and exosomal fractions from cisplatin-treated rats was confirmed by immunoblotting. Alix and TSG101 showed different patterns of expression in each fraction.Determination of GluAp content or its enzymatic activity in microvesicular and

  5. ENAA of iodine in standard reference material lyophilized human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbao; Wang Ke; Wang Ganfeng

    1997-01-01

    The contents of iodine in two kinds of standard reference materials lyophilized human urine are determined by ENAA. The sensitivity of this method is ten times higher than that of TNAA, and the relative standard deviations of ten measurements are 2.9% and 3.3%, respectively. Two certificated reference samples are used for verification of the analysis. The analytical results are in agreement with the recommended values, and the relative error is less than 3%

  6. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    highest {sup 210}Po content in recent products. The use of urine to monitor a population critical group after a hypothetical terrorist act that involving possible {sup 210}Po making inadvertent ingestion or inhalation requires in practice the choice of a reference threshold that allows discrimination between the existing natural {sup 210}Po in urine under study and the possible contribution of {sup 210}Po anthropogenic. The high variability observed by us naturally {sup 210}Po concentrations in urine makes it not far from trivial to set that threshold value, being moreover obvious that its value should not be set based on the choice made in other countries because their dietary habits and lifestyle can be very different. We consider it essential to create a database nationwide {sup 210}Po activity concentration in urine associated information in each case on donor diets and lifestyle. This database must contain a statistically representative number of data enough to get them the information necessary for an appropriate choice of the threshold mentioned regional or national scale in possible emergency cases. (authors)

  7. Strontium and calcium accumulation in fish as affected by food composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, I.L.; Judd, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive tracers ( 85 Sr and 47 Ca) were used to investigate the effects of food composition on the accumulation of strontium and calcium by fish and their discrimination between these two elements. The total amount of calcium assimilated by fish was the same for all experimental conditions. Calcium not obtainable from food was absorbed from the water, even when the water concentration was less than 10 mg Ca/l. The major discriminatory process occurred during direct (gill) uptake from water. Gut uptake provided least discrimination against strontium. Strontium content of fish was closely related to the Sr/Ca ratio in their food. Strontium assimilation was found to be a function of: the Sr/Ca ratios of food and water, the amounts of calcium derived from each source and the biological discrimination against strontium relative to calcium

  8. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  9. Peptidomics of urine and other biofluids for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Mineral content of traditional leafy vegetables from western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, F.O.; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    and diseases. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) contents in some 54 traditional vegetable species collected from Nyang'oma area of Bondo district, western Kenya. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content. We found that most traditional leafy vegetables......, domesticated and wild, generally contain higher levels of calcium, iron and zinc compared with the introduced varieties such as spinach (Spanacia oleracea), kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). The results of this study could contribute towards identification...

  11. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful.

  12. Evaluation of TeO2 content on the optical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M. O.; Gomes, J. F.; Hegeto, F. L.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Barboza, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the characterization of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite (CaBTeX) glasses with composition 10CaF2-(29.5 - 0.4x)CaO-(60 - 0.6x)B2O3-xTeO2-0.5Yb2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 31 and 54 mol%). The results of XRD confirm the amorphous character of all the samples. The density, molar volume, refractive index and electronic polarizability values show an increase with TeO2 content. Otherwise, the optical band gap energy shows a decrease with the increase of TeO2 content. The replacement of CaO and B2O3 by TeO2 changes the glass structure, which decreases the excited Yb3 +/cm3 and, consequently, the luminescence intensity. The temperature dependence of luminescence was studied for all the samples up to 420 K. The fluorescence lifetime does not change significantly due to TeO2 addition. In addition, absorption and emission cross section were calculated and present high values as compared to other tellurite and phosphate glasses.

  13. Calcium and Vitamin D Metabolism in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome; An Update on the Existing Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  Minimal Change Disease (MCD is the leading cause of childhood Nephrotic Syndrome (NS. Therefore in pediatrics nephrotic syndrome, most children beyond the first year of life will be treated with corticosteroids without an initial biopsy. Children with NS often display a number of calcium homeostasis disturbances causing abnormal bone histology, including hypocalcemia, reduced serum vitamin D metabolites, impaired intestinal absorption of calcium, and elevated levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH. These are mainly attributed to the loss of a variety of plasma proteins and minerals in the urine as well as steroid therapy. Early diagnosis and management of these abnormalities, could prevent the growth retardation and renal osteodystrophy that affects children with nephrotic syndrome. Here we reviewed the literature for changes of calcium and vitamin D metabolism in nephrotic syndrome and its consequences on bones, also the effect of corticosteroid and possible preventive strategies that could be done to avoid long term outcomes in children. Although the exact biochemical basis for Changes in levels of calcium and vitamin D metabolites in patients with NS remains speculative; Because of the potential adverse effects of these changes among growing children, widespread screening for vitamin D deficiency or routine vitamin D supplementation should be considered.

  14. Thermodynamic study of the interaction between calcium and zoledronic acid by calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostefa Side Larbi, Mohamed A.; Sauzet, Christophe; Piccerelle, Philippe; Cau, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used to treat calcium disorders because of their structural and functional similarities with the organic pyrophosphates present in plasma and urine. BPs are well known for their strong interactions with calcium, and they have been shown to bind to hydroxyapatite or bone; however, no model exists for studying in greater detail how BPs and particularly amino-bisphosphonates (N-BPs) such as zolendronate (Zol) bind to free calcium. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of pH on Ca 2+ /Zol complex formation using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) because these effects might have important implications for the future development of a solid dosage form. In this study, using a predictive model, we can observe, the existence of three Ca 2+ /Zol complexes. Knowledge of the binding constant for each complex is helpful for predicting the predominance of the different species at different Ca 2+ /Zol ratios. Binding is due to ionic interaction between Ca 2+ and the negative charges formed by dissociated Zol as a function of the pKa. Ca 2+ fixation induces a strong rearrangement of the surrounding water molecules and causes proton release or uptake. The pH-dependent affinity of calcium for each site based on the model used in this work is proposed in detail, which might facilitate the development of new bisphosphonates and enable further elucidation of their mode of action.

  15. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  16. Reducing unnecessary culturing: a systems approach to evaluating urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses in two acute care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Redwood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB. Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses. Questions were developed using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS framework. We used iterative categorization (directed content analysis followed by summative content analysis to code and analyze the data both deductively (using SEIPS domains and inductively (emerging themes. Results Factors affecting optimal urine ordering and collection included barriers at the person, process, and task levels. For ED nurses, barriers included patient factors, physician communication, reflex culture protocols, the electronic health record, urinary symptoms, and ED throughput. For ICU nurses, barriers included physician notification of urinalysis results, personal protective equipment, collection technique, patient body habitus, and Foley catheter issues. Conclusions We identified multiple potential process barriers to nurse adherence with evidence-based recommendations for ordering and collecting urine cultures in the ICU and ED. A systems approach to identifying barriers and facilitators can be useful to design interventions for improving urine ordering and collection practices.

