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Sample records for contemporary virtue ethics

  1. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  2. Virtue ethics – an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. PMID:25721113

  3. Critical Virtue Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of Anscombe’s famous paper “Modern Moral Philosophy” (1958, virtue ethics has become a matter of discussion among scholars. At least four charges have been raised against virtue ethics, one of which is the charge of promoting undue enthusiasm regarding the moral fitness of human beings. This article explores the limits of virtue ethics with regard to the frailty of human virtuousness. After giving a report of the charges raised against virtue ethics from the perspective of empirical ethics, the author presents the idea of what he would like to call critical virtue ethics as seen by three Lutheran thinkers: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther himself. He will demonstrate that the empirical contestation of virtue ethics shows a remarkable resemblance to insights found in Luther, Kant and Nietzsche. And finally, the writer draws tentative conclusions about the future of critical virtue ethics.

  4. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  5. Virtue and care in modern ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Juruś, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I compare two contemporary moral theories; virtue ethics and the ethics of care. They both reject traditional ethical positions - Kantian ethics and utilitarianism. Virtue ethics focuses on the question what person should I be, instead, as in the case of Kantian ethics and utilitarianism, what should I do. It holds that value concepts (good, value) in contrary to deontological concepts (duty, obligation) are fundamental in ethical theory. Ethics of care, in rejecting a position ...

  6. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  7. The virtues in their place: virtue ethics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, L A

    2000-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of a revival of interest in the virtues. A number of contemporary moral philosophers have defended a virtue-based approach to ethics. But does this renewal of interest in the virtues have much to contribute to medical ethics and medical practice? This paper critically discusses this question. It considers and rejects a number of important arguments that purport to establish the significance of the virtues for medical practice. Against these arguments, the paper seeks to show that while the virtues have a genuine role to play in medical ethics, it is a limited role, one that is subordinate to the role that other moral concepts such as rules and principles play.

  8. Computer Ethics and Neoplatonic Virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics......n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...

  9. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  10. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  11. Chapter 3. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, Mark; Fisher, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To seek virtue for the sake of reward is to dig for iron with a spade of gold. 1. Aristotelian Virtue Ethics Introduction Aristotle (384–322 BC) was a scholar in disciplines such as ethics, metaphysics, biology and botany, amongst others. It is fitting, therefore, that his moral philosophy is based around assessing the broad characters of human beings rather than assessing singular acts in isolation. Indeed, this is what separates Aristotelian Virtue Ethics from both Utilitarianism and Kantia...

  12. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  14. Private Ethics and Civic Virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lee C.

    The paper delineates areas to investigate when seeking information about political ethics in western society. The main purpose of the paper is to call attention to the relationship of civic virtue to communal politics. Specifically, five questions are posed and answered which deal with various aspects of civic virtue and its relationship to…

  15. Ethical virtues in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.

  16. 美德伦理及其在当代的复兴%Virtue Ethics and its Revival in Contemporary Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春香; 杨瑞萍

    2012-01-01

    在西方,美德伦理指的是亚里士多德的以人为中心的伦理学说,在中国则指的是儒家所推崇的心性之学。启蒙运动形成的个人主义已日渐弥漫开来,形形色色的具体的个人主义观念导致了道德价值多元化,情感主义造成了当今道德语言的危机,规范伦理学局限性的日益凸显,美德伦理学逐渐被人们所关注。美德伦理学的复兴将会缓解当今时代的道德危机,关键在于找到传承美德伦理的共同体,发扬模范人物的带头作用,并借助于法律的规约,才能复兴美德伦理。%It is widely believed that virtue ethics refers to the Aristotle' s ethics which is the theory of Peo- ple -centered in the western world, while it refers to the philosophy of mind and Nature advocated by Confucianism in China. The individualism resulting from the Enlightenment has spread out, different kinds of specific ideas of individualism have brought about the diversity of moral values, and emotionalism has caused the contemporary crisis of moral language. Due to the limitation of the normative ethics, virtue ethics has gradually attracted people' s attention. The revival of virtue ethics will alleviate the contempo- rary moral crisis, the key lies in finding out the community of transmitting the virtue ethics. Only by pro- moting the leading role of role models, and by means of regulation and restraint of laws, can we revive the virtue ethics.

  17. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  18. Normative Virtue Theory in Theological Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Austin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What place is there for virtue theory in theological ethics? Many question the normative significance of virtue theory in theological ethics today, leaving it to rule-based ethics to provide action-guidance. There are three key objections to the normativity of virtue theory: that virtue theory is about agents rather than actions, that virtue theory has nothing to say directly about the morality of actions, and that the virtues are too vague to be of normative or action-guiding significance. This essay, drawing on Thomas Aquinas’s account of virtue, challenges these perceptions and argues for a genuinely normative, action-guiding virtue theory within theological ethics. Theological ethics, in turn, can contribute to virtue theory, especially by its emphasis on the ecstatic nature of mature moral virtue, and through its reflection on the virtue of spiritual discernment.

  19. Virtue ethics and its importance in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Milovan; Riznić, Dejan; Voza, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes virtue ethics which, together with deontology and utilitarianism, represents one of the three traditions of normative ethics frequently applied to the area of business ethics. The main part of this paper considers various aspects of virtue ethics - the oldest ethical tradition - both from the theoretical and empirical standpoint. Virtue ethics, which focuses on character (moral) traits of an individual, is becoming an increasingly important social issue in modern society d...

  20. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  2. Swanton, Christine. The Virtue Ethics of Hume Nietzsche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfano, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    This book has a noble aim: to free virtue ethics from the grip of the neo-Aristotelianism that limits its scope in contemporary Anglophone philosophy. Just as there are deontological views that are not Kant’s or even Kantian, just as there are consequentialist views that are not Bentham’s or even

  3. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  4. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.

  5. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowden, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

  7. Swanton, Christine. The Virtue Ethics of Hume Nietzsche

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    This book has a noble aim: to free virtue ethics from the grip of the neo-Aristotelianism that limits its scope in contemporary Anglophone philosophy. Just as there are deontological views that are not Kant’s or even Kantian, just as there are consequentialist views that are not Bentham’s or even utilitarian, so, Swanton contends, there are viable virtue ethical views that are not Aristotle’s or even Aristotelian. Indeed, the history of both Eastern and Western philosophy suggests that the ma...

  8. Virtue and the scientist: using virtue ethics to examine science's ethical and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiin-Yu

    2015-02-01

    As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronêsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronêsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronêsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronêsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses.

  9. Virtue Ethics in School Counseling: A Framework for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…

  10. How virtue ethics informs medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.

  11. From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation - Putting Virtues into Business Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the theory of virtue ethics in its application in the business arena. In contrast to other ethics approaches, virtue theory emphasises the virtues and moral characters of the individual as moral agent. As such, the theory of virtue ethics provides a useful perspective in making sense of various business ethics issues through placing an emphasis on the moral character of the individuals, and its transformational influences in driving ...

  12. Virtues of the self : ethics and the critique of feminist identity politics

    OpenAIRE

    Pollot, Elena Linda Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is situated at the intersection of feminist political theory, identity politics and moral philosophy. Its broader aim is to show the positive consequences of returning the self and its inner activity to the ethical domain for feminist identity politics. To this end, it brings feminist identity politics into dialogue with contemporary developments in virtue ethics, in particular Christine Swanton’s pluralistic virtue ethics. As its starting point, it takes issue with...

  13. Ombuds’ corner: Virtue ethics and its applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics provides managers and business leaders with an opportunity to ask themselves what kind of people they become through their actions and how their decisions impact the lives of others. It gives them a chance to consider what kind of business environments and cultures they should build, how business goals, policies and procedures foster positive or negative learning in their employees and what kind of societies they contribute to developing through their operations and the products and services they offer.” (1)   During our work at CERN or in our institutes, we do not only produce deliverables and services, but we also develop abilities and competencies that shape our personalities. Not only do we transform the image of the Laboratory and the vision that people have about the physical world, but we also transform ourselves. In the ancient Greek philosophy, the key to existence relied on the search for excellence, which was intimately mixed with virtue ethics i...

