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Sample records for content affects afterripening

  1. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Is Gene Transcription Involved in Seed Dry After-Ripening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimoun, Patrice; Mordret, Ernest; Langlade, Nicolas B.; Balzergue, Sandrine; Arribat, Sandrine; Bailly, Christophe; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D), after-ripened non-dormant (ND) and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05). Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression. PMID:24466101

  3. Is gene transcription involved in seed dry after-ripening?

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    Patrice Meimoun

    Full Text Available Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D, after-ripened non-dormant (ND and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05. Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression.

  4. Regulation of Wheat Seed Dormancy by After-Ripening Is Mediated by Specific Transcriptional Switches That Induce Changes in Seed Hormone Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yuri; Jordan, Mark C.; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori; Ayele, Belay T.

    2013-01-01

    Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage) in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum), temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA) metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals. PMID:23437172

  5. Regulation of wheat seed dormancy by after-ripening is mediated by specific transcriptional switches that induce changes in seed hormone metabolism and signaling.

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    Aihua Liu

    Full Text Available Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum, temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellin (GA, jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals.

  6. Biochemical changes in embryos of dormant and after-ripened seeds of Caryophyllaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Hermann Köhler; Michael Hecker

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of 14C-leucine, 3H-uracil and 3H-thymidine incorporation in dormat and after-ripened seeds is demonstrated and discussed together with other metabolic events. Striking differences in dependence on the physiological state in both types of seeds could only be found in the axes of after-ripened seeds.

  7. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Dormancy-Associated Gene Expression by Afterripening in Wild Oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailin.; Foley, M. E.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate whether the afterripening-induced changes in gene expression are at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level in wild oat (Avena fatua) seeds, we chose four dormancy-associated genes to estimate their relative transcription activities and the stability of their corresponding transcripts in afterripened and dormant embryos. The transcription activities for those genes were 1.5 to 7 times higher in dormant embryos than in afterripened embryos 24 h after incubation, as determined by nuclear run-on assays. The half-lives of the transcripts in afterripened and dormant embryos were estimated by the use of actinomycin D. The application of actinomycin D resulted in the stabilization of the transcripts. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the half-lives of the transcripts were much greater in dormant embryos than in afterripened embryos. Considering the great differences in the steady-state levels and the half-lives of the mRNAs, and the relatively small differences in transcription activities of the genes between afterripened and dormant embryos, we conclude that afterripening regulates the expression of dormancy-associated genes in excised embryos mainly at the posttranscriptional level and that transcriptional control plays a minor role.

  8. Cloning and characterization of differentially expressed genes in imbibed dormant and afterripened Avena fatua embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Foley, M E

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the patterns of gene expression associated with seed dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua), we have isolated cDNA clones corresponding to genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and afterripened line M73 embryos. Gene transcripts of these clones were maintained in embryos of imbibed dormant caryopses, but declined rapidly in afterripened embryos after imbibition. GA3 treatment of dormant caryopses, which breaks dormancy, could lower the transcript levels in dormant embryos. When the germination of afterripened caryopses was inhibited by high temperature (35 degrees C), the decline in abundance of the transcripts in afterripened embryos was arrested. These genes were expressed to various degrees in water-stressed, but not in unstressed, 7-day-old seedlings. The expression of the genes was also ABA-inducible in afterripened embryos. The expression patterns in non-dormant line SH430 wild oat were similar to those of afterripened M73. DNA sequence analyses indicated that some of the cDNA clones encode LEA (late embryogenesis-abundant) proteins and aldose reductase. The significance of the expression of these genes in maintaining seed dormancy or longevity is discussed.

  9. DROUGHT AFFECTS PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. ... Water deficit stress led to significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein content, but total phenolics content in all the landraces increased slightly. Drought stress ... the leaves of drought-stressed plants might be related to the antioxidant defence role of the.

  10. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage containing Morinda citrifolia. Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Supakan Jantavong, Chakkrapong Kruatama, Sartjin Peerajan, Sasithorn Sirilun, Lalida Shank ...

  11. Respiration and Protein Synthesis in Dormant and After-ripened Seeds of Avena fatua.

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    Chen, S S; Varner, J E

    1970-07-01

    Dormant seeds of Avena fatua, which do not germinate when allowed to imbibe water, have a respiration rate only about 20% less than that of imbibed nondormant (after-ripened) seeds in the period before actual germination and are capable of synthesizing protein at a rate comparable to that of the nondormant seeds. An increase of protein synthesis is observed in nondormant seeds at the beginning of root protrusion. Autoradiography of seeds administered (3)H-leucine shows that protein synthesis occurs in the axis part of the embryo, the scutellum, the coleorhiza, and the aleurone layer. Dormancy in seeds is not a state of general inactivity; rather, it must be due to some specific metabolic block.

  12. Respiration and Protein Synthesis in Dormant and After-ripened Seeds of Avena fatua1

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    Chen, Shepley S. C.; Varner, J. E.

    1970-01-01

    Dormant seeds of Avena fatua, which do not germinate when allowed to imbibe water, have a respiration rate only about 20% less than that of imbibed nondormant (after-ripened) seeds in the period before actual germination and are capable of synthesizing protein at a rate comparable to that of the nondormant seeds. An increase of protein synthesis is observed in nondormant seeds at the beginning of root protrusion. Autoradiography of seeds administered 3H-leucine shows that protein synthesis occurs in the axis part of the embryo, the scutellum, the coleorhiza, and the aleurone layer. Dormancy in seeds is not a state of general inactivity; rather, it must be due to some specific metabolic block. Images PMID:16657399

  13. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

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    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  14. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

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    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  15. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

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    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  17. Drought affects protein and phenolic content in bambara groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... even though differences were observed between the treatments. Water deficit stress led to significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein content, but total phenolics content in all the landraces increased slightly. Drought stress induced significant increase in the synthesis of various proteins as part of the response strategy.

  18. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  19. How the emotional content of discourse affects language comprehension.

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    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    Full Text Available Emotion effects on cognition have often been reported. However, only few studies investigated emotional effects on subsequent language processing, and in most cases these effects were induced by non-linguistic stimuli such as films, faces, or pictures. Here, we investigated how a paragraph of positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence affects the processing of a subsequent emotionally neutral sentence, which contained either semantic, syntactic, or no violation, respectively, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. Behavioral data revealed strong effects of emotion; error rates and reaction times increased significantly in sentences preceded by a positive paragraph relative to negative and neutral ones. In ERPs, the N400 to semantic violations was not affected by emotion. In the syntactic experiment, however, clear emotion effects were observed on ERPs. The left anterior negativity (LAN to syntactic violations, which was not visible in the neutral condition, was present in the negative and positive conditions. This is interpreted as reflecting modulatory effects of prior emotions on syntactic processing, which is discussed in the light of three alternative or complementary explanations based on emotion-induced cognitive styles, working memory, and arousal models. The present effects of emotion on the LAN are especially remarkable considering that syntactic processing has often been regarded as encapsulated and autonomous.

  20. Professors' Facebook content affects students' perceptions and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J; Smith, Aimee W; Laboe, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Facebook users must make choices about level of self-disclosure, and this self-disclosure can influence perceptions of the profile's author. We examined whether the specific type of self-disclosure on a professor's profile would affect students' perceptions of the professor and expectations of his classroom. We created six Facebook profiles for a fictitious male professor, each with a specific emphasis: politically conservative, politically liberal, religious, family oriented, socially oriented, or professional. Undergraduate students randomly viewed one profile and responded to questions that assessed their perceptions and expectations. The social professor was perceived as less skilled but more popular, while his profile was perceived as inappropriate and entertaining. Students reacted more strongly and negatively to the politically focused profiles in comparison to the religious, family, and professional profiles. Students reported being most interested in professional information on a professor's Facebook profile, yet they reported being least influenced by the professional profile. In general, students expressed neutrality about their interest in finding and friending professors on Facebook. These findings suggest that students have the potential to form perceptions about the classroom environment and about their professors based on the specific details disclosed in professors' Facebook profiles.

  1. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  2. Regulation of the radionuclide content in commodities produced in areas affected by the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovskyy, V B; Ratia, G G; Masiuk, S V; Bonchuk, Yu V; Gerasimenko, V B; Aryasov, P B; Treskunova, T V; Zhadan, N S; Ivanova, O M; Boyko, Z N

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the approaches to regulation of the content of radionuclides in commodities and compares the international and Ukrainian standards, which establish permissible levels of the content of radionuclides in food-stuffs produced in the Chornobyl-affected areas. The paper gives the actual monitoring data and discusses the main causes of differences between Ukrainian, European and international standards. The need for improvement of current approaches to the regulation of the content of radionuclides in commodities is highlighted. V. B. Berkovskyy, G. G. Ratia, S. V. Masiuk, Yu. V. Bonchuk, V. B. Gerasimenko, P. B. Aryasov, T. V. Treskunova, N. S. Zhadan, O. M. Ivanova, Z. N. Boyko.

  3. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnesium Affects Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate Content and Composition by Affecting Glucose Uptake in Delftia acidovorans

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    Lee, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA composition is necessary in order to synthesize polymers with specific properties. Among the various types of PHA that have been identified, those that contain 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB monomers are especially useful in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as absorbable biomaterial. In this study, we have investigated the effect of magnesium concentration on the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB-co-4HB] by Delftia acidovorans DS-17. Our results show that, magnesium affects the copolymer content and composition by affecting glucose uptake from the culture medium. Higher concentrations of magnesium resulted in lower molar fractions of 3HB in the copolymer and reduced uptake of glucose. The results show for the first time that magnesium may be used to achieve fine control of biologically synthesized PHA copolymer composition.

  5. Growth rate and medium composition strongly affect folate content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortmo, Sofia; Patring, Johan; Andlid, Thomas

    2008-03-31

    Folate content in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was monitored during aerobic batch fermentation in synthetic growth medium, yeast peptone dextrose medium, and a molasses based medium. During growth in the synthetic medium large differences in intracellular folate content was observed at different phases. Specific folate levels, expressed per unit biomass, were highest during respiro-fermentative growth (120 microg/g) and decreased during the respiratory and stationary phases. Thus, the physiological state of the cells clearly affects the folate content. This was confirmed in chemostat cultures where total intracellular folate content increased linearly with increasing growth rate (r(2)=0.998), indicating high growth rate i.e. respiro-fermentative growth to be most favourable to obtain high specific folate content. In complex media however, much lower folate content (15-40 microg/g) was found throughout the batch growth. Only minor growth-phase related differences were detected. This shows the impact of cultivation medium on folate content in yeast. To further investigate which components that influence folate content, batch experiments in synthetic medium with addition of specific components were performed. Adding a raw mixture of peptides and amino acids (peptone) decreased folate levels extensively (90%) whereas adding amino acids one-by-one only had minor effects on the intracellular folate content. Furthermore, supplementing synthetic medium with pABA, folate or nucleotides did not change the intracellular folate content. This work constitutes the first steps towards an optimised process for production of natural folates for fortification purposes, as well as an effort to gain fundamental understanding of folate requirements in yeast in relation to environmental conditions.

  6. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis

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    Bojiang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the higher (H and lower (L IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 (PLIN1 was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG level and lipid droplet (LD size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation.

  7. Cigarette Nicotine Content as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Negative Affect and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Kypriotakis, George; Karam-Hage, Maher; Green, Charles E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Cinciripini, Paul M; Donny, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests a strong association between negative affect (NA) and smoking. However, little is known about the association between NA and smoking among individuals who switch to reduced-nicotine cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which cigarette nicotine content moderates the relationship between NA and smoking over time. Seven hundred and seventeen participants, 237 in the normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g and usual brand) cigarette group and 480 in the very low nicotine content (VLNC; 2.4 mg/g nicotine or less) cigarette group, participated in a randomized trial that examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content on smoking behavior over 6 weeks. We used parallel process latent growth curve modeling to estimate the relationship between changes in NA and changes in the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), from baseline to 6 weeks, as a function of cigarette nicotine content. The relationship between NA and investigational CPD reduced over time for those in the VLNC group, but not for those in the NNC group. There was no significant relationship between change in PA and CPD over time for either cigarette group. Smoking VLNC cigarettes disrupts the relationship between smoking and negative affect, which may help reduce nicotine dependence. This study suggests that the association between NA and smoking behavior is reduced over time among those that smoked reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. This provides additional evidence that smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes may help reduce nicotine dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  9. Affect, Behavior, Cognition, and Desire in the Big Five: An Analysis of Item Content and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William

    2015-01-01

    Personality psychology is concerned with affect (A), behavior (B), cognition (C) and desire (D), and personality traits have been defined conceptually as abstractions used to either explain or summarize coherent ABC (and sometimes D) patterns over time and space. However, this conceptual definition of traits has not been reflected in their operationalization, possibly resulting in theoretical and practical limitations to current trait inventories. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCD) components of Big-Five personality traits. The first study assessed the ABCD content of items measuring Big-Five traits in order to determine the ABCD composition of traits and identify items measuring relatively high amounts of only one ABCD content. The second study examined the correlational structure of scales constructed from items assessing ABCD content via a large, web-based study. An assessment of Big-Five traits that delineates ABCD components of each trait is presented, and the discussion focuses on how this assessment builds upon current approaches of assessing personality. PMID:26279606

  10. Inducing negative affect using film clips with general and eating disorder-related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiou, Maria; Nicolaou, Kalia; Karekla, Maria

    2018-02-09

    The aim of the present study was to select appropriate film clips with a general vs. eating disorder (ED)-related content to induce negative affect. More specifically, the study examined the subjective emotional experience (valence, arousal, anxiety, induction of somatic symptoms, and ability to control reactions during film clips) of Greek-Cypriot university students (N = 79) in response to three types of film clips: general unpleasant, ED-specific unpleasant, and emotionally neutral. In addition, the study aimed to compare the emotional reactions to the aforementioned clips between two groups of participants differing on their risk for ED (high vs. low). Preliminary results indicate the clips with general content ("The Champ") and with ED-specific content ("Binge eating") that are most effective in inducing negative affect and differentiating between risk groups. These clips provide an effective method for emotion induction that can be used for assessing the emotional experience of individuals with ED symptoms, since their emotional experience is significantly implicated in the development and maintenance of their symptoms (Merwin, Clin Psychol Sci Pract 18(3):208-214, 2011).Level of evidence No level of evidence, Experimental Study.

  11. Classifying the wandering mind: revealing the affective content of thoughts during task-free rest periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusche, Anita; Smallwood, Jonathan; Bernhardt, Boris C; Singer, Tania

    2014-08-15

    Many powerful human emotional thoughts are generated in the absence of a precipitating event in the environment. Here, we tested whether we can decode the valence of internally driven, self-generated thoughts during task-free rest based on neural similarities with task-related affective mental states. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants generated positive and negative thoughts as part of an attribution task (Session A) and while they reported the occurrence of comparable mental states during task-free rest periods (Session B). With the use of multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA), we identified response patterns in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) that encode the affective content of thoughts that are generated in response to an external experimental cue. Importantly, these task driven response patterns reliably predicted the occurrence of affective thoughts generated during unconstrained rest periods recorded one week apart. This demonstrates that at least certain elements of task-cued and task-free affective experiences rely on a common neural code. Furthermore, our findings reveal the role that the mOFC plays in determining the affective tone of unconstrained thoughts. More generally, our results suggest that MVPA is an important methodological tool for attempts to understand unguided subject driven mental states such as mind-wandering and daydreaming based on neural similarities with task-based experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trauma-related dreams of Australian veterans with PTSD: content, affect and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrea J; Forbes, David; Hopwood, Malcolm; Creamer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Consensus on the parameters of trauma-related dreams required to meet criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical when: (i) the diagnosis requires a single re-experiencing symptom; and (ii) trauma dreams are prevalent in survivors without PTSD. This study investigated the phenomenology of PTSD dreams in 40 veterans, using structured interview and self-report measures. Dream content varied between replay, non-replay, and mixed, but affect was largely the same as that experienced at the time of trauma across all dream types. ANOVA indicated no difference between dream types on PTSD severity or nightmare distress. The findings provide preliminary support for non-replay dreams to satisfy the DSM B2 diagnostic criterion when the affect associated with those dreams is the same as that experienced at the time of the traumatic event.

  13. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and categories...... secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...

  16. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  17. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p's<0.001 and 0.011), and decreased the belief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p's<0.001), however, indicated that among smokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Does hydration status affect MRI measures of brain volume or water content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Sandra M; Tam, Roger; Lee, Jimmy S; Kolind, Shannon H; Vavasour, Irene M; Mackie, Emilie; Zhao, Yinshan; Laule, Cornelia; Mädler, Burkhard; Li, David K B; MacKay, Alex L; Traboulsee, Anthony L

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether differences in hydration state, which could arise from routine clinical procedures such as overnight fasting, affect brain total water content (TWC) and brain volume measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned with a 3T MR scanner four times: day 1, baseline scan; day 2, hydrated scan after consuming 3L of water over 12 hours; day 3, dehydrated scan after overnight fasting of 9 hours, followed by another scan 1 hour later for reproducibility. The following MRI data were collected: T2 relaxation (for TWC measurement), inversion recovery (for T1 measurement), and 3D T1 -weighted (for brain volumes). Body weight and urine specific gravity were also measured. TWC was calculated by fitting the T2 relaxation data with a nonnegative least-squares algorithm, with corrections for T1 relaxation and image signal inhomogeneity and normalization to ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Brain volume changes were measured using SIENA. TWC means were calculated within 14 tissue regions. Despite indications of dehydration as demonstrated by increases in urine specific gravity (P = 0.03) and decreases in body weight (P = 0.001) between hydrated and dehydrated scans, there was no measurable change in TWC (within any brain region) or brain volume between hydration states. We demonstrate that within a range of physiologic conditions commonly encountered in routine clinical scans (no pretreatment with hydration, well hydrated before MRI, and overnight fasting), brain TWC and brain volumes are not substantially affected in a healthy control cohort. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:296-304. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  20. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...

  1. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  2. To Your Heart's Content: An Affective Diversity Model In Top Management Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sigal G. Barsade

    2004-01-01

    This study examines positive affective diversity, differences in positive affective personality among group members, to understand how this diversity influences individual attitudes, group processes, and group performance. We develop a Positive Affective Diversity Model, and test it on a sample of 62 U.S. CEOs and their top management teams (TMTs). Greater affective fit between a TMT member and their group is related to more positive attitudes about group relations, and self-perceptions of gr...

  3. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  4. Salinity affects microbial activity and soil organic matter content in tidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ember M; Gillespie, Jaimie L; Morina, Joseph C; Franklin, Rima B

    2014-04-01

    Climate change-associated sea level rise is expected to cause saltwater intrusion into many historically freshwater ecosystems. Of particular concern are tidal freshwater wetlands, which perform several important ecological functions including carbon sequestration. To predict the impact of saltwater intrusion in these environments, we must first gain a better understanding of how salinity regulates decomposition in natural systems. This study sampled eight tidal wetlands ranging from freshwater to oligohaline (0-2 ppt) in four rivers near the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia). To help isolate salinity effects, sites were selected to be highly similar in terms of plant community composition and tidal influence. Overall, salinity was found to be strongly negatively correlated with soil organic matter content (OM%) and C : N, but unrelated to the other studied environmental parameters (pH, redox, and above- and below-ground plant biomass). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for these environmental covariates, supported direct effects of salinity on the activity of carbon-degrading extracellular enzymes (β-1, 4-glucosidase, 1, 4-β-cellobiosidase, β-D-xylosidase, and phenol oxidase) as well as alkaline phosphatase, using a per unit OM basis. As enzyme activity is the putative rate-limiting step in decomposition, enhanced activity due to salinity increases could dramatically affect soil OM accumulation. Salinity was also found to be positively related to bacterial abundance (qPCR of the 16S rRNA gene) and tightly linked with community composition (T-RFLP). Furthermore, strong relationships were found between bacterial abundance and/or composition with the activity of specific enzymes (1, 4-β-cellobiosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phenol oxidase) suggesting salinity's impact on decomposition could be due, at least in part, to its effect on the bacterial community. Together, these results indicate that salinity increases microbial decomposition rates

  5. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides can affect fermentation characteristics in gut contents and portal plasma of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Laere, van K.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied whether dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) affected pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in gastrointestinal contents and in portal plasma of young pigs. Five groups of five 57-day-old pigs received for 44 days either a corn-based control diet or this diet with 7.5 or 15 g/kg

  6. Feature-based memory-driven attentional capture: Visual working memory content affects visual attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.; Meijer, F.; Theeuwes, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly

  7. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  8. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  9. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDRbeef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  10. Zinc-protoporphyrin content in commercial Parma hams is affected by proteolysis index and marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Ricard; Llauger, Mar; Arnau, Jacint; Fulladosa, Elena

    2018-05-01

    The contents of zinc-protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and heme in twenty-four sliced Parma hams made without the addition of curing agents were determined. Expressed on a dry weight basis, ZnPP averaged 45 mg/kg and ranged from 23 to 85 mg/kg. The heme content averaged 37 mg/kg on a dry matter basis and ranged from 17 to 73 mg/kg. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analyses were carried out to examine the existing correlations between these pigments and various physicochemical parameters in the final product. PCA showed the existence of associations between ZnPP, sensory redness and salt content. PLS suggests that the conversion of ZnPP from heme is facilitated in those hams with a higher proteolysis index and higher marbling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the content of pentacyclic triterpenes in Centella asiatica raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, P; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2012-12-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside are the active constituents of Centella asitica (L.) Urban. (Apiaceae). These compounds possess various pharmacological activities that have been shown to assist with wound healing and brain enrichment. Determination of these active pentacyclic triterpenes in extracts from the various parts of C. asiatica plants harvested at different times of the year and grown in different environments. The separate plant parts selected were leaves, stolons, petioles, flowers, fruits, and nodes with roots. Dried powder from each part was extracted with ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction and subjected to determination of their content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes using a HPLC method. The effects of the places of cultivation as well as harvesting periods on the content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes in the extracts were also determined. Among the various parts of C. asiatica, the leaves contained the highest amount of pentacyclic triterpenes with a total content of pentacyclic triterpenes of 19.5 mg/g dry powder. However, the contents of the pentacyclic triterpenes in C. asiatica varied according to the place of cultivation and the harvesting period. C. asiatica collected from Trang, Thailand gave the highest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes (37.2 mg/g dry powder) when harvested in March, while those collected from Songkhla, Thailand gave the highest value (37.4 mg/g dry powder) when collected in December. C. asiatica collected from Nakornsrithammarat and Ratchaburi, Thailand gave the lowest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes in all experimental harvesting periods.

  12. Vitamin contents of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C

    1994-10-01

    There were substantial losses in thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents of wheat, maize and sorghum grains at three infestation levels (25, 50 and 75%) caused by releasing two insect species viz., Trogoderma granarium and Rhizopertha dominica separately and mixed population. Losses were to the extent of 65 to 69% (thiamine), 50 to 67% (riboflavin) and 10 to 32% (niacin) due to T. granarium and 23 to 29% (thiamine), 13 to 18% (riboflavin) and 4 to 14% (niacin) due to R. dominica at 75% level of infestation in three cereal grains. Storage of grains (1-4 months) in insect free conditions did not show appreciable changes in the vitamin contents.

  13. Factors Affecting the Content of Ergosterol and Zearalenone in Selected Grass Species at the End of the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the safety of forage prepared from selected grass species by means of the analysis of ergosterol and zearalenone. Graminaceous plants studied at the end of their growing season were Festulolium, Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius. Other indicators assessed were the content of ergosterol and zearalenone during the autumn and the intensity of grassland use in the summer season as related to the studied contents of metabolites. Grasslands were harvested either in October, November or December. The secondary metabolites were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography. At the end of the growing season, the ergosterol content was the lowest in the Festulolium forage (110.04 mg kg-1, the highest contents were observed in the Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius forages (145.73 mg kg-1 and 139.55 mg kg-1, respectively. The safety of Festulolium was also corroborated by the low zearalenone content (0.357 mg kg-1. On the other hand, the high ergosterol content in Arrhenatherum elatius was combined with a high content of zearalenone (1.554 mg kg-1. Although Dactylis glomerata exhibited an ergosterol content comparable with that of Arrhenatherum elatius forage, its zearalenone content was comparable to the Festulolium forage. Among the three species under study we found a significant difference (P P -1. The higher (P -1 was caused by the Arrhenatherum elatius forage. Moreover, the contents of ergosterol and zearalenone were affected (P < 0.01 also by the number of cuts in summer. The higher ergosterol content indicated a higher forage infestation by fungi and the inherent risk of the occurrence of mycotoxins. However, the high ergosterol content not always correlated with the high content of zearalenone. When cattle is grazing in winter, a higher occurrence of mycotoxins in the feed may be expected and the related damage to animal metabolism may increase the number of diseased

  14. Variable Relationships Affecting Agriscience Teachers' Stages of Concern for Content Area Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Anna J.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of national initiatives such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, American students continue to be struggling readers. Research on content area reading strategies (CARS) has shown that such strategies increase students' ability to read and comprehend text. The purpose of this research was to assess agricultural educators'…

  15. Identification of QTL Affecting Protein and Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming ZHONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypes of protein and amino acid contents were measured in an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Zhenshan 97B and Delong 208. A total of 48 and 64 QTLs were identified in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The contribution of each QTL to the phenotypic variation ranged from 4.0% to 43.7%. Most QTLs co-localized, forming 29 QTL clusters on the chromosomes with three major ones detected in both years, which were mapped on chromosomes 1, 7 and 9, respectively. The two QTL clusters for amino acid content, qAa1 and qAa7, influenced almost all the traits with the allele from Zhenshan 97B, and the third QTL cluster for amino acid content, qAa9, increased the lysine content with the allele from Delong 208. A wide coincidence was found between the QTL detected under this study and the loci involved in amino acid metabolism pathways in nitrogen assimilation and transport, or protein biosynthesis. The results would facilitate the identification of candidate genes and could be used in marker-assisted selection for the favorable allele in rice quality improvement.