  17. QSAR analysis for nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxide in water oxidation: An application of chemometric methods in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazy, Mohammad; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Water oxidation is among the most important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, and nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxides are efficient catalysts toward this reaction. Herein, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed to predict the catalytic activities of twenty manganese-calcium oxides toward water oxidation using multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA) for multivariate calibration and feature selection, respectively. Although there are eight controlled parameters during synthesizing of the desired catalysts including ripening time, temperature, manganese content, calcium content, potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese, the average manganese oxidation state and the surface of catalyst, by using GA only three of them (potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese and the average manganese oxidation state) were selected as the most effective parameters on catalytic activities of these compounds. The model's accuracy criteria such as R(2)test and Q(2)test in order to predict catalytic rate for external test set experiments; were equal to 0.941 and 0.906, respectively. Therefore, model reveals acceptable capability to anticipate the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological studies in heterozygous calcium sensing receptor (CaSR gene-ablated mice confirm that the CaSR regulates calcitonin release in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Christopher S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR regulates serum calcium by suppressing secretion of parathyroid hormone; it also regulates renal tubular calcium excretion. Inactivating mutations of CaSR raise serum calcium and reduce urine calcium excretion. Thyroid C-cells (which make calcitonin express CaSR and may, therefore, be regulated by it. Since calcium stimulates release of calcitonin, the higher blood calcium caused by inactivation of CaSR should increase serum calcitonin, unless CaSR mutations alter the responsiveness of calcitonin to calcium. To demonstrate regulatory effects of CaSR on calcitonin release, we studied calcitonin responsiveness to calcium in normal and CaSR heterozygous-ablated (Casr+/- mice. Casr+/- mice have hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria, and live normal life spans. Each mouse received either 500 μl of normal saline or one of two doses of elemental calcium (500 μmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg by intraperitoneal injection. Ionized calcium was measured at baseline and 10 minutes, and serum calcitonin was measured on the 10 minute sample. Results At baseline, Casr+/- mice had a higher blood calcium, and in response to the two doses of elemental calcium, had greater increments and peak levels of ionized calcium than their wild type littermates. Despite significantly higher ionized calcium levels, the calcitonin levels of Casr+/- mice were consistently lower than wild type at any ionized calcium level, indicating that the dose-response curve of calcitonin to increases in ionized calcium had been significantly blunted or shifted to the right in Casr+/- mice. Conclusions These results confirm that the CaSR is a physiological regulator of calcitonin; therefore, in response to increases in ionized calcium, the CaSR inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion and stimulates calcitonin secretion.

  19. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  20. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  1. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  2. epsilon-fructoselysine in urine of rats fed 14C-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Bunpei; Kojima, Kazumi; Saito, Susumu

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive substances were identified in urine of rats fed on browned casein, which had been labeled with U- 14 C-L-lysine. When browned casein was ingested by growing rats, high radioactivity was found in urine taken for 24 hr after feeding. Urinary recovery of radioactivity and specific radioactivity were about 9-times as high as those of the control. The radioactive substances were separated by Sephadex gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography 75 - 83% of the total radioactivity was recovered in the first peak of Sephadex gel filtration. The material with radioactivity was separated into two fractions by ionexchange chromatography. The ratio of radioactivity of these peaks on the chromatogram was about 30 to 70. The main peak was identified as epsilon-fructoselysine with an amino acid autoanalyzer. Urinary epsilon-fructoselysine content of 24 hr after a single dose feeding of 600 mg browned labeled casein was 13 - 18 mg per head. The relationship between epsilon-fructoselysine content as an absorption delayed-material in the small intestinal lumen and the amount excreted in urine was explained in a scheme together with results from previous studies. (author)

  3. Use of calcium and boron in the production of grain and sunflower silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Boron and calcium are related to many physiological processes of the plant, which are affected by its deficiency, such as sugar transport, synthesis and cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma membrane integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of boron and calcium application via leaf and soil on the yield components in silage quality and content of macronutrients in leaves of sunflower. The experiment was conducted at Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, Campus Dois Vizinhos, from September 2008 to April 2009, in a randomized block design with four replications, using the genotype Agrobel - La Tijereta. Morphological characteristics of the plants, the yield components (grain yield and weight of hundred grains, silage quality and content of nutrient uptake were evaluated. The sunflower crop did not respond to application of boron and calcium, to effects on yield components in silage quality and content of nutrients absorbed by plants. However, it was found increases in the partition dry grain and plant height.

  4. Influence of Magnesium Content on the Local Structure of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC): Real Time Determination by In Situ PDF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Ulrich, R. N.; Michel, F. M.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Calcium carbonate minerals are an essential component in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and mollusks. The onset of exoskeleton mineralization includes the precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) as a reactive intermediate that later transforms to produce diverse structures. Despite the importance of ACC as a critical phase during skeleton formation, the chemical and physical properties are not well characterized at conditions that approximate biological environments. Of particular interest are the solubility of ACC, the short-range structure at the time of formation, and the evolution of ACC structure to final products. Recent advances showing the widespread occurrence of multistep pathways to mineralization in biological and geological settings (De Yoreo et al., 2015) underline the importance of understanding amorphous intermediates. Using quantitative laboratory techniques developed by our research group (Blue et al., 2013; Blue and Dove, 2015; Blue et al., in press), this experimental study quantifies the solubility of ACC in parallel with the physical characterization of the corresponding structure. We measured ACC solubility at specific time points during the precipitation and during its subsequent evolution under the mild pH conditions that approximate biological and environmental conditions. In parallel experiments, structural data were collected from in situ pair distribution function (PDF) analyses were conducted to follow the evolution of individual samples from initial precipitation to final product. The measurements are leading to a quantitative solubility function for ACC with variable Mg contents and an x-ray based understanding of ACC structure in the same particles. We are also finding temporal changes in the short-range order of ACC after precipitation and this order is dependent upon Mg content. Moreover, the data show Mg distribution through the ACC particles is dependent upon total alkalinity. Insights from this study hold promise

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative analysis of contents of epidermoid and dermoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Mikihiko; Kubo, Osami; Hiyama, Hirofumi; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Izawa, Masahiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Takakura, Kintomo; Kobayashi, Naotoshi; Toyoda, Masako [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The intracapsular cholesterol protein, and calcium contents of epidermoid and dermoid cysts from seven patients were compared with the signal intensities on T[sub 1]-weighted spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) images. All specimens had a paste-like consistency when resected. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts demonstrated a wide range of cholesterol and calcium contents, and epidermoid cysts were not always rich in cholesterol. Five patients had cysts with lower signal intensity than white matter, which contained more than 18.3 mg/g wet weight of protein. One of these patients had the highest cholesterol content of all seven patients (22.25 mg/g wet weight) and another had the highest calcium content (0.75 mg/g wet weight). Two patients had cysts with higher signal intensity than white matter, with protein contents of lower than 4.3 mg/g wet weight. High protein content (>18.3 mg/g wet weight) may decrease signal intensity on T[sub 1]-weighted MR images, while low protein content (<4.3 mg/g wet weight) may increase signal intensity in epidermoid and dermoid cysts with high viscosity (paste-like consistency) contents. (author).