  14. Virtue Ethics, Applied Ethics and Rationality twenty-three years after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In evaluating the merits and shortcomings of virtue ethics I focus on some central differences between virtue ethics and rival theories such as deontology and utilitarianism. Virtue ethics does not prescribe strict rules of conduct. Instead, the virtue ethical approach can be understood as an invitation to search for standards, ...

  15. Virtue ethics and nursing: on what grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Within the nursing ethics literature, there has for some time now been a focus on the role and importance of character for nursing. An overarching rationale for this is the need to examine the sort of person one must be if one is to nurse well or be a good nurse. How one should be to live well or live a/the good life and to nurse well or be a good nurse seems to necessitate a focus on an agent's character as well as actions because character is (for the most part) expressed in action (e.g. see Laird). This paper will give an overview of the reasons for the role and importance of character in nursing practice and explain its relation to nursing's frequent use of virtue ethics in order to recommend caution. While the paper agrees that the role of character is important in nursing caution is needed in both how much moral and thus normative, emphasis is being placed on the psychology of character and on the drift to virtue ethics. The psychological which may be explanatory needs to be linked with the normative, and a justification for the normative is needed. A justification as virtue ethics is contested, and nursing practice does not need to take on this explanatory and justificatory burden. A tentative proposal raised but not discussed in depth in this paper is that when an ultimate explanation or explanatory ground is needed, nursing practice leads quite naturally to a form of consequentialism as well as a realist metaethic. On this account, there are two levels of moral thinking, and nursing practice entails the virtues at one level and leads quite naturally to moral thinking at another more critical level of the criterion of what makes something right and good independently of character. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Virtue Ethics in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükuysal, Bahadır; Beyhan, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    People have always been in pursuit of moral values and right conduct since the beginning of the mankind. However, leading an honest and earnest life is not an easy task. Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers in history, argues that virtue is a habit which can be learned and gained through practice. This study is a modest attempt to examine Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics in his landmark work of Nicomachean Ethics and aims to push our thinking about being virtuous and leading righte...

  17. Understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that doctors' ethical challenges can be usefully conceptualised as role virtue conflicts. The hospital environment requires doctors to be simultaneously good doctors, good team members, good learners and good employees. I articulate a possible set of role virtues for each of these four roles, as a basis for a virtue ethics approach to analysing doctors' ethical challenges. Using one junior doctor's story, I argue that understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts enables recognition of important moral considerations that are overlooked by other approaches to ethical analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A return to virtue ethics: Virtue ethics, cognitive science and character education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico J. Gr�num

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morality in church and society is a burning issue. Church leaders know that the challenges are both formidable and urgent, yet finding solutions is easier said than done. The question this article asks is how can we educate for character? In the past, deontology or rule ethics reigned supreme, virtue ethics, however, gradually made a comeback. Currently virtue ethics is an important part of character education in the United States of America, especially with schools affiliated with churches. Recent insights provided by researchers focusing on cognitive science (working from the vantage point of cognitive and social psychology have managed to prove the legitimacy of virtue ethics but remind us that virtues must not be drilled into children; moral deliberation and imagination must be fostered in order to cultivate individuals with moral character that will be able to reflect on their own received tradition. I provide an example of such a method of education when I explain Integrative Ethical Education as formulated by Darcia Narvaez.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article confirms the validity of virtue ethics but calls for a change in the standard method of character education that exclusively emphasises knowledge of the Bible and strict obedience to the morals that the local community derives from the Bible, to an approach that also encourages teachers to help foster independent thinkers neither lacking in character nor the ability to reflect critically on their own tradition. I do believe that such a change is possible as was recently shown by the implementation of Darcia Narvaez�s Integrative Ethical Education in the United States of America.

  19. From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation - Putting Virtues into Business Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the theory of virtue ethics in its application in the business arena. In contrast to other ethics approaches, virtue theory emphasises the virtues and moral characters of the individual as moral agent. As such, the theory of virtue ethics provides a useful perspective in making sense of various business ethics issues through placing an emphasis on the moral character of the individuals, and its transformational influences in driving ethical business conduct. Drawing from van Marrewijk's (2003 theory of agency and communion in understanding the corporate sustainability value systems, as well as Moore's (2002, 2005 & 2008 conceptualisation of Alasdair MacIntyre's philosophical approach to ethics, the paper presents a theoretical framework that seeks to explain how individuals, as moral agents, can serve to promote virtuous business conduct and help foster a moral and ethical climate in the organisation as well as society at large.

  20. Business ethics and virtue: on Robert C. Solomon's many ways of being ethical.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Salvador, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The present Thesis explores the possibility of applying a virtue ethics framework, based upon the Aristotelian tradition, into business ethics. The purpose of the Thesis is twofold: to give an overview of virtue ethics through Richard Taylor’s portrait and to offer a specific account of virtue ethics focused on the business realm. The examination of this virtue ethics proposal is largely founded on Robert C. Solomon’s works, which constitute the cornerstone of this Thesis. However, the critic...

  1. Practical virtue ethics: healthcare whistleblowing and portable digital technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsin, S; Faunce, T; Oakley, J

    2005-10-01

    Medical school curricula and postgraduate education programmes expend considerable resources teaching medical ethics. Simultaneously, whistleblowers' agitation continues, at great personal cost, to prompt major intrainstitutional and public inquiries that reveal problems with the application of medical ethics at particular clinical "coalfaces". Virtue ethics, emphasising techniques promoting an agent's character and instructing their conscience, has become a significant mode of discourse in modern medical ethics. Healthcare whistleblowers, whose complaints are reasonable, made in good faith, in the public interest, and not vexatious, we argue, are practising those obligations of professional conscience foundational to virtue based medical ethics. Yet, little extant virtue ethics scholarship seriously considers the theoretical foundations of healthcare whistleblowing. The authors examine whether healthcare whistleblowing should be considered central to any medical ethics emphasising professional virtues and conscience. They consider possible causes for the paucity of professional or academic interest in this area and examine the counterinfluence of a continuing historical tradition of guild mentality professionalism that routinely places relationships with colleagues ahead of patient safety.Finally, it is proposed that a virtue based ethos of medical professionalism, exhibiting transparency and sincerity with regard to achieving uniform quality and safety of health care, may be facilitated by introducing a technological imperative using portable computing devices. Their use by trainees, focused on ethical competence, provides the practical face of virtue ethics in medical education and practice. Indeed, it assists in transforming the professional conscience of whistleblowing into a practical, virtue based culture of self reporting and personal development.

  2. The Virtues of National Ethics Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence. It has no authority merely by virtue of the position it holds. Rather, it has established relational authority based on its reputation. Unlike the U.S. bioethics commission, it is not part of executive government, nor is it constituted to contribute to the legislative branch, as does the French Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique. Its nongovernmental status notwithstanding, the Nuffield Council's work affects the U.K. government and the British public, and the Council has achieved international recognition for its reports. I was the chairperson from 2012 to 2017 and draw on my experience in this piece to consider three key audiences: governments, publics, and the international community. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. Getting It Right in Ethical Experience: John McDowell and Virtue Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    Most forms of virtue ethics are characterized by two attractive features. The first is that proponents of virtue ethics acknowledge the need to describe how moral agents acquire or develop the traits and abilities necessary to become morally able agents. The second attractive feature of most forms...... of virtue ethics is that they are forms of moral realism. The two features come together in the attempt to describe virtue as a personal ability to distinguish morally good reasons for action. It follows from the general picture of virtue ethics presented here that we cannot evaluate ethical judgment...