  16. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Factors that affect leaf extracellular ascorbic acid content and redox status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O.; Fiscus, E.L. [North Carolina State Univ., United States dept. og Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ascorbic acid content and redox status were compared in ozone-tolerant (Provider) and ozone-sensitive (S156) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in pots for 24 days under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions in open-top field chambers and then maintained as CF controls (29 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (71 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone). Following a 10-day treatment, mature leaves of the same age were harvested early in the morning (06:00-08:00 h) or in the afternoon (13:00-15:00 h) for analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Vacuum infiltration methods were used to separate leaf AA into apoplast and symplast fractions. The total ascorbate content [AA + DHA] of leaf tissue averaged 28% higher in Provider relative to S156, and Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain [AA + DHA] content under ozone stress. Apoplast [AA + DHA] content was 2-fold higher in tolerant Provider (360 nmol g{sup 1} FW maximum) relative to sensitive S156 (160 nmol g1 FW maximum) regardless of sampling period or treatment, supporting the hypothesis that extracellular AA is a factor in ozone tolerance. Apoplast [AA + DHA] levels were significantly higher in the afternoon than early morning for both genotypes, evidence for short-term regulation of extracellular ascorbate content. Total leaf ascorbate was primarily reduced with AA/[AA + DHA] ratios of 0.81-0.90. In contrast, apoplast AA/[AA + DHA] ratios were 0.01-0.60 and depended on genotype and ozone treatment. Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain extracellular AA/[AA + DHA] ratios under ozone stress, suggesting that ozone tolerance is associated with apoplast ascorbate redox status. (au)

  18. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Strzałkowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage and grass silage (at 50:50 ration on dry matter basis and concentrates with mineral-vitaminmixture additives. Samples of milk were collected individually from each cow at monthly intervals during the whole year. The cholesterol content in milk (mg/dL and in milk fat (mg/g was related to the stage of lactation, season of the year, somatic cell count and fat content, but was not affected by the parity. The cholesterol content in daily milk yield (mg/cow/day depended also on parity. Even though the cows were fed a uniform diet throughout the year according to the TMR system the cholesterol content in milk differed among seasons.

  19. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  20. GC content around splice sites affects splicing through pre-mRNA secondary structures

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    Chen Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene through different combinations of exons or through different selections of splice sites. It has been reported that RNA secondary structures are involved in alternative splicing. Here we perform a genomic study of RNA secondary structures around splice sites in humans (Homo sapiens, mice (Mus musculus, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans to further investigate this phenomenon. Results We observe that GC content around splice sites is closely associated with the splice site usage in multiple species. RNA secondary structure is the possible explanation, because the structural stability difference among alternative splice sites, constitutive splice sites, and skipped splice sites can be explained by the GC content difference. Alternative splice sites tend to be GC-enriched and exhibit more stable RNA secondary structures in all of the considered species. In humans and mice, splice sites of first exons and long exons tend to be GC-enriched and hence form more stable structures, indicating the special role of RNA secondary structures in promoter proximal splicing events and the splicing of long exons. In addition, GC-enriched exon-intron junctions tend to be overrepresented in tissue-specific alternative splice sites, indicating the functional consequence of the GC effect. Compared with regions far from splice sites and decoy splice sites, real splice sites are GC-enriched. We also found that the GC-content effect is much stronger than the nucleotide-order effect to form stable secondary structures. Conclusion All of these results indicate that GC content is related to splice site usage and it may mediate the splicing process through RNA secondary structures.

  1. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison Jarles da Silva Diniz

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV, were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05 found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  2. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  3. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  4. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part F. Water content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Oka, Takamitsu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    As part of the DS02 studies to reevaluate neutrons from the atomic bomb, we cored rock samples from a pillar of Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 128 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, and measured the depth profile of induced 152 Eu radioactivity in the rock (Hasai et al. 1987). By use of the MCNP neutron transport calculation code, the depth profile of 152 Eu in the rock was calculated, assuming a neutron distribution at the given location around the pillar based on the DS86 calculations. The depth profile was then compared with the distribution of measurements (Endo et al. 1999). For the calculation, it is necessary to know the major components of the rock. It is also necessary to estimate the water content correctly, since the cross section of hydrogen-neutron reactions is large, and neutron moderation effects of hydrogen are significant. For this purpose, the basic characteristics of water content in rock were studied, based on a few characteristic experiments to estimate the water content, which was then used in neutron transport calculations. The following describes our concepts and methods. (author)

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  6. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  7. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  8. Physical properties of chitosan-basil essential oil edible films as affected by oil content and homogenization conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Jeannine; Vargas, Maria; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This work studies the influence of basil essential oil, its content and the homogenization treatment on the physical properties of chitosan-based edible films. Two homogenization treatments were applied, without (H1) and with (H2) microfluidization (MF). Composite films were softer, less rigid and more stretchable than pure CH films. MF intensified these changes. H2 films showed microcracks due to the weak interactions between chitosan and oil, which affected their mechanical behaviour. ...

  9. A survey of Senecio spp. affecting livestock in Uruguay and their associated pyrrolizidine alkaloid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Eastern Uruguay there has been a significant increase of seneciosis in grazing livestock with most affected localities related to counties neighboring the Brazilian border. A survey in 28 farms associated with poisoning outbreaks in grazing cattle in Eastern Uruguay was carried out. Fifty populat...

  10. Affect Analysis of Radical Contents on Web Forums Using SentiWordNet

    OpenAIRE

    Chalothorn, Tawunrat; Ellman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The internet has become a major tool for communication, training, fundraising, media operations, and recruitment, and these processes often use web forums. This paper presents a model that was built using SentiWordNet, WordNet and NLTK to analyze selected web forums that included radical content. SentiWordNet is a lexical resource for supporting opinion mining by assigning a positivity score and a negativity score to each WordNet. The approaches of the model measure and identify sentiment pol...

  11. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Sociopolitical events and technical innovations may affect the content of delusions and the course of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, L

    2000-12-01

    The influence of culture on patients with psychiatric disorders has been well documented in the psychiatric literature. The unique emphasis of this paper is the influence of current social and political events on psychotic patients. Current events can be classified into two groups: (1) Communal stressful events that affect everyone (shared stressors), such as earthquakes, wars, etc.; and (2) Public events, highly reported by mass media, but not personally stressful, e.g., elections. This article is devoted to the discussion about the effect of sociopolitical non-traumatic events on persons with psychotic disorders. The author reviewed evidence that sociopolitical events and technical innovations affect patients with psychotic disorders. The author suggests that social events and scientific innovations may change the content of delusions and affect the course of psychotic disorders. The author also suggests that physicians should be sensitive to the clinical impact of sociopolitical events. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Moisture content of root canal dentine affects detection of microcracks using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, T; Müller, C; Hoch, M; Haupt, F; Schulz, X; Wiegand, A; Rizk, M

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of moisture content in root canal dentine on detection of microcracks using micro-computed tomography. Ten roots with and without craze lines or cracks (each n = 5) were selected and scanned six times with different moisture conditions of root dentine using a micro-CT scanner at a high resolution of 10.5 μm. Scanning conditions were as follows: (i) after 30-day wet storage, (ii) after 2-h dry time, (iii) after 48-h wet storage, (iv) after 24-h dry time, (v) after 48-h wet storage, (vi) after 2-h dry time. From each scan, cross-sectional images were obtained at intervals of 1 mm (total n = 708) and evaluated for the presence of dentinal microcracks twice by five calibrated blinded observers. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric analysis of variance for longitudinal data (P  0.05). Almost no cracks were observed after wet storage with a significant increase of cracks after 2-h dry time (P < 0.001). Significantly more microcracks were identified after 24 h than after 2-h dry time (P < 0.004). Moisture content of dentine influenced detection of microcracks when evaluated using micro-CT. Scanning should be performed on dried specimens to allow reliable identification of dentinal defects. Formation of new cracks during dry periods up to 24 h was disproved. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  16. Macronutrient content of plant-based food affects growth of a carnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2011-02-01

    Many arthropods engage in mutualisms in which they consume plant-based foods including nectar, extrafloral nectar, and honeydew. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which the specific macronutrients in these plant-based resources affect growth, especially for carnivorous arthropods. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments, we tested (1) how plant-based foods, together with ad libitum insect prey, affect the growth of a carnivorous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and (2) which macronutrients in these resources (i.e., carbohydrates, amino acids, or both) contribute to higher colony growth. Access to honeydew increased the production of workers and brood in experimental colonies. This growth effect appeared to be due to carbohydrates alone as colonies provided with the carbohydrate component of artificial extrafloral nectar had greater worker and brood production compared to colonies deprived of carbohydrates. Surprisingly, amino acids only had a slight interactive effect on the proportion of a colony composed of brood and negatively affected worker survival. Diet choice in the laboratory and field matched performance in the laboratory with high recruitment to carbohydrate baits and only slight recruitment to amino acids. The strong, positive effects of carbohydrates on colony growth and the low cost of producing this macronutrient for plants and hemipterans may have aided the evolution of food-for-protection mutualisms and help explain why these interactions are so common in ants. In addition, greater access to plant-based resources in the introduced range of S. invicta may help to explain the high densities achieved by this species throughout the southeastern United States.

  17. Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rakszegi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.

  18. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents.

  19. Scuba diving does not affect bone mineral density or bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowska, Katarzyna; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Przybylski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Scuba diving is a very specialized, physically demanding activity. The bones of divers are subjected to stress from water pressure, from the forces generated when their muscles resist water pressure, and from weightlessness. Notably, few studies have addressed the effects of diving on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and the results have been controversial. The goal of the study was to assess BMD and BMC in a group of professional scuba divers. The study group (diving group [D]) included 16 male professional scuba divers who also worked as firemen. The control group included 14 firemen who did not scuba dive (non-diving group [ND]). The groups were matched by age, weight, and height. The BMD and BMC of the whole skeleton, L1-L4, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences in BMD or in BMC in the two groups, and the BMD and BMC values were within one standard deviation in terms of Z- and T-scores. There was no correlation between total diving time (hours) and BMD in the D group. Scuba diving does not negatively influence bone turnover. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Walker, Chuck E; Faubion, Jon M

    2011-01-15

    Anthocyanins, pink to purple water-soluble flavonoids, are naturally occurring pigments with claimed health benefits. However, they are sensitive to degradation by high pH, light and temperature. Blue corn (maize) contains high levels of anthocyanins. Cookies are popular snacks and might serve as a vehicle to deliver antioxidants. A cookie formula with a high level of blue corn was developed with added acidulents and baked in ovens with different heat transfer coefficients. The best whole-grain blue corn flour/wheat pastry flour ratio (80:20 w/w), guar gum level (10 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) and water level (215 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) were determined based on response surface methodology analysis. The interactions of citric and lactic acids and glucono-δ-lactone with three oven types having different heat transfer coefficients (impingement oven 179 °C/4 min, reel oven 204 °C/10 min and convection oven 182 °C/4 min) influenced the total anthocyanin content (TAC) remaining in blue corn-containing cookies after baking. Cookies baked with citric acid in the convection oven retained the maximum TAC (227 ± 3 mg kg(-1)). By baking rapidly at lower temperatures and adding acidulents, it may be possible to increase residual natural source antioxidants in baked foods. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  2. Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan composite films as affected by nanofiller loading and plasticizer content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique C; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Filho, Gino Ceotto; Munford, Maximiliano L; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin, produced from shellfish waste, which may be employed to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of food products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanofiller (cellulose nanofibers, CNF) and plasticizer (glycerol) on tensile properties (tensile strength-TS, elongation at break-EB, and Young's modulus-YM), water vapor permeability (WVP), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of chitosan edible films, and to establish a formulation to optimize their properties. The experiment was conducted according to a central composite design, with 2 variables: CNF (0 to 20 g/100 g) and glycerol (0 to 30 g/100 g) concentrations in the film (on a dry basis), which was produced by the so-called casting technique. Most responses (except by EB) were favored by high CNF concentrations and low glycerol contents. The optimization was based on maximizing TS, YM, and T(g), and decreasing WVP, while maintaining a minimum acceptable EB of 10%. The optimum conditions were defined as: glycerol concentration, 18 g/100 g; and CNF concentration, 15 g/100 g. AFM imaging of films suggested good dispersion of the CNF and good CNF-matrix interactions, which explains the good performance of the nanocomposite films. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer which may be used to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of foods. This study demonstrates how cellulose nanofibers (CNF) can improve the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of chitosan films. A nanocomposite film with 15% CNF and plasticized with 18% glycerol was comparable to some synthetic polymers in terms of strength and stiffness, but with poorer elongation and water vapor barrier, indicating that they can be used for applications that do not require high flexibility and/or water vapor barrier. The more important advantage of such films when compared to synthetic polymer films is their

  3. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of Senecio spp. affecting livestock in Uruguay and their associated pyrrolizidine alkaloid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Agustín García

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In Eastern Uruguay there has been a significant increase of seneciosis in grazing livestock with most affected localities related to counties neighboring the Brazilian border. A survey in 28 farms associated with poisoning outbreaks in grazing cattle in Eastern Uruguay was carried out. Fifty populations of Senecio plants were collected for alkaloid analysis and species identification. Four species were identified: S. oxyphyllus DC, S. madagascariensis Poir, S. brasiliensis (Spreng. Less., and S. selloi DC. Alkaloids were identified by a combination of GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis and included: retrorsine in S. oxyphyllus; retrorsine, usaramine, and senecivernine/senecionine in S. selloi; retrorsine, senecivernine/senecionine, integerrimine, and usaramine in S. madagascariensis; and integerrimine, retrorsine and senecionine in S. brasiliensis. Total mean alkaloid concentration was reported to be highest in S. brasiliensis (17.6mg/g followed by S. oxyphyllus (6.2mg/g, S. selloi (1.8mg/g and S. madagascariensis (0.6mg/g. Alkaloid concentrations were also reported to be higher in 2015 vs. 2016 probably due to a common environmental factor. The species S. oxyphyllus and S. madagascariensis were not previously recognized as toxic plants in Eastern Uruguay. Particularly, S. oxyphyllus was present in 82% of the farms surveyed and occurred in high density with relative high concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids suggesting S. oxyphyllus may be the main species involved in the reported outbreaks of seneciosis.

  5. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  6. Aging and soil organic matter content affect the fate of silver nanoparticles in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, Claire; Joner, Erik Jautris; Oughton, Deborah Helen

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge application on soils represents an important potential source of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to terrestrial ecosystems, and it is thus important to understand the fate of Ag NPs once in contact with soil components. Our aim was to compare the behavior of three different forms of silver, namely silver nitrate, citrate stabilized Ag NPs (5 nm) and uncoated Ag NPs (19 nm), in two soils with contrasting organic matter content, and to follow changes in binding strength over time. Soil samples were spiked with silver and left to age for 2 h, 2 days, 5 weeks or 10 weeks before they were submitted to sequential extraction. The ionic silver solution and the two Ag NP types were radiolabeled so that silver could be quantified by gamma spectrometry by measuring the 110m Ag tracer in the different sequential extraction fractions. Different patterns of partitioning of silver were observed for the three forms of silver. All types of silver were more mobile in the mineral soil than in the soil rich in organic matter, although the fractionation patterns were very different for the three silver forms in both cases. Over 20% of citrate stabilized Ag NPs was extractible with water in both soils the first two days after spiking (compared to 1–3% for AgNO 3 and uncoated Ag NPs), but the fraction decreased to trace levels thereafter. Regarding the 19 nm uncoated Ag NPs, 80% was not extractible at all, but contrary to AgNO 3 and citrate stabilized Ag NPs, the bioaccessible fraction increased over time, and by day 70 was between 8 and 9 times greater than that seen in the other two treatments. This new and unexpected finding demonstrates that some Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, while AgNO 3 is rapidly immobilized in soil. - Highlights: ► We compared the behavior of AgNO 3 and two types of Ag NPs in soil over time. ► AgNO 3 is rapidly immobilized in soil. ► Larger Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, which calls for

  7. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  8. The comparison of the melanin content and UV exposure affecting aging process: seven countries in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Hae; Park, Jung Jun; Song, Eun Jeung; Lee, Jung Ah; Byun, Kyung Soo; Kim, Nam Soo; Moon, Tae Kee

    2016-12-01

    The skin brightness is determined according to the amount and type of melanin. People with darker skin have a greater amount of melanin that makes their skin less susceptible to UV damages. They live in lower latitude and receive a greater amount of the intensity of the UV radiation. We wanted to know how the latitude and skin brightness affect skin aging. Three thousand volunteers from seven countries (Korea, China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia), aged 20-59 years, participated in this study. We measured skin brightness, Ra (wrinkles parameter), and R2 (elasticity parameter) under controlled environmental conditions. The skin brightness of the face was measured using the Janus ® which is a facial analysis system. Cutometer ® the elasticity was measured by on the cheeks, and PRIMOS lite ® was used to evaluate wrinkles on crow's feet. Latitude and skin brightness showed a positive correlation (0.346). Also, the correlations of Ra and R2 with skin brightness were significantly negative (-0.181) and positive (0.105), respectively. Results of comparison of Ra and R2 with age among the countries showed no significant difference among the 20s, but there was a significant difference among the 50s between countries with high latitude and low latitude. The long-term exposure of UV radiation, the natural environmental factor, seems to have more decisive effect on the skin aging process than the photoprotective effect of melanin of epidermal skin. This study helps to understand differences of the skin properties among countries in Asia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The chills as a psychological construct: content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruskin, Laura A; Thrash, Todd M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    We examined the content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences of "the chills." In Study 1, participants described what it means to get the chills. A second sample sorted all references to physical sensations based on similarity. Cluster analysis identified 4 lower order clusters (goosebumps, tingling, coldness, shivers) and 2 higher order clusters ("goosetingles," "coldshivers"). In Study 2, factor analysis of questionnaire data supported a model with lower and higher order factors that corresponded to the Study 1 clusters. Goosetingles and coldshivers were predicted by approach-related traits (e.g., extraversion) and avoidance-related traits (e.g., neuroticism), respectively. In Study 3, analysis of narrative data replicated the goosetingles-coldshivers structure. Relative to coldshivers, goosetingles involved greater awe, surprise, and enjoyment and less disgust, fear, and sadness. In Study 4, analysis of diary data extended the goosetingles-coldshivers structure to between- and within-person levels of analysis. Goosetingles involved positive affects and was elicited by approach-related stimuli, whereas coldshivers involved negative affects and was elicited by avoidance-related stimuli. In Study 5, manipulation of exposure to self-actualization and self-annihilation elicited goosetingles and coldshivers, respectively. Goosetingles and coldshivers had positive and negative effects, respectively, on interpersonal closeness. In sum, diverse forms of evidence converge to indicate that the chills encompasses distinct approach- and avoidance-related constructs. Failure to distinguish these constructs explains null and inconsistent findings in the nascent literature. Goosetingles and coldshivers are posited to serve the function of signaling that an event in the environment is pertinent to one's most deep-seated hopes or fears. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b 6 /f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (F v /F m , rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Down-regulation of small rubber particle protein expression affects integrity of rubber particles and rubber content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hillebrand

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1-5 were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40-50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage.

  12. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  14. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquifino, A.I.; Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  15. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  16. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  17. Highly variable contents of phenolics in St. John's Wort products affect their transport in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model: pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical rationale for product standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Jiang, Wen; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2010-06-09

    The purposes of this study were to determine content uniformity of phenolics in the St. John's wort (SJW) supplements and to demonstrate how variations in the product matrices affect their absorption and efflux. LC and LC-MS/MS methods were used to determine the phenolic contents of 12 different products purchased locally or from the Internet. Three representative extracts were further submitted to Caco-2 cell transport experiment, and transport of rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin was evaluated. The results indicated that the 12 different products displayed 12 different HPLC fingerprints, but all products contained the following major compounds: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and amentoflavone. The content uniformity of these major compounds was poor across products, with the smallest difference in the amounts of amentoflavone (3.6-fold) and largest difference in that of isoquercitrin (28.8-fold). The Caco-2 experiments indicated transport of rutin in products was vectorial, with the permeabilities varied about 3.6-fold in both directions of transport. The vectorial permeabilities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were similarly different. Use of efflux transporter inhibitor studies suggested that MRP2 was involved in isoquercitrin's efflux and the product matrix affected the extent of its efflux. In conclusion, different SJW supplements had highly variable contents of phenolics, and the variability in product matrix and phytochemical compositions affected the permeabilities of key phenolics across the Caco-2 monolayers, which may further affect their bioavailabilities. Therefore, standardization will be necessary to ensure safe and efficacious using of supplements such as SJW.

  18. Factors Affecting the Content of Ergosterol and Zearalenone in Selected Grass Species at the End of the Growing Season

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Skládanka; Vlastimil Dohnal; Petr Doležal; Alena Ježková; Ladislav Zeman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the safety of forage prepared from selected grass species by means of the analysis of ergosterol and zearalenone. Graminaceous plants studied at the end of their growing season were Festulolium, Dactylis glomerata and Arrhenatherum elatius. Other indicators assessed were the content of ergosterol and zearalenone during the autumn and the intensity of grassland use in the summer season as related to the studied contents of metabolites. Grasslands were h...

  19. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA. The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO, Jersey (JE, and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM, 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  20. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  1. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  2. The influence of sexual music videos on adolescents' misogynistic beliefs: the role of video content, gender, and affective engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from

  3. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  4. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Strzałkowska; Artur Jóźwik; Emilia Bagnicka; Józef Krzyżewski; Ross G. Cooper; Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration) throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage ...

  5. Removal of ruminal contents followed by restricted feeding does not affect the frequency of luteinizing-hormone pulses in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of removal of ruminal contents and reduced nutrient intake on concentrations of LH in serum of beef cattle. Gonadectomized, male, Angus x Hereford cattle (steers, 402 ± 17 kg) with rumen cannulae were randomly assigned to treatment. Control (C...

  6. Abscisic Acid content of senescing petals on cut rose flowers as affected by sucrose and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borohov, A; Tirosh, T; Halevy, A H

    1976-08-01

    Leafless cut Superstar roses (Rosa hyb.) were kept in a 1% sucrose solution. During the first few days of treatment, the abscisic acid content and the water deficit in the petals was higher in treated flowers than in controls kept in water. Later and up to the termination of the flower's life, ABA content and water deficit values were lower in petals of sucrose-treated flowers than in controls. Water stress treatments resulted in higher water deficit values and higher ABA content of petals. An 8-day sucrose treatment following temporary water stress improved the quality of flowers and reduced the level of ABA in the petals. We conclude that the effect which sucrose has on the ABA content of rose petals is at least partly due to its effect on changes in water deficit in the petals. This happens in spite of the fact that rose petals have no stomata, and therefore, ABA is not involved in regulating water balance via the stomata.

  7. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A.

  8. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  9. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  10. Salinity and Salicylic Acid Interactions in Affecting Nitrogen Assimilation, Enzyme Activity, Ions Content and Translocation Rate of Maize Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodary, S.E.A.; Moussa, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, ions concentration as well as the translocation rate (TR) of carbohydrates and salicylic acid (SA) in salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L). Salicylic acid plus salinity treatment highly significantly increased: nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), protein content, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibited nucleases (DNase and RNase) activities compared with Na CI-treated plants. In addition, the ionic levels of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO 3 ) and the translocation rate of the labelled photo assimilates have also been stimulated while sodium (Na) ions content was decreased. It is concluded that, salinazid maize plants might show an enhancement in their growth pattern upon salicylic acid application

  11. Seasonal changes of Rubisco content and activity in Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies affected by elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, M.; Urban, Otmar; Babák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 836-841 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Rubisco content * Rubisco activity * seasonal changes * elevated CO2 concentrations * Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  12. THE CURCUMIN CONTENT OF TEMULAWAK(Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb. RHIZOME AS AFFECTED BY N, K AND MICRONUTRIENTS B, Fe, Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Nihayati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A polybag experiment to study the influence of N, K, and micronutrients B, Fe, Zn and the curcumin content in temulawak was conducted in Malang from February – September 2012. Using RBD, 8 treatments (P1 Inseptisol, without fertilizer, P2 Inseptisol 300 urea kg.ha-1, P3 Inseptisol 200 KCl kg.ha-1, P4 Inseptisol 300 kg.ha-1and 200 kg.ha-1 urea and KCl, P5 Alfisol, without fertilizer, P6 Alfisol 300 urea kg.ha-1, P7 Alfisol 200 KCl kg.ha-1, P8 Alfisol 300 kg.ha-1 and 200 kg.ha-1 urea and KCl in 3 replications. The micronutrients in vitro applied RCD by 4 treatments (MS medium, MS without B, Fe and Zn in 10 replications. The results of experiment showed that dry weight of rhizome per plant in Inseptisol and Alfisol is 30.98 and 9.75 g, content of curcumin 6 month after planting was 3.60 and 4.72%. The highest rhizome weight of 8 months after planting was a combination of N and K of Inseptisol (48.28 and Alfisol (35.75 g per plant.The highest content of curcumin 6 months after planting was on Alfisol (7.99% and Inseptisol (6.7% by 200 KCl kg.ha-1.The curcumin content in complete media was higher than that without B, Fe and Zn i.e. 6.26 compared with 1.86–2.39%.