  6. Calcium and Bone Turnover Markers in Acromegaly: A Prospective, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Tina; Tangpricha, Vin; Shah, Reshma; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Ioachimescu, Octavian C; Ritchie, James; Ioachimescu, Adriana G

    2017-07-01

    Acromegaly has been associated with calcium-phosphate and bone turnover alterations. Controlled studies of these interactions are sparse. To evaluate calcium and bone metabolism in active and treated acromegaly. We conducted a controlled, prospective study at a tertiary referral center. We studied 22 patients with acromegaly referred for surgical or medical therapy (ACM) and 22 with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas referred for surgery (control). Calcium (serum and urine), phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D, bone turnover markers [serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)], and cytokines [receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANK-L) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)] at baseline and 3 to 6 months after treatment. At baseline, the ACM group had lower PTH levels than controls (36.3 ± 13.9 pg/mL vs 56.0 ± 19.9 pg/mL) and higher phosphorus (4.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL vs 3.55 ± 0.50 mg/dL) (P acromegaly, serum calcium (9.52 ± 0.43 mg/dL to 9.26 ± 0.28 mg/dL), phosphorus (4.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL to 3.90 ± 0.80 mg/dL), and CTX (0.91 ± 0.75 ng/mL to 0.63 ± 0.68 ng/mL) decreased, while PTH increased (36.3 ± 13.9 pg/mL to 48.9 ± 16.7 pg/mL) (P Acromegaly patients exhibited PTH-independent calcium-phosphate alterations and enhanced coupled bone formation and resorption. Within 6 months of treatment, bone resorption decreased, whereas RANK-L/OPG changes were inconsistent. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  8. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyang; Bi, Aoyue; Amombo, Erick; Li, Huiying; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Cheng; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreber) treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype "TF133" were subjected to the control (CK), salinity (S), salinity + calcium nitrate (SC), and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE). Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size), N (number of [Formula: see text] redox turnovers until F m is reached), ψE 0 , or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from Q A to Q B or PSI acceptors), ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC). All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond [Formula: see text]) and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca 2+ , and K + in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE 0 , δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca 2+ and K + content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role

  9. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  10. Study of a dosimetric methodology for plutonium by means of radiotonicological analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellintani, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with an internal individual monitoring program for workers dealing with 239 Pu, by measuring the 239 Pu content in their urine. General aspects related with the plutonium radiotoxicity and its chemical, physical and metabolic properties are discussed. The methodology chosen for the 239 Pu analyses in urine is based on the wet ashing of the urine sample, followed by the plutonium separation by precipitation with lanthanium nitrate and extraction with thenoyltrifluoroacetone. After the separation, the samples is electrodeposited and the activity measured by alpha spectrometry. The results were then analyzed by taking into account the couting efficiency obtained of 23.72%, the chemical recovery of 85.3% and the lower limit of detection of 1.1 x 10 -3 Bq. Finally, the bases for the establishment of reference levels for urinary excretion are discussed by considering the maximum permissible body burden (MPBB) and the annual limit of intake (ALI). (author) [pt

  11. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  12. Extensive characterizations of bacteria isolated from catheterized urine and stone matrices in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Sungkeeree, Seksit; Saisud, Phitsamai; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Pimratana, Chaowat; Bovornpadungkitti, Sombat; Sriboonlue, Pote; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-11-01

    Urinary tract infections are generally known to be associated with nephrolithiasis, particularly struvite stone, in which the most common microbe found is urea-splitting bacterium, i.e. Proteus mirabilis. However, our observation indicated that it might not be the case of stone formers in Thailand. We therefore extensively characterized microorganisms associated with all types of kidney stones. A total of 100 kidney stone formers (59 males and 41 females) admitted for elective percutaneous nephrolithotomy were recruited and microorganisms isolated from catheterized urine and cortex and nidus of their stones were analyzed. From 100 stone formers recruited, 36 cases had a total of 45 bacterial isolates cultivated from their catheterized urine and/or stone matrices. Among these 36 cases, chemical analysis by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that 8 had the previously classified 'infection-induced stones', whereas the other 28 cases had the previously classified 'metabolic stones'. Calcium oxalate (in either pure or mixed form) was the most common and found in 64 and 75% of the stone formers with and without bacterial isolates, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium (approximately one-third of all bacterial isolates) found in urine and stone matrices (both nidus and periphery). Linear regression analysis showed significant correlation (r = 0.860, P stone matrices. Multidrug resistance was frequently found in these isolated bacteria. Moreover, urea test revealed that only 31% were urea-splitting bacteria, whereas the majority (69%) had negative urea test. Our data indicate that microorganisms are associated with almost all chemical types of kidney stones and urea-splitting bacteria are not the major causative microorganisms found in urine and stone matrices of the stone formers in Thailand. These data may lead to rethinking and a new roadmap for future research regarding the role of microorganisms in kidney stone formation.

  13. Kinetics of the Carbonate Leaching for Calcium Metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyang Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt roasting process was widely used for extracting vanadium due to its high yield rate of vanadium. However, the serious pollution was a problem. The calcium roasting process was environmentally friendly, but the yield rate of vanadium was relatively lower. Focusing on the calcium metavanadate produced in the calcium roasting process of vanadium minerals, the mechanism of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate and its leaching kinetics of calcium metavanadate were studied. With the increase of the leaching agent content, the decrease of the particle size, the increase of the temperature and the increase of the reaction time, the leaching rate of vanadium increased, and the constant of reaction rate increased. In the carbonate leaching process, the calcium carbonate was globular and attached to the surface of calcium metavanadate. In the solution containing bicarbonate radical, lots of cracks formed in the dissolution process. However, the cracks were relatively fewer in the solution containing carbonate. In the present study, the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate was controlled by diffusion, the activation energy reached maximum and minimum in the sodium bicarbonate and the sodium carbonate solution, respectively. The activation energy value in the ammonium bicarbonate solution was between those two solutions. The kinetic equations of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate were as follows: 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 4.39[Na2CO3]0.75/r0 × exp(−2527.06/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 7.89[NaHCO3]0.53/r0 × exp(−2530.67/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 6.78[NH4HCO3]0.69/r0 × exp(−2459.71/Tt.

  14. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  15. Prion protein misfolding affects calcium homeostasis and sensitizes cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prion-related disorders (PrDs are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive neuronal impairment as well as the accumulation of an abnormally folded and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein, termed PrP(RES. Altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis is associated with the occurrence of neurodegeneration in sporadic, infectious and familial forms of PrDs. The ER operates as a major intracellular calcium store, playing a crucial role in pathological events related to neuronal dysfunction and death. Here we investigated the possible impact of PrP misfolding on ER calcium homeostasis in infectious and familial models of PrDs. Neuro2A cells chronically infected with scrapie prions showed decreased ER-calcium content that correlated with a stronger upregulation of UPR-inducible chaperones, and a higher sensitivity to ER stress-induced cell death. Overexpression of the calcium pump SERCA stimulated calcium release and increased the neurotoxicity observed after exposure of cells to brain-derived infectious PrP(RES. Furthermore, expression of PrP mutants that cause hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or fatal familial insomnia led to accumulation of PrP(RES and their partial retention at the ER, associated with a drastic decrease of ER calcium content and higher susceptibility to ER stress. Finally, similar results were observed when a transmembrane form of PrP was expressed, which is proposed as a neurotoxic intermediate. Our results suggest that alterations in calcium homeostasis and increased susceptibility to ER stress are common pathological features of both infectious and familial PrD models.