  4. Virtue ethics--an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-03-01

    While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  5. Virtue ethics – an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism. PMID:25792615

  6. The Conception of Virtue in the Philosophy of Islamic Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Demirkol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ethics Theories which is based on the self have been developed by Muslim Philosophiers who based on the inherited ethics philisophy literature of Antic Period Greek Philosophiers. The most important feature that separates philosophical ethics perspective from teologic or mystical ethics perspectives is the self theory. At the same time this feature causes philosophical ethi cs to have universal character. Philosophical ethics theory aims at universal good and virtue. It is based on conditions and behaviors that have become skills and without change in a short time. Despite the effect of environmental factors, habits appear on a large scale based on people's temperament and they form moral behaviors' foundation. Habit is a general concept that express both virtue and non - virtue. because ideal of the ethics is virtue, we are going to talk about virtue in this communique. There a re three sources of habits in the self. Both lust power and wrath power are animal incitement powers. And the third one is mind that forms people's essence. The power of lust enables people to attract the things which they need while the power of wrath ena bles people to get rid of the things which they think think are harmful. Mind enables using of these powers in balance, therefore it is a manager and controller of them. The virtue of chastity arises from the balanced move of the lust power and the virtue of bravery originates from the balanced move of the power of wrath. The independent virtue of mind is wisdom. It is thought - ptovoking that the mind is responsible moderation and control of instigation powers. If the mind is balanced, it is a source of wisd om virtue. If the mind isn't balanced, it is a source of non - virtue. The virtue of justice appears when, based on the powers, the basic virtues which are formed from chastity, bravery and wisdom are in complete balance. In this case it is understood that j ustice a combination of virtues in one respect and

  7. Virtue Ethics, Care Ethics, and "The Good Life of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," Chris Higgins (2011) reminds people that "self-interest and altruism, personal freedom and social roles, and practical wisdom and personhood" have been ancient philosophical topics that remain vitally important in the practice of contemporary teaching and learning. One of the most…

  8. Towards a strong virtue ethics for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alan E

    2006-07-01

    Illness creates a range of negative emotions in patients including anxiety, fear, powerlessness, and vulnerability. There is much debate on the 'therapeutic' or 'helping' nurse-patient relationship. However, despite the current agenda regarding patient-centred care, the literature concerning the development of good interpersonal responses and the view that a satisfactory nursing ethics should focus on persons and character traits rather than actions, nursing ethics is dominated by the traditional obligation, act-centred theories such as consequentialism and deontology. I critically examine these theories and the role of duty-based notions in both general ethics and nursing practice. Because of well-established flaws, I conclude that obligation-based moral theories are incomplete and inadequate for nursing practice. I examine the work of Hursthouse on virtue ethics' action guidance and the v-rules. I argue that the moral virtues and a strong (action-guiding) version of virtue ethics provide a plausible and viable alternative for nursing practice. I develop an account of a virtue-based helping relationship and a virtue-based approach to nursing. The latter is characterized by three features: (1) exercising the moral virtues such as compassion; (2) using judgement; and (3) using moral wisdom, understood to include at least moral perception, moral sensitivity, and moral imagination. Merits and problems of the virtue-based approach are examined. I relate the work of MacIntyre to nursing and I conceive nursing as a practice: nurses who exercise the virtues and seek the internal goods help to sustain the practice of nursing and thus prevent the marginalization of the virtues. The strong practice-based version of virtue ethics proposed is context-dependent, particularist, and relational. Several areas for future philosophical inquiry and empirical nursing research are suggested to develop this account yet further.

  9. Euthanasia, virtue ethics and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Liezl

    2002-02-01

    Following the recent revival of virtue ethics, a number of ethicists have discussed the moral problems surrounding euthanasia by drawing on concepts such as compassion, benevolence, death with dignity, mercy, and by inquiring whether euthanasia is compatible with human flourishing. Most of these writers assert, or simply assume, that their arguments concerning the morality of euthanasia also support their views with regard to legislation. I argue, against these writers, that legislation cannot and should not be based on our moral and religious beliefs concerning whether euthanasia allows a person to die a good death. I then outline an Aristotelian approach to the role of law and government in a good society, according to which the task of the legislator is not to ensure that people actually act virtuously, but is instead to make it possible for them to choose to live (and die) well by ensuring that they have access to the goods that are necessary for flourishing. In the second half of the paper I apply this approach to the question of whether voluntary active euthanasia should be legalised by asking (1) whether euthanasia always deprives people of the necessary conditions for flourishing, and (2) whether the option to request euthanasia is ever necessary for flourishing.

  10. Generosity as a central virtue in Nietzsche's ethics | Schoeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (virtuosity and vitality), to which he also refers as his 'moraline-free' conception of the virtues. The virtue of generosity (in the sense of magnanimity) plays a central role in Nietzschean ethics. According to Nietzsche, the truly noble or virtuous person is one who lives beyond resentment and feelings of remorse and guilt.

  11. [Ethical dilemmas of contemporary psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Pozgain, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Ethics in the contemporary psychiatry, as well as in medicine in general, is based on the two core ethical traditions: deontological and theological. Good ethical decision takes into the consideration both traditions, and is preceded with ethical dilemmas to provide the best possible care to the patients in that moment. In the article are presented most recent research results of the literature about ethical dilemmas in psychiatry. Ethical dilemmas in everyday practice as well as compliance with the patients, psychiatric consultations, informed consent, treatment of personality disorders, pharmacological investigations, forensic psychiatry, forced hospitalisation, promotion of mental health, and dealing with the stigma of the mental diseases are showed in the article. The authors emphasize the necessity of constant questioning of ethical dilemmas in the contemporary psychiatry, because of the special status of psychiatry as a potentially risky field in practice, and because of intensive pharmacological investigations in psychiatric patients.

  12. Corporate character : modern virtue ethics and the virtuous corporation.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a further development of two previous pieces of work (Moore 2002, 2005) in which modern virtue ethics, and in particular MacIntyre's (1983) related notions of "practice" and "institution," have been explored in the context of business. It first introduces and defines the concept of corporate character and seeks to establish why it is important. It then reviews MacIntyre's virtues-practice-institution schema and the implications of this at the level of the institution in question...

  13. Practising virtue: a challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie

    2005-11-01

    A virtue centred approach to ethics has been criticized for being vague owing to the nature of its central concept, the paradigm person. From the perspective of the practitioner the most damaging charge is that virtue ethics fails to be action guiding and, in addition to this, it does not offer any means of act appraisal. These criticisms leave virtue ethics in a weak position vis-à-vis traditional approaches to ethics. The criticism is, however, challenged by Hursthouse in her analysis of the accounts of right action offered by deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics. It is possible to defend the action guiding nature of virtue ethics: there are virtue rules and exemplars to guide action. Insights from Aristotle's practical approach to ethics are considered alongside Hursthouse's analysis and it is suggested that virtue ethics is also capable of facilitating action appraisal. It is at the same time acknowledged that approaches to virtue ethics vary widely and that the challenges offered here would be rejected by those who embrace a radical replacement virtue approach.

  14. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artz, J.M. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  15. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  16. Virtue Ethics and Its Pedagogic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    MUTLU, Barış

    2016-01-01

    We have started to forget some ancient values such as virtues including courage, self-control, modesty/temperance, benevolence, honesty, and truthfulness, justice in our current lives which have very strong self-interested, and egoistic relationships. Especially because of having different good life conceptions in our daily lives, we try to solve those problems by focusing on common political rules which are generally very abstract. But we have never thought that those rules will not be stron...

  17. A Plea for Virtue in Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Dominic A.; Baum-Baicker, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article represents comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (EJ945176). The current authors suggest that Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) presumed that the only ethical theories available for grounding decision-making models are of the…

  18. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, P

    2003-01-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine. PMID:14519840

  19. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, P

    2003-10-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine.

  20. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  1. The good engineer: giving virtue its due in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This "preventive ethics" project has been accomplished primarily by means of the promulgation of negative rules. However, some aspects of engineering professionalism, such as (1) sensitivity to risk (2) awareness of the social context of technology, (3) respect for nature, and (4) commitment to the public good, cannot be adequately accounted for in terms of rules, certainly not negative rules. Virtue ethics is a more appropriate vehicle for expressing these aspects of engineering professionalism. Some of the unique features of virtue ethics are the greater place it gives for discretion and judgment and also for inner motivation and commitment. Four of the many professional virtues that are important for engineers correspond to the four aspects of engineering professionalism listed above. Finally, the importance of the humanities and social sciences in promoting these virtues suggests that these disciplines are crucial in the professional education of engineers.