  13. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  14. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  15. The Content of the 14 Metals in Cancellous and Cortical Bone of the Hip Joint Affected by Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kowalski, Artur; Rogala, Piotr; Strzyżewski, Wojciech; Łabędź, Wojciech; Kanicky, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of particular elements Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Ba, Sr, and Pb in the proximal femur bone tissue (cancellous and cortical bone) of 96 patients undergoing total hip replacement for osteoarthritis using ICP-AES and FAAS analytical techniques. The interdependencies among these elements and their correlations depended on factors including age, gender, place of residence, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental pollution, physical activity, and type of degenerative change which were examined by statistical and chemometric methods. The factors that exerted the greatest influence on the elements in the femoral head and neck were tobacco smoking (higher Cr and Ni content in smokers), alcohol consumption (higher concentrations of Ni, Cu in people who consume alcohol), and gender (higher Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in men). The factors influencing Pb accumulation in bone tissue were tobacco, alcohol, gender, and age. In primary and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, the content and interactions of elements are different (mainly those of Fe and Pb). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of elements in the femoral head and neck that could be attributed to residence or physical activity. PMID:26357659

  16. Heating affects the content and distribution profile of isoflavones in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2008-09-24

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were subjected to heating at 40-100 degrees C for 30 min. It was found that steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji after heating at 80 degrees C or higher generally showed reduced contents of malonylglucoside, acetylglucoside, and aglycone isoflavone and an increased content of beta-glucoside. A lower reduction in malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone but greater reduction in aglycone content was noted in steamed black soybeans compared to black soybean koji after a similar heat treatment. After 30 min of heating at 100 degrees C, steamed black soybean retained ca. 90.3 and 83.8%, respectively, of its original malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone, compared to lower residuals of 80.9 and 78.8%, respectively, for black soybean koji. In contrast, the heated black soybeans showed an aglycone residual of 68.0%, which is less than the 80.0% noted with the heated black soybean koji.

  17. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  18. Does the Instructor's Experience as a Practitioner Affect the Purpose and Content of the Undergraduate Systems Analysis and Design Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey and follow-up interviews that were administered to instructors of the undergraduate systems analysis and design course, a core course of the Information Systems curriculum. The goal of this research was to learn if the background of the instructor, in terms of industry experience, affects the purpose and…

  19. Neural evidence that inhibition is linked to the affective devaluation of distractors that match the contents of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, David; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-05-01

    Stimuli appearing as visual distractors subsequently receive more negative affective evaluations than novel items or prior targets of attention. Leading accounts question whether this distractor devaluation effect occurs through evaluative codes that become associated with distractors as a mere artefact of attention-task instructions, or through affective consequences of attentional inhibition when applied to prevent distractor interference. Here we test opposing predictions arising from the evaluative-coding and devaluation-by-inhibition hypotheses using an electrophysiological marker of attentional inhibition in a task that requires participants to avoid interference from abstract-shape distractors presented while maintaining a uniquely-colored stimulus in memory. Consistent with prior research, distractors that matched the colour of the stimulus being held in memory elicited a Pd component of the event-related potential waveform, indicating that their processing was being actively suppressed. Subsequent affective evaluations revealed that memory-matching distractors also received more negative ratings than non-matching distractors or previously-unseen shapes. Moreover, Pd magnitude was greater on trials in which the memory-matching distractors were later rated negatively than on trials preceding positive ratings. These results support the devaluation-by-inhibition hypothesis and strongly suggest that fluctuations in stimulus inhibition are closely associated with subsequent affective evaluations. In contrast, none of the evaluative-coding based predictions were confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Thematic Content of Rheostatically Controlled Visual Subliminals Upon the Receiving Level of the Affective Domain of Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Bruce R.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of rheostatically controlled visual subliminals on the affective interrelations of a learning task of subjects within a classroom setting. Four groups of students were used. Subjects were unknowingly exposed to a rheostatically projected subliminal message for 30 minutes during otherwise normal…

  1. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hillebrand, A.; Post, J. J.; Wurbs, D.; Wahler, D.; Lenders, D.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Pruefer, D.; Gronover, CH. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e41874:1-9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hevea-Brasiliensis * Parthenium-Argentatum * Elongation-Factor * Silencing Affects * Surface-Structure * Oil Bodies * Latex * Prenyltransferase * Biosynthesis * Stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  2. Social stress during adolescence in Wistar rats induces social anxiety in adulthood without affecting brain monoaminergic content and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the

  3. Sterol content in the artificial diet of Mythimna separata affects the metabolomics of Arma chinensis (Fallou) as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Meng-Qing; Chen, Hong-Yin

    2017-12-01

    Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively. The content of most substances increased in A. chinensis (AC) groups feeding on MS2 and MS5. The content of eight substances (alanine, betaine, dimethylamine, fumarate, glutamine, glycine, methylamine, and sarcosine) differed significantly between the control (AC0) and treated (AC1, AC2, and AC5) groups. Metabolic profiling revealed that only AC5 was significantly distinct from AC0; the major substances contributing to this difference were maltose, glucose, tyrosine, proline, O-phosphocholine, glutamine, allantoin, lysine, valine, and glutamate. Furthermore, only two metabolic pathways, that is, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, differed significantly between AC1 and AC5 and the control, albeit with an impact value of zero. Thus, the sterol content in the artificial diet fed to M. separata only minimally affected the metabolites and metabolic pathways of its predator A. chinensis, suggesting that A. chinensis has good metabolic self-regulation with high resistance to sterol content changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) deficiency affects the germination, growth and fruit sugar content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Xing; Yin, Yong-Gen; Sanuki, Atsuko; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Chiaki

    2015-11-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme and is utilized in the gluconeogenesis pathway in plants. Although, its catalytic and regulatory properties are quite well understood, there are uncertainties regarding its physiological role in many plants tissues such as the flesh of developing fruits. To further understand the function of PEPCK in fruits and other tissues, RNAi transgenic tomato plants in which SlPEPCK transcription was down-regulated by either CaMV 35S constitutive promoter or the fruit-specific E8 promoter were generated and characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and metabolic aspects. In the PEPCK-deficient lines, prominent growth suppression of germinated seedlings was observed and other vegetative suppression appeared during the early stage of plant growth in the 35S promoter-driven lines. In particular, root elongation was most obviously suppressed in the germinated seedlings, indicating that the gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in the root growth of seedlings. Regarding the primary metabolism in fruit, the soluble sugar content tended to decrease, whereas the malate content tended to increase in ripening fruits of the RNAi lines compared with the wild type. These results indicate that activation of the gluconeogenesis pathway from organic acids to sugars occurs during ripening but is suppressed by the knocking down of the PEPCK gene, suggesting that PEPCK participates in determining the sugar/acid ratio in ripening fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorensen, Jens C; Sorensen, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael

    2014-01-30

    Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the 'hungry gap' of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.64-297.65 and 16.95-104.80 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively, depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in variety 'TZ 5052' in both years. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5-116.6 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight total phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety 'Ironman'. Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Starch Hydrolysis, Polyphenol Contents, and In Vitro Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Some Nigerian Foods As Affected by Cooking

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    Sani Saidu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae, sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, and potato (Solanum tuberosum was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed ranged from 45.99 to 100. Raw and boiled unpeeled potato, raw and boiled peeled potato, raw A. auricula-judae, and sweet potato showed mild to high α-amylase inhibition (over a range of concentration of 10–50 mg/mL, which was lower than that of acarbose (that had 69% inhibition of α-amylase over a range of concentration of 2–10 mg/mL, unlike raw R. virescens, boiled A. auricula-judae, and boiled sweet potatoes that activated α-amylase and boiled R. virescens that gave 0% inhibition. The FS contained flavonoids and phenols in addition. The significant negative correlation (r = −0.55; P = 0.05 between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their SD indicates that the α-amylase inhibitors in these FS also influenced the digestibility of their starches. In addition, the significant positive correlation between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their resistant starch (RS (r = 0.59; P = 0.01 contents indicates that the RS constituents of these FS contributed to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. The study showed the usefulness of boiled unpeeled potato, boiled potato peeled, and raw sweet potato as functional foods for people with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

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    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  8. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

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    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  9. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  10. Developmental timing of signals affects information content: song complexity but not consistency reflects innate immune strategy in male song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Shawn P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition over different developmental timescales, predict multiple aspects of innate immunity in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We also investigated correlations among immune measures. Noncellular components of innate immunity (soluble blood proteins including natural antibody and other protective proteins) were negatively related to cellular (phagocytosis-based) components, suggesting trade-offs within innate immune protection. This pattern underscores the risk of inferring "immunocompetence" from a single metric. Song complexity, a permanent trait in this species, was positively related to noncellular relative to cellular immune components and may thus provide information as to the singer's innate immune strategy (investment in noncellular vs. cellular activity). Such a relationship could arise through shared timing of song learning and antibody repertoire development in early life. Singing consistency, thought to track variation in current condition and measured at both whole-song and syllable scales, did not predict any immune measures. Developmental timing of signals thus appears to influence their information content.

  11. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently.

  12. Biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in upland rice plants affected by application forms of microorganism growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascente, Adriano Stephan; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; Lanna, Anna Cristina; de Souza, Alan Carlos Alves; da Silva Lobo, Valácia Lemes; da Silva, Gisele Barata

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are considered a genetic resource with great potential for achieving sustainable development of agricultural areas. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of microorganism application forms on the production of biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient content in upland rice. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design in a factorial 7 × 3 + 1, with four replications. The treatments consisted of combining seven microorganisms with three application forms (microbiolized seed; microbiolized seed + soil drenched with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 days after sowing (DAS); and microbiolized seed + plant sprayed with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 DAS) and a control (water). Treatments with Serratia sp. (BRM32114), Bacillus sp. (BRM32110 and BRM32109), and Trichoderma asperellum pool provided, on average, the highest photosynthetic rate values and dry matter biomass of rice shoots. Plants treated with Burkolderia sp. (BRM32113), Serratia sp. (BRM32114), and Pseudomonas sp. (BRM32111 and BRM32112) led to the greatest nutrient uptake by rice shoots. Serratia sp. (BRM 32114) was the most effective for promoting an increase in the photosynthetic rate, and for the greatest accumulation of nutrients and dry matter at 84 DAS, in rice shoots, which differed from the control treatment. The use of microorganisms can bring numerous benefits of rice, such as improving physiological characteristics, nutrient uptake, biomass production, and grain yield.

  13. Terbium content affects the luminescence properties of ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles for mammary cancer imaging in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszewski, Jarosław; Borgstrom, Emanuel; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Kiełbik, Paula; Slonska, Anna; Domino, Malgorzata A.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Hochepied, Jean-François; Godlewski, Michał M.; Godlewski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medicine is a rapidly growing research field with numerous potential applications, especially in the field of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Nanoparticles can be intrinsically diagnostic of therapeutic, or they can be conjugated with diagnostic or therapeutic compounds. Nanoparticles may also passively or actively target tumor cells specifically using the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, or the addition of targeting ligands to their surface. This may provide a diagnostic or/and therapeutic tools to target primary as well as metastatic tumors. The transport, distribution and toxicity of nanoparticles depends greatly on their size and composition, thus every new formulation needs to be extensively researched. This work was focused on the development of Tb-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for application in cancer imaging. Obtained nanoparticles were below 10 nm with very low influence of Tb concentration on size. Terbium stabilization of ZrO2 had influence on the luminescence properties of obtained material. Partially stabilized zirconium dioxide exhibited broad host related emission peaking at 500 nm, disappearing with the terbium content. We confirmed alimentary absorption and wide distribution of luminescent ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles in mice with their gradual accumulation in the experimentally induced mammary cancers. Furthermore, a high concentration of NPs was found within the lung metastases as opposed to healthy lung tissue, where no NPs-related signal was observed.

  14. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Marcos [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: marcospl@unex.es; Cid, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Oropesa, Ana Lourdes [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Ana Lopez Beceiro [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (USC), Estrada da Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain); Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UEX), Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  15. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Marcos; Cid, Francisco; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Fidalgo, Luis Eusebio; López Beceiro, Ana; Soler, Francisco

    2006-04-15

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure.

  16. Content of conventional therapy for the severely affected arm during subacute rehabilitation after stroke: An analysis of physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; van Wijck, Frederike; Stewart, Roy E; Geurts, Alexander C H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-01-01

    Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key professions providing treatment for the arm after stroke; however, knowledge about the content of these treatments is scant. Detailed data are needed to replicate interventions, evaluate their effective components, and evaluate PT and OT practice. This paper describes PT and OT treatment for the severely affected arm in terms of duration, content according to components and categories of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyze differences between professions. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of randomized trial data. 46 patients after stroke with poor arm motor control recruited from inpatient neurological units from three rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. PTs and OTs recorded duration and content of arm treatment interventions for 8 weeks using a bespoke treatment schedule with 15 International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health categories. PTs and OTs spent on average 4-7 min per treatment session (30 min) on arm treatment. OTs spent significantly more time providing arm treatment and treatment at the activities level than PTs. PTs spent 79% of their arm treatment time on body functions, OTs 41%. OTs spent significantly more time on "moving around using transportation," "self care," and "household tasks" categories. Patients after stroke with a severely affected arm and an unfavorable prognosis for arm motor recovery receive little arm-oriented PT and OT. Therapists spent most arm treatment time on body functions. There was a considerable overlap in the content of PT and OT in 12 of the 15 categories. Results can be generalized only to patients with poor arm motor control and may not represent practice in other countries. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mixing of the intestinal content and variations of fermentation capacity do not affect the results of hydrogen breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Michele; Miceli, Emanuela; Malservisi, Simona; Missanelli, Antonio; Strocchi, Alessandra; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2003-07-01

    Although the hydrogen (H(2)) breath test has been in use for many years for diagnosis of sugar malabsorption, research is still underway to improve its diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we investigated whether possible confusing factors caused by the ingestion of the test solution itself (such as the delivery to the colon of other fermentable substrates pre-existing in the small bowel lumen, the release of preformed H(2) trapped in the feces, or differences in the fermenting capacity of the colonic bacteria) may interfere with the increase of breath H(2) concentration, an expression of malabsorption of the test substrate. In 25 patients with untreated celiac disease and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, breath H(2) excretion was measured after ingestion of a 250-ml solution containing sorbitol, a poorly absorbed alcohol sugar. On 2 other separate days, 12 randomly selected subjects in each group underwent breath H(2) excretion measurement after ingestion of 250 ml of a sugar free, nonabsorbable electrolyte solution and 250 ml of a solution containing lactulose, a nonabsorbable disaccharide. After sorbitol ingestion, celiac disease patients showed a significantly higher breath H(2) excretion than did healthy volunteers. Otherwise, breath H(2) responses to electrolyte solution and lactulose showed no difference between the two groups of subjects. In a group of patients with sugar malabsorption, increased breath H(2) excretion does reflect malabsorption. The washout or the mixing of the intestinal content or intergroup difference of fermenting activity of the colonic bacteria do not represent interfering factors and do not modify the accuracy of the H(2) breath test in day-to-day clinical practice.

  18. Influencia de doses de potássio nos teores de macronutrientes em plantas e sementes de alface Macronutrient content in lettuce affected by potassium side dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiaini Kano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de doses de potássio aplicadas em cobertura nos teores de nutrientes em plantas de alface cultivada para produção de sementes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0,0; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 g planta-1 de K2O e seis repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise de regressão. Somente os teores de potássio e magnésio determinados na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas foram influenciados significativamente pelas doses de potássio testadas, em que para o teor de potássio ocorreu aumento linear e para o de magnésio houve redução também linear. Conclui-se que os tratamentos testados não interferiram de forma significativa nos teores de macronutrientes das sementes, apesar de ter modificado os teores de potássio e de magnésio na matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de alface, cultivar Verônica.The influence of potassium rates applied in side dressing was evaluated on the nutrient content of lettuce plants cultivated for seed production. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks, with five treatments (0.0; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g plant-1 of K2O and six replications. Only the potassium and the magnesium content in the dry matter of the plant aboveground part was affected by the treatments. The potassium content increased and the magnesium content decreased, both linearly, as an effect of the application of increasing potassium rates. Also, despite of the effect on the plant potassium content, the treatments did not affect the seed macronutrient content.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Celta dry-ripened “salchichón” as affected by fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the effect of fat content on the main characteristics of a traditional, Spanish dry-ripened sausage called “salchichón” from the Celta pig breed manufactured with 10, 20 and 30% back fat. Physicochemical properties, color, texture and free fatty acid profile were evaluated throughout the process after 0, 7, 21, 35 and 49 days of ripening, while the study of the volatile compound profile and the sensory evaluation were only performed on the final products. In general, most of the studied physicochemical, color and textural parameters were significantly (P En este trabajo se estudia el efecto del contenido en grasa sobre las principales características del “salchichón”, un embutido crudo-curado tradicional español, elaborado con cerdo de raza Celta y con adición de 10, 20 y 30% de grasa dorsal. Las propiedades físico-químicas, color, textura y perfil de ácidos grasos libres se evaluaron a lo largo del proceso tras 0, 7, 21, 35 y 49 días de maduración, mientras que el estudio del perfil de compuestos volátiles y la evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo únicamente en los productos finales. En general, la mayoría de los parámetros físico-químicos, de color y textura estudiados se vieron significativamente (P < 0,05 afectados por el nivel de grasa. Las reacciones lipolíticas también resultaron favorecidas con altos niveles de grasa que dan lugar a una mayor liberación de ácidos grasos libres. Los embutidos con 10% de grasa mostraron un contenido más elevado en compuestos volátiles, a pesar de no haber mostrado diferencias significativas en la intensidad de flavor. La evaluación sensorial también reflejó una preferencia por la textura de los embutidos con 30% de grasa. Este hecho nos lleva a concluir que, aunque la reducción de grasa mejoraría la calidad nutricional de los productos cárnicos crudo-curados, sería satisfactoria sólo si se lleva a cabo hasta cierto nivel. Por tanto, una formulaci

  20. Identification and dissection of four major QTL affecting milk fat content in the German Holstein-Friesian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P = 8.91×10-(198 and BTA20 (P = 7.03×10(-12 within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P = 2.00×10(-13 and BTA27 (P = 9.83×10(-5 encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P = 1.40×10(-12 and GPAT4 (P = 5.18×10(-5, respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

  1. N sources affect growth, nutrient content, and net photosynthesis in maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gaiad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different N sources on the growth of maté (Ilex paragurariensis St.Hil. seedlings grown in greenhouse was studied. All seedlings received a base fertilization of 10 mg N.kg-1 soil as NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.and 40 mg K2O.kg-1 soil as KH2PO4 15 days before treatments application. Treatments were as follow: Control, with no extra N added; Urea = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Urea; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Ca(NO32; and NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as (NH42SO4. It was concluded that: 1 increasing N content in leaves alone was not able to promote gain in biomass production of maté seedlings; 2 seedlings receiving N-NH4 showed a higher accumulation of P and Mg on shoot biomass; and 3 an increase in leaf area, leaf number and net photosynthesis observed at the N-NH4 treatment was coincident with an increasing absorption of P and Mg.A influência de diferentes fontes de N sobre o crescimento de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. foi estudada, em casa de vegetação. Todas as mudas receberam uma fertilização base de 10 mg N.kg-1 de solo na forma de NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.kg-1 e 40 mg K2O.kg-1 de solo na forma de KH2PO4 quinze dias antes da aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: Controle, sem adição extra de N; Uréia = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Uréia; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Ca(NO32; e NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como (NH42SO4. Concluiu-se que: 1 o aumento do conteúdo de N nas folhas, por si, não é capaz de promover ganhos na produção de biomassa em mudas de erva-mate; 2 mudas que receberam N-NH4 apresentaram maior acumulo de P e Mg na biomassa aérea; e 3 o aumento na absorção de P e Mg coincidiu com um aumento na área foliar, no número de folhas e na fotossíntese liquida na fonte N-NH4.

  2. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  3. A Study on the Instructor Role in Dealing with Mixed Contents: How It Affects Learner Satisfaction and Retention in e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jae Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technology has become an indispensable part of modern education. The paradigm shift in the educational environment makes the instructors recollect the traditional roles in classroom education and adjust their responsibilities to accommodate a transformed pedagogy and learner expectations. This paper aims at the instructor’s role in on-line education and studies how the instructor affects the learner satisfaction via the instructor involvement. Modifying the information system success model, the learning-environment qualities are rearranged into two-tiered formats—rigid and flexible contents—depending on the instructor’s manageability. A partial least square analysis was used to examine the structural relationship among rigid and flexible contents qualities (i.e., technology-assisted learning-environment qualities, learner satisfaction, and learner retention, and found that the instructor involvement had a moderating effect on flexible contents qualities (test and activity; further, the moderating effect of instructor is captured as high involvement in tests and low involvement in activities. Consequently, this paper confirms the relationship between learning-environment qualities, learner satisfaction, and instructor involvement. Empirically, the instructor role in on-line education and the degree of instructor involvement in higher education are substantiated; the result of this study will also contribute to e-learning design or content delivery system development in a practical way.

  4. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  5. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 affects vitamin D status similar to vitamin D-3 in pigs - but the meat produced has a lower content of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Maribo, H.; Bysted, Anette

    2007-01-01

    . The end-points measured were plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, and in the liver and loin the content of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 Vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the feed did not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in the plasma, liver or loin differently, while a significant effect was shown......In food databases, the specific contents of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in food have been implemented in the last 10 years. No consensus has yet been established on the relative activity between the components. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relative...... activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 compared to vitamin D-3. The design was a parallel study in pigs (n 24), which from an age of 12 weeks until slaughter 11 weeks later were fed approximately 55 mu g vitamin D/d, as vitamin D-3, in a mixture of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3...

  6. Setting the agenda for a healthy retail environment: content analysis of US newspaper coverage of tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Southwell, Brian G; Ribisl, Kurt M; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco control policies affecting the point of sale (POS) are an emerging intervention, yet POS-related news media content has not been studied. We describe news coverage of POS tobacco control efforts and assess relationships between article characteristics, including policy domains, frames, sources, localisation and evidence present, and slant towards tobacco control efforts. High circulation state (n=268) and national (n=5) newspapers comprised the sampling frame. We retrieved 917 relevant POS-focused articles in newspapers from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. 5 raters screened and coded articles, 10% of articles were double coded, and mean inter-rater reliability (IRR) was 0.74. POS coverage emphasised tobacco retailer licensing (49.1% of articles) and the most common frame present was regulation (71.3%). Government officials (52.3%), followed by tobacco retailers (39.6%), were the most frequent sources. Half of articles (51.3%) had a mixed, neutral or antitobacco control slant. Articles presenting a health frame, a greater number of protobacco control sources, and statistical evidence were significantly more likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Articles presenting a political/rights or regulation frame, a greater number of antitobacco control sources, or government, tobacco industry, tobacco retailers, or tobacco users as sources were significantly less likely to also have a protobacco control slant. Stories that feature procontrol sources, research evidence and a health frame also tend to support tobacco control objectives. Future research should investigate how to use data, stories and localisation to encourage a protobacco control slant, and should test relationships between content characteristics and policy progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Ripened dairy products differentially affect hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue oxidative stress markers in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine; le Ruyet, Pascale; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-02-29

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of dairy products may contribute to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The fatty acid composition in milk fat, the duration of ripening, and the complexity of the food matrices are important factors that may interfere with the physiological impact. In this study, we treated genetic obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks with different dairy (cheese-based) products, differing by the duration of ripening (0, 15, or 35 days). We found that 35 days ripened product significantly improved glucose tolerance, an effect associated with a decreased adipose tissue lipid peroxide markers (TBARS and NAPDH-oxidase mRNA expression), without affecting body weight, food intake, and fat mass. Both fermented matrices significantly decreased the hepatic lipid content, without modifying plasma triglycerides or plasma total cholesterol. These data suggest that dairy products issued from longer ripening positively impact glucose tolerance, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue oxidative stress. Further investigations are warranted to decipher the interactions between milk products fermentation, lipids, and host metabolism.