  16. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  17. Recovery of calcium from the effluent of direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, P.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the production of plutonium by Direct Oxide Reduction [DOR] process using calcium generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated slat mix [CaCl 2 + 15 wt. pct. CaO] is being carried out to election calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR rector along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in an combined DOR and electrowinning process. The technology will resolve a major contaminated waste disposal problem, besides improving the cost and process efficiency in radioactive metal production. The process is being optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Scattered information is available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the present of calcium oxide. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material. A porous ceramic sheath is being used around the anode to prevent the dissolution of electrowon calcium as oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon. The electrode reactions are affected by the electrolyte composition and its viscosity which varies with time in this process and, therefore, electrochemical impedance is being measured to understand this time-dependent mechanisms

  18. The urine proteome for radiation biodosimetry: effect of total body vs. local kidney irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2010-02-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. The authors used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10-Gy dose of x-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 h with noticeable differences in gene ontology categories. Some proteins, including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins, including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Urine protein (Up) and creatinine (Uc) (Up/Uc) ratios and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation.

  19. Calcium-phosphate and parathyroid intradialytic profiles: A potential aid for tailoring the dialysate calcium content of patients on different hemodialysis schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Martina; Pia, Anna; Guzzo, Gabriella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Mongilardi, Elena; Nazha, Marta; Aroasio, Emiliano; Gonella, Cinzia; Avagnina, Paolo; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism is a challenge on hemodialysis. The definition of dialysate calcium (Ca) is a pending issue with renewed importance in cases of individualized dialysis schedules and of portable home dialysis machines with low-flow dialysate. Direct measurement of calcium mass transfer is complex and is imprecisely reflected by differences in start-to-end of dialysis Ca levels. The study was performed in a dialysis unit dedicated to home hemodialysis and to critical patients with wide use of daily and tailored schedules. The Ca-phosphate (P)-parathyroid hormone (PTH) profile includes creatinine, urea, total and ionized Ca, albumin, sodium, potassium, P, PTH levels at start, mid, and end of dialysis. "Severe" secondary hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH > 300 pg/mL for ≥3 months. Four schedules were tested: conventional dialysis (polysulfone dialyzer 1.8-2.1 m(2) ), with dialysate Ca 1.5 or 1.75 mmol/L, NxStage (Ca 1.5 mmol/L), and NxStage plus intradialytic Ca infusion. Dosages of vitamin D, calcium, phosphate binders, and Ca mimetic agents were adjusted monthly. Eighty Ca-P-PTH profiles were collected in 12 patients. Serum phosphate was efficiently reduced by all techniques. No differences in start-to-end PTH and Ca levels on dialysis were observed in patients with PTH levels dialysis on all schedules except on Nxstage (P dialysis, in "severe" secondary hyperparathyroid patients in order to increase the therapeutic potentials of the new dialysis techniques. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  1. Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of calcium-fortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontaralak, Porntip; Limboon, Pailin; Jatuwong, Sujitra; Chavanalikit, Arusa

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L(-1) ), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. Calcium-fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L(-1) concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Calcium-fortified rice (190.47-194.3 mg 100 g(-1) ) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L(-1) calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Assessment of membrane protection by 31P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the 31 P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine

  3. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control. Not all adolescents responded to this intervention, however. We evaluated 32 respond...

  4. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  5. The determination of ultrafiltrable calcium and magnesium in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, B G; Pallin, E; Sohtell, M

    1982-01-01

    Ultrafiltrate of human serum was investigated in order to evaluate the serum content of calcium and magnesium. The acid and base concentrations and pH of the serum was altered through titration with HCl- or NaOH-solutions. The Pco2 was varied in the titrated serum using different carbon dioxide tensions. This was performed when serum was filtered in a recycling system. It is shown that the analysis of calcium and magnesium have to be done under anaerobic conditions or at standardized pH and Pco2 situations, as the concentrations vary with both pH and Pco2. The concentration ratio between ultrafiltrate and serum for calcium and magnesium was found to be 0.56 and 0.74 respectively at pH=7.41 and Pco2=40 mmHg.

  6. Spectrographic determination of lithium in nuclear grade calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Cittanova, J.

    1957-01-01

    A method is described for the spectrographic determination of lithium in calcium. The samples are converted directly to CaCO 3 . A method of fractional distillation in the arc, using KCl as carrier, makes it possible to detect and measure the Li content to 0,1 ppm. (author) [fr

  7. Influence of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds on soil nutrient contents in a temperate humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Ehlers-Koch, Camilla; Gregersen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    conductivity and content of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium in a reference area and in two cormorant sub-colonies. In general, the soils exposed to cormorant guano had lower pH and higher contents of plant available phosphorus, calcium and potassium compared to the control reference soil...

  8. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  9. Excreção urinária de iodo em lactentes segundo as características pós parto

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Fernandes de LIMA; Anderson Marliere NAVARRO

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of iodine in the urine of infants (ioduria) and its possible relation to the postpartum characteristics of the newborn infant, and to assess the concentration of iodine in table salt, since this is the food with the highest content of this micronutrient ingested by the population, Methods: 32 infants under 6 months of age participated, The analysis of iodine in urine was based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction (1937) and that in salt on the...

  10. Detection of gonococcal antigens in urine by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, M.J.; Wilson, D.V.; Hormaeche, R.D. de; Coombs, R.R.A.; Oates, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method of detecting gonococcal antigens by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with radioactively labelled antibody is described. A specificity test has been developed that enables this method to be used to detect gonococcal antigens in urine sediments. When sediments from samples of urine from male patients with gonorrhoea were tested, 31 (74%) of 42 gave positive results, clearly distinguishing them from sediments from urine samples from men with non-specific urethritis, none of which was positive. Ten of 14 urine sediments from urine samples from women with gonorrhoea gave positive results, as did 3 of 18 sediments from urine samples from women patients without gonorrhoea.These experiments demonstrate that gonococcal antigens can be detected in urine by radioimmunoassay; the method could be useful in diagnosis if, after refinement, its sensitivity and specificity were to be increased. (author)

  11. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥10 4 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of our screening tests had a sensitivity and

  13. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  14. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  15. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  16. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  17. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  18. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  19. Preparation and bioavailability of calcium-chelating peptide complex from tilapia skin hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Qiu, Xujian; Hao, Gengxin; Zhang, Meng; Weng, Wuyin