  2. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  3. A plea for virtue in ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Dominic A; Baum-Baicker, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). The current authors suggest that Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) presumed that the only ethical theories available for grounding decision-making models are of the rational, neoliberal variety. Rogerson et al stated, "Contextual, interpersonal, and intuitive factors are inextricably linked and inexorably influential in the process of ethical decision making. Ethical theory would benefit from encompassing these subtle yet powerful forces" (Rogerson et al., 2011, p. 616). They sought to augment these models with a cluster of contextual considerations, appending to them accounts of emotion, context, and intuition. First, notwithstanding the theories attributed to (the caricature of) Kant and his ilk, there are several ethical theories that include an account of what Rogerson et al. (2011) consider to be "nonrational" processes. From feminist theories to narrative ethics, sophisticated contextual theories have been developed and are readily available. Second, we question whether thick contextual considerations can simply be tacked on to extant models of decision making originally built upon a philosophical foundation that assumes a rational, autonomous agent who deliberates independently and logically.

  4. Qualified-agent virtue ethics | van Zyl | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualified-agent virtue ethics provides an account of right action in terms of the virtuous agent. It has become one of the most popular, but also most frequently criticized versions of virtue ethics. Many of the objections rest on the mistaken assumption that proponents of qualified-agent virtue ethics share the same view when it ...

  5. Practices, Virtue Ethics, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Music education is generally equated with the act of teaching music. In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," the remarkable book that orients the essays in this issue of "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education," Chris Higgins argues, among other things, that the view of teaching as a helping profession--one…

  6. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arries, E

    2005-08-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  7. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arries

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  8. Developing and Testing a Measure for the Ethical Culture of Organizations: The Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBased on four interlocking empirical studies, this paper initially validates and refines the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model which formulates normative criteria for the ethical culture of organizations. The findings of an exploratory factor analysis provide support for the existence of

  9. From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Vorster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In chapter four of his book, The unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory argues that ethical thinking since the 1500’s experienced a major shift in emphasis from the teleological concept of a ‘substantive morality of the good’ to liberalism’s ‘formal morality of rights’. He attributes it to the religious upheavals and ‘sociopolitical disruptions’ during the Reformation era. This article probes three elements of Gregory’s argument. Firstly, the article offers a critical assessment of Gregory’s depiction of the Reformation’s stance towards reason. It pays particular attention to the Reformation’s understanding of the effects of sin on the human being’s image of God, reason and the possibility for a shared social ethics. Secondly, this study scrutinises Gregory’s argument that the Reformation created an individualist notion of selfhood in contrast to the Roman Catholic communal notion of selfhood and thereby paved the way for modernism. Lastly, the discussion probes into Gregory’s claim that the Reformation’s ethical paradigm diverged radically from the Latin Christendom paradigm and that this contributed to the subjectivisation of ethics, by replacing a virtue ethics with a rights ethics.

  10. Virtue Ethics, Applied Ethics and Rationality twenty-three years after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instead, their meanings are perceived as being de rived from the contingencies that define our particular existences. Thus ongoing grass roots moral ... social embeddedness of human activities. In order to illustrate the virtue ethical approach I will discuss two key concepts in our moral vocabulary: responsibility and integrity.

  11. Virtue-based Approaches to Professional Ethics: a Plea for More Rigorous Use of Empirical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the method of professional ethics has been largely principle-based. But the failure of this approach to take into sufficient account the character of professionals has led to a revival of virtue ethics. The kind of professional virtue ethics that I am concerned with in this paper is teleological in that it relates the virtues of a profession to the ends of this profession. My aim is to show how empirical research can (in addition to philosophical inquiry be used to develop virtue-based accounts of professional ethics, and that such empirically well-informed approaches are more convincing than traditional kinds of professional virtue ethics. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first, I outline the structure of a teleological approach to virtue ethics. In Section 2, I show that empirical research can play an essential role in professional ethics by emphasizing the difference between conceptual and empirical matters. Section 3 demonstrates the relevance of virtues in professional life; and the last section is concerned with some meta-ethical issues that are raised by a teleological account of professional virtues.

  12. In Defense of Agent-Based Virtue Ethics | Van Zyl | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 'Against agent-based virtue ethics' (2004) Michael Brady rejects agent-based virtue ethics on the grounds that it fails to capture the commonsense distinction between an agent's doing the right thing, and her doing it for the right reason. In his view, the failure to account for this distinction has paradoxical results, making it ...

  13. Promoting Research of Virtue Ethics: A Review of Zhizheng Du's Ethical Thoughts of Medical Virtue%重视德性伦理的研究——杜治政医学美德伦理观浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娟; 安军

    2017-01-01

    杜治政教授是我国当代医学哲学尤其是医学伦理学学科的主要开拓者和奠基人.他直接而清晰地剖析了我国医学伦理学面临的现实危机和道德困境,提出培养医学道德要促进规范伦理与德性伦理的结合,更要高扬医学美德伦理.杜治政教授强调美德伦理首先是医生的美德,美德具有医学伦理学母德的性质,他的医学美德伦理观为我国当代医学道德发展奠定了基础,为解决当今临床实践中的种种现实伦理问题、建立和谐医患关系提供了重要借鉴和有益启示.%Professor Zhizheng Du is one of the pioneers and founders of contemporary philosophy of medicine,especially medical ethics,in mainland China.Based on analysis of the dilemma and crisis of current development of medical ethics,he proposes a unity between the normative ethics and virtue ethics,emphasizing the promotion of medical virtue.In Zhizheng Du's opinion,the virtue ethics should primarily be the doctor's virtue,which is an essential foundation of medical ethics.His theory provides important reference and meaningful inspiration for solving the present ethical problem in clinical practice and establishing a harmonious doctor-patient relationship.

  14. Professional virtue and professional self-awareness: a case study in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Preston

    2011-03-01

    This paper articulates an Aristotelian theory of professional virtue and provides an application of that theory to the subject of engineering ethics. The leading idea is that Aristotle's analysis of the definitive function of human beings, and of the virtues humans require to fulfill that function, can serve as a model for an analysis of the definitive function or social role of a profession and thus of the virtues professionals must exhibit to fulfill that role. Special attention is given to a virtue of professional self-awareness, an analogue to Aristotle's phronesis or practical wisdom. In the course of laying out my account I argue that the virtuous professional is the successful professional, just as the virtuous life is the happy life for Aristotle. I close by suggesting that a virtue ethics approach toward professional ethics can enrich the pedagogy of professional ethics courses and help foster a sense of pride and responsibility in young professionals.

  15. A virtue ethics guide to best practices for community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are strengths of character that contribute to a life of flourishing or well-being for individuals and communities. This article provides an overview of virtue ethics theory, identifies common ethical problems in CBPR, and discusses how professional virtues can be used to guide ethical research practice. The virtues of compassion, courage, honesty, humility, justice, and practical reasoning are defined and applied to ethical practice in the development, implementation, and dissemination of CBPR. Best practices for CBPR that consider the well-being of communities are identified. The virtues of compassion and humility foster inclusiveness and integration of community perspectives in research collaboration. Courage requires researchers to step out of the research safety-net to listen to community member voices and wisdom and share power in research decisions. Honesty requires researchers to communicate realistic expectations for research outcomes, share all findings with the community, and consider community perspectives in research dissemination. Systematic involvement of the community in all steps of the research process represents the virtue of practical reasoning. From a justice perspective, CBPR aims to restore communities rather than take from them.

  16. Deliberation at the hub of medical education: beyond virtue ethics and codes of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2013-02-01

    Although both codes of practice and virtue ethics are integral to the ethos and history of "medical professionalism", the two trends appear mutually incompatible. Hence, in the first part of the paper we explore and explicate this apparent conflict and seek a direction for medical education. The theoretical and empirical literature indicates that moral deliberation may transcend the incompatibilities between the formal and the virtuous, may enhance moral and other aspects of personal sensitivity, may help design and improve other parts of the curricula, and may foster self-awareness and clarification of the professional role. Not only are these goals essential for good and conscientious doctoring, but they may also reduce physicians' "burn-out". We argue that medical education should focus on the ubiquitous practice of deliberation in contemporary medicine, and especially the practice of moral deliberation.