  8. Body size and hosts of Triatoma infestans populations affect the size of bloodmeal contents and female fecundity in rural northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Cecere, María Carla; Cohen, Joel E

    2017-12-01

    Human sleeping quarters (domiciles) and chicken coops are key source habitats of Triatoma infestans-the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease-in rural communities in northern Argentina. Here we investigated the links among individual bug bloodmeal contents (BMC, mg), female fecundity, body length (L, mm), host blood sources and habitats. We tested whether L, habitat and host blood conferred relative fitness advantages using generalized linear mixed-effects models and a multimodel inference approach with model averaging. The data analyzed include 769 late-stage triatomines collected in 120 sites from six habitats in 87 houses in Figueroa, Santiago del Estero, during austral spring. L correlated positively with other body-size surrogates and was modified by habitat type, bug stage and recent feeding. Bugs from chicken coops were significantly larger than pig-corral and kitchen bugs. The best-fitting model of log BMC included habitat, a recent feeding, bug stage, log Lc (mean-centered log L) and all two-way interactions including log Lc. Human- and chicken-fed bugs had significantly larger BMC than bugs fed on other hosts whereas goat-fed bugs ranked last, in consistency with average blood-feeding rates. Fecundity was maximal in chicken-fed bugs from chicken coops, submaximal in human- and pig-fed bugs, and minimal in goat-fed bugs. This study is the first to reveal the allometric effects of body-size surrogates on BMC and female fecundity in a large set of triatomine populations occupying multiple habitats, and discloses the links between body size, microsite temperatures and various fitness components that affect the risks of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  9. Factors affecting the content of the ursolic and oleanolic acid in apple peel: influence of cultivars, sun exposure, storage conditions, bruising and Penicillium expansum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanrong; Tahir, Ibrahim I; Olsson, Marie E

    2016-04-01

    For health promotion and as part of natural plant protection, it might be of interest to increase the content of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) by biofortification in breeding programs, although the extent of the influence of genetic and environmental factors needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cultivar, sun exposure, storage, bruising and fungal infection on the OA and UA content in apple peel. Three apple cultivars with different ripening times--'Discovery' (early), 'Aroma' (middle) and 'Gloster' (late)--were investigated. The content of OA and UA was mainly influenced by cultivar and side subjected to sun exposure, and to a minor extent by storage and seasonal year. 'Gloster' had the highest OA and UA content of the investigated cultivars. OA and UA content on the shaded side was higher than that on the sun-exposed side in all three cultivars. Inoculation with Penicillium expansum did not have any consistent effect on OA or UA, except in a few cases where the levels decreased. OA and UA content can be increased by choice of cultivar in the breeding process and to some extent by cultural practice. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

  11. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  12. Available and unavailable carbohydrate content of black gram(Vigna Mungo) and chick-pea (Cicer Arietinum) as affected by soaking and cooking processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia-ur-Rehman; Rashid, M.; Salariya, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of soaking (Tap water, sodium bicarbonate solution) and cooking in tap water were investigated on available and unavailable carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick-peas. Available carbohydrates including total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch contents of these two legumes decreased to various extents as a result of soaking and cooking. From 3.43 - 25.63% total soluble sugars and 4.26 - 22.70% starch contents were lost on soaking black grams and chick-peas in tap water and sodium bicarbonate solution. Maximum amounts of total soluble sugars (28.43 - 59.64%) and starch contents (29.93 - 67.40%) were lost on cooking the water and alkali soaked legumes. However, these losses were comparatively less in case of water soaking process. Soaking and cooking processes also brought about some changes in the profile of unavailable carbohydrates of black grams and chick-peas. Soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution led to an appreciable increase of hemicellulose (42.50 - 54.31%) and NDF (28.69 - 30.68%) but not in legumes soaked in tap water. However, cooking process caused reduction in NDF (19.25 - 41.04%), ADF (5.48 - 25.31%), cellulose (12.88 - 28.42%) and hemicellulose (31.86 - 59.37%). Lignin contents of these legumes increased to some extents on cooking whereas it remained unchanged as a result of soaking. Starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas was markedly improved after cooking. However, no appreciable improvement in starch digestibility was observed after soaking these legumes in tap water or alkaline solution.(author)

  13. Hydrophilicity, pore structure and mechanical performance of CNT/PVDF materials affected by carboxyl contents in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Jiang, Ce; Tian, Run; Li, Guangfen

    2018-01-01

    Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes have been prepared by loading different type of MWCNTs-COOH as the dispersed phase via phase inversion method. The chemically functionalized MWCNTs with increasing carboxyl content were chosen for achieving a better dispersion in PVDF and altering the membrane hydrophilicity. The effect of the carboxyl content in MWCNTs on crystal structure, thermal behavior, membrane morphology, hydrophilicity, and water flux of blended membranes were investigated. Due to the addition of carbon nanotubes, various performances of the hybrid membrane had obvious changes. The most prominent was that thermal stability could be enhanced and the pore morphology was more preferable, also that the hydrophilicity were improved, further that water flux could be increased to some extent.

  14. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  15. Newly identified mutations at the CSN1S1 gene in Ethiopian goats affect casein content and coagulation properties of their milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestawet, T A; Girma, A; Adnøy, T; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E

    2013-08-01

    Very high casein content and good coagulation properties previously observed in some Ethiopian goat breeds led to investigating the αs1-casein (CSN1S1) gene in these breeds. Selected regions of the CSN1S1 gene were sequenced in 115 goats from 5 breeds (2 indigenous: Arsi-Bale and Somali, 1 exotic: Boer, and 2 crossbreeds: Boer × Arsi-Bale and Boer × Somali). The DNA analysis resulted in 35 new mutations: 3 in exons, 3 in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and 29 in the introns. The mutations in exons that resulted in an amino acid shift were then picked to evaluate their influence on individual casein content (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-CN), micellar size, and coagulation properties in the milk from the 5 goat breeds. A mutation at nucleotide 10657 (exon 10) involved a transversion: CAG→CCG, resulting in an amino acid exchange Gln77→Pro77. This mutation was associated with the indigenous breeds only. Two new mutations, at nucleotide 6072 (exon 4) and 12165 (exon 12), revealed synonymous transitions: GTC→GTT in Val15 and AGA→AGG in Arg100 of the mature protein. Transitions G→A and C→T at nucleotides 1374 and 1866, respectively, occurred in the 5' UTR, whereas the third mutation involved a transversion T→G at nucleotide location 1592. The goats were grouped into homozygote new (CC), homozygote reference (AA), and heterozygote (CA) based on the nucleotide that involved the transversion. The content of αs1-CN (15.32g/kg) in milk samples of goats homozygous (CC) for this newly identified mutation, Gln77→Pro77 was significantly higher than in milks of heterozygous (CA; 9.05g/kg) and reference (AA; 7.61g/kg) genotype animals. The αs2-, β-, and κ-CN contents showed a similar pattern. Milk from goats with a homozygous new mutation had significantly lower micellar size. Milk from both homozygote and heterozygote new-mutation goats had significantly shorter coagulation rate and stronger gel than the reference genotype. Except the transversion, the

  16. DL-methionine supplementation of rice-and-bean diets affects gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and glutathione content in livers of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Oliveira I.M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT-EC 2.3.2.2 activity and glutathione (GSH content were measured in livers of female weanling Wistar rats (N = 5-18, submitted to rice-and-bean diets (13 and 6% w/w protein, both supplemented or not with DL-methionine (0.5 and 0.23 g/100 g dry diet, respectively. After 28 days, the rats on the rice-and-bean diets showed significantly higher levels (four times higher of liver GGT activity and a concomitant 50% lower concentration of liver GSH in comparison with control groups feeding on casein. The addition of DL-methionine to rice-and-bean diets significantly increased the liver GSH content, which reached levels 50% higher than those found in animals on casein diets. The increase in GSH was accompanied by a decrease in liver GGT activity, which did not reach levels as low as those observed in the control groups. No significant correlation could be established between GGT and GSH changes under the present experimental conditions. Linear correlation analysis only revealed that in animals submitted to unsupplemented rice-and-bean diets GSH concentration was positively associated (P<0.05 with weight gain, food intake and food efficiency. GGT, however, was negatively correlated (P<0.05 with food intake only, and exclusively for supplemented rice-and-bean diets. The high levels of GGT activity observed in the present study for rats receiving a rice-and-bean mixture could be a result of the poor quality of these diets associated with their deficiency in sulfur amino acids. The results also suggest that diet supplementation with methionine could be important in the reduction of the deleterious effects of GSH depletion by restoring the intracellular concentration of this tripeptide.

  17. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  18. The 5' untranslated mRNA region base content can greatly affect translation initiation in the absence of secondary structures in Prevotella bryantii TC1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seničar, Lenart; Accetto, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear lately that many bacteria and even whole bacterial phyla do not use the classical Shine-Dalgarno sequence mediated pathway of protein translation initiation. The prominent phylum Bacteroidetes is one of them, and this was shown not only using bioinformatic but also functional reporter gene studies in its representative Prevotella bryantii. The latter studies revealed much higher sensitivity toward secondary structures in 5(') untranslated mRNA regions (5(') UTRs) during translation initiation compared to Escherichia coli. It was proposed that in the absence of Shine-Dalgarno sequence interaction the key elements enabling translation initiation are local absence of secondary structures in 5(') UTRs, and the ribosomal protein S1 which binds to mRNA. Here, we evaluate the 5(') UTRs devoid of secondary structures but containing divergent nucleotide compositions in P. bryantii reporter assay. We show that base composition profoundly affects the amount of the reporter synthesized, and further that these amounts were in agreement with S1 protein binding affinity for adenine/uracil bases in mRNA. This is the first, though indirect, clue that S1 is actually involved in translation initiation in Bacteroidetes and adds the second layer of control beside mRNA secondary structure affecting translation initiation in this phylum. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sesquiterpene lactone content and overall quality of fresh-cut witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) as affected by different washing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfkuehler, Sabine; Gras, Claudia; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-08-14

    Fresh-cut chicory was produced by four different processing lines testing cold and warm water (4/45 °C, 120 s) and cold water containing cysteine (0.5 mM) against an unwashed control. Levels of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), sensory, and color attributes as well as O2 and CO2 levels in the modified atmosphere of the fresh-cut produce stored in consumer-sized bags (4 °C, 10 days) were monitored. All washing procedures applied significantly reduced the SL contents and bitterness in fresh-cut chicory. Warm water washing was most effective, reducing the total SL levels by 60.9-64.5%. Sensory and color attributes were also retained best by warm water washing, suggesting such treatments to be suitable measures to improve the quality and reduce the bitterness of fresh-cut chicory. SL profiles changed substantially in all samples during storage, revealing lactucopicrin to be the major SL directly after processing, whereas 11(S),13-dihydrolactuin prevailed at the end of storage.

  20. A Survey of Heavy Metals content of Soil and plants As Affected by Long-Term Application of Sewage Water. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Lateef E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a four year study evaluating the practicability and value of sewage sludge use in Egypt, soil and plant surveys were carried out on a citrus plantation, irrigated with Cairo sewage since the 1920s, in order to evaluate the long-term accumulation of trace elements and heavy metals and their bioavailability. While total and DTPA soil concentrations correlated well, no relationship could be found between soil and plant tissue concentrations, despite elevated levels of heavy metals in the soil. Study of long-term contamination of soil with potentially toxic elements (PTEs has not demonstrated a potential risk to crop quality and yield or human health from the slow accumulation of PTEs in sludge-treated agricultural soil. PTE concentrations in plant tissues remained low and within normal ranges despite significant increases in soil content after long-term irrigation with sewage effluent. Concentrations of PTEs in plant tissues were not related to total or DTPA extractable metals in contaminated soil. DTPA may not be a sufficiently reliable indicator of actual phytoavailability of trace elements in sludge-treated soil, although it is accepted that DTPA is widely used in nutrient diagnosis assessment. These data provide assurance about the minimal risk to the environment from trace elements and PTEs in sludge-treated agricultural soil, but a more detailed dietary analysis of Cd intakes under Egyptian conditions is recommended, following the approaches adopted in the UK and US for setting Cd soil limits or loading rates for this element.

  1. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to feeding hay with different non-structural carbohydrate content in control and polysaccharide storage myopathy-affected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, L; Valberg, S; McCue, M; Watts, K; Pagan, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the glycaemic/insulinaemic responses to hay with non-structural carbohydrate (NSC, soluble carbohydrate) of 17% (HC), 10% (MC) or 4% (LC) differs in control horses and whether these responses differ between control and horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). Five clinically normal control horses and seven PSSM horses, all unfit and of Quarter Horse breeding (age 9.4 ± 3.4 years, body condition score range: 4.5-6). A crossover design compared the HC and LC hay, with horses randomly assigned to hay type for 5 days, and all horses fed the MC hay during washout, after which the diets were switched. Horses were fed 1.5% BW (as fed) divided into 2 feeding per day, no grain. On morning of the fifth day of each block (seventh day for washout), horses were given 0.5% BW in hay, blood was drawn before and every 30 min for 5 h after feeding, and the rate of intake was measured. Whole blood glucose and plasma insulin were measured. The intake rate was significantly higher for HC. In control horses, the insulin area under the curve (6891.7 ± 3524.2 HC vs. 1185.4 ± 530.2 LC) was significantly higher than LC. Polysaccharide storage myopathy horses had significantly higher glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to HC vs. LC, however; the magnitude of insulin response was lower and glucose response higher in PSSM vs. control horses. Results suggest that insulin responses can differ significantly with the NSC content of hay. Feeding hay with 17% NSC produces elevations in insulin that could be detrimental for PSSM horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Amylose content in rice (Oryza sativa affects performance, glycemic and lipidic metabolism in rats Teor de amilose do arroz (Oryza sativa afeta o desempenho, metabolismo glicêmico e lipídico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Casagrande Denardin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at evaluating the effect of diets with high, intermediate and low amylose content of rice on performance, glycemic and lipidic metabolism in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed diets with grains of cooked rice of the cultivars 'IRGA 417', 'IRGA 416' and 'MOCHI' with high, intermediate and low amylose content, respectively. Wet and dry fecal production and serum HDL cholesterol were not affected by amylose content. The animals in the treatments with high amylose content ('IRGA 417' presented lower feed intake, body weight gain and apparent digestibility, higher fecal water content and nitrogen excretion, reduced fecal pH, lower postprandial blood glucose response, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels and pancreas weight, and higher fasting serum glucose concentration and liver weight. Amylose:amylopectin ratio significantly affects rice starch digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, affecting some biologically relevant parameters.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas com alto, intermediário e baixo teor de amilose sobre o desempenho, metabolismo glicêmico e lipídico em ratos. Foram utilizados ratos machos Wistar alimentados com rações experimentais elaboradas com grãos de arroz cozido das cultivares 'IRGA 417', 'IRGA 416' e 'MOCHI' com alto, intermediário e baixo teores de amilose, respectivamente. A produção de fezes úmidas e secas e colesterol HDL não foram afetados pelo teor de amilose dos grãos. Os animais submetidos ao tratamento com alto teor de amilose (IRGA 417 apresentaram menores consumo, ganho de peso e digestibilidade aparente, maiores umidade nas fezes e excreção de nitrogênio, reduzido pH fecal, concentração plasmática posprandial de glicose, colesterol total, triglicerídeos e peso do pâncreas e maior concentração de glicose no jejum e peso do fígado. A proporção amilose e amilopectina nos grãos afeta significativamente a digestão do amido de arroz no trato

  3. Tocopherol content, weight loss and instrumental color analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham as affected by rearing and feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daza, Argimiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rearing (outdoor vs indoor and feeding systems (acorn and grass vs mixed diets on ham quality from Duroc x Iberian pigs were studied. Seven groups of 5 females each were used. One group was reared under freerange conditions and fed with acorns and grass (outdoor pigs. Six group were fed mixed diets in confinement (indoor pigs under a factorial design 3 x 2 with three types of dietary fat: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and medium (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and two levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate. The α-and γ-tocopherol contents were higher (P Se ha estudiado el efecto del régimen de producción (en libertad vs estabulados y el sistema de alimentación (bellota y pasto vs piensos formulados en la calidad del jamón de cerdos Ibéricos cruzados con Duroc. Siete grupos de 5 hembras cada uno fueron usadas. Un grupo fue criado en condiciones de libertad y alimentado con bellotas y pasto (Cerdos en libertad. Seis grupos fueron alimentados con dietas formuladas en confinamiento (Cerdos estabulados usando un diseño factorial de 3 x 2 con tres tipos de grasa en la dieta: monoinsaturada, poliinsaturada y media (monoinsaturada y polinsaturada y dos niveles de acetato de α-tocoferol. Los contenidos de α- y γ-tocoferol fueron más altos (p < 0.05 en jamones de cerdos criados en libertad que en jamones de cerdos estabulados. Los jamones de cerdos estabulados pesaron menos que los jamones de cerdos en libertad y los valores de color rojo fueron mayores en jamones de cerdos en libertad que en cerdos estabulados. Después de 4 días de almacenamiento, la muestra de jamón de cerdos en libertad mostraron una menor tendencia (p < 0.10 a perder peso que aquellos de cerdos alimentados con un nivel basal de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que cerdos Ibérico criados en libertad y alimentados con bellota y pasto incrementan su contenido en tocoferoles y mejoran el color y las pérdidas de peso de los jamones curados.

  4. Phosphorus content and distribution and the activity of phosphatases in Arenosols in a forest affected by long-term exposure to the effects of the Anwil S.A. nitrogen works in Włocławek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemanowicz Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research examining the soil content of total and available phosphorus (PE-R, taking into consideration the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases. For this study, three soil profiles were sampled in Arenosols at a distance of 0.8, 2.0 and 2.5 km from a nitrogen fertiliser manufacturer, Anwil S.A. A control profile was taken from the Tuchola Forest. The soils’ reaction ranged from acidic to very acidic. The humus content in the surface horizons of the sampled profiles was average (1.26–2.61%. The lowest PE-R content was found in the profile taken closest (0.8 km – profile I to the factory. The distribution index (DI calculated for available phosphorus pointed towards moderate accumulation, whilst at the same time, the availability index (IM confirmed low availability, especially in profile I. The activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases, which are the enzymes responsible for phosphorus transformation in the soil, varied depending on the distance from the nitrogen works. The inhibition of alkaline phosphomonoesterases and the stimulation of acid esterases, which were both connected to the examined soil reaction, were observed. The activity of phosphatases, as well as total and available phosphorus content, decreased steeply along the soil profiles. Furthermore, a significant correlation between organic carbon and the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases (r = 0.94, p < 0.05 and r = 0.67, p < 0.05, respectively, as well as between the content of PE-R and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.67, p < 0.05 were recorded. The results suggest the need for further research and monitoring of the Arenosols in the forest affected by the nitrogen works.

  5. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  6. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  7. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  8. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  9. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available , 1997; Qiu & Tao, 2001; Corkin, 2012; Warner, 2011; Stephenson, 2013). Local content is also seen a way of improving national sustainability performance and developing greener buildings (Olivier et al, 2016; van Reneen, 2014; Gibberd, 2002). As a result...

  10. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  11. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  12. Personalized affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Joris H.; van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are

  13. Reserves of labour content reduction in NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekerman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Specific labour contents when constructing NPP with RBMK-1000 and WWER-1000 type reactors are presented. Factors affecting labour content of NPP construction are shown. Measures aimed at labour content decrease are suggested

  14. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players - and thereby attempt to close the affective loop in games - is to automatically tailor the game content in real-time. To realize player-driven procedural content generation one needs to specify the aspects of the game...... content, player behavior and affect, how can we generate game content that is tailored to particular player needs and style, how often game content should be adapted, and how the adaptation mechanism can be tested? We focus on 2D platform game genre as a testbed for our player-driven procedural content...... with artificial agents and humans players. The key findings of the thesis demonstrate the ability of the player-driven procedural content generation framework to recognize playing behavior differences and to generate player-centered content that optimizes particular aspects of player experience....

  15. Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.

  16. Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and increases sugar content and saccharification in the fast-growing eucalyptus hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Nascimento, Leandro C; Salazar, Marcela M; Camargo, Eduardo L O; Cairo, João P F; Teixeira, Paulo J; Marques, Wesley L; Squina, Fabio M; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2014-11-19

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely planted hardwood species in the world and are renowned for their rapid growth and adaptability. In Brazil, one of the most widely grown Eucalyptus cultivars is the fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis hybrid. In a previous study, we described a chemical characterization of these hybrids when subjected to flavonoid supplementation on 2 distinct timetables, and our results revealed marked differences between the wood composition of the treated and untreated trees. In this work, we report the transcriptional responses occurring in these trees that may be related to the observed chemical differences. Gene expression was analysed through mRNA-sequencing, and notably, compared to control trees, the treated trees display differential down-regulation of cell wall formation pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as differential expression of genes involved in sucrose, starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. We also performed enzymatic hydrolysis of wood samples from the different treatments, and the results indicated higher sugar contents and glucose yields in the flavonoid-treated plants. Our results further illustrate the potential use of flavonoids as a nutritional complement for modifying Eucalyptus wood, since, supplementation with flavonoids alters its chemical composition, gene expression and increases saccharification probably as part of a stress response.

  17. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  18. Multimedia content classification metrics for content adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rui; Andrade, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia content consumption is very popular nowadays. However, not every content can be consumed in its original format: the combination of content, transport and access networks, consumption device and usage environment characteristics may all pose restrictions to that purpose. One way to provide the best possible quality to the user is to adapt the content according to these restrictions as well as user preferences. This adaptation stage can be best executed if knowledge about the conten...

  19. Changes in trehalose content of baker's yeast as affected by octanoic acid Alterações no teor de trealose de levedura de panificação provocadas por ácido octanóico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Octanoic acid inhibited ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast and the trehalose accumulation, however did not affect the endogenous degradation of trehalose. This inhibition may be explained by the binding of octanoic acid to hexokinase or other proteins of plasma membrane because they are not necessary for endogenous fermentation. The degradation of trehalose may be due to an activation of trehalase.A adição de ácido octanóico inibiu a fermentação alcoólica realizada por Saccharomyces cerevisiae (levedura de panificação e o acúmulo de trealose, contudo não afetou a degradação endógena de trealose. Esta inibição poderia ser explicada pela ligação do ácido octanóico a hexoquinase ou outra proteína da membrana plasmática porque não são necessárias para a fermentação endógena. A degradação da trealose poderia ser devida a uma ativação da trealase.

  20. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  1. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  2. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  3. Adolescent judgment of sexual content on television: implications for future content analysis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A; Henderson, Vani R; Jordan, Amy; Trentacoste, Nicole; Martin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Many studies of sexual messages in media utilize content analysis methods. At times, this research assumes that researchers and trained coders using content analysis methods and the intended audience view and interpret media content similarly. This article compares adolescents' perceptions of the presence or absence of sexual content on television to those of researchers using three different coding schemes. Results from this formative research study suggest that participants and researchers are most likely to agree with content categories assessing manifest content, and that differences exist among adolescents who view sexual messages on television. Researchers using content analysis methods to examine sexual content in media and media effects on sexual behavior should consider identifying how audience characteristics may affect interpretation of content and account for audience perspectives in content analysis study protocols when appropriate for study goals.

  4. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  5. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  6. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  7. Contentment and Affect in the Estimation of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mariano; Veenhoven, Ruut

    2013-01-01

    How do we assess how happy we are? One theory is that we compare life-as-it-is with standards of how-life-should-be. In this view, happiness emerges from a cognitive evaluation that draws on socially constructed standard of the good life. Another theory holds that we rather infer happiness on the basis of how well we feel most of the time. In that…

  8. Towards Cognizant Hearing Aids: Modeling of Content, Affect and Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadogan, Seliz

    Hearing aids improved significantly after the integration of advanced digital signal processing applications. This improvement will continue and evolve through obtaining intelligent, individualized hearing aids integrating top-down (knowledge-based) and bottom-up (signal-based) approaches by making...... attention is studied. A computational top-down attention model is presented and behavioral experiments are carried out to investigate the role of top-down task driven attention in the cocktail party problem. Finally, automatic emotion recognition from speech is studied using a dimensional approach...

  9. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TrueFasterUser

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... material (F3 and F4) could not be detected until the end of the fermentation whereas, in FPBs using diced material, methanol was found ... as cereals, fruits and vegetables. The product is fermented by lactic acid ... sugar and water in the ratio of 3:1:10 (w/w/v) with or without 10% starter culture in a plastic ...