    2017-11-01

    With the continuous improvement in material life, the generation of fish by-products and the market demand for calcium supplements have been increasing in China. Therefore a calcium-chelating peptide complex (CPC) from tilapia skins was prepared and its effect on calcium (Ca)-deficient mice was investigated. The molecular weight distribution of CPC mainly ranged from 2000 to 180 Da, and its contents of complete amino acids and free amino acids were 85.30 and 8.67% (w/w) respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images and Fourier transform infrared data revealed that Ca crystals were bound with gelatin hydrolysates via interaction between Ca ions and NH/CN groups. When Ca-deficient mice were fed CPC and CaCO 3 respectively for 4 weeks, no significant differences in serum biochemistry or bone mineral density were found. However, the length, weight, Ca content and hydroxyproline content of the femur, Ca absorption and body weight gain of mice fed CPC were significantly higher than those of mice fed CaCO 3 . It is concluded that the prepared CPC could promote bone formation via better bioavailability of Ca and an increase in bone collagen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared from wet chemically precipitated powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Salma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work calcium phosphates were synthesized by modified wet chemical precipitation route. Contrary to the conventional chemical precipitation route calcium hydroxide was homogenized with planetary mill. Milling calcium oxide and water in planetary ball mill as a first step of synthesis provides a highly dispersed calcium hydroxide suspension. The aim of this work was to study the influence of main processing parameters of wet chemical precipitation synthesis product and to control the morphology, phase and functional group composition and, consequently, thermal stability and microstructure of calcium phosphate bioceramics after thermal treatment. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium phosphates with different and reproducible phase compositions after thermal processing (hydroxyapatite [HAp], β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] and HAp/β-TCP by modified wet-chemical precipitation route. The β-TCP phase content in sintered bioceramics samples is found to be highly dependent on the changes in technological parameters and it can be controlled with ending pH, synthesis temperature and thermal treatment. Pure, crystalline and highly thermally stable (up to 1300°C HAp bioceramics with homogenous grainy microstructure, grain size up to 200–250 nm and high open porosity can be successfully obtained by powder synthesized at elevated synthesis temperature of 70°C and stabilizing ending pH at 9.

  1. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The impact of calcium assay change on a local adjusted calcium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Hill, Charlotte; Bailey, Lisa M; Davison, Andrew S; Milan, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Deriving and validating local adjusted calcium equations is important for ensuring appropriate calcium status classification. We investigated the impact on our local adjusted calcium equation of a change in calcium method by the manufacturer from cresolphthalein complexone to NM-BAPTA. Calcium and albumin results from general practice requests were extracted from the Laboratory Information Management system for a three-month period. Results for which there was evidence of disturbance in calcium homeostasis were excluded leaving 13,482 sets of results for analysis. The adjusted calcium equation was derived following least squares regression analysis of total calcium on albumin and normalized to the mean calcium concentration of the data-set. The revised equation (NM-BAPTA calcium method) was compared with the previous equation (cresolphthalein complexone calcium method). The switch in calcium assay resulted in a small change in the adjusted calcium equation but was not considered to be clinically significant. The calcium reference interval differed from that proposed by Pathology Harmony in the UK. Local adjusted calcium equations should be re-assessed following changes in the calcium method. A locally derived reference interval may differ from the consensus harmonized reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Corn stalk as matrix in decomposting toilet for treating urine and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintawardani, N.; Nilawati, D.; Astuti, J. T.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-Toilet technology (BT) which is appropriate for the habits of Indonesian people has been studied and developed. BT is a dry toilet technology commonly uses ligno-cellulosic waste materials as matrix to facilitate the growth of natural microbes. In aerobic condition, microbes degrade feces and urine. Mineral as the leftover of feces and urine, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remain in the rest of matrix waste. After certain period. matrix can be harvested and used as soil conditioner. BT uses much less water, mobile, and very useful to be applied in areas where water availability is limited. BT type with different capacities, user amounts and mixing systems has been developed using sawdust for matrix. Since corn stalk is categorized as useless and priceless waste, its application in BT is challenging. Performance of BT with corn stalk as matrix to degrade feces and urine of carnivore imitating the human waste was observed. BT M-15 manual mixing type with paddle was filled with chopped corn stalk as much as 45% of total volume. This BT was designed for 15 person as users per day if 80% reactor volume was filled with ligno-cellulosic matrix. It is assumed that 150 g of feces are discharged once per person/day and 1000 mL of urine 6-8 times per day. Start up process was made in the beginning to initialize the needed microbes in the reactor (matrix). The discharge of feces and urine were increased slowly and gradually the users were increased from 1 to 4 users per day. Performance of BT was indicated by the change in the pile that showed by moisture content, temperature and pH. C/N ratio in matrix decreased significantly from 43 to 17. This result showed that the corn stalk could be used as matrix in BT.

  4. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  5. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  6. Phospholipid Adsorption Polymeric Materials for Detection of Xylazine and Metabolite in Blood and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have been used in different areas. Recently, polymeric material is favored in analytical area due to its high performance and high consistency, which was used in sample pretreatment in this study. Xylazine poisoning is often seen in body fluid samples obtained from various accidents or suicides. However, the content of xylazine is difficult to detect precisely due to matrix effect in testing practices. In this paper, a method application for phospholipid adsorption polymeric materials to determine xylazine in blood and urine samples was proposed, developed, and validated. Compared with existing method, this method using polymeric pretreatment has a wider linear range of 2.0–2000.0 ng/mL for xylazine and its metabolite 2,6-dimethylaniline in both blood and urine and lower detection limits of 0.3 ng/mL for 2,6-dimethylaniline and xylazine in blood and 0.2 ng/mL for 2,6-dimethylaniline and xylazine in urine. Therefore, this method is suggested to be applied in testing practices by academic groups and commercial organizations.

  7. Importance of Urine Dipstick in Evaluation of Young Febrile Infants With Positive Urine Culture: A Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Roberto; Benito, Helvia; Mozun, Rebeca; Trujillo, Juan E; Merino, Pedro A; de la Torre, Mercedes; Gomez, Borja; Mintegi, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13. To carry out the study, it was performed a comparison of analytical and microbiological characteristics of patients younger than 90 days with fever without focus, taking into account the results of urine dipstick and urine culture. Of a total of 3333 infants younger than 90 days with fever without focus which were included in the study, 538 were classified as UTI in accordance with American Academy of Pediatrics' guidelines. These patients were similar to those who had a positive urine dipstick and a urine culture yielding of 10,000 to 50,000 ufc/mL, and they were different from those who had a normal urine dipstick and a urine culture >50,000 ufc/mL, being focused on the isolated bacteria and blood biomarkers values. Forty-five invasive bacterial infections were diagnosed (5.9% of the 756 with a urine culture >10,000 ufc/mL). Half of the infants with a normal urine dipstick diagnosed with invasive bacterial infections were younger than 15 days. It might be inadequate to use a threshold of 50,000 cfu/mL to consider a urine culture as positive in young febrile infants given the fact that it would misdiagnose several UTIs.