  17. Virtue-based Approaches to Professional Ethics: a Plea for More Rigorous Use of Empirical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Spielthenner

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, the method of professional ethics has been largely principle-based. But the failure of this approach to take into sufficient account the character of professionals has led to a revival of virtue ethics. The kind of professional virtue ethics that I am concerned with in this paper is teleological in that it relates the virtues of a profession to the ends of this profession. My aim is to show how empirical research can (in addition to philosophical inquiry) be used to develop vi...

  18. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery 2016 ethics forum: Working virtues in surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Larry R

    2017-05-01

    Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What Kind of Person Would Do Something Like That? A Christian Ecological Virtue Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma-Prediger, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In my book "For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision of Creation Care" (2001, rev edn 2010) I develop a set of ecological virtues from a Christian perspective. Although there are now monographs, e.g. "Character and Environment: A Virtue-Oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics" (2007), and anthologies, e.g.…

  20. Exploring Ethics with Contemporary Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joyce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the way in which we should go about introducing ethics into the study of our interpersonal relations in the hope of formulating a foundation upon which to base our theories and analyze our behavior. We should ask ourselves whether there should be different criteria for interpersonal ethics than for ethics in other areas of…

  1. Respect in Kant’s Tugendlehre and its place in contemporary ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlei Dall'Agnol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Kant’s conception of respect, especially in his work Metaphysical first principles of the doctrine of virtue (briefly Tugendlehre or Doctrine of Virtue, the second part of his The Metaphysics of Morals, and its place in contemporary ethics. The main question it asks is this: is respect just a feeling, a particular virtue or a moral duty/right? The initial hypothesis is that, in the relevant sense, respect is so to speak a “dutright,” that is, a duty that is at the same time a right. It leads to a fundamental principle, namely respect for persons, defining ‘person’ as a bearer of rights/obligations. Leaving Kant’s metaphysical commitments aside, it shows that this is one of the most important Kantian contributions to contemporary ethics

  2. Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because the main argument for adopting a character-based approach is that it could be more successfully applied to engineering than traditional rule-based or algorithmic ethical approaches, this oversight is problematic for the proponents of the virtue-based view. Furthermore, without addressing these concerns, the wide adoption of a virtue-based approach to engineering ethics has the potential to isolate individuals with ASD and to devalue their contributions to moral practice. In the end, this paper gestures towards a way of incorporating important insights from virtue ethics in engineering that would be more inclusive of those with ASD.

  3. Human Dignity in Healthcare: A Virtue Ethics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    The term ‘dignity’ is used in a variety of ways but always to attribute or recognize some status in the person. The present paper concerns not the status itself but the virtue of acknowledging that status. This virtue, which Thomas Aquinas calls ‘observantia’, concerns how dignity is honoured, respected, or observed. By analogy with justice (of which it is a part) observantia can be thought of both as a general virtue and as a special virtue. As a general virtue observantia refers to that respect for human dignity that is implicit in all acts of justice. As a special virtue it concerns the specific way we show esteem for people. Healthcare represents a challenge to observantia because those in need of healthcare are doubly restricted in expressing their dignity in action: in the first place by their ill health, and in the second place by the conditions required by healthcare (hence the sick are termed ‘patients’ rather than ‘agents’). To be understood properly, especially in the context of healthcare, the virtue of observantia needs both to qualify and to be qualified by the virtue of misericordia, empathy, or compassion for affliction. The unity of the virtues requires a simultaneous recognition of the common dignity and common neediness of human existence.

  4. Toward a virtue-based normative ethics for the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, E D

    1995-09-01

    Virtue is the most perdurable concept in the history of ethics, which is understandable given the ineradicability of the moral agent in the events of the moral life. Historically, virtue enjoyed normative force as long as the philosophical anthropology and the metaphysics of the good that grounded virtue were viable. That grounding has eroded in both general and medical ethics. If virtue is to be restored to a normative status, its philosophical underpinnings must be reconstructed. Such reconstruction seems unlikely in general ethics, where the possibility of agreement on the good for humans is remote. However, it is a realistic possibility in the professional ethics fo the health professions where agreement on the telos of the healing relationship is more likely to arise. Nevertheless, virtue-based ethics must be related conceptually and normatively to other ethical theories in a comprehensive moral philosophy of the health professions. If he really does think there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, sir, when he leaves our house, let us count our spoons. Samuel Johnson

  5. Facilitating the development of moral insight in practice: teaching ethics and teaching virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann M

    2006-10-01

    Abstract The teaching of ethics is discussed within the context of insights gleaned from ancient Greek ethics, particularly Aristotle and Plato and their conceptions of virtue (arete, meaning excellence). The virtues of excellence of character (moral virtue) and excellence of intelligence (intellectual virtue), particularly practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom, are considered. In Aristotelian ethics, a distinction is drawn between these intellectual virtues: experience and maturity is needed for practical wisdom, but not for theoretical wisdom. In addition to this, excellence of character is acquired through habitual practice, not instruction. This suggests that there is a need to teach more than theoretical ethics and that the ethics teacher must also facilitate the acquisition of practical wisdom and excellence of character. This distinction highlights a need for various educational approaches in cultivating these excellences which are required for a moral life. It also raises the question: is it possible to teach practical wisdom and excellence of character? It is suggested that virtue, conceived of as a type of knowledge, or skill, can be taught, and people can, with appropriate experience, habitual practice, and good role models, develop excellence of character and become moral experts. These students are the next generation of exemplars and they will educate others by example and sustain the practice of nursing. They need an education which includes theoretical ethics and the nurturing of practical wisdom and excellence of character. For this purpose, a humanities approach is suggested.

  6. The "MelArete" Project: Educating Children to the Ethics of Virtue and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Ubbiali, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The educative project MelArete proposes an interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to Virtue Ethics in the light of the philosophy of care. Starting from the ontological assumption that care is prime in life and without it the human being cannot flourish in his/her humanity, the project is based on an interpretation of the…

  7. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  8. Human Dignity in Contemporary Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this strictly academic book, David. Kirchhoffer processes the complex issues surrounding the concept of human dignity through a clearly defined ethical method. At the outset, he questions whether it is possible to use human dignity as a normative criterion, when empirical research has shown there is no evidence that an ...

  9. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  10. The Relationship between Ethical Culture and Unethical Behavior in Work Groups: Testing the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, which is a model for measuring the ethical culture of organizations, has not been tested on its predictive validity. This study tests the relationship between this model and observed unethical behavior in work groups. The sample consists of 301 triads

  11. Virtue ethics and the selection of children with impairments: a reply to Rosalind McDougall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla

    2010-11-01

    In 'Parental Virtues: A New Way of Thinking about the Morality of Reproductive Actions' Rosalind McDougall proposes a virtue-based framework to assess the morality of child selection. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children. In 'Impairment, Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,' she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection, and claims that couples with an impairment are morally justified in selecting a child with the same impairment. This claim, she maintains, reveals that the flourishing of a child should be understood as requiring environment-specific characteristics. I argue that McDougall's argument begs the question. More importantly, it does not do justice to virtue ethics. I also question to what extent a virtue ethics framework can be successfully applied to discussions about the moral permissibility of reproductive actions. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Virtue Ethics and the Selection of Children with Impairments A Reply to Rosalind McDougall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In “Parental Virtues: A New Way of Thinking about the Morality of Reproductive Actions” Rosalind McDougall proposes a virtue-based framework to assess the morality of child selection. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children. In “Impairment, Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,” she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection, and claims that couples with an impairment are morally justified in selecting a child with the same impairment. This claim, she maintains, reveals that the flourishing of a child should be understood as requiring environment-specific characteristics. I argue that McDougall’s argument begs the question. More importantly, it does not do justice to virtue ethics. I also question to what extent a virtue ethics framework can be successfully applied to discussions about the moral permissibility of reproductive actions. PMID:19508307

  13. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  14. Teaching Ethics to High School Students: Virtue Meets Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Nygard, Kim; Wood, William C.