  10. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  11. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  12. Teor de proteínas nos grãos em resposta à aplicação de nitrogênio em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cevada Protein content in barley seeds affected by nitrogen application in different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernando Wamser

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de proteínas em grãos de cevada em resposta à aplicação de N em estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul e Encruzilhada do Sul, no ano de 2000, e em Victor Graeff, nos anos de 2000 e 2001, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os estádios de aplicação de N foram na emergência das plântulas; na emissão da 2ª ou 3ª folha; da 4ª ou 5ª folha; 6ª ou 7ª folha; 8ª ou 9ª folha; e no emborrachamento. As doses de N foram de 30 ou 40kg ha-1 e 60 ou 80kg ha-1, para a menor e maior dose, respectivamente. As determinações realizadas foram teor de proteínas nos grãos e número de grãos metro-2. Para os experimentos realizados em 2000, a aplicação de nitrogênio até o início do alongamento dos entrenós (emissão da 7ª folha manteve o teor de proteínas no grão abaixo dos 12%, mesmo para a maior dose de N. Os teores de proteínas no grão em Victor Graeff, no ano de 2001, ficaram acima do limite máximo de 12% com a aplicação da maior dose de N já em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento da cultura, devido ao maior teor de matéria orgânica no solo em relação aos outros locais.This study was was aimed at evaluating the protein content in barley seeds affected by nitrogen application in different growth stages. Experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul and Encruzilhada do Sul, in 2000, and Victor Graeff, in 2000 and 2001, on a randomized blocks scheme with four repetitions. The growth stages of N application were in emergency of seedlings; emission of 2nd or 3rd leaf; 4th or 5th leaf; 6th or 7th leaf; 8th or 9th leaf; and in boot stage. The N rates were 30 or 40kg ha-1 and 60 or 80kg ha-1, for smallest and largest N rate, respectively. The protein content in barley seeds and the number of grains area-1 were determined. In the experiments carried out in 2000 the nitrogen

  13. Effect of Processing Methods on Nutrient Contents of Six Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sun drying had no significant (p≤0.05) effect on ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron and magnesium contents. On the other hand, boiling, roasting and sun drying significantly (p<0.05) affected, reducing sugars and total carotenoid content. Boiling of the sweet potato caused highest loss in reducing sugar content, ...

  14. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  15. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  16. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  17. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  18. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  19. Content strategy: Příprava a návrh obsahu pro web organizace

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrož, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the content strategy, methods and techniques how to prepare, design and create web content according to established goals. The theoretical part defines role of the content strategy, introduces methods, content life cycle and potential benefits and outputs of the content strategy in its phases: preparation, analysis, creation, evaluation and content management. Work also discussed the interaction with other fields of web design and legal limits, which affect online content ...

  20. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  1. Nutrient Content Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-nutrition, . In this section Food What Can I Eat Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Cutting Back on Sodium Nutrient Content Claims Snacks Taking ...

  2. METHODS OF CONTENTS CURATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kukharenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Content curated - a new activity (started in 2008 qualified network users with process large amounts of information to represent her social network users. To prepare content curators developed 7 weeks distance course, which examines the functions, methods and tools curator. Courses showed a significant relationship success learning on the availability of advanced personal learning environment and the ability to process and analyze information.

  3. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  4. Nutrient contents and production of rocket as affected by nitrogen concentrations in the nutritive solution Teores de nutrientes e produção de rúcula em função das concentrações de nitrogênio em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Cavarianni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Empiricism in the use of nutrient solutions is frequent. Several times the same nutrient solution is used to grow different species based only on morphological similarities. This practice may lead to nutritional imbalances, affecting not only the production but also the quality of the product due to an accumulation of nitrate. An experiment under hydroponic conditions - the NFT system - was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution on the production and on the nutrient and nitrate contents of rocket (Eruca sativa salad leaves. The experiment was carried out in spring 2003, in a randomized block design and in a 4 x 3 factorial design, with four replicates. Four nitrogen concentrations in the nutrient solution (60.8; 121.6; 182.5; 243.5 mg L-1 and three rocket salad cultivars (Cultivada, Folha Larga and Selvática were evaluated. Cv. Cultivada produced the tallest plants and the highest leaf fresh fitomass, not differing from cv. 'Folha Larga' in the number of leaves, leaf nitrate content, root dry fitomass and root fresh fitomass. An increment in NO3, N, Ca and P and a reduction in Mg, K and S occurred when the concentration of N in the nutrient solution was increased. Cultivation of cv. Cultivada at the concentration of 93 mg L-1 is the most recommended as it provides the highest yield and low nitrate content.O empirismo no uso das soluções nutritivas é freqüente. Muitas vezes a mesma solução nutritiva é usada para diferentes espécies baseando-se apenas em semelhanças morfológicas. No entanto esta situação pode proporcionar desequilíbrio nutricional prejudicando tanto a produção quanto a qualidade do produto face o acúmulo de nitrato. Foi conduzido um trabalho em sistema hidropônico - NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva na produção, nos teores de nutrientes e de nitrato em folhas de rúcula (Eruca sativa

  5. Dissolved oxygen and ammonia levels in water that affect plasma ionic content and gallbladder bile in silver catfish Níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e amônia na água afetam o conteúdo iônico do plasma e da bile vesicular em jundiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic contents (Na+, K+ and Cl- of plasma and gallbladder bile (GB of juveniles silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen (156.1±0.2g, 28.2±0.3cm, were determined in three different times (0, 6 and 24h after exposure to: a control or high dissolved oxygen (DO = 6.5mg L-1 + low NH3 (0.03mg L-1; b low DO (3.5mg L-1 + low NH3; c high DO + high NH3 (0.1mg L-1; and d low DO + high NH3. High waterborne NH3 or low DO levels increased plasma and GB ion levels. These parameters might have followed different mechanisms to affect osmoregulation since a synergic effect of these variables was detected.O conteúdo iônico (Na+, K+ e Cl- do plasma e da bile vesicular (BV de juvenis de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (156,1±0,2g, 28,2±0,3cm, foi determinado em três diferentes tempos (0, 6 e 24h após exposi��ão a: a controle ou alto oxigênio dissolvido (OD = 6,5mg L-1 + baixa NH3 (0,03mg L-1; b baixo OD (3,5mg L-1 + baixa NH3; c alto OD + alta NH3 (0,1mg L-1; e baixo OD + alta NH3 . Alta concentração de amônia ou baixo oxigênio dissolvido na água aumentaram os níveis iônicos no plasma e na BV. Aparentemente, os efeitos osmorregulatórios desses parâmetros podem estar relacionados a mecanismos distintos, pois foi detectado efeito sinérgico sobre essa alteração osmorregulatória.

  6. Feature Analysis for Modeling Game Content Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    ’ preferences, and by defining the smallest game session size for which the model can still predict reported emotion with acceptable accuracy. Neuroevolutionary preference learning is used to approximate the function from game content to reported emotional preferences. The experiments are based on a modified......entertainment for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation. Modeling the relationship between game content and player preferences or affective states is an important step towards this type of game personalization. In this paper we...... analyse the relationship between level design parameters of platform games and player experience. We introduce a method to extract the most useful information about game content from short game sessions by investigating the size of game session that yields the highest accuracy in predicting players...

  7. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents...

  8. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  9. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  10. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  11. Caution, contention, and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Robert F

    2005-07-01

    The Washington Watch column provides an overview of NASA's cautious approach to the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery STS-114, contention between the Air Force and administration about production of the F/A-22 Raptor aircraft, and consolidation among U.S. airline companies.

  12. Content Area Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to identify research-supported strategies for content that can be integrated effectively to promote the development of biliterate academic literacy by English language learners (ELLs) in middle-school bilingual classrooms. The paper provides a research-based summary of relevant learning needs of adolescent…

  13. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content...

  14. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  15. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    -legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  16. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  17. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  18. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  19. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  20. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  1. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  2. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  3. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... do not secure theintegrity of the learning. This paper sets out the methods used to assist teacherstake the maximum benefit of their existing content as presentation style lecturesand utilize them for video recording suitable for both flipped and online classes.A central theme is removing the fear...

  4. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  5. Disponibilidade de nutrientes e teor de matéria orgânica em função de sistemas de cultivo e de manejo de solo Nutrient availability and organic matter content as affected by cropping systems and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main field plots (4 x 90m were formed by soil management systems, while the subplots (4 x 10m consisted of crop systems. The pH and concentration of exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca + Mg, soil organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K were affected by soil management and cropping systems. Higher contents of soil organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K were observed in the 0-5cm layer for the conservation tillage systems (minimum tillage and no-tillage, as compared to the conventional tillage systems (disk plow and moldboard plow. The values of soil organic matter, P, and K were higher in the 0-5 cm layer, when compared to the ones observed in the 15-20cm layer, in all soil management and cropping systems.

  6. Perception of content and non-content expert facilitators of PBL according to students' performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela; Alias, Ekram; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi A; Karim, Norwahidah Abd; Aan, Goon Jo

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred learning system that involves multidisciplinary fields focused on problem solving. Facilitators of PBL are not necessarily content experts but little is known on how this concept has affected the outcomes of PBL sessions in learning Medical Biochemistry. We aimed to evaluate the impact of having the content expert as a facilitator in conducting PBL. A total of 150 first and second year medical students from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia were interviewed with a validated set of questions to acquire their views on the roles of facilitators in PBL in learning Medical Biochemistry. Their achievement were evaluated through their essay marks derived from various PBL packages. All respondents agreed that PBL sessions associated with Medical Biochemistry are best appreciated when conducted by a content-expert facilitator. Their exam marks reflected well on their perception. PBL sessions related to Medical Biochemistry is best facilitated by Biochemistry lecturers as the content experts.

  7. KAPEAN: Understanding Affective States of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Barraza, Claudia; González, Nimrod; González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing seeks to create computational systems that adapt content and resources according to the affective states of the users. However, the detection of the user's affection such as motivation and emotion is challenging especially when an attention problem is present. An approach to convey learning resources to children with learning…

  8. Genetic counseling content: How does it impact health behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Porter, Kyle; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Women with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer face decisions about screening (transvaginal ultrasound, CA125, mammography, breast exams) and proactive (before cancer) or reactive (after cancer) surgery (oophorectomy, mastectomy). The content of genetic counseling and its relation to these key health behaviors is largely unexamined. Ashkenazi Jewish women (n = 78) were surveyed through the process of genetic testing and had audiorecorded counseling sessions available for Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count analysis. Proportions for participant and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions were used as primary predictor variables in linear mixed models for change in intentions for screening and treatment and in self-reported screening. Cognitive and affective content were important predictors of behavior. Counselor cognitive content was associated with ovarian screening. An interaction effect also emerged for CA-125, such that counselor cognitive content plus participant cognitive content or counselor affective content were associated with more screening. Teasing out the factors in risk communication that impact decision-making are critical, and affect from a risk communicator can spur action, such as cancer screening.

  9. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  10. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  11. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  12. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  14. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  15. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus...

  16. A conceptual model for local content development in petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kazzazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept, local content, in oil industry is gradually emerging. Local content should be defined in terms of value addition in local country (by local staff, local materials, local services and facilities rather than in terms of ownership of the company performing the value added activities. Many oil exporting countries have taken a positive approach toward local content development to maximize the benefits from oil and gas extraction. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model for local content development in petroleum industry. Local content can generally be defined in terms of the ownership and/ or location of the enterprises involved in production and/ or the value-added in the production process. Local content promotion will have to vary significantly between countries, depending on the current status of their economic, political and social development. This model is useful for state governments to consider all aspects and factors affecting local content development generally. Local content development outcomes are economic growth, industrial growth and spillover effects. The paper begins with examining the factors accommodated in literature believed to influence the local content promotion. Based on our review, the conceptual model derived includes key factors of local content that evaluate local content development, and examine interrelations between local policies, local infrastructure, local environment, and local capability.

  17. Real time release testing of tablet content and content uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Denham, Mike; Barylski, Ian

    2018-02-15

    A comprehensive commercial control strategy for tablet content and content uniformity focussed on the unit operation of compression is presented and is proposed to enable real time release for these critical quality attributes. The control strategy is based on process understanding, process control through compaction force weight control on the tablet press, periodic checks of mean and individual tablet weight combined with at-line testing of tablet content by near infrared (NIR). The application of the at-line NIR tablet content method is discussed and an acceptance criteria based on a parametric tolerance interval test (PTIT) is proposed. Sample handling limitations and spectral acquisition time for the NIR content method limit the sample size, however the chosen PTIT assures an appropriate level of batch coverage. Data are presented for ten commercial-scale batches that demonstrates the control strategy delivered the quality standard for content and content uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  19. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  20. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  1. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  2. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  3. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  4. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  5. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  6. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...... affects and assemblages produce subjective feelings and emotions (Pile 2009) Recently, urban experience designs and events aim at evoking affects through affects and assemblages. A Danish example is the Carlsberg city in Copenhagen another is The High line in Chelsea, New York (Samson 2011). Thus...

  7. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  8. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  9. Assessing advertising content in a hospital advertising campaign: An application of Puto and Wells (1984) measure of informational and transformational advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mohan K; Goodnight, Janelle M; Wayne, Robin J

    2006-01-01

    The following is a report of a study designed to measure advertising content based on the cognitive and affective elements of informational (i.e., information processing) and transformational (i.e., experiential) content using the measure of advertising informational and transformational content developed by Puto and Wells (1984). A university hospital advertising campaign designed to be high in transformational content did not appear to affect perceived quality of local university hospitals relative to private hospitals or increase the likelihood of choosing a university hospital in the future. Further, experiences with university hospitals that seemed to be in direct contrast to the content of the advertisements based on subject perceptions affected how university hospital advertisements were perceived in terms of content. Conclusions and implications for hospital advertising campaigns are discussed.

  10. The information content of SFAS No 131 interim segment reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Joong-Seok Cho

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the effect of implementation of SFAS No.131 on companies' information environments by assessing the effect of interim period financial reports. Especially, using Beaver's information content measures, it investigates the market's reaction to interim period financial reporting under SFAS No.131. The empirical results of the information content test show that the adoption of SFAS No.131 does not affect the market's reaction. For the volume reaction test, no d...

  11. Affect and criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Dragiša S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deals with an issue of relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. In order to provide a multi-angle approach to analysis of this issue the author resorted to multidisciplinary - criminal law and psychiatric-psychological approach. Although the topic covered by this article is significant and complex, it appears to be of virtually no interest in the literature. For that reason the author's endeavor to research this topic should not go unmentioned. In the first part of the article the author tried to provide answers to some preliminary questions without which it would be impossible to understand the relationship between the affect and criminal responsibility. Those are the following questions: what are affects, what is their nature and intensity, how long they last and how they influence psychological functions of a person acting in affect? Central part of the article is dedicated to examining the importance of the affect as a phenomenon in criminal law dogma and in judicial rulings, as well as its effect on criminal responsibility. The author finds that acting in affect may be considered as a mitigating circumstance in the sentencing, but can also be a basis for mitigation of the sentence or even suspension of the sentence, as part of some general criminal law norms. Also, for certain offenses it may be considered as a favorable condition that renders that offence to be less grave. Finally, the affect may be considered as a psychological basis diminished, or even lack of, mental capacity. The last above mentioned issue receives special attention of the author, and claims that only the affect that is 'of extreme proportions' may lead to mental incapacity. Such affect is the one that 'demolishes restrains and removes reasonable and target-oriented actions'. In further analysis the author proposes criteria and methodology for assessment of person's sanity in criminal law and criminal procedure. Further

  12. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new and alternat......In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... and alternative interpretations of what liminality is, or could be, taking it to territories distant from its place of origin, quite the contrary: we are moving the concept back to its rightful place in intellectual history and back to the core of its significance, back to the centre of human emotions trembling...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  13. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.

    2005-01-01

    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  14. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content of the ...... also describe the significance of the model in the domain of counterterrorism and open source intelligence....

  15. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  16. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor’s accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm3 cm−3) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R2 = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (0.05 cm3 cm−3). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm3 cm−3). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and environmental conditions. PMID:27527185

  17. Source of Gallium-67 in gastrointestinal contents: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.C.; Scheffel, U.; Camargo, E.E.; Tsan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sources of Ga-67 in gastrointestinal (GI) contents, and factors affecting its secretion were studied in rats. To prevent loss of fecal Ga-67, the anus was sutured before intravenous injection of Ga-67 citrate. Secretion of Ga-67 into the contents of the GI tract was rapid, 3, 6, and 9% of the injected dose were secreted at 1, 6, and 24 hr after injection, respectively. In contrast, Ga-67 concentration in the GI tissues remained relatively constant throughout this period. Analysis of Ga-67 contents of various parts of the GI tract revealed that small intestine is its major source, contributing 60% while the bile contributes 20%, large intestine 10%, esophagus and stomach 10%. Feeding had no effect on the Ga-67 secretion into GI contents. In contrast, the serum unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC) played an important role in the GI secretion of Ga-67; reducing the serum UIBC reduced the Ga-67 secretion into GI contents

  18. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  19. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  20. Effect of the soil water content on Jatropha seedlings in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vázquez, A.; Hernández-Salinas, G.; Ávila-Reséndiz, C.; Valdés-Rodríguez, O. A.; Gallardo-López, F.; García-Pérez, E.; Ruiz-Rosado, O.

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis in Jatropha at different levels of soil moisture. Plants were cultivated in containers and the treatments of the soil water content evaluated were: 0% (without watering), 20, 40, 60, and 80% soil water content. Plant height was statistically similar for all treatments, but the number of leaves differed significantly. Total dry matter and chlorophyll at 40, 60, and 80% soil water content were statistically similar, but different from 0 and 20% soil water content. Leaf area at 40, 60, and 80% soil water content was statistically different from 0 and 20% soil water content. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance at 60 and 80% soil water content were statistically similar but different from 0 and 20% soil water content. Water stress affected growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance.

  1. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  2. What affects women's participation?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    What affects women's participation? Variables. Men. Women. Presence. Caste, Age. Education. Political Experience. Attendance in Training. Region, Caste. Religion, Age. Number of Children. Political Experience. Attendance in training. Influence. Region, Education. Type of Family. Party Membership. Political Experience.

  3. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  4. Forward Affect Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonshtein, Udi; Torem, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.

  5. OER as Online Edutainment Resources: A Critical Look at Open Content, Branded Content, and How Both Affect the OER Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rolin

    2015-01-01

    Despite a rise in awareness and production of open education resources (OER) over the past decade, mainstream media outlets continue to define open in economic terms of consumer cost and not in theoretical terms of remix or appropriation. This period in the "open access" debate has coincided with a proliferation of free-of-charge video…

  6. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  7. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias não afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Schütz Cardoso Teófilo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração dos compostos fenólicos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. Métodos: A avaliação ocorreu após diferentes períodos de aquecimento (100°C em dois sistemas: i panela de alumínio e chama de fogão e ii balão de vidro e manta térmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas à fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e após cada período de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor férrico, e o teor de fenóis totais foi quantificado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferenças foram comparadas pela análise de variância para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100°C using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  8. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  9. Estimation of soil clay content from hygroscopic water content measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Wuddivira, Mark N.; Robinson, David A.; Lebron, Inma; Brechet, Laëtitia; Atwell, Melissa; De Caires, Sunshine; Oatham, Michael; Jones, Scott B.; Abdu, Hiruy; Verma, Aditya K.; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Soil texture and the soil water characteristic are key properties used to estimate flow and transport parameters. Determination of clay content is therefore critical for understanding of plot-scale soil heterogeneity. With increasing interest in proximal soil sensing, there is the need to relate obtained signals to soil properties of interest. Inference of soil texture, especially clay mineral content, from instrument response from electromagnetic induction and radiometric methods is of subst...

  10. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Affective false memories in Dementia of Alzheimer's Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Colangelo, Mirco; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the production of inferential false memories for complex pictorial stimuli and the implications of affective content in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A group of 24 AD patients and a group of 24 healthy older adults studied a sequence of pictures depicting stories that included positive, negative or neutral consequences of an unseen action, and then completed an old-new picture recognition test. The number of causal errors was higher in healthy older adults compared to AD patients but affective content attenuated the effect. Causal errors increased in AD patients when stories included affective (positive or negative) outcomes. In addition, negative content produced a larger number of errors than positive content across groups. This data confirms that although memory processing is poorer in AD, it is sensitive to affective content. Accordingly, the nature of affective false memory errors suggest the need to consider the use of affective information in the development of new cognitive training procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aspectos morfofisiológicos e conteúdo de óleo essencial de plantas de alfazema-do-Brasil em função de níveis de sombreamento Morphophysiological aspects and essential oil content in Brazilian-lavender as affected by shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo BP Pinto

    2007-06-01

    sombreamento respectivamente e uma redução significativa na razão a/b (3,13 a pleno sol e 2,94 e 2,69, a 40 e 80% de sombreamento, respectivamente.Changes in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics and in the production of essential oil of medicinal plants under influence of different radiation conditions have been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics, and in the essential oil content of the Brazilian-lavender (Aloysia gratissima [Gilles & Hook.] Tronc., verbenaceae, grown in different shading levels, characterized by the reduction of 0; 40, and 80% of the incident solar radiation. For growth analyses we used a completely randomized design (CRD, with three levels of light and five replicates of three plants. The analyses of chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were performed in CRD, with three replicates of three plants, while the analyses of essential oil content was carried out in CRD, with three replicates of five plants for each light level. The results showed that 40% of shading was the best condition for plant growth. Dry matter from different organs of the plant did not differ in the treatments 40% of shading (total dry matter 201 g and at full sunlight (148 g, both significantly higher than 80% of shading (68.6 g. Plants cultivated in full sunlight showed leaves with adaxial epidermic tissue, palisade, and spongy parenchyma and limb significantly thicker than other treatments; however plants grew at 80% shading showed leaves with abaxial epidermic tissue significantly thicker. Shadowing did not significantly interfere with the essential oil content, which ranged from 2.1 to 2.2%.; Nevertheless, the essential oil yield was significantly higher in plants grew in full sunlight (0.73 g plant-1 and 40% shading (0.88, than on those grew at 80% shading (0.26. There was significant increase of chlorophyll a and b concentration in function of the decrease in light intensity (20

  13. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  14. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    We review the current state of play in the game of naturalizing content and analyse reasons why each of the main proposals, when taken in isolation, is unsatisfactory. Our diagnosis is that if there is to be progress two fundamental changes are necessary. First, the point of the game needs...... to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...

  15. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  16. Ion content of synaptic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, I.; Keszthelyi, L.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Varga, L.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Nagy, A.

    1977-09-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission analysis measurements were performed to determine the P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn ion content of presynaptic vesicles prepared from guinea-pig cortex brain. The number of different ions per single vesicle is calculated using results of the additional protein content determinations. The ion content of cholinergic and adrenergic vesicles are compared. Some rough conclusions can be made regarding the biochemistry of vesicles on the basis of this measurements, but the elucidation of the meaning of the data needs further work which will demonstrate the value of PIXE-type investigations in similar studies. (D.P.)

  17. The Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Lara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade studies on affect and emotions have become relevant in the social sciences. This is not just a fad guideline, but instead a simultaneous reader of public life changes and subjective experience, from which it is also being transformed the knowledge production. Such a trend has been known as ‘The Affective Turn’ within the Anglophone Academy. Here we will translate it as ‘El Giro Afectivo’. This turn, so far, has not dabbled in the social science literature that is written in Spanish. This paper draws on a singular panorama of discussions about contemporary social studies of affect and emotion, and it’s vertebrate by some of its expressions in the contemporary academy.

  18. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    The nightclub as a space is presented as a free and hedonistic place for pleasure. This space is also part of a wider socio-spatial-economic framework in which various forms of regulation apply to clubbers and the cultivation of affects. This paper researches marginal and contested forms of exper......The nightclub as a space is presented as a free and hedonistic place for pleasure. This space is also part of a wider socio-spatial-economic framework in which various forms of regulation apply to clubbers and the cultivation of affects. This paper researches marginal and contested forms...... of experiences within a club as a way of understanding the complexities of pleasure. The study does so by addressing experiences through the concept of affects, which is situated within a framework of a non-representational theory of space. Anxiety, pride, anger, shame and embarrassment are embodied...

  19. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  20. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  1. Global Content in Global Coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun Melliti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the issue of “globality” in global coursebooks as manifested in investing features of connectedness, avoiding inappropriacy, and preserving inclusivity. To do this exploration, two research methods, content analysis and the questionnaire, were adopted. The content of an example of global coursebooks, Headway Intermediate (H/I, in addition to the perception of 251 of its users at Institute Bourguiba for Living Languages (IBLV were investigated. The results obtained revealed that “globality,” in terms of connectedness, inappropriacy, and inclusivity is partial in H/I as learners’ perceptions of it do not map with the content in the coursebook. This study raises questions about the suitability of global coursebooks to globally diverse learners and reveals the necessity of taking measures in the direction of localizing the content of English as a foreign language (EFL coursebooks.