  8. Fabrication of a micro-porous Ti–Zr alloy by electroless reduction with a calcium reductant for electrolytic capacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masumi; Taguchi, Yoshiaki; Habazaki, Hiroki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A metallic Ti–Zr alloy was obtained by electroless reduction for capacitor applications. • The reduction mechanisms were studied by SEM, XRD, EPMA, and an oxygen analyzer. • The alloy was obtained by electroless reduction in the presence of excess calcium reductant. • A micro-porous Ti–Zr alloy was successfully obtained. • The alloy has a low oxygen content and a large surface area. -- Abstract: A metallic titanium and zirconium micro-porous alloy for electrolytic capacitor applications was produced by electroless reduction with a calcium reductant in calcium chloride molten salt at 1173 K. Mixed TiO 2 –70 at%ZrO 2 oxides, metallic calcium, and calcium chloride were placed in a titanium crucible and heated under argon atmosphere to reduce the oxides with the calcium reductant. A metallic Ti–Zr alloy was obtained by electroless reduction in the presence of excess calcium reductant and showed a micro-porous morphology due to the sintering of each of the reduced particles during the reduction. The residual oxygen content and surface area of the reduced Ti–Zr alloy decreased over time during the electroless reduction. The element distributions were slightly different at the positions of the alloy and were in the composition range of Ti-69.3 at% to 74.3 at%Zr. A micro-porous Ti–Zr alloy with low oxygen content (0.20 wt%) and large surface area (0.55 m 2 g −1 ) was successfully fabricated by electroless reduction under optimal conditions. The reduction mechanisms of the mixed and pure oxides by the calcium reductant are also discussed

  9. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  10. Machinability of structural steels with calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytel, S.; Zadecki, M.

    2003-01-01

    The machinability of the plain carbon and low alloy structural steels with carbon content of 0.1-0.6% is briefly discussed in the first part of the paper. In the experimental part a dependence between the addition of calcium and some changes in sulphide and oxide inclusions morphology is presented. The Volvo test for measurement of machinability index B i has been applied. Using the multiple regression methods two relationships between machinability index B i and stereological parameters of non-metallic inclusions as well as hardness of the steels have been calculated. The authors have reached the conclusion that owing to the changes in inclusion chemical composition and geometry as result of calcium addition the machinability index of the steel can be higher. (author)

  11. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  12. Process for controlling calcium in a leach operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method for controlling calcium, e.g. calcite, build-up in the leach solution of a uranium and/or related values recovery operation wherein the leach solution is flowed through a value bearing ore to dissolve the desired values. A soluble fluoride, e.g. sodium fluoride, is added to the leach solution after it has passed through the ore to thereby precipitate calcium fluoride from the leach solution and lower the calcium content of the leach solution. The soluble fluoride may be added to the leach solution before the leach solution passes through the process equipment which is used to remove the values from the leach solution or the soluble fluoride may be added after the leach solution passes through the process equipment. If added before, it is preferable to also add a carbonate/bicarbonate solution along with the soluble fluoride to prevent coprecipitation of uranyl/desired value fluoride or to redissolve coprecipitated fluoride back into the leach solution

  13. A novel hydrolytic product from flesh of Mactra veneriformis and its bioactivities in calcium supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Rui; Wu, Hao

    2012-09-01

    To prepare calcium-binding peptides, the flesh residue of Mactra Veneriformis was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. By comparing the capability of combining calcium of the hydrolyzates, pepsin was confirmed to be the most suitable enzyme for hydrolyzing the flesh residue to release calcium-binding peptides among the seven tested proteases. The pepsin hydrolyzate (PHM) was divided into three fractions according to the molecule weight of its composition, which ranged from 0.5 to 15 kDa. The low-molecule-weight fraction named PHM-3 had the highest capability in combining calcium. The peptides existing in the PHM-3 fraction consisted of higher contents of Glu, Ala and Leu, and could produce one type of calcium-peptide complex by powerfully chelating calcium ions. PHM-3 products could effectively increase calcium absorption and retention while they decreased the calcium excretion in animal tests. Additionally, symptoms caused by low calcium bioavailability in ovariectomized rats, such as bone mineral density reduction and mechanical strength loss could be significantly ameliorated by the hydrolytic products addition in diet.

  14. Mechanical properties of polypropylene/calcium carbonate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in both tensile and impact mechanical properties of a polypropylene homopolymer. Four compositions of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared in a co-rotational twin screw extruder machine with calcium carbonate content of 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt. (% The tests included SEM analyzes together with EDS analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy for calcium carbonate, tensile and impact tests for PP and the nanocomposites. The results showed an increase in PP elastic modulus and a little increase in yield stress. Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature was reduced and the impact resistance increased with the addition of nanoparticles. From the stress-strain curves we determined the occurrence of debonding process before yielding leading to stress softening. Debonding stress was determined from stress-strain curves corresponding to stress in 1% strain. We concluded that the tensile properties depend on the surface contact area of nanoparticles and on their dispersion. Finally we believe that the toughening was due to the formation of diffuse shear because of debonding process.

  15. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  16. Plasma level of endothelin, 6-keto-PGF1α and urine albumin in essential hypertension with diabetes mellitus and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Datong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the damage of blood vessel endothelium and kidney function in patients with essential hypertension plus diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma levels of endothelin (Et) and 6-keto-PGF 1α (6-K-PGF 1α ) as well as urine albumin content were measured by radio immunoassay in 75 patients with essential hypertension (EH), among them 34 were complicated with DM, 35 controls were included in this experiment. Results: The plasma level of ET, 6-K-PGF 1α and urine Alb content were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 1α were also higher but of no statistic significance. Conclusion: The results suggest that the EH patients with DM were complicated with more serous damage in kidney function

  17. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  18. Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Lisa; Martuzzi, Francesca; Vivo, Valentina; Ghirri, Alessia; Salomi, Enrico; Bignetti, Enrico; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is recognized as an essential nutritional factor for bone health. An adequate intake is important to achieve or maintain optimal bone mass in particular during growth and old age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of hake fish bone (HBF) as a calcium source for bone mineralization: in vitro on osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells, cultured in Ca-free osteogenic medium (OM) and in vivo on young growing rats fed a low-calcium diet. Lithotame (L), a Ca supplement derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, was used as control. In vitro experiments showed that HBF supplementation provided bone mineralization similar to standard OM, whereas L supplementation showed lower activity. In vivo low-Ca HBF-added and L-added diet similarly affected bone deposition. Physico-chemical parameters concerning bone mineralization, such as femur breaking force, tibia density and calcium/phosphorus mineral content, had beneficial effects from both Ca supplementations, in the absence of any evident adverse effect. We conclude HBF derived from by-product from the fish industry is a good calcium supplier with comparable efficacy to L.

  19. Absorbability of calcium from calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides in comparison with that from various calcium compounds in the rat ligated jejunum loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-o, Kenji; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Saeki, Shigeru; Nakabou, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    Calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs-Ca) were prepared from potato starch. Their solubility and in situ absorbability as a calcium source were investigated by comparing with the soluble calcium compounds, calcium chloride and calcium lactate, or insoluble calcium compounds, calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate. The solubility of POs-Ca was as high as that of calcium chloride and about 3-fold higher than that of calcium lactate. An in situ experiment showed that the intestinal calcium absorption rate of POs-Ca was almost comparable with that of the soluble calcium compounds, and was significantly higher (pcalcium groups. Moreover, the total absorption rate of a 1:1 mixture of the calcium from POs-Ca and a whey mineral complex (WMC) was significantly higher (psoluble calcium source with relatively high absorption in the intestinal tract.