    2009-01-01

    When highly visible lapses in ethics occur, education gets some of the blame. Principals in the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and the Enron scandal had been educated at Harvard and other elite business schools, where professional and moral ideals had arguably been replaced by a focus on profits at the expense of ethics. A long-standing tradition…

  15. Just allocation and team loyalty: a new virtue ethic for emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, J; Beckman, A

    2005-01-01

    When traditional virtue ethics is applied to clinical medicine, it often claims as its goal the good of the individual patient, and focuses on the dyadic relationship between one physician and one patient. An alternative model of virtue ethics, more appropriate to the practice of emergency medicine, will be outlined by this paper. This alternative model is based on the assumption that the appropriate goal of the practice of emergency medicine is a team approach to the medical wellbeing of individual patients, constrained by the wellbeing of the patient population served by a particular emergency department. By defining boundaries and using the key virtues of justice and team loyalty, this model fits emergency practice well and gives care givers the conceptual clarity to apply this model to various conflicts both within the department and with those outside the department. PMID:16199595

  16. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  17. Critical Thinking in Moral Argumentation Contexts: A Virtue Ethical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ciurria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional analytic philosophy, critical thinking is defined along Cartesian lines as rational and linear reasoning preclusive of intuitions, emotions and lived experience. According to Michael Gilbert, this view – which he calls the Natural Light Theory (NLT – fails because it arbitrarily excludes standard feminist forms of argumentation and neglects the essentially social nature of argumentation. In this paper, I argue that while Gilbert’s criticism is correct for argumentation in general, NLT fails in a distinctive and particularly problematic manner in moral argumentation contexts. This is because NLT calls for disputants to adopt an impartial attitude, which overlooks the fact that moral disputants qua moral agents are necessarily partial to their own values and interests. Adopting the impartial perspective would therefore alienate them from their values and interests, causing a kind of “moral schizophrenia.” Finally, I urge a re-valuation of epistemic virtue in argumentation.

  18. Loób and Kapwa: Thomas Aquinas and a Filipino Virtue Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Jeremiah

    2015-01-01

    Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Statement of purpose 1 1.2 Glossary of relevant concepts 3 1.3 Methodology and precedents 7 1.4 Value versus virtue 8 1.4.1 The discovery of Filipino “values” 9 1.4.2 The problem with Filipino “values” 13 1.4.3 The philosophical advantage of “virtues” 20 1.4.4 The international revival of virtue ethics 25 Chapter 2: The Three Intellectual Traditions in the...

  19. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine.

  20. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  1. From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Vorster

    2014-01-01

    In chapter four of his book, The unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory argues that ethical thinking since the 1500’s experienced a major shift in emphasis from the teleological concept of a ‘substantive morality of the good’ to liberalism’s ‘formal morality of rights’. He attributes it to the religious upheavals and ‘sociopolitical disruptions’ during the Reformation era. This article probes three elements of Gregory’s argument. Firstly, the article offers a critical assessment of Gregory...

  2. Responsibly managing students' learning experiences in student-run clinics: a virtues-based ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Many medical schools now offer students a distinctive clinical and learning opportunity, the student-run clinic (SRC), in which generalist physicians often play the major role. Although SRCs have become popular, they pose as-yet unexplored ethical challenges for the learning experiences of students. In SRCs students not only take on a significant administrative role especially in coordinating care, but also provide direct patient care for a clinically challenging, biopsychosocially vulnerable, medically indigent population of patients. SRCs provide an exemplar of the ethical challenges of care for such patients. The ethical framework proposed in this article emphasizes that these valued learning opportunities for students should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues, with faculty as role models for these virtues. The valued learning opportunities for students in SRCs should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues of integrity, compassion, self-effacement, self-sacrifice, and courage, which are required for the appropriate care of the vulnerable populations served by SRCs.

  3. Virtue ethics as an alternative to deontological and consequential reasoning in the harm reduction debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Timothy; Groarke, Louis; Sweet, William

    2008-02-01

    There is strong evidence that harm reduction interventions such as Supervised Injection Sites and Needle Exchange Programs prevent many of the negative consequences of problematic substance use. Yet many governments, including the United States and Canada, still do not endorse these interventions, claiming that they do not get people off of drugs and send a mixed message. This paper will analyze objections to harm reduction in light of the ethical theories of John Stuart Mill, Immanuel Kant and Aristotle. The most important ethical issue in the abstinence vs. harm reduction debate is whether harm reduction - because it does not require individuals to either reduce their consumption of illicit substances or to abstain from illicit substance use - can be ethically justified. Harm reduction interventions are clearly justified on Utilitarian grounds because, based on the evidence, such policies would produce the greatest good for the greatest number. However, Kant would not think that the values guiding harm reduction are ethical because the justification of harm reduction interventions focuses exclusively on examining consequences. Virtue Ethics seeks to find the proper balance between harm reduction and abstinence. We claim that the virtue of compassion would provide a defense of harm reduction.

  4. A Situationist Lesson for Character Education: Re-Conceptualising the Inculcation of Virtues by Converting Local Virtues to More Global Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the debate about character between situationism and virtue ethics, I argue that John Doris's idea, "local trait", offers a fresh insight into contemporary character education. Its positive variant, "local virtue", signals an inescapable relay station of the gradual development of virtue, and serves as a promising…

  5. AIDS in contemporary Islamic ethical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Ersilia

    2002-01-01

    AIDS has been mentioned in Islamic ethical literature since about 1985 as an illness pertaining to European and American homosexuals. Only since about 1990 has the presence of HIV/AIDS in Islamic countries cast light on the fact that the actual sexual behaviour of the population does not always conform to religious norms. The increase in the numbers of people with HIV has compelled religious leaders to take a stand on sexual practices they consider "deviant", from prostitution to homosexuality and extramarital sex. The aim of this paper is to analyse the attitude of Muslim religious authorities towards individual sexual behaviour and AIDS. It is based mainly on contemporary legal responses that largely provide the necessary information on most of Islamic medical ethics. According to Muslim scholars, AIDS is a warning from God not to indulge in illicit conduct. As a remedy against the spread of AIDS, they encourage compliance with traditional family values and the enhancement of faith and devotion and strongly oppose sex education. They oppose promotion of condoms or any form of safe sex outside of marriage, which they perceive as promoting promiscuity and defiance of divine law. All the above-mentioned arguments are not exhaustive of the Islamic attitude towards AIDS. Some religious groups disagree with such a conservative way of conceiving the fight against AIDS as being antithetical to both men's and women's well-being. They support an alternative view of reproductive health and human rights within the Islamic framework and stress the great tolerance of Islam and why it must include people with HIV and AIDS.

  6. NHS constitution values for values-based recruitment: a virtue ethics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuizen, Johanna Elise; Callwood, Alison; Gallagher, Ann

    2018-05-17

    Values-based recruitment is used in England to select healthcare staff, trainees and students on the basis that their values align with those stated in the Constitution of the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, it is unclear whether the extensive body of existing literature within the field of moral philosophy was taken into account when developing these values. Although most values have a long historical tradition, a tendency to assume that they have just been invented, and to approach them uncritically, exists within the healthcare sector. Reflection is necessary. We are of the opinion that selected virtue ethics writings, which are underpinned by historical literature as well as practical analysis of the healthcare professions, provide a helpful framework for evaluation of the NHS Constitution values, to determine whether gaps exist and improvements can be made. Based on this evaluation, we argue that the definitions of certain NHS Constitution values are ambiguous. In addition to this, we argue that 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom', two important concepts in the virtue ethics literature, are not sufficiently represented within the NHS Constitution values. We believe that the NHS Constitution values could be strengthened by providing clearer definitions, and by integrating 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom'. This will benefit values-based recruitment strategies. Should healthcare policy-makers in other countries wish to develop a similar values-based recruitment framework, we advise that they proceed reflectively, and take previously published virtue ethics literature into consideration. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Towards a Confucian virtue bioethics: reframing Chinese medical ethics in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People's Republic of China: the need to create an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing on the Confucian tradition's account of how virtue and human flourishing are compatible with the pursuit of profit. It offers the Confucian account of the division of labor and the financial inequalities this produces with special attention to China's socialist project of creating the profession of barefoot doctors as egalitarian peasant physicians and why this project failed. It then further develops the Confucian acknowledgement of the unequal value of different services and products and how this conflicts with the current system of payment to physicians which has led to the corruption of medical professionalism through illegal supplementary payments. It further gives an account the oblique intentionality of Confucian moral psychology that shows how virtuous persons can pursue benevolent actions while both foreseeing profit and avoiding defining their character by greed. This account of Confucian virtue offers the basis for a medical professionalism that can function morally within a robustly profit-oriented market economy. The paper concludes with a summary of the characteristics of Confucian medical professionalism and of how it places the profit motive within its account of virtue ethics.