  2. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  3. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    , 2005) of protesting women and various human and non-human, mediatised (Hepp, 2013; Hjarvard, 2008; Lundby 2009) and localized actors. The article suggests that Femen’s protests undergo a dual process of mediatisation that aims to both generate a spreadable imaginary and enable communication between...... bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  4. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  5. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  6. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    There is considerable evidence that new teachers are ill prepared for classroom practice, including self-reported evidence collected from teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), and statistical evidence for differences in the achievement of students with new versus more experienced teachers (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005). In light of the challenges encountered by new teachers (e.g., Levine, 2006), this study examined the value of different forms of teacher knowledge for teachers with different levels of experience. In particular, this study investigated the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teacher content knowledge, and student achievement in mathematics and science. In New York City, Boyd et al. (2009) linked practice-focused teacher preparation to student mathematics achievement in the first year of teaching and teacher content preparation to achievement in the second. However, other studies demonstrated interactions between teaching experience and content knowledge with different interpretations (e.g., Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Monk, 1994). At the same time, this study examined the interactive relationship between teaching experience and teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, and student achievement. Extant models of teacher career development (Huberman, 1989; National Research Council, 2010) and how teacher education affects student achievement (e.g., Desimone, 2009) offered theoretical grounding for the study. With nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth grade U.S. students--participants in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study--this study employed hierarchical linear modeling to address its research questions among an array of student achievement outcomes in the domains of mathematics and science. This study attempted to account for salient student, teacher, and contextual factors, and the probabilities of teachers' receipt of various teacher education "treatments" (i.e., propensity score analysis) to

  7. Concrete workability and fibre content

    OpenAIRE

    Vikan, Hedda

    2007-01-01

    Research report Parameters influencing the workability of fibre concrete and maximum fibre content are given in this state of the art report along with the range of fibre types available on today’s market. The study reveales that new placing techniques and production methods are crucial in order to increase fibre content and concrete strength. Achieving the same mechanical properties as traditionally reinforced concrete will probably also demand changes of the matrix. Finally, reco...

  8. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  9. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Lin, C.S.; Wu, C.; Liao, C.E.; Lin, H.Y.

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  10. Linking genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes in individuals at elevated breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheritance; Frequency of Inherited Cancer) measured at pre- and post-counseling. Proportion of participant cognitive and affective and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions (using LIWC software) were predictors in regressions. Knowledge increased for 5 measures and decreased for Personal Behavior, Distress and Perceived Risk. Controlling for age and education, results were significant/marginally significant for three measures. More counselor content was associated with decreases in knowledge of Personal Behavior. More participant and less counselor affective content was associated with gains in Practitioner Knowledge. More counselor cognitive, and interaction of counselor cognitive and affective content, were associated with higher perceived risk. Genetic counselors dominate the content of counseling sessions. Therefore, their content is tied more closely to short term outcomes than participant content. A lack of patient communication in sessions may pose problems for understanding of complex concepts.

  11. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...

  12. Affective public choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Casas Pardo, J.; Schwartz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that due to the neglect of the affective side of human decision making we find it hard to explain political economic phenomena such as tax revolts, voting, political rituals, terrorism, and entitlements. Taking into account the action tendencies of emotions like resentment, hatred,

  13. Affective Tourism Ethnography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Tucker, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to advance the concept of affective tourism ethnography. We take ethnography to refer to a research strategy rather than simply a methodological tool. This is because ethnography entails methods (individual interviews, focus groups, participant observation amongst others) and

  14. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  15. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. This decrease in sunlight may disrupt your body's internal clock and lead to feelings of depression. Serotonin levels. A drop in serotonin, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that affects mood, ... disrupt the balance of the body's level of melatonin, which plays a role in ...

  16. Perception of content and non-content expert facilitators of PBL according to students’ performance levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela; Alias, Ekram; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi A; Karim, Norwahidah Abd; Aan, Goon Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centred learning system that involves multidisciplinary fields focused on problem solving. Facilitators of PBL are not necessarily content experts but little is known on how this concept has affected the outcomes of PBL sessions in learning Medical Biochemistry. We aimed to evaluate the impact of having the content expert as a facilitator in conducting PBL. Methods: A total of 150 first and second year medical students from the University Kebangsaan Malaysia were interviewed with a validated set of questions to acquire their views on the roles of facilitators in PBL in learning Medical Biochemistry. Their achievement were evaluated through their essay marks derived from various PBL packages. Results: All respondents agreed that PBL sessions associated with Medical Biochemistry are best appreciated when conducted by a content-expert facilitator. Their exam marks reflected well on their perception. Conclusion: PBL sessions related to Medical Biochemistry is best facilitated by Biochemistry lecturers as the content experts. PMID:26870131

  17. Integrating Global Content into Special Education Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Joy F.; Accardo, Amy L.; Shuff, Midge; Cormier, Mary; Doorman, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Globalization affects many aspects of our lives in the 21st century and requires us to adopt an international perspective. For this study, global content was integrated into one course of an undergraduate special education teacher education program. A total of 118 teacher candidates were enrolled in the course over two semesters. A pre-post test…

  18. Ontology Translation: The Semiotic Engineering of Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villamarin M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the application of Semiotic Engineering theory to Content Management Systems (CMS focusing on the analysis of how the use of different ontologies can affect the user’s efficiency when performing tasks in a CMS. The analysis is performed using the theoretical semiotic model Web-Semiotic Interface Design Evaluation (W-SIDE model.

  19. Glucosinolate content and related gene expression in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface can affect the growth and development of plants. Glucosinolate metabolism is evolved through plant interactions with the environment and constantly regulated by different environmental factors. We investigated the contents of glucosinolates and the expression of ...

  20. Soybean seed viability and changes of fatty acids content as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of soybean seed chemical composition are related to specific processes occurring in seed during storage. These changes lead to seed aging during storage and affect seed vigour and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigour tests were applied: Standard ...

  1. Changes in microstructure, beta carotene content and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes {OFSP} (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) contain high levels of beta carotene, an important provitamin A carotenoid. Stored sweet potato roots undergo many physiological changes that affect their beta carotene content and bioaccessibility as well as the tissue microstructure. This study ...

  2. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  3. Hearts and Minds: The Priority of Affective versus Cognitive Factors in Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kari; Hippel, William von

    1995-01-01

    In two experiments, affect-based and cognition-based attitudes toward a person were induced by varying sequence of affective and cognitive information presented to subjects while holding content constant. Results indicated affect-based attitudes were most effectively changed by affective persuasive appeals, whether these appeals were produced by…

  4. Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages in Temporal Lobectomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Porter, Gwinne Wyatt; Dimitri, Diana; Cofer, Lucas; Labar, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen temporal lobectomy patients (9 left, LTL; 9 right, RTL) were administered four verbal tasks, an Affective Implicit Task, a Neutral Implicit Task, an Affective Explicit Task, and a Neutral Explicit Task. For the Affective and Neutral Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading aloud passages with affective or neutral content,…

  5. Content

    OpenAIRE

    Content

    2016-01-01

    DAFTAR ISIA Novel Mechanism for Delivering IPTV Traffic in Ethernet Passive Optical NetworksAndrew Tanny Liem (Universitas Klabat)Pages: 113-124Perancangan Aplikasi Sistem Pengendalian Stock Barang Pada UD. Makmur JayaHelmi Kurniawan (Universitas Potensi Utama)Pages:125-135Pemanfaatan Aplikasi Jotform Sebagai Media Request Pengambilan Donasi Pada Sistem ZFordUntung Rahardja, Indri Handayani, Sarah Riwanda Shofroh ( STMIK Raharja)Pages:136-146Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penentuan Jurusan Sekola...

  6. Influence of gut content in immature aquatic insects on assessments of environmental metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.; Axtmann, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of metal associated with the gut content in immature aquatic insects (larvae and nymphs) on spatial and interspecific comparisons of whole-body metal concentrations. Four species, common to cobble-bottom rivers and streams, were collected along an established contamination gradient in the Clark Fork River, and from tributaries of the Clark Fork. Metal concentrations were determined in the gut and its content and in the insect body. Whole-body metal concentrations were higher and more variable as a result of gut content. The positive bias produced by the gut content did not alter interpretations of site contamination in most cases. Interspecific comparisons of metal bioaccumulation also were not greatly affected by the presence of gut content. The influence of gut content was specific for metal, species, and site. Feeding habit, gut size, and metal bioaccumulation in the body affected the relative contribution of the gut and its content to metal concentrations in the whole insect.

  7. The size and germination of eggplant seed in relation to fruit maturity at harvest, after-ripening and ethylene application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina MAKROGIANNI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In eggplant cultivars Black Beauty, Emi, Long Negro and Tsakoniki cultivated for seed, flower induction and flower weight decreased in the presence of developing fruit on the plant. Harvesting prior to maturity (25-35 days after anthesis, aimed at increasing flower induction and fruit set, resulted in small seeds that failed to germinate or germinated poorly. When these fruit were stored for 20 days at 25±30C before seed extraction, seed size and germination increased indicating seed filling and maturation (‘after-ripening’ within the harvested fruit. In year 1, a single application of ethylene before storage increased the germination of Black Beauty and Long Negro harvested 25-35 days after anthesis, but reduced that of Emi and Tsakoniki. In year 2, ethylene application once before the storage of fruits harvested 35 days after anthesis promoted the germination of Tsakoniki and Emi, and when ethylene was applied three times germination was increased further. The possible applications of early harvest, fruit storage prior to seed extraction and ethylene treatment to eggplant seed production are discussed.

  8. Affect in electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  9. Affective public choice

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Casas Pardo, J.; Schwartz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that due to the neglect of the affective side of human decision making we find it hard to explain political economic phenomena such as tax revolts, voting, political rituals, terrorism, and entitlements. Taking into account the action tendencies of emotions like resentment, hatred, shame, fear, and hope, makes these kinds of behavior better understandable and predictable. To phrase the argument of this paper in a more polemical way: Who cannot stand the heat should stay out ...

  10. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  11. Pre-service teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge in teaching geometric transformation. Eighty-two pre-service teachers from two Colleges of Education in the. Ashanti region of Ghana consisted the sample size. The study was a quantitative study which employed survey as a strategy of ...

  12. Safeguarding Digital Library Contents: Charging for Online Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the need for mechanisms for charging by digital libraries and other providers of online content, in particular for micropayments, i.e., charging for small amounts. The SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) protocols for charge card payments and the MiniPay micropayment mechanism for charging small amounts…

  13. Pre-service teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pre-service teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge in teaching geometric transformation. Eighty-two pre-service teachers from two Colleges of Education in the Ashanti region of Ghana consisted the sample size. The study was a quantitative study which employed survey as a strategy of ...

  14. Content dependent information flow control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    a combined Hoare logic and type system for enforcing content dependent information flow policies dealing with both integrity and confidentiality. We establish the soundness of the Hoare logic with respect to an instrumented operational semantics and illustrate the development on a running example. We also......Information flow control extends access control by not only regulating who is allowed to access what data but also the subsequent use of the data. Applications within communications systems require such information flow control to be dependent on the actual contents of the data. We develop...

  15. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  16. Evaluating Content Dimensions in Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Kåre

    problems due to their conceptual framework (Krueger, 2009), or they have a view of entrepreneurship that does not take into account the advancements within research that have been made during the last decade (Sarasvathy, 2008). Thus, we clearly need to dig deeper into this field in order to create methods...... results (i.e. most high performing entrepreneurs) and how this affects different types of students. There is a great variety of different views in the field of research concerning the content and structure of entrepreneurship courses, but no comprehensive study has yet been done in which these competing...... and models that allow us to evaluate the outcomes of different types of entrepreneurship courses. In the beginning of 2011, the Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise initiated a research project with the aim to further our understanding of the type of impact entrepreneurship education...

  17. Automatic document navigation for digital content remastering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaofan; Simske, Steven J.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method of automatically adding navigation capabilities to re-mastered electronic books. We first analyze the need for a generic and robust system to automatically construct navigation links into re-mastered books. We then introduce the core algorithm based on text matching for building the links. The proposed method utilizes the tree-structured dictionary and directional graph of the table of contents to efficiently conduct the text matching. Information fusion further increases the robustness of the algorithm. The experimental results on the MIT Press digital library project are discussed and the key functional features of the system are illustrated. We have also investigated how the quality of the OCR engine affects the linking algorithm. In addition, the analogy between this work and Web link mining has been pointed out.

  18. Evaluating Content Dimensions in Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Kåre

    results (i.e. most high performing entrepreneurs) and how this affects different types of students. There is a great variety of different views in the field of research concerning the content and structure of entrepreneurship courses, but no comprehensive study has yet been done in which these competing...... problems due to their conceptual framework (Krueger, 2009), or they have a view of entrepreneurship that does not take into account the advancements within research that have been made during the last decade (Sarasvathy, 2008). Thus, we clearly need to dig deeper into this field in order to create methods...... and models that allow us to evaluate the outcomes of different types of entrepreneurship courses. In the beginning of 2011, the Danish Foundation for Entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise initiated a research project with the aim to further our understanding of the type of impact entrepreneurship education...

  19. Challenges in measuring moisture content of feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, N; Richardson, C R

    2003-12-01

    Accurate determination of the moisture (water) content in individual feed ingredients and mixed feeds is critical throughout the feed industry. Most analytical methods used to determine apparent water content of feedstuffs are empirical, estimating water by evaporation and loss of weight on drying (oven drying methods). These methods differ greatly in effectiveness, resulting in bias. Bias associated with measuring the water content of feedstuffs is a concern not only because of the lack of confidence in the moisture value itself, but also because moisture determinations affect accurate quantification and expression of other nutrient values. Methods for determining moisture in feeds have frequently been borrowed from the cereal, forage, or other applications without validating the extension of the method. Methods such as Karl Fischer titration measure water by direct comparison to a calibration standard for water and can be used as reference methods for the evaluation of empirical methods. The objective of this paper is to review methods for determining moisture, review comparisons among moisture methods for various feedstuffs, make recommendations for a reference method, and make general recommendations toward improving the results of moisture testing. The need to evaluate and improve moisture methods and standardize practices in laboratories is evident from this study. It also is evident that the methods appropriate for a specific feed ingredient or feed should not be extended to all feeds without proper validation to the new matrices. Part of the validation for empirical methods should be comparison to Karl Fischer or other the direct methods. It also is recommended that the results obtained using oven methods not be termed "moisture;" rather, they should be termed "loss on drying," and the drying conditions should become part of the term.

  20. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  1. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  2. Risk, Affect and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time theorising has underestimated the importance of affect and emotion in decision making and the management of risk and uncertainty. In relatively one-sided interpretations emotions were often interpreted as threats for rational decision making, and could be triggered by uncertainties, which would go along with social change. Recent interdisciplinary research has shown the importance to acknowledge the more complex link between reasoning and emotions. The article outlines different perspectives on emotion in risk research of economics, psychology and sociology and argues for further research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601293

  3. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’ (Governmentality) related to different forms of control, and on the other hand new modes of existences connected to co-operation, social innovation and experimental projects. The paper then argues for a more positive conception of biopolitics using self-management as a strategy since it is through self...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  4. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  5. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  6. Digital Content: Making Learning Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15 states are changing their policies to give school districts more flexibility in acquiring content. They have changed laws or policies or have bills pending in state legislatures to redefine "textbooks". Most of those changes are similar to the approach Indiana took in its new law: a "textbook" is not only a…

  7. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  8. Open Content in Open Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  9. Telenovelas as Art Curriculum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In February and March 2007, the author investigated the possibilities of visual culture art education in two Greek Primary schools in Athens with students in Grades 5 and 6. One of her goals was to determine whether or not the telenovela genre was appropriate as curriculum content in primary art education. She chose telenovelas because they are a…

  10. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  11. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the ...

  12. Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Choice viewing behavior when looking at affective scenes was assessed to examine differences due to hedonic content and gender by monitoring eye movements in a selective looking paradigm. On each trial, participants viewed a pair of pictures that included a neutral picture together with an affective scene depicting either contamination, mutilation, threat, food, nude males, or nude females. The duration of time that gaze was directed to each picture in the pair was determined from eye fixations. Results indicated that viewing choices varied with both hedonic content and gender. Initially, gaze duration for both men and women was heightened when viewing all affective contents, but was subsequently followed by significant avoidance of scenes depicting contamination or nude males. Gender differences were most pronounced when viewing pictures of nude females, with men continuing to devote longer gaze time to pictures of nude females throughout viewing, whereas women avoided scenes of nude people, whether male or female, later in the viewing interval. For women, reported disgust of sexual activity was also inversely related to gaze duration for nude scenes. Taken together, selective looking as indexed by eye movements reveals differential perceptual intake as a function of specific content, gender, and individual differences. PMID:26156939

  13. Lead content of calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E A; Szabo, N J; Tebbett, I R

    2000-09-20

    Substantial quantities of lead have been reported in some over-the-counter calcium supplement preparations, including not only bone-meal and dolomite, but also over-the-counter natural and refined calcium carbonate formulations. Examination of this issue is warranted given recent increases in physician recommendations for calcium supplements for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. To determine the lead content of calcium supplements and to quantify the lead exposure from popular brands of calcium in dosages used for childhood recommended daily allowance, osteoporosis, and phosphate binding in dialysis patients. Analysis of lead content in 21 formulations of nonprescription calcium carbonate (including 7 natural [ie, oyster shell] and 14 refined), 1 brand of prescription-only calcium acetate, and 1 noncalcium synthetic phosphate binder conducted in March 2000. Lead content, assayed using electrothermal atomic absorption, expressed as micrograms of lead per 800 mg/d of elemental calcium, per 1500 mg/d of calcium, and for a range of dosages for patients with renal failure. Six microg/d of lead was considered the absolute dietary limit, with no more than 1 microg/d being the goal for supplements. Four of 7 natural products had measurable lead content, amounting to approximately 1 microg/d for 800 mg/d of calcium, between 1 and 2 microg/d for 1500 mg/d of calcium, and up to 10 microg/d for renal dosages. Four of the 14 refined products had similar lead content, including up to 3 microg/d of lead in osteoporosis calcium dosages and up to 20 microg/d in high renal dosages. No lead was detected in the calcium acetate or polymer products. Lead was present even in some brand name products from major pharmaceutical companies not of natural oyster shell derivation. Despite increasingly stringent limits of lead exposure, many calcium supplement formulations contain lead and thereby may pose an easily avoidable public health concern. JAMA. 2000;284:1425-1429.

  14. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways. ...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective........ The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  15. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  16. Trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard

    2016-01-01

    treatment outcome for this patient group. Methods: This thesis includes four papers based on two studies – a literature review and a randomised trial called PTF3: The aim of the literature review was to provide an overview of the existing literature on the pharmacological treatment of refugees with PTSD and....... The aim of PTF3 was to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairments in trauma-affected refugees as well as research predictors for treatment outcome. The patients included were 207 adult refugees diagnosed...... with PTSD and/or depression who had their first appointment at Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP) between April 1st 2012 and September 16th 2013. Patients were randomised into one of the two treatment groups: a sertraline group (n=109) or a venlafaxine group (n=98). Patients in both groups...

  17. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...

  18. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  19. Gender differences in implicit and explicit memory for affective passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was repeated three times, and alternated with other previously unread passages. The Implicit Affective and Neutral passages had strong affective or neutral content, respectively. The Explicit Tasks were administered at the end of testing, and consisted of multiple choice questions regarding the passages. Priming effects in terms of more rapid reading speed for the target compared to non-target passages were seen for both the Implicit Affective Task and the Implicit Neutral Task. Overall reading speed was faster for the passages with neutral compared to affective content, consistent with studies of the emotional Stroop effect. For the Explicit memory tasks, overall performance was better on the items from the repeated passage, and on the Affective compared to Neutral Task. The male subjects showed greater priming for affective material than female subjects, and a greater gain than female subjects in explicit memory for affective compared to neutral material.

  20. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in

  1. Detecting Malicious Content on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2015-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) witness a rise in user activity whenever an event takes place. Malicious entities exploit this spur in user-engagement levels to spread malicious content that compromises system reputation and degrades user experience. It also generates revenue from advertisements, clicks, etc. for the malicious entities. Facebook, the world's biggest social network, is no exception and has recently been reported to face much abuse through scams and other type of malicious conten...

  2. Palm content of production metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Swift, W.H.

    1959-11-23

    Purpose of this study was to determine the {sup 237}Np input to the Purex process. The {sup 237}Np content of 639 g Pu/ton U irradiated fuel was found to be 1.78 {plus_minus} .09 g/ton of uranium at the 95% confidence level. Standard recovery for the chemical method was 96.7%, 98.0% for the sampling.

  3. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  4. Content, Cost, Chance, and Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzen, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This Working Paper argues that the film industry is a paradigmatic example of how the organization of the cultural economy is shaped by balancing creativity with contextual issues. In the film industry, organization is far from determined only by creative concerns for content production: Issues of cost, chance and collection also play important roles. Through analyzing creativity and its context in the film industry, the paper explains the industry’s organization, and opens up for understandi...

  5. Effect of the Silica Content of Diatoms on Protozoan Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect that silica content in diatom cells has on the behavior of protists. The diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and T. pseudonana were cultured in high or low light conditions to achieve low and high silica contents, respectively. These cells were then fed to a heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a ciliate Euplotes sp. in single and mixed diet experiments. Our results showed that in general, N. scintillans and Euplotes sp. both preferentially ingested the diatoms with a low silica content rather than those with a high silica content. However, Euplotes sp. seemed to be less influenced by the silica content than was N. scintillans. In the latter case, the clearance and ingestion rate of the low silica diatoms were significantly higher, both in the short (6-h and long (1-d duration grazing experiments. Our results also showed that N. scintillans required more time to digest the high silica-containing cells. As the high silica diatoms are harder to digest, this might explain why N. scintillans exhibits a strong preference for the low silica prey. Thus, the presence of high silica diatoms might limit the ability of the dinoflagellate to feed. Our findings suggest that the silica content of diatoms affects their palatability and digestibility and, consequently, the grazing activity and selectivity of protozoan grazers.

  6. Content Based Searching for INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Jain, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Whatever a user wants is available on the internet, but to retrieve the information efficiently, a multilingual and most-relevant document search engine is a must. Most current search engines are word based or pattern based. They do not consider the meaning of the query posed to them; purely based on the keywords of the query; no support of multilingual query and and dismissal of nonrelevant results. Current information-retrieval techniques either rely on an encoding process, using a certain perspective or classification scheme, to describe a given item, or perform a full-text analysis, searching for user-specified words. Neither case guarantees content matching because an encoded description might reflect only part of the content and the mere occurrence of a word does not necessarily reflect the document’s content. For general documents, there doesn’t yet seem to be a much better option than lazy full-text analysis, by manually going through those endless results pages. In contrast to this, new search engine should extract the meaning of the query and then perform the search based on this extracted meaning. New search engine should also employ Interlingua based machine translation technology to present information in the language of choice of the user. (author

  7. The effect of motor vehicle emission towards lead (Pb content of rice field soil with different clay content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.Wati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle gas emission contains lead (Pb which is a hazardous and toxic substance. Agricultural land, especially rice field, which is located nearby roads passed by many motor vehicle, are susceptible to the accumulation of Pb. If Pb is permeated by plants cultivated in the rice field, it will be very hazardous for humans as they are the final consumers. Hence, it is essential to identify Pb content of rice-field soil initiated by motor vehicle gas emission. This study was aimed to identify the effects of motor vehicle density, the distance between rice-field and road, and the clay content of soil towards Pb content of soils in Blitar and Ngawi Regencies of East Java. The method used for the study was survey method managed by using three-factor nested design with three replicates. The results of this study showed that motor vehicle density and the distance of rice field to road provide significant affected the total of Pb content of soil. However, the dissemination pattern of Pb in the soil was irregular due to the factors of climate and environment. Before Pb reached soil surface, Pb was spread out in the air due to the effect of temperature, wind velocity, vehicle velocity, size of vehicle, and road density. Consequently, the location with low motor vehicle density and positioned faraway to the road had higher total rate of Pb than the location with high motor vehicle density and positioned nearby the road. Clay content affected the total rate of Pb content as much as 37%, every 1% increase of clay content increased the total rate of Pb as much as 0.08 mg/kg.

  8. Using hyperspectral remote sensing data for retrieving canopy chlorophyll and nitrogen content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant stress is often expressed as a reduction in amount of biomass or leaf area index (LAI). In addition, stress may affect the plant pigment system, influencing the photosynthetic capacity of plants. Chlorophyll content is the main driver for this primary production. The chlorophyll content is

  9. Responses of inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to seasonal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation (e.g. temperature and photoperiod) between growing seasons might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. However, there is limited information on genotypic response to seasons for inulin content and inulin yield. The objective of this study was to investig...

  10. Influence of planting date and temperature on inulin content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower temperatures during the dry season in tropical regions might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting dates during low temperature on inulin yield and content of Jerusalem artichoke. Two pot experiments...

  11. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-05

    Dec 5, 2012 ... 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analy- sis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor ...

  12. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image,

  13. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  14. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  15. [Affect processing in psychosomatic patients. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, S; Deffner, G

    1984-01-01

    This study is the continuation of an earlier investigation (Ahrens, 1984) concerned with the working-through of affects in patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders. In the present study a group of psychosomatic patients is compared to a group of patients with organic complaints. Using the same methods (showing of film episodes in accordance with an experimental design, evaluation of the working-through of affects both on the cognitive and on the subconcious level) it was attempted to obtain findings of greater universality. Therefore, in contrast to the first investigation, the film episodes were of normal every-day situations in order to avoid as far as possible any personal involvement of the test subjects. The results confirm an important finding from the previous investigation, namely that even in psychosomatic patients a high rate of reaction to affective stimuli on the subconcious level can be observed. In contrast to the earlier investigated situation of intensive personal involvement, however, the group of patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders and the control group did not differ on the cognitive level with regard to their perception of the affective content of the film episodes.