  20. Evolution of post-ESWL residual lithiasis depending on the type of calculus and urine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Isern, Bernat; Sanchis, Pilar; Perelló, Joan; Hierro, Fernando; Conte Visus, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures for removal of renal calculi from the upper urinary tract, but complete expulsion of the fragments generated is not always achieved. This can lead to new lithiasic episodes, and it is considered that 10-26% of fragmented calculi can undergo regrowth. This in vitro study investigated the influence of fragment and urinary composition on post-ESWL growth of fragments, with the aims of establishing the effect and importance of these parameters, and identifying effective prophylactic measures. Fragments collected from patients immediately following expulsion after ESWL treatment were selected for regrowth experiments. The particles included 24 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) fragments, 48 calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), 24 hydroxyapatite (HAP), and 16 uric acid. In all treatments, calculi fragments showed a considerable capacity to induce growth of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Under normocalciuria conditions, new COM crystals formed; both COM and COD crystals developed under hypercalciuria conditions at a urinary pH 6.0 both HAP and brushite (BRU) crystals were formed. The highest growth rates were observed for COD calculi fragments under hypercalciuria conditions and at a urinary pH of 6.5, followed by growth on COM and HAP fragments under the same conditions; growth rates under other conditions tested were similar but 10-fold lower. With regard to the role of crystallization inhibitors, phytate exhibited inhibitory effects under all assay conditions. However, citrate had little effect, even at the highest concentration tested (1,000 mg/L). This study demonstrates the importance of avoiding heterogeneous nucleant retention (pre-existing solid microparticles) in renal cavities, as these can act as very efficient inducers of the formation of new calculi, the composition of which is mainly dependant on the urine composition.

  1. Histomorphometric evaluation of a calcium-phosphosilicate putty bone substitute in extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Georgios A; Joachim, Frederic P C; Saroff, Stephen A; Mahesh, Lanka; Prasad, Hari; Rohrer, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate bone regeneration in 24 sockets grafted with a calcium phosphosilicate putty alloplastic bone substitute. A core was obtained from 17 sockets prior to implant placement for histomorphometry at 5 to 6 months postextraction. Radiographic analysis during the same postextraction healing period showed radiopaque tissue in all sockets. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a mean vital bone content of 31.76% (± 14.20%) and residual graft content of 11.47% (± 8.99%) after a mean healing period of 5.7 months. The high percentage of vital bone in the healed sites in combination with its timely absorption rate suggest that calcium phosphosilicate putty can be a reliable choice for osseous regeneration in extraction sockets.

  2. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  3. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  4. Determination of uranium in urine: Comparison of ICP-mass spectrometry and delayed neutron assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.; Bell, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Los Alamos analytical chemistry group acquired a VG-Plasmaquad ICP-MS in January, 1986 and have applied the technique to a variety of environmental and bioassay analytical problems. The authors report on their experience with the determination of uranium and its isotopics in urine and compare this new method with their current uranium procedure, delayed neutron activation analysis (DNA) at the Los Alamos Omega West Reactor. The authors have utilized DNA for bioassay samples since 1978. They currently analyze approximately 2000 urine samples annually. Quantitative data on uranium concentrations are obtained by concurrent measurement of urine standards of known uranium content and isotopic ratio. Detection of 0.03 μg of normal U in a 25 mL sample (1 μg/L) can be achieved by the DNA system. The NRC has proposed new urine bioassay standards that might require at least an order of magnitude reduction in the authors current DNA detection limits. The authors have fully optimized the reactor, and can forsee no instrumental improvement. They may be forced to resort to time-consuming chemical separations at greatly increased costs. DNA is a mature technology with little prospect for radical change. ICPMS is still in its infancy, and there are several ideas for obtaining drastic improvements in detection limits. Costs and time per analysis for both methods are equal

  5. Contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibres in active aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Dutka, T L; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2015-06-01

    Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) adults. The maximum level of force production (per unit cross-sectional area) in fast twitch fibres in Old subjects was lower than in Young subjects, and the fibres were also less sensitive to activation by calcium. The amount of calcium stored inside muscle fibres and available to trigger contraction was also lower in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres in the Old subjects. These findings indicate that muscle weakness in old age stems in part from an impaired capacity for force production in the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content in mechanically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) humans to investigate whether changes in muscle fibre properties contribute to muscle weakness in old age. In type II fibres of Old subjects, specific force was reduced by ∼17% and Ca(2+) sensitivity was also reduced (pCa50 decreased ∼0.05 pCa units) relative to that in Young. S-Glutathionylation of fast troponin I (TnIf ) markedly increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in type II fibres, but the increase was significantly smaller in Old versus Young (+0.136 and +0.164 pCa unit increases, respectively). Endogenous and maximal SR Ca(2+) content were significantly smaller in both type I and type II fibres in Old subjects. In fibres of Young, the SR could be nearly fully depleted of Ca(2+) by a combined caffeine and low Mg(2+) stimulus, whereas in fibres of Old the amount of non-releasable Ca(2+) was significantly increased (by > 12% of endogenous Ca(2+) content). Western

  6. Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol in Animal Urine Using Immunomagnetic Bead Treatment and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Shi; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-09-01

    Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm-1 versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL-1, the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample. The limits of detection and quantification in the urine are 0.5 ng·mL-1 and 1 ng·mL-1, respectively, and the recovery clenbuterol rates are 82.8-92.4% with coefficients of variation farming.

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  8. Determination of radium in urine; Dosage du radium dans l'urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, H; Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of radium in urine is described. The radium is carried by a barium sulfate precipitate. The precipitate is mixed with zinc sulfide and the activity measured by scintillation counting. It is thus possible to detect an amount of radium less than 1 pico-curie in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du radium dans l'urine. Le radium entraine par un precipite de sulfate de baryum est compte par scintillation apres melange du precipite avec du sulfure de zinc. Cette methode permet de deceler moins de 1 picocurie de radium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  10. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  11. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  12. The Effects of Dietary Calcium and/or Iron Deficiency upon Murine Intestinal Calcium Binding Protein Activity and Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine M.

    1980-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been shown to impair calcium absorption, leading to decreased bone mass. Vitamin D3-dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP) has been demonstrated to be necessary for the active transport of calcium in the intestine of numerous species. Iron deficiency might affect the activity of the calcium binding protein. Four experimental diets were formulated as follows: Diet 1, iron adequate, calcium adequate; Diet 2, iron deficient, calcium adequate; Diet 3, iron adequate, calci...

  13. [Development of automatic urine monitoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application.

  14. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated...