  8. Teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students using a virtue ethics-based curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha Joan

    2014-06-01

    As professionals, nurses are expected to engage in respectful relationships with clients, other health care professionals, and each other. Regulatory bodies set standards and codes of ethics for professional behavior in nursing that clearly communicate expectations for civility. However, the wealth of literature on incivility in the profession indicates that nurses often fall short of meeting these standards in their interactions with other nurses. Currently, few effective strategies exist for nurse educators to teach civility to nursing students and prepare them to engage in healthy relationships with their colleagues. This article argues for the use of virtue ethics as a philosophical framework for teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students. The pedagogical strategies proposed may help students contribute to the development of healthy workplaces. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Business Ethics versus Economic Incentives: Contemporary Issues and Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha Pravin

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on my experience with teaching a course on ethical dilemmas faced by individuals, managers and businesses in contemporary societies. Modern economic thinking generally presumes that individuals and businesses in a society follow their own self-interest, or private economic incentives. The course highlighted the importance of ethical considerations for action that are based on consideration of others rather than ones own. Four significant ethical dilemmas of modern societie...

  10. Developing and teaching the virtue-ethics foundations of healthcare whistle blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    Healthcare whistle blowing, despite the benefits it has brought to healthcare systems in many developed countries, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential healthcare professionals and regulatory institutions. Few if any medical schools or law department health law and bioethics classes, teach whistle blowing in a formal sense. Yet without exception, public inquiries initiated by healthcare whistle blowers have validated their central allegations and demonstrated that the whistle blowers themselves were sincere in their desire to implement the fundamental virtues and principles of medical ethics, bioethics and public health law. In many jurisdictions, the law, this time remarkably in advance of professional opinion, has offered legislative protection for reasonable allegations of whistleblowers made in good faith and in the public interest concerning a substantial and imminent threat to public safety. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that healthcare whistle blowing lacks a firm virtue-based theoretical bioethical and jurisprudential foundation. The hypothesis discussed is that the lack of this bioethical and jurisprudential substrate has contributed to a situation where healthcare whistle blowing suffers in terms of institutional support due to its lack of academic legitimacy. This article commences the process of redressing this imbalance by attempting to lay the theoretical foundations for healthcare whistle blowing. As a case study, this article concludes by discussing the Personal and Professional Development course at the ANU Medical School where healthcare whistle blowing is a formal part of a virtue-based curriculum that emphasises the foundational importance of conscience. Illustrative elements of that program are discussed.

  11. Medical Ethics in Contemporary Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Williams

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes and analyzes ethical issues in medical practice, particularly those issues encountered by physicians in their relationships with their patients. These relationships often involve ethical conflicts between 2 or more interests, which physicians need to recognize and resolve. The article deals with 4 topics in clinical practice in which ethical conflicts occur: physicians' duty of confidentiality in a digital environment, their responsibilities for dealing with abuses of the human rights of patients, their role in clinical research, and their relationships with commercial enterprises. The ethical policies of the World Medical Association provide the basis for determining appropriate physician conduct on these matters. The article concludes with reflections on the need for international standards of medical ethics.

  12. Character in Learning for Life: A Virtue-Ethical Rationale for Recent Research on Moral and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James; Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    This article has three broad aims. The first is to draw attention what is probably the largest empirical study of moral, values and character education in the United Kingdom to the present date. The second is to outline--sufficient for present purposes--a plausible conceptual or theoretical case for placing a particular virtue-ethical concept of…

  13. Can Virtue Be Learned? An Exploration of Student Learning Experiences in Ethics Courses and Their Implications for Influencing Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew Cochran, Elizabeth; Fozard Weaver, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to teach virtue, or to learn it? We consider this question through an institutional review board (IRB) supported research study attending to student learning experiences in undergraduate ethics courses at a Catholic university with an explicit commitment to social justice. This essay draws on and interprets qualitative data…

  14. An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership through Ayn Rand's "The Virtues of Selfishness" (1964)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Educational leadership is vital to sustain quality educational institutions. It is the role of the school leader to indoctrinate stakeholders with the objectivist ethics-embracing egoism and relinquishing altruistic ideals when it comes to invigorating the system with sustainable change. Ayn Rand's timeless piece of literature "The Virtue of…

  15. The inadequacy of role models for educating medical students in ethics with some reflections on virtue theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erde, E L

    1997-01-01

    Persons concerned with medical education sometimes argued that medical students need no formal education in ethics. They contended that if admissions were restricted to persons of good character and those students were exposed to good role models, the ethics of medicine would take care of itself. However, no one seems to give much philosophic attention to the ideas of model or role model. In this essay, I undertake such an analysis and add an analysis of role. I show the weakness in relying on role models exclusively and draw implications from these for appeals to virtue theory. Furthermore, I indicate some of the problems about how virtue theory is invoked as the ethical theory that would most closely be associated to the role model rhetoric and consider some of the problems with virtue theory. Although Socrates was interested in the character of the (young) persons with whom he spoke, Socratic education is much more than what role modeling and virtue theory endorse. It-that is, philosophy-is invaluable for ethics education.

  16. Nasogastric feeding at the end of life: a virtue ethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    The use of Nasogastric (NG) feeding in the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration at the end of life has, for the most part, been regarded as futile by the medical community. This position has been led chiefly by prevailing medical data. In Singapore, however, there has been an increase in its utilization supported primarily by social, religious and cultural factors expressly to prolong life of the terminally ill patient. Here this article will seek to review the ethical and clinical impact of this treatment and provide some understanding for such decisions in the light of the Duty of Palliative Care [DoPC]. Complemented by virtue ethics theory, the DoPC highlights and seeks to realize the individual case specific goals of care that maximize comfort and quality of life of the patient in the face of rapid attenuation of treatment options and the eminence of the final outcome by considering each of these factors individually in order to provide the best outcome for the patient and the family.

  17. Documentary ethics in contemporary practices. Alternative participation, alternative ethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.

    2013-01-01

    Documentary scholars have presupposed a certain documentary practice, and have ethically evaluated this practice, with a focus on the need for protection for a vulnerable and ignorant participant. But times have changed. By researching the experience of ethical challenges by both documentary

  18. [Major ethical problems in contemporary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, A

    1983-11-01

    The ethical distinction between good and evil has preoccupied man since the beginning of human history. Man, unlike other animals, is capable of comparing himself with his peers; this ability leads to a constant concern with the image he is projecting rather than with becoming truly good. Ethical principles may be subordinated to other demands of the personal image, but personal goodness can only be achieved by constant effort throughout life. The medical doctor is occupied in curing the ill, but must also be preoccupied by the welfare of the patient. In the present atmosphere of abdication of ethics in the international, national, and personal realms, an abdication of medical ethics is also apparent in the dehumanization of medical attitudes at all levels and in the substitution of personal interest instead of concern for the welfare of others. Violations of medical confidences are another example. The question of whether or not to tell the truth about their conditions to dying patients should be considered in the light of the higher goal of preserving the patient's dignity as well as emotional and physical health. Ethical dilemmas are involved in the increasing resort to technology within medicine and to its occasionally indiscriminate, inappropriate, or inappropriately withheld use. A related issue is the elevation of specializations above general clinical medicine. The frantic desire to maintain the body in a young-looking state through cosmetic surgery and other means may lead to neglect of the inner life and to other vices; the physician should set an example by enriching himself through reading, art, and other means. To the extent that contraceptive usage forms part of a refusal to sacrifice for others and of the need for constant pleasure without responsibility, it is a serious ethical problem. Artificial insemination with sperm of men considered genetically superior, in vitro fertilization, and genetic engineering are associated with very complex ethical

  19. Contemporary fiction and the ethics of modern culture

    CERN Document Server

    Karnicky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This book argues for the ethical relevancy of contemporary fiction at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Through reading novels by such writers as David Foster Wallace, Richard Powers, and Irvine Welsh, this book looks at how these works seek to transform the ways that readers live in the world.