  16. Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan composite films as affected by nanofiller loading and plasticizer content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin, produced from shellfish waste, which may be employed to elaborate edible films or coatings to enhance shelf life of food products. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of nanofiller (cellulose nan...

  17. Environmental factors and cultural measures affecting the nitrate content in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ingestion of high amounts of nitrate by man can be considered hazardous to human health. In the human body, nitrate can be reduced to nitrite which may cause methemoglobinemia. Furthermore, the possible formation of N-nitroso-compounds from nitrite and secondary nitrogen compounds in the

  18. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are pivotal in cellular responses to the environment and are common drug targets. Identification of selective small molecules acting on single GPCRs is complicated by the shared machinery coupling signal...

  19. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P

  20. Dog growls express various contextual and affective content for human listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, T; Takács, N; Miklósi, Á; Pongrácz, P

    2017-05-01

    Vocal expressions of emotions follow simple rules to encode the inner state of the caller into acoustic parameters, not just within species, but also in cross-species communication. Humans use these structural rules to attribute emotions to dog vocalizations, especially to barks, which match with their contexts. In contrast, humans were found to be unable to differentiate between playful and threatening growls, probably because single growls' aggression level was assessed based on acoustic size cues. To resolve this contradiction, we played back natural growl bouts from three social contexts (food guarding, threatening and playing) to humans, who had to rate the emotional load and guess the context of the playbacks. Listeners attributed emotions to growls according to their social contexts. Within threatening and playful contexts, bouts with shorter, slower pulsing growls and showing smaller apparent body size were rated to be less aggressive and fearful, but more playful and happy. Participants associated the correct contexts with the growls above chance. Moreover, women and participants experienced with dogs scored higher in this task. Our results indicate that dogs may communicate honestly their size and inner state in a serious contest situation, while manipulatively in more uncertain defensive and playful contexts.

  1. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food

  2. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  3. A High-Content Assay for Biosensor Validation and for Examining Stimuli that Affect Biosensor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Scott D; Hahn, Klaus M

    2014-12-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor's maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. We describe here a method for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays, allows visual inspection (e.g., for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single-chain and dual-chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for effects of upstream molecules. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Amino Acids Content in Mangosteen Fruit as Affected by Tree Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kita meneliti perbedaan kandungan dan komposisi asam amino pada buah manggis yang dipanen dari pohon yang berbeda umur dari kebun Manggis di Bogor pada tahun 2012. Pohon manggis dengan umur yang berbeda (muda, sekitar 20 tahun; sedang, sekitar umur 35 tahun; dan tua, sekitar 50 tahundipilih untuk diambil buahnya. Buah dari tiap pohon dipanen pada kondisi masak hijau spot kuning-merah. Pada buah dari semua umur pohon, asam amino yang dominan adalah γ-aminobutyric acid dan alanine. Total kandungan asam amino tertinggi terdapat pada buah yang dipetik dari pohon umur muda dari pada  buah yang dipetik dari pohon umur sedang dan tuaKata kunci: asam amino, GABA, kandungan, manggis

  5. Glycomacropeptide in children with phenylketonuria: does its phenylalanine content affect blood phenylalanine control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-08-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), there are no data available for children with respect to evaluating casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) as an alternative to phenylalanine-free protein substitutes [Phe-free L-amino acid (AA)]. CGMP contains a residual amount of phenylalanine, which may alter blood phenylalanine control. In a prospective 6-month pilot study, we investigated the effect on blood phenylalanine control of CGMP-amino acid (CGMP-AA) protein substitute in 22 PKU subjects (13 boys, nine girls), median age (range) 11 years (6-16 years). Twelve received CGMP-AA and nine received Phe-free L-AA, (1 CGMP-AA withdrawal). Subjects partially or wholly replaced Phe-free L-AA with CGMP-AA. If blood phenylalanine exceeded the target range, the CGMP-AA dose was reduced and replaced with Phe-free L-amino acids. The control group remained on Phe-free L-AAs. Phenylalanine, tyrosine and Phe : Tyr ratio concentrations were compared with the results for the previous year. In the CGMP-AA group, there was a significant increase in blood phenylalanine concentrations (pre-study, 275 μmol L -1 ; CGMP-AA, 317 μmol L -1 ; P = 0.02), a decrease in tyrosine concentrations (pre-study, 50 μmol L -1 ; CGMP-AA, 40 μmol L -1 ; P = 0.03) and an increase in Phe : Tyr ratios (pre-study, Phe : Tyr 4.9:1; CGMP-AA, Phe : Tyr 8:1; P = 0.02). In the control group there was a non-significant fall in phenylalanine concentrations (pre-study 325μmol/L: study 280μmol/L [p = 0.9], and no significant changes for tyrosine or phe/tyr ratios [p = 0.9]. Children taking the CGMP-AA found it more acceptable to L-AA. Blood phenylalanine control declined with CGMP-AA but, by titrating the dose of CGMP-AA, blood phenylalanine control remained within target range. The additional intake of phenylalanine may have contributed to the change in blood phenylalanine concentration. CGMP-AA use requires careful monitoring in children. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  7. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  8. Content, Affective, and Behavioral Challenges to Learning: Students' Experiences Learning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, April L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of and challenges faced by students when completing a statistics course. As part of the requirement for this course, students completed a learning check-in, which consisted of an individual meeting with the instructor to discuss questions and the completion of a learning reflection and study plan. Forty…

  9. Season progression, Ontogenesis and Environment affect Lespedeza cuneata Herbage Condensed Tannin, Fiber and Crude Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont de Courset) G. Don.; SL] is a perennial, warm-season forage legumes with wide adaptation, freeze tolerance, establishment ease and persistence under grazing. Its condensed tannins (CT) could be useful in ruminant systems, not simply as a protein source, b...

  10. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  11. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  12. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  13. Ethics and Indian Television Content Portrayals: A Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemaiah Krishnan Ravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics in communication approaches by the Indian electronic media, particularly television about its content on air are a heated debate in the country today. Why do channels adopt “devious” ways to lure the viewers? How fair are channels conducting media trials? Is judiciary in India unable to address that TV channels should take up head-on? Does political ownership of Channels affect ethical practices? Do artistes on programs pass-off comments that affect social order? Do channels air programs without prior permissions or copyrights from the artistes or organizers? What is the degree of professionalism and credibility among viewers? The theoretical framework of the study is based on the macroscopic theory of Political Economy. This critical study examines case studies of program content drawn from different pan-India channels, satellite or cable. This study focuses on media ethics and effects on society.

  14. THE MONITORING OF MERCURY CONTENT IN BABY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's nutrition is very important for the healthy growth and development of the child, but it affects the health of the individual as well later in adulthood. For the production of baby food, commonly available on the market are used raw materials consistently grown under very strict supervision of specially designated for children's nutrition. It shall also apply to the more stringent standards on fertilizer, soil treatment during growth, harvesting, storage and process for the production of baby food. At work, we have focused on monitoring the content of Hg in the 12 samples of baby food, available in the sales network of the Slovak Republic and comparing it with the Highest permissible quantity (0.05 mg.kg-1. On the basis of the findings shows that the content of Hg in the one sample exceeded the HPQ, the content of Hg was in the range 0.6 - 20.4% of the HPQ.

  15. Selection of teaching content in times of changing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Benedikte Vilslev

    in the time between the tests? Based on the overall development towards output-control in the school system, this project focuses on investigating whether content choices today have changed in general: What criteria are underlying the teacher's choice of teaching content? Methodically the study will work......Authors: Benedikte Vilslev Petersen Institution: VIA University College Teacher Education in Aarhus Contact details: bp@via.dk Title: Selection of teaching content in times of changing. Abstract: The educational system in Denmark is currently affected by changes, which can be generally...... characterized as a development going from input-control to output-control. Increasing research in classroom focuses on conditions for effective teaching, pupil learning outcome and classroom management techniques (e.g. Hattie 2013, Grøterud and Nielsen 1997, Nordenbo 2008, Meyer 2006, Hermansen 2007). However...

  16. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  17. Clay content evaluation in soils through GPR signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Patriarca, Claudio; Slob, Evert; Benedetto, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    The mechanical behavior of soils is partly affected by their clay content, which arises some important issues in many fields of employment, such as civil and environmental engineering, geology, and agriculture. This work focuses on pavement engineering, although the method applies to other fields of interest. Clay content in bearing courses of road pavement frequently causes damages and defects (e.g., cracks, deformations, and ruts). Therefore, the road safety and operability decreases, directly affecting the increase of expected accidents. In this study, different ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods and techniques were used to non-destructively investigate the clay content in sub-asphalt compacted soils. Experimental layout provided the use of typical road materials, employed for road bearing courses construction. Three types of soils classified by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) as A1, A2, and A3 were used and adequately compacted in electrically and hydraulically isolated test boxes. Percentages of bentonite clay were gradually added, ranging from 2% to 25% by weight. Analyses were carried out for each clay content using two different GPR instruments. A pulse radar with ground-coupled antennae at 500 MHz centre frequency and a vector network analyzer spanning the 1-3 GHz frequency range were used. Signals were processed in both time and frequency domains, and the consistency of results was validated by the Rayleigh scattering method, the full-waveform inversion, and the signal picking techniques. Promising results were obtained for the detection of clay content affecting the bearing capacity of sub-asphalt layers.

  18. Affective Learning Profiles in Compulsory High School Physical Education: An Instructional Communication Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…

  19. Determinants of muscle carnosine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R C; Wise, J A; Price, K A; Kim, H J; Kim, C K; Sale, C

    2012-07-01

    The main determinant of muscle carnosine (M-Carn) content is undoubtedly species, with, for example, aerobically trained female vegetarian athletes [with circa 13 mmol/kg dry muscle (dm)] having just 1/10th of that found in trained thoroughbred horses. Muscle fibre type is another key determinant, as type II fibres have a higher M-Carn or muscle histidine containing dipeptide (M-HCD) content than type I fibres. In vegetarians, M-Carn is limited by hepatic synthesis of β-alanine, whereas in omnivores this is augmented by the hydrolysis of dietary supplied HCD's resulting in muscle levels two or more times higher. β-alanine supplementation will increase M-Carn. The same increase in M-Carn occurs with administration of an equal molar quantity of carnosine as an alternative source of β-alanine. Following the cessation of supplementation, M-Carn returns to pre-supplementation levels, with an estimated t1/2 of 5-9 weeks. Higher than normal M-Carn contents have been noted in some chronically weight-trained subjects, but it is unclear if this is due to the training per se, or secondary to changes in muscle fibre composition, an increase in β-alanine intake or even anabolic steroid use. There is no measureable loss of M-Carn with acute exercise, although exercise-induced muscle damage may result in raised plasma concentrations in equines. Animal studies indicate effects of gender and age, but human studies lack sufficient control of the effects of diet and changes in muscle fibre composition.

  20. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  1. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  2. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  3. System of HPC content archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A.; Ivashchenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work is aimed to develop a system, that will effectively solve the problem of storing and analyzing files containing text data, by using modern software development tools, techniques and approaches. The main challenge of storing a large number of text documents defined at the problem formulation stage, have to be resolved with such functionality as full text search and document clustering depends on their contents. Main system features could be described with notions of distributed multilevel architecture, flexibility and interchangeability of components, achieved through the standard functionality incapsulation in independent executable modules.

  4. LIPID CONTENT AND CONDITION IN AN ESTUARINE TELEOST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related to feeding level, and was not affected by temperature although food intake at 15°C was half that at ... (27° 02'E/32° 02'S) in relation to that of similar fish captured in the open Kowie estuary. (26° 54'E/33° 36'S). ... The fat content of the food items of R. holubi was determined in a Sohxlet apparatus using anhydrous ...

  5. Fitness on Facebook: Advertisements Generated in Response to Profile Content

    OpenAIRE

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors...

  6. Human Resource Local Content in Ghana's Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Papa

    Enactment of Ghana's Petroleum (Local Content and Local Participation) Regulations, 2013 (L.I. 2204) was intended to regulate the percentage of local products, personnel, financing, and goods and services rendered within Ghana's upstream petroleum industry value chain. Five years after the inception of Ghana's upstream oil and gas industry, a gap is evident between the requirements of L.I. 2204 and professional practice. Drawing on Lewin's change theory, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the extent of differences between the prevailing human resource local content and the requirements of L.I. 2204 in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry. The extent to which training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its upstream petroleum industry was also examined. Survey data were collected from 97 management, technical, and other staff in 2 multinational petroleum companies whose oil and gas development plans have been approved by the Petroleum Commission of Ghana. To answer the research questions and test their hypotheses, one-way ANOVA was performed with staff category (management, technical, and other) as the independent variable and prevalent local content as the dependent variable. Results indicated that prevailing local content in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry meets the requirements of L.I. 2204. Further, training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its offshore petroleum industry. Findings may encourage leaders within multinational oil companies and the Petroleum Commission of Ghana to organize educational seminars that equip indigenous Ghanaians with specialized skills for working in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry.

  7. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  8. Honey irradiation: effect on hydroxymethylfurfural content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M. C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiations can be used to inactivate thermo resistant microorganisms in honey, improving its hygienic and sanitary quality. 'American foulbrood' is a disease caused by the sporulated bacteria Paenibacillus larvae larvae which affects bees, diminishes honey production and impairs trade. Clostridium botulinum spores can also be present in honey and cause the disease in very young children. Considering that ionizing radiation can modify molecules, this work was undertaken to evaluate its effect on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content along storage time. HMF is an aldehyde produced as sugars degrade due to excessive heating and/or time, so it is regulated as a freshness indicator in honey. Two varieties of honey, one fluid and the other creamy, of a commercial high quality brand were packaged in polypropylene recipes and stored at room temperature for 14 months. Irradiation was carried out at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, at doses of 0, 10, 20 and 40 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity:1.1. HMF values, measured according to White ´s spectrophotometric method, increased along storage time in every sample. Irradiation initially diminished HMF content irrespective of dose, trend which was maintained throughout the storage period in creamy honey. Instead, in fluid honey since the fourth month the slopes corresponding to the irradiated samples curves were greater than that of the control one, as a function of dose, rendering higher HMF values in the 40 kGy sample as compared with control since the 10 th storage month. Possibly the prevailing first irradiation effect during storage time is HMF breakdown, followed by enhanced synthesis. (author) [es

  9. Menthol Content in US Marketed Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jiu; Taylor, Kenneth M; Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Watson, Clifford H; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 menthol cigarettes accounted for 32 percent of the market in the United States, but there are few literature reports that provide measured menthol data for commercial cigarettes. To assess current menthol application levels in the US cigarette market, menthol levels in cigarettes labeled or not labeled to contain menthol was determined for a variety of contemporary domestic cigarette products. We measured the menthol content of 45 whole cigarettes using a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In 23 cigarette brands labeled as menthol products, the menthol levels of the whole cigarette ranged from 2.9 to 19.6mg/cigarette, with three products having higher levels of menthol relative to the other menthol products. The menthol levels for 22 cigarette products not labeled to contain menthol ranged from 0.002 to 0.07mg/cigarette. The type of packaging (soft vs. hard pack) for a given cigarette product does not appear to affect menthol levels based on the current limited data. Menthol levels in cigarette products labeled as containing menthol are approximately 50- to 5000-fold higher than those in cigarette products not labeled as containing menthol. In general, menthol content appears to occur within discrete ranges for both mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes. This study shows that menthol may be present in non-mentholated cigarettes and adds to the understanding of how menthol may be used in cigarette products. It is the first systematic study from the same laboratory which will readily enable comparison among menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  11. Climatic and weather factors affecting fire occurrence and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall P. Benson; John O. Roads; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate have a profound influence on wildland fire ignition potential, fire behavior, and fire severity. Local weather and climate are affected by large-scale patterns of winds over the hemispheres that predispose wildland fuels to fire. The characteristics of wildland fuels, especially the moisture content, ultimately determine fire behavior and the impact...

  12. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Asela Town, Ethiopia. ... students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school activities and coverage of textbooks' contents.

  13. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  14. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  15. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  16. Arsenic Content in American Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies that have investigated arsenic content in juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and other foods have stimulated an interest in understanding how prevalent arsenic contamination is in the U.S. food and beverage supply. The study described here focused on quantifying arsenic levels in wine. A total of 65 representative wines from the top four wine-producing states in the U.S. were analyzed for arsenic content. All samples contained arsenic levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) exposure limit for drinking water of 10 parts per billion (ppb) and all samples contained inorganic arsenic. The average arsenic detected among all samples studied was 23.3 ppb. Lead, a common co-contaminant to arsenic, was detected in 58% of samples tested, but only 5% exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure limit for drinking water of 15 ppb. Arsenic levels in American wines exceeded those found in other studies involving water, bottled water, apple juice, apple juice blend, milk, rice syrup, and other beverages. When taken in the context of consumption patterns in the U.S., the pervasive presence of arsenic in wine can pose a potential health risk to regular adult wine drinkers.

  17. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  19. Content of system design descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective

  20. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  1. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published January 30, ... impact on the ability to conceive. Women and Fertility To prepare for pregnancy and enhance fertility, maintain ...

  2. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  3. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  4. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  5. Content provision and multi-homing

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Armando J. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers pr...

  6. Social Media Propagation of Content Promoting Risky Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mina; Sun, Yao; McLaughlin, Margaret L

    2017-05-01

    While social media have been found useful in providing social support and health information, they have also been home to content advocating risky health behavior. This study focused on how content defending and even celebrating anorexia as a lifestyle are circulated among social media users, and investigates the characteristics that promote wide propagation of such messages. We captured anorexia-related content on Tumblr, a popular blog for talking about eating disorders, during a one-month period. Among the 35,432 posts collected, we examined the most highly propagated posts and coded them for message characteristics. Our findings revealed that posts in which the source of a narrative ("testimony") was identified (was either from an anorexic poster or about another's anorexia) and which were positive toward the pro-anorexia perspective were more likely to be propagated on Tumblr. In addition, posts containing content that references an anorexic person and contains an affective tone were more likely to be propagated. We also found that underweight bodies and bodies with a high degree of exposure were associated with propagation of posts. The present study suggested practical implications by focusing on the characteristics of highly propagated but potentially harmful content in social media.

  7. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  8. The Impact of Having a Baby on the Level and Content of Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenaar, Peter Johannes; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to more fully understand the impact of having a baby on women's well-being by attending to both the level and the content of well-being. To cover the judgemental and affective aspects of well-being we included global measures of life satisfaction and well-being and affective experience measures derived from…

  9. Dream contents and failing memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2002-04-01

    Mentation during sleep states is thought to originate in an activation of brain circuits that encode inherited and experiential memories. Spontaneous degradation of the strengths of synapses occurs in all brain circuits because of "turnover" of molecules essential for synaptic function. In circuits employed frequently during waking, synaptic strengths are refreshed and maintained in their dedicated or functional ranges largely through use, by virtue of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. In circuits employed infrequently during waking, synaptic strengths are refreshed largely during sleep, by circuit activations induced by spontaneous, self-generated, largely low-frequency brain waves, also by virtue of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The outputs of circuits activated during sleep do not necessarily rise to the level of 'unconscious' awareness. Such an absence of awareness of the outputs of individual circuits, that is, an absence of dreaming, is proposed to be the primitive condition in animals that sleep. On the other hand, temporal binding of these outputs is accompanied by the thoughts and perceptions of dreams, which is proposed to be the advanced condition. Linking or serial ordering of otherwise 'static' thoughts and perceptions gives rise to continuous, often narrative and veridical, dreams. In all cases, dream contents are derived from the memories--not necessarily veridical--encoded in the reinforced circuitry. In the absence of synaptic strength refreshments during sleep, synaptic strengths in infrequently used circuits would weaken and the circuits would become incompetent, with their encoded memories degraded or lost. Maintenance of synaptic strengths in infrequently used circuitry during sleep apparently does not always achieve perfection. Weakened synapses begin to occur in circuits in appreciable numbers in children after the age of about 5 years. When these 'incompetent' circuits (with weakened synapses) are activated during sleep

  10. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  11. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter...... introduces the topic of this dissertation as well as the overall research question. The three next chapters are empirical studies of informal ties in professional networks of Danish senior managers, that together attempt to answer the overall research question. Chapter 2 looks into gender differences...... dynamics and studies the effect of friendship on the extent and novelty of professional advice a tie provides. The fifth and final chapter of this dissertation summarizes the findings of the research papers in the light of the overall research question. Essentially, this dissertation suggests...

  12. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATIVE CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  14. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  15. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Socio-Affective Paternity: the Legal Value of Affection

    OpenAIRE

    Daou, Heloisa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Article aims to discuss, from the evolution of the concepts of family and membership, the legal value of affection. Therefore, we will draw a parallel between biological paternity, restricted to a conception of genetic and socio-affective paternity, which depicts the subjectivity of the links established by the noble feelings of love, affection, care, among others, to show that the right comes assigning greater value the personal relationships when in conflict with the strictly biological rel...

  17. They Learn the CLIL Way, but Do They Like It? Affectivity and Cognition in Upper-Primary CLIL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Forys, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) is a teaching method in which learners develop linguistic competence and problem-solving abilities by learning content subjects in another language. However, learners' cognitive gains may depend on their affectivity. Negative affect hampers complex cognitive processing essential for problem-solving,…

  18. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  19. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  20. Enterprise Content Buying--The New Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Content is both a key ingredient for business and a major expense. Market research shows that the investment in content and data is generally one of the top expense items within a firm. For some firms, within the financial industry, for example, content costs are the second or third level of expense behind the cost of employees. While there has…

  1. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  2. Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marega Filho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During 1995/96 and 1996/97, experiments were carried out at Londrina State University, aiming at quantifying the oil and protein contents in two groups of soybean genotypes; estimating the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations existent among oil, protein content and seed size, and identifying genotypes for direct human consumption with high protein content. The evaluated characters were Weight of a Hundred Seeds (WHS, expressed in grams/100 seeds, Oil Content (OC and Protein Content (PC, expressed in %. In the experiment carried out in the field, OC ranged from 12 to 20.37 % and PC from 35.66 to 41.75% while in the experiment carried out in the greenhouse OC ranged from 12.26 to 21.79 % and PC from 32.95 to 41.56 % . The correlations between oil and protein were negative and significant. The relationship among WHS with OC and PC was low and higly affected by the time effect. Due to their high protein content and stability to oil and protein contents, there were distinction among the treatments carried out in the field (GA23 and GA20, and those carried out in the greenhouse (PI408251, Waseda, B6F4 (L-3 less, PI423909 and Tambagura.Durante 1995/96 e 1996/97, foram conduzidos experimentos na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, visando: quantificar os teores de óleo e proteína em dois grupos de genótipos de soja tipo alimento; estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas existentes entre os teores de óleo, proteína e tamanho das sementes; e, identificar genótipos para consumo humano de forma direta, com elevado teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os caracteres Peso de Cem Sementes (PCS, expresso em gramas / 100 sementes, Teor de Óleo (TO, e Teor de Proteína (TP, expressos em %. Na população conduzida a campo, a característica TO variou de 12 a 20,4 %, e TP de 35,7 a 41,8 %. A população conduzida em casa de vegetação apresentou uma variação de 12,3 a 21,8 % para TO, e de 33 a 41,6 % para TP. As correla

  3. Seasonal changes and content of sodium in main organs of European plum trees (Prunus domestica L., fruit size and yield as affected by rootstocks on acidic soilMudanças sazonais no teor de sódio dos órgãos, tamanho do fruto e produção da ameixeira européia (Prunus domestica L. em função de porta-enxertos em solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Milosevic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal changes of Na content of shoots, flower buds and flowers, and fruit weight and yield of two European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Lepotica’ and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’ budded on Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Stanley rootstocks were analyzed after 6-8 years of planting on acidic sandy-loam soil. The Na content of the shoots and flower buds of each rootstock/cultivar combination varied during season, and the highest content in above organs was observed in May and August, respectively. The effect of rootstocks on the examined parameters was variable due to the strong rootstock/cultivar/year interaction observed. The shoots and flower buds of cultivars budded on Stanley and Myrobalan rootstocks gave the highest and lowest Na content, respectively, whereas the highest Na content in flowers registered in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’ on Myrobalan. The content of Na in the plum organs suggests the following trends: 1-year old shoots > 2-year-old shoots > flower buds > flowers. There were no statistically significant correlations among plum organs with respect to Na content. The Principal Component Analysis showed that Stanley rootstock had a higher Na accumulation and distribution capacity than Myrobalan rootstock in plum trees. Finally, content of Na in the main organs of plum trees and acidic soil have not a negative effect on fruit weight and yield of plum cultivars, since these properties were respectable. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as mudanças sazonais do teor de Na nos ramos, botões florais e flores, bem como no peso dos frutos e na produtividade de duas cultivares de ameixeiras européias (‘Cacanska lepotica’ e ‘Cacanska najbolja’ enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehch. e Stanley, aos 6-8 anos após o plantio em solo ácido areno-argiloso. O conteúdo de Na nos ramos e nos botões florais para cada combinação de copa/porta-enxerto teve a variação durante a

  4. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  5. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  6. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  7. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  8. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  9. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents’ Future Affective Experience during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M.; Levine, Linda J.; Schneider, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents’ feelings during exercise. Method During the first semester of the school year, we assessed sixth grade students’ (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test, and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the second semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Results Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise, and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. Conclusion These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences. PMID:28494196

  10. An emerging role: the nurse content curator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Changing their tune : How consumers' adoption of online streaming affects music consumption and discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Knox, George; Bronnenberg, Bart

    Instead of purchasing individual content, streaming adopters rent access to libraries, with content being free at the margin. In this paper, we study how the adoption of music streaming affects consumers’ listening behavior. Using a unique panel data set of individual consumers’ listening histories

  12. A Longitudinal Study on the Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David; Doiz, Aintzane

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes are burgeoning in European school contexts due to the widespread belief that they help to significantly improve foreign language learning while content learning is not negatively affected. However, some of its purported benefits still need to be empirically confirmed. Thus, while this…

  13. Music for free? How free ad-funded downloads affect consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, Dominik; Eggers, Felix; Wloemert, Nils

    2011-01-01

    The market for digital content (e.g., music or movies) has been affected by large numbers of Internet users downloading content for free from illegitimate sources. The music industry has been exposed most severely to these developments and has reacted with several different online business models

  14. Online tables of contents for books: effect on usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R C

    2001-01-01

    To explore whether the presence of online tables of contents (TOC) in an online catalog affects circulation (checkouts and inhouse usage). Two major questions were posed: (1) did the presence of online tables of contents for books increase use, and, (2) if it did, what factors might cause the increase? A randomized and stratified design was used in tracking usage of 3,957 book titles that were previously divided into two groups: one with TOC and one without TOC. Stratification was done for year of imprint, location, subject, previous use, circulating or non-circulating status, and presence of TOC. The use was tracked by the online catalog statistics in the InnoPac online catalog for fourteen months. The study found that tables of contents do increase usage. It also showed a correlation in the size of the effect based on the currency of the titles. In general, even after adjusting for all of the variables (publication date, location, circulation status, subject, and previous use), the odds of a title being used increased by 45% if the titles had online tables of contents, a statistically significant impact at the 0.05 level. This case-control study presents new information about the impact on circulation and inhouse use when tables of contents for books are added to the online catalog record. The study helps to establish the positive role of tables of contents in online catalogs. The research establishes TOC as a major parameter that can be successfully studied using quantitative methods. The study also provides information professionals with some guidance on when enhancement of TOC is likely to be most effective in increasing the use of existing collections.