  15. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested 47 Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003], and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation

  16. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  18. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  19. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  20. Biomimetic fabrication of antibacterial calcium phosphates mediated by polydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Bonvicini, Francesca; Boanini, Elisa; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Della Bella, Elena; Fini, Milena; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Bigi, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    In this work we developed new antibacterial composite materials using polydopamine (PDA) to trigger the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto calcium phosphates, namely octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP). Functionalization of OCP and αTCP with a self-polymerized polydopamine layer was obtained by soaking the calcium phosphates in dopamine solution. The PDA surface of functionalized calcium phosphates (OCPd and αTCPd) promoted the deposition of AgNPs by reducing silver ions when soaked in a silver nitrate solution. The amount of deposited AgNPs can be modulated by varying the concentration of silver nitrate solution and the type of substrate. The results of in vitro tests carried out with osteoblast-like MG63 cells indicate that the combination of AgNPs with OCP provides more biocompatible materials than those obtained using αTCP as substrate. In particular, the study of osteoblast activity and differentiation was focused on the samples OCPdAg5 (silver content=8.2wt%) and αTCPdAg5 (silver content=4.7wt%), which did not show any cytotoxicity, and compared with those obtained on pure OCP and αTCP. The results demonstrate that the AgNPs loaded materials support osteoblast viability and differentiation, whereas they significantly inhibit the growth of relevant antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of serum and urine β2-microglobulin of leukopenia in hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease before and after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chen; Wang Luhua; Li Junxiong; Ouyang Liang; Guan Chuwen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 131 I therapy and the changes of the serum, urine contents of β 2 -microglobulin(β 2 -MG)in leukopenia in patients with Graves' disease before and after mi therapy. Methods: Serum and urine β 2 -MG contents (with radioimmunoassay), serum free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) and free tetraiodothyronine (FT 4 ) lever (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) were determined before and after mi therapy. At the same time, measure blood ured nitrogen (BUN) and creatine (Cr) Results: The cure rate, improvement, invalid, hypothyroidiam and total effective rate of 131 I therpy are 76.7%, 13.3%, 3.3%, 6.7%, 96.7% respectively. The serum and urine β 2 -MG contents as well as the serum FT 3 , FT 4 levels in the 30 patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 3 , FT 4 levels lower than before treatment (P 2 -MG levels lower (vs before treatment, P 2 MG, FT 3 , FT 4 levels dropped to approaching normal (rs controls, P>0.05 and vs before treatments, P 3 , FT 4 level was positively correlative to the β 2 -MG (P 131 I therapy is an ideal treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism, which have many advantages. β 2 -MG could be used as a diagnostic indicator for leukopenia in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  2. Sedimentation rates of Sao Paulo coast by carbonate calcium content: an alternative for radiometric methods; Levantamento das taxas de sedimentacao do litoral de Sao Paulo a partir do teor de carbonato de calcio: uma alternativa aos metodos radiometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: figueira@ipen.br; figueiraru@yahoo.com.br; Tessler, Moyses G.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Fukumoto, Marina M.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Geologica]. E-mail: mgtessle@usp.br; mahiques@usp.br; marina@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work it is presented a methodology of sedimentation rate determination by carbonate calcium content. The technique developed is an alternative for radiometric methods where are used {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} and {sup 137}Cs radionuclides. This methodology consisted in a determination of chronologic event along sedimentary column. In this work two events were used: the tsunami in Sao Vicente city, in 1542, and the maximum of 1{sup 37}Cs radioactive fallout from nuclear atmospheric tests, in 1963-65. It was possible to calculate the accumulation rate of total sediments and precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, which values are necessary to determine the age of slice from sedimentary column and consequently the sedimentation rate. The results obtained for Sao Paulo Continental Shelf had a good agreement with radiometric methods, the values were: 0.32({+-}0.12) cm.y{sup -1}, 0.23({+-}0.08) cm.y{sup -1} and 0.25({+-}0.9) cm.y{sup -1} for carbonate method, {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} (CIC model) and {sup 137}Cs (radioactive fallout), respectively. The analytical procedure using carbonate calcium content showed to be fast, efficient and with low cost. However, it must be used carefully, because the results can be strongly influenced by environmental factors which could change the precipitation rate of calcium carbonate and it could cause errors on sedimentation rate values in a determined area (author)

  3. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  4. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Urea Hydrolysis and Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Gypsum-Amended Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2018-01-01

    Broiler () litter is subject to ammonia (NH) volatilization losses. Previous work has shown that the addition of gypsum to broiler litter can increase nitrogen mineralization and decrease NH losses due to a decrease in pH, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. Therefore, three laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of gypsum addition to broiler litter on (i) urease activity at three water contents, (ii) calcium carbonate precipitation, and (iii) pH. The addition of gypsum to broiler litter increased ammonium concentrations ( litter pH by 0.43 to 0.49 pH units after 5 d ( litter only increased on Day 0 for broiler litter with low (0.29 g HO g) and high (0.69 g HO g) water contents, and on Day 3 for litter with medium (0.40 g HO g) water content ( litter with gypsum also caused an immediate decrease in litter pH (0.22 pH units) due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO) from gypsum-derived calcium and litter bicarbonate. Furthermore, as urea was hydrolyzed, more urea-derived carbon precipitated as CaCO in gypsum-treated litter than in untreated litter ( litter with gypsum favors the precipitation of CaCO, which buffers against increases in litter pH that are known to facilitate NH volatilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting; Metoda Bioassay Uranium dalam urin dengan pencacahan Netron Kasip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratman,; Purwanto,; Sukarman-Aminjoyo, [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 {mu}g.

  8. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  9. Calcium hydroxide isotope effect in calcium isotope enrichment by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.; Shockey, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The enrichment of calcium isotopes has been observed in ion-exchange chromatography with an aqueous phase of calcium hydroxide and a solid phase of sulfonic acid resin. The band front was exceedingly sharp as a result of the acid-base reaction occuring at the front of the band. Single-stage separation coefficients were found to be epsilon( 44 Ca/ 40 Ca) = 11 x 10 -4 and epsilon( 48 Ca/ 40 Ca) = 18 x 10 -4 . The maximum column separation factors achieved were 1.05 for calcium-44 and 1.09 for calcium-48 with the heavy isotopes enriching in the fluid phase. The calcium isotope effect between fully hydrated aqueous calcium ions and undissociated aqueous calcium hydroxide was estimated. For the calcium-44/40 isotope pair the separation coefficient was 13 x 10 -4 . 20 references, 2 figures

  10. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  11. Performance of Urinary Markers for Detection of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Is Upper Tract Urine More Accurate than Urine from the Bladder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the performance of urine markers determined in urine samples from the bladder compared to samples collected from the upper urinary tract (UUT for diagnosis of UUT urothelial carcinoma (UC. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 758 urine samples either collected from the bladder (n=373 or UUT (n=385. All patients underwent urethrocystoscopy and UUT imaging or ureterorenoscopy. Cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, immunocytology (uCyt+, and nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22 were performed. Results. UUT UC was diagnosed in 59 patients (19.1% (UUT urine and 27 patients (7.2% (bladder-derived urine. For UUT-derived samples, sensitivities for cytology, FISH, NMP22, and uCyt+ were 74.6, 79.0, 100.0, and 100.0, while specificities were 66.6, 50.7, 5.9, and 66.7%, respectively. In bladder-derived samples, sensitivities were 59.3, 52.9, 62.5, and 50.0% whereas specificities were 82.9, 85.0, 31.3, and 69.8%. In UUT-derived samples, concomitant bladder cancer led to increased false-positive rates of cytology and FISH. Conclusions. Urine markers determined in urine collected from the UUT exhibit better sensitivity but lower specificity compared to markers determined in bladder-derived urine. Concomitant or recent diagnosis of UC of the bladder can further influence markers determined in UUT urine.

  12. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The alpha hemolisina of Escherichia Coli induces increases in the calcium citoplasmico of neutrofilos and monocytes human beings