  15. Plasma catecholamine content using radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masaru; Togashi, Hiroko; Koike, Yuichi; Shimamura, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Noriko

    1980-01-01

    Catecholamine (CA) contents in blood plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human blood plasma were measured by radioenzymatic assay (REA) and trihydroxyindol (THI) fluorescent method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and both measurement methods were compared. The standard curve of REA showed a good linear relationship between total CA contents and separated CA contents. Though there was a danger of exposure to β-ray when REA was performed, this method was useful for measurement of CA contents in blood of small animals and small quantity of blood because CA content of only 50 μg of blood plasma could be measured by this method. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) contents in men with normal blood pressure measured by REA was 250 +- 61 pg/ml and 37 +- 22 pg/ml, respectively. NE and E contents in patients with mild hypertension were 460 +- 128 pg/ml and 50 +- 20 pg/ml, respectively. There was not a significant difference between NE and E contents in men with normal blood pressure and those in patients with mild hypertension. Total CA content in blood plasma of SHR killed by decapitation was 5,000 +- 1,131 pg/ml, which was 5 times NE and E contents in blood plasma obtained from femoral vein of anesthetized SHR (816 +- 215 pg/ml and 209 +- 44 pg/ml). Total CA content in the same sample was measured by REA and HPLC. As a result, total CA content measured by REA was higher than that measured by HPLC, but there was a good relationship between total CA content measured by REA and that measured by HPLC. NE content in men with normal blood pressure measured by HPLC was elevated significantly according to an increase in their age, but this tendency was not observed in patients with hypertension. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Biophysical rhizosphere processes affecting root water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, A; Zarebanadkouki, M; Kroener, E; Ahmed, M A; Holz, M

    2016-06-26

    Recent advances in imaging techniques now make it possible to visualize the biogeochemical and physical environment around the roots, the rhizosphere. Detailed images of pore space geometry and water content dynamics around roots have demonstrated the heterogeneity of the rhizosphere compared with the soil far from the roots. These findings have inspired new models of root water uptake which aim to describe such small-scale heterogeneity. However, the question remains of how far these image-based findings have really advanced our understanding of how roots extract water from soils. The rhizosphere processes affecting root water uptake are reviewed. Special attention is dedicated to the role of mucilage exuded by roots. Mucilage increases the soil moisture at negative water potentials and it keeps the rhizosphere wet when plants take up water, possibly maintaining the hydraulic connection between roots and soil. However, mucilage becomes viscous and hydrophobic upon severe drying and it limits the water fluxes across the rhizosphere during the rewetting phase. The role of mucilage in maintaining the hydraulic contact between the root surface and the surrounding soil, thereby softening the drops in water potential around the roots in dry soils, remains to be demonstrated. Despite detailed images of water content, water fluxes and soil structure in the rhizosphere, a general understanding of how the rhizosphere affects root water uptake is still lacking. The missing elements of the puzzle are the gradient in water potential around roots. Measurements of the xylem water potential at varying soil water potentials and transpiration rates supported by numerical models of root water uptake would allow the estimation of the water potential across the rhizosphere. Such measurements are crucial to comprehend how water enters the roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Factors affecting the overcrowding in outpatient healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of outpatient services and the desire to provide more outpatient care than inpatient care create some problems such as the overcrowding in the outpatient clinics. Given the importance of overcrowding in the outpatient clinics, this qualitative study aimed to determine the factors influencing the overcrowding in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a teaching hospital. This was a qualitative study conducted in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a hospital using content analysis method in the period of January to March 2014. The study population was all managers and heads of the outpatient wards. The studied sample consisted of 22 managers of the clinic wards who were selected using the purposive sampling method. The required data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using conventional content analysis and the MAXQDA 10.0 software. Three themes were identified as the main factors affecting the overcrowding including the internal positive factors, internal negative factors, and external factors. Despite the efforts made to eliminate overcrowding, and reduce waiting times and increase access to the services for patients, the problem of overcrowding still has remained unresolved. In addition, the use of some strategies such as clarifying the working processes of the clinic for staff and patients and the relationships between the clinic and other wards especially emergency department, as well as using a simple triage system on the patients' arrival at the clinic are recommended.

  18. Verbal elaboration of distinct affect categories and BPD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Serge; Bouchard, Marc-André

    2011-03-01

    The present study explores the relationship between the mentalization of distinct affect categories and the severity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Mentalization is assessed by both the level of verbal elaboration (VE) achieved by discrete affects (explicit mentalization) and the proportion of these individual affects in verbal expression (implicit mentalization). Sixty-four outpatients completed a series of questionnaires and took part in an interview designed to produce eight relationship episodes that involved four basic emotions: sadness, joy, anger, and fear (two of each). Affect mentalization was assessed with the Grille de l'Élaboration Verbale de l'Affect (GEVA), an observer-rated measure of levels of elaboration of verbalized affect, and the measure of affect content (MAC), which identifies the content of the verbalized affect (e.g., anger). Diagnostic criteria were obtained with the BPD scale of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) questionnaire. Alexithymia was assessed with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The severity of BPD symptoms was related to lower levels of VE of sadness. It was also associated with a higher frequency of hostility directed against others. The level of VE of sadness and the proportion of hostility showed incremental predictive value of borderline symptomatology over demographic information, the presence of a depressive disorder and alexithymia. These findings point to an association between the severity of BPD symptoms and a difficulty mentalizing specific affective domains largely recognized as being central to borderline pathology, namely sadness and hostility. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...

  20. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...

  1. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  2. Seasonal Affective Disorder: For Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Search English Español Seasonal Affective Disorder KidsHealth / For Teens / Seasonal Affective Disorder What's in this article? What ...

  3. Mercury content in fish from newly impounded reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, K.

    1992-12-01

    During the seventies elevated mercury content in fish was observed in newly created reservoirs although background levels were normal. The initial rise of reservoir mercury levels is probably caused by the dramatically increased amount of organic matter originating from flooded top-soil and vegetation. Mercury is introduced in the food-chain by methylating bacteria that utilize the surplus of organic matter. This microbial methylation is probably also favoured by reductions in oxygen content and pH that accompanies the decomposition of organic material. It is difficult to make reliable estimates of the duration and maximum levels of the elevated mercury levels since the end result is affected by several biological and chemical processes in combination. Variations may occur on the basis of the type and amount of flooded organic and inorganic material, water chemistry, specific combination of fish and residence time of reservoir water. All available preventive and ameliorating measures are untried in reservoir water bodies, at least in large scale experiments. Vegetation and top-soil stripping could be efficient but also very costly. Liming is a possible method in cases of ongoing or expected acidification. Addition of selenium is a potentially powerful way of lowering the mercury content in fish and this method is well suited to neutral water bodies. Large reductions in fish mercury content have been documented, but since selenium also has been shown to have strong negative effects on biota this method is not yet recommended. (57 refs.)

  4. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  5. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  6. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  7. Nutrition content of brisket point end of part Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in boiled various temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, J.; Sudibya; Cahyadi, M.; Aji, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the quality of nutritional contents of beef brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in various boiling temperatures. Simental Ongole Crossbred had been fattened for 9 months. Furthermore, they were slaughtered at slaughterhouse and brisket point end part of meat had been prepared to analyse its nutritional contents using Food Scan. These samples were then boiled at 100°C for 0 (TR), 15 (R15), and 30 (R30) minutes, respectively. The data was analysed using Randomized Complete Design (CRD) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) had been conducted to differentiate among three treatments. The results showed that boiling temperatures significantly affected moisture, and cholesterol contents of beef (P<0.05) while fat content was not significantly affected by boiling temperatures. The boiling temperature decreased beef water contents from 72.77 to 70.84%, on the other hand, the treatment increased beef protein and cholesterol contents from 20.77 to 25.14% and 47.55 to 50.45 mg/100g samples, respectively. The conclusion of this study was boiling of beef at 100°C for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreasing water content and increasing protein and cholesterol contents of brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred beef.

  8. Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

    2014-04-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (θ - θr)/(θs - θr)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  9. The relationship between affective and cognitive components of homophobic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernulf, K E; Innala, S M

    1987-12-01

    The affective component of homophobia was explored by a factor-analytic study and related to the cognitive component. Eighty-one undergraduate students read an anecdote with either homosexual or heterosexual content. Subjects' affects were measured with an adjective checklist, and subjects' cognitions were measured as to their attitudes toward homosexuality with the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (ATHS). Results suggest two affective homophobia factors: homophobic anger and homophobic guilt. Homophobic anger correlates strongly with the cognitive component (ATHS), r = -0.73, whereas homophobic guilt does not correlate with the cognitive component (ATHS), r = 0.02. Homophobic guilt seems unrelated to homophobic attitude. Adjective checklists appear useful for measuring affective components of homophobia.

  10. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  11. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  12. The affective turn in ethnomusicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The affective turn, which has already questioned dominant paradigms in many disciplinary fields including cultural studies, philosophy, political theory, anthropology, psychology and neuroscience, has started to attract more attention in the field of ethnomusicology, becoming a particularly vibrant stream of thought. Drawing on the voices that call for the historicisation of and critical deliberation on the field of affect studies, the article strives to show how theories of affect might expand dominant paradigms in ethnomusicology and also points to their limitations.

  13. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  14. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  15. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  16. Depicting educational content repurposing context and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldoudi, Eleni; Dovrolis, Nikolas; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2011-01-01

    Educational content is often shared among different educators and is enriched, adapted, and, in general, repurposed so that it can be reused in different contexts. This paper discusses educational content and content repurposing in medical education, presenting different repurposing contexts. Finally, it proposes a novel approach to content repurposing via Web 2.0 social networking of learning resources. The proposed social network is augmented by a graphical representation module in order to capture and depict the relationships among different repurposed medical educational resources, based on educational resource "families" and inheritance. The ultimate goal is to provide a conceptually different approach to educational resource organization and retrieval via "social" associations among learning resources.

  17. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  19. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to differentiate between factors controlling the hatching success of copepod eggs. Factors that could affect viability of eggs; viz food quality, female condition and external factors were investigated. In a series of experiments the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana...... was fed several different diets while egg production and hatching success were monitored. The diet was analysed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Both egg production and hatching were found to be affected by the nutritional quality of the food. Hatching was also highly dependent...

  20. Age-related decline in perception of prosodic affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I; Ennis, T

    2001-01-01

    Perception of affect in speech is an important aspect of language, often conveying more about the intent of the speaker than semantic content. Impairment of perception of affect is seen in patients with right-hemisphere lesions. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to perception of emotional prosody in clinical neuropsychology. We present data concerning a revised version of the Emotional Perception Test (EPT-R), which indicates that older participants are significantly worse in prosodic perception than IQ-matched younger participants. The apparent age-related differences in perception of prosody are similar in magnitude to those seen on memory tests.

  1. Digital content and sustained use in integrating tablet technology into teaching in resource constrained environments in South Africa: Educators’ views

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabila, J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available and knowledge gaps also affect digital content use by educators. The findings validate the elements in existing frameworks and model of sustainability for mobile learning in schools. However, identified differences in the context and environment necessitate some...

  2. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of ether extract digestibility and energy content of specialty lipids with different fatty acid and free fatty acid content, and the effect of lecithin, for nursery pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various specialty lipids are commercially available and used in nursery pig diets, but may have FA profiles and FFA content that affect their caloric value. In each of 2 experiments, 54 barrows (28-d of age) were fed a common diet for 7-d, allotted to dietary treatments and fed their respective expe...

  4. The role of scenario, deontic conditionals and problem content in Wason´s selection task

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Montserrat; Valiña, María Dolores; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper was presented at "The European Conference on Cognitive Science. Siena, Italy, October 1999" This experiment explores the influence of thematic content, the presence or absence of a scenario and the use of deontic or indicative framing of conditional rules on performance on Wason’s selection task. Logical performance was affected by the content used (permission rules were the best, neutral the worst and obligation rules intermediate) and by the use of scenario...

  5. Effects of Clay and Moisture Content on Direct Shear Tests for Clay-Sand Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Muawia A. Dafalla

    2013-01-01

    The direct shear test using shear box is commonly recommended by practicing geotechnical engineers to obtain the cohesion and angle of internal friction for granular soils. The clay liners involve sand as a main constituent with added clay of variable proportions. This research aims at investigating the reliability of using the direct shear test for different clay contents and different moisture contents using an adequate shearing strain. These factors were found to affect the bilinear trends...

  6. Comparing Information Content of Accounting in Companies with Growth and Value Stocks in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Haghnejad; Zahra Alipourdarvish

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure of information to the market is followed by different behaviors and reactions on the part of analysts and investors. Type of stocks in the market and amount of information content also affect the strength and extent of this reaction. The present study investigates the differences between the information content of accounting in companies with growth and value stocks. The statistical population was the companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2013, out of which the sta...

  7. Evolution of Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity in Broccoli Florets during Storage at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mahn, Andrea; Rubio, M. Paz

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli has great potential as functional food because of its high content of bioactive compounds. Polyphenols are to a great extent responsible for the high antioxidant activity of broccoli. An important challenge to keep the health promoting properties of broccoli is preservation, with freezing and refrigeration being the preferred methods. Despite storage at low temperature reduces the rate of deterioration reactions, some reactions still occur, thus affecting the content of bioactive com...

  8. Headspace Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration for the Determination of Water Content in Finished Tobacco Products

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin N; Chardonnens F; Rotach M

    2014-01-01

    Because many physicochemical properties of tobacco are highly sensitive to its moisture content, the determination of water level is an important parameter for tobacco characterization. A headspace volumetric Karl Fischer titration (HS-V-KFT) method is presented for the quantification of water content in different finished tobacco materials. The parameters affecting the extraction of water from the tobacco materials were the sample size and the oven temperature which have been optimized. The ...

  9. Yield and Curcumin Content Stability of Five Ub Clones of Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorriza Rox.)

    OpenAIRE

    Wardiyati, Tatik; Kuswanto, Kuswanto; Azizah, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between genotype and environment is affect yield and curcumine content of temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Rox). The aims of the study was to determine stability of yield and curcumine content in diffrent enviromental condition. Field experiment was conducted during 12 month of year 2010, and Randomized block design with three replications was applied at four locations : Sragen, Malang, Pasuruan and Sumenep. The materials tested consists of five clones : UB1, UB2, UB3, UB4, UB5...

  10. Auditory feedback affects perception of effort when exercising with a Pulley machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordegoni, Monica; Ferrise, Francesco; Grani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment that investigates the role of auditory feedback in affecting the perception of effort when using a physical pulley machine. Specifically, we investigated whether variations in the amplitude and frequency content of the pulley sound affect perception of effort...

  11. Postharvest management affects spearmint and calamint essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Giorgio; Fontana, Emanuela; Nicola, Silvana

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the phytomass yield, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield of Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, M. spicata L. var. viridis and Calamintha nepeta Savi in Piedmont (Italy), and to study how postharvest management (hydrodistillation of EO from fresh, dehumidified or oven-dried herbs) can affect the EO content and profile of the three species. Mentha spicata L. var. rubra gave the greatest phytomass yield (1997 g m(-2)), which was statistically different from M. spicata L. var. viridis and C. nepeta. The highest EO yield was obtained from C. nepeta (3.75 g m(-2)), which was significantly different from the Mentha genus. Postharvest management significantly affected both the EO content and the EO profile of each species, with the dehumidifying process leading to a significantly higher EO content than the oven-drying process. The EO profile was different not only from species to species but also because of the postharvest management. The dehumidifying process is a relatively new postharvest technology that has shown positive results in terms of EO yield, and it can be applied to species which have a high EO value, after evaluation of the resulting EO profile. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Radiation enhances shelf life of Nendra bananas without changing the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Neil Renault; Nivas, Shashikiran; D'Souza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study shows that the shelf life of bananas is increased with low doses of radiation (300 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy). However, there is no decrease in the lectin content. This improves the keeping quality of nendra bananas without affecting their lectin content. Hence, radiation can be used safely for the bananas distributed to HIV children. The present study was also to compare the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra bananas with the gamma irradiated bananas

  13. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect mineral content (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at si...

  14. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Metadata for Content-Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sterca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image retrieval technique that combines content based image retrieval with pre-computed metadata-based image retrieval. The resulting system will have the advantages of both approaches: the speed/efficiency of metadata-based image retrieval and the accuracy/power of content-based image retrieval.

  16. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher manganese and iron content, a similar copper, zinc, calcium, amino acid and fat content, and a lower carbohydrate, digestible energy, ash, magnesium, potassium ... recommendations can be made regarding incorporation of SBS in poultry, pig or ruminant diets. 'n Ondersoek is gedoen om vas te stel watter bydrae ...

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Caffeine contents of 45 green coffee bean samples collected from coffee plants grown at different altitudes in Southwest Ethiopia was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The caffeine contents were found in the range of 0.62 - 1.2% (w/w). A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between ...

  18. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  19. 49 CFR 37.139 - Plan contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., absence of restrictions or priorities based on trip purpose, response time, fares, hours and days of... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan contents. 37.139 Section 37.139... DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.139 Plan contents. Each plan shall...

  20. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 wild plants were collected from the south of Tunisia. The dried aerial parts were extracted under a continuous reflux set-up in a Soxhlet extractor with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were screened for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Total phenolic contents were ...

  1. STOMACH CONTENT ANALYSES OF MULLET FROM THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common food item. A few marine planktonic diatoms, Chaetoceros species, RJaizosoienia species and Hemiauius hauckii appeared in a small percentage of stomach contents. The proximity of the river mouth and the consequent marine influence would account for these marine forms being present in the stomach contents ...

  2. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a

  3. Teaching Content Analysis through "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable research tool for social scientists that unfortunately can prove challenging to teach to undergraduate students. Published classroom exercises designed to teach content analysis have thus far been predominantly envisioned as lengthy projects for upper-level courses. A brief and engaging exercise may be more…

  4. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  5. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14 percent of alcohol by volume, and, in the case of wine containing 14 percent or less of alcohol by volume... tolerance of 1 percent, in the case of wines containing more than 14 percent of alcohol by volume, and of 1...

  6. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  7. Phytochemical composition, total phenolic content and ferric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in discovering drugs from natural source led to the investigation of the phytochemical composition, the total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of leaf, stem and root bark extracts of S. sarmentosus DC. The total phenolic content of the extracts were examined using ...

  8. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  9. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  10. Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N S; Bhatt, G

    2001-01-01

    Content of selected minerals in spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and ambat chuka (Rumex vesicarius) cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers was determined in a pot experiment. Addition of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer along with micronutrients, iron and zinc, enhanced the concentration of zinc, iron and magnesium in selected green leafy vegetables markedly (p 0.05). Potassium content in the green leafy vegetables was not affected (p > 0.05) by the addition of chemical fertilizers to soil. Spinach and ambat chuka differed remarkably in their mineral contents. Contents of potassium, zinc and copper were significantly high in spinach, while the contents of magnesium and iron were markedly high in ambat chuka (p < 0.05).

  11. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of free acid content in apples using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable

  13. The effect of the germination temperature on the phytochemical content of broccoli and rocket sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Lucia; Picchi, Valentina; Tribulato, Alessandro; Cavallaro, Chiara; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Branca, Ferdinando

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of different germination temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) on the phytochemical content as well as reducing and antioxidant capacity of broccoli and rocket sprouts. In both seeds and sprouts, the total glucosinolates and ascorbic acid contents did not differ between vegetables, while broccoli exhibited exceptionally higher polyphenols and greater reducing and antioxidant capacity compared to rocket. In both species, an increase in germination temperature positively affected the glucosinolate content. Ascorbic acid increased during germination without a difference among the three tested temperatures. The phenol content in broccoli sprouts increased when they were grown at 30 °C, but the amount decreased at the highest temperatures in rocket. The reducing and antioxidant capacities increased with germination, and higher indexes were detected at 10 °C, particularly in rocket. Different germination temperatures differentiate the health-promoting phytochemical content and antioxidant properties in broccoli and rocket sprouts.

  14. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  15. Rorschach contents in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Raez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study stressed the Rorschach-Content area in 237 Lima inhabitants. The Contents are an indicator that helps to understand the basic characteristics of personality (self-perception,interpersonal relations, cognitive mediation and ideation. This descriptive study used an accidental-probabilistic sample. The variables were age, gender, schooling, The descriptive statistic was used to analyze demographic contents and variables, and the non-parametric statistic (Kruskall-Wallis to compare data. The results stresses the absence of religious contents (R 1 and the importance of anatomic contents (An across the variables. The variable gender shows differences: men are interested in culture and show achievement motivation. Women are interested in home. With regarded lo schooling, the group including superior educated and complete secondary educated students shows solidarity signs, interest in socialization and ahigh cognitive level.

  16. Changes in Hydrogen Content During Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbek K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Štore Steel produces steel grades for spring, forging and engineering industry applications. Steelmaking technology consists of scrap melting in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, secondary metallurgy in Ladle Furnace (LF and continuous casting of billets (CC. Hydrogen content during steelmaking of various steel grades and steelmaking technologies was measured. Samples of steel melt from EAF, LF and CC were collected and investigated. Sampling from Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace was carried out using vacuum pin tubes. Regular measurements of hydrogen content in steel melt were made using Hydris device. Hydrogen content results measured in tundish by Hydris device were compared with results from pin tube samples. Based on the measurement results it was established that hydrogen content during steelmaking increases. The highest values were determined in tundish during casting. Factors that influence the hydrogen content in liquid steel the most were steelmaking technology and alloying elements.

  17. Building didactic content repositories: method and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the method and tools which allows to build repositories of didactic materials in SCORM using UCTS taxonomic system and Content Repository software. SCORM is a universal specification designed to create reusable materials in digital format. UCTS is a taxonomic model which allows to attribute didactic interpretations to content components. Content Repository is a web software designed to create, store and process didactic content in SCORM. The method was verified while creating E-archeology Content Repository which stores e-learning materials on protection and management of archeological heritage. The repository contains approximately 4500 Learning Objects in 5 languages and about 800 components of didactically useful e-learning components described in UCTS.

  18. Reducing radionuclide contents in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanslik, E.; Horacek, P.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a cost-benefit analysis of reducing radiation hazards to the population due to radionuclides in drinking water and to nuclear power plants operation are presented. Two aeration methods are used to reduce the radon content in drinking water -aeration in a shallow layer and aeration towers. The radon content can be reduced more effectively by a two-step arrangement of the aeration facility. A reduction of the content of radium, uranium and their daughter products is possible with the use of a modification of the processes common in water-works practice. The analysis of economic efficiency showed that for reducing radiation hazards to the population, it is much more effective to reduce the radionuclide contents in drinking water sources than, for instance, to reduce the tritium content in liquid effluents from nuclear power plants further below the projected level. (J.J.). 2 figs

  19. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  20. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.