  20. Documentary ethics in contemporary practices. Alternative participation, alternative ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, W.

    2013-01-01

    Documentary scholars have presupposed a certain documentary practice, and have ethically evaluated this practice, with a focus on the need for protection for a vulnerable and ignorant participant. But times have changed. By researching the experience of ethical challenges by both documentary filmmakers and participants, through both a quantitative and a qualitative project, a practice surfaces in which the participant is committed to and involved in the project; conflict betwee...

  1. Nonaltruistic kidney donations in contemporary Jewish law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2003-01-27

    In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.

  2. Awakening – Transformation, agency and virtue from three contemporary philosophical inspirations: Bhaskar, Segal and Slote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Schreiber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For some, ‘transformation’ is the new non-reductive and non-normative ‘development’, attracting attention from interdisciplinary array, but of particular theoretical and practical interest to Spirituality scholars. In philosophical context, transformation theory has suffered greatly from ’agency-structure’ dualism and suspension of ontology in body-mind dualism and rationalist virtue controversy. Drawing on the work of Bhaskar, Segal and Slote, a renegotiated and more meaningful sense of transformation emerges from their cumulative analytical and conceptual enrichment. In the complexity of possible relations between self, self-concept and society, lies the traditionally neglected transformative middle of sui-generis human depth. In redress, arguably, Bhaskar’s meta-philosophy accommodates Segal’s experiential depth analysis and Slote’s understanding of empathy and receptivity as valuable insights for ’awakening’ to transformative process.

  3. Ethics and contemporary urology practice: Setting out principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several situations of great ethical implications are encountered by physicians in daily urological practice. Informed consent for interventions, selection of patients for operative demonstrations and educational workshops, enrollment of patients in clinical trials, and the use of technology are some issues that call for stringent application of ethical principles in decision making. The issues of autonomy, privacy, rights, duties, and privileges that arise have to pass the tests prescribed by contemporary social mores and regulations. Some of the issues encountered, principles applicable, and covenants and documents that guide decision making are discussed.

  4. [The virtues in clinical bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The return to the virtuous physician, in medical ethics, is the key point of the ethical model proposed by Pellegrino. Following MacIntyre thinking, Pellegrino introduces the "medical virtues" concept, alma mater idea of his reforming proposal. This article describes the thinking of the author from three different outlooks: 1) an approach to the theory of virtue; 2) the ends of Medicine and virtues; and 3) professionalism and the virtues ethics. Finally, summing up his vision on 'virtue', it describes his vision of Christian virtues in medical practice along with the virtue of self-effacement of physician, though directs to specific articles where these issues are addressed in the monography.

  5. Epistemic Virtues in Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    This paper applies emerging research on epistemic virtues to business ethics. Inspired by recent work on epistemic virtues in philosophy, I develop a view in which epistemic virtues contribute to the acquisition of knowledge that is instrumentally valuable in the realisation of particular ends,

  6. Virtue and austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is often proposed as a third way in health-care ethics, that while consequentialism and deontology focus on action guidelines, virtue focuses on character; all three aim to help agents discern morally right action although virtue seems to have least to contribute to political issues, such as austerity. I claim: (1) This is a bad way to characterize virtue ethics. The 20th century renaissance of virtue ethics was first proposed as a response to the difficulty of making sense of 'moral rightness' outside a religious context. For Aristotle the right action is that which is practically best; that means best for the agent in order to live a flourishing life. There are no moral considerations besides this. (2) Properly characterized, virtue ethics can contribute to discussion of austerity. A criticism of virtue ethics is that fixed characteristics seem a bad idea in ever-changing environments; perhaps we should be generous in prosperity, selfish in austerity. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that people indeed do change with their environment. However, I argue that virtues concern fixed values not fixed behaviour; the values underlying virtue allow for different behaviour in different circumstances: in austerity, virtues still give the agent the best chance of flourishing. Two questions arise. (a) In austere environments might not injustice help an individual flourish by, say, obtaining material goods? No, because unjust acts undermine the type of society the agent needs for flourishing. (b) What good is virtue to those lacking the other means to flourish? The notion of degrees of flourishing shows that most people would benefit somewhat from virtue. However, in extreme circumstances virtue might harm rather than benefit the agent: such circumstances are to be avoided; virtue ethics thus has a political agenda to enable flourishing. This requires justice, a fortiori when in austerity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Codes of medical ethics: traditional foundations and contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, P; Bassford, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A.

  8. Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, major accounting scandals could have been nipped in the bud by whistle blowing before the wrong deeds escalated. However whistle blowing is a major issue and is viewed as disloyalty. In this paper, the dilemmas of whistle blowing are evaluated using contemporary ethical theories which are: egoism, deontology and utilitarianism. The analysis shows that deontology and utilitarianism are based on altruism and may support whistle blowing because they are grounded on consideration of other people. It is worth noting that morally upright adults are often a result of being brought up as ethical children from a psychological standpoint.

  9. Ayn Rand phenomenon in contemporary social and ethical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Korobko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a general outline of the phenomenon of well­known American writer and philosopher Ayn Rand in contemporary social and ethical space. Application to the research of life, literary and philosophical heritage of the writer makes it possible to assess its impact on the current situation in politics and philosophy. Review of Ayn Rand’s artistic positions confirms her role as a landmark figure, who represented at that time the actual socio­cultural request of active man in contemporary philosophy and politics, “putting down” in literary form complex of philosophical questions to the level of the ordinary man. Ayn Rand is the focus of the social practices in which she was formed, lived and worked. The ideas of almost all philosophical subjects are presented in her works in a simple way, but they are fundamentally different from conventional notions of ethics, politics and philosophy in general, even the ideas of philosophers, whom she honored, such as Aristotle. That’s why modern philosophers are interested in studying her works now. After all, still there has no comprehensive academic analysis of her philosophical and scientific works of art.

  10. In search of an appropriate contemporary approach in Christian ethics: Max Weber’s ethic of responsibility as resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Etienne de Villiers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question: ‘To what extent can Max Weber’s ethic of responsibility be a helpful resource in the search of Christian Social Ethics for an appropriate contemporary approach’? This question is addressed by, first of all, providing a summary of Weber’s famous speech Politics as a Vocation in which he developed his view on the ethic of responsibility; secondly, providing an interpretation of his view; and, thirdly, critically discussing the extent to which this ethic can serve as a resource for Christian Social Ethics in its search for an appropriate contemporary approach. The conclusion is that although some aspects of Weber’s view on the ethic of responsibility are unacceptable to Christian Social Ethics, the core of it is commendable. Some of the implications of incorporating an ethic of responsibility approach in Christian Social Ethics are also briefly discussed.

  11. Managing ethics in higher education : implementing a code or embedding virtue ?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews a publication entitled 'Ethics Matters. Managing Ethical Issues in Higher Education', which was distributed to all UK universities and equivalent (HEIs) in October 2005. The publication proposed that HEIs should put in place an institution-wide ethical policy framework, well beyond the customary focus on research ethics, together with the mechanisms necessary to ensure its implementation. Having summarised the processes that led to the publication and the publication itself...

  12. Is Aristotle a Virtue Ethicist?

    OpenAIRE

    Aufderheide, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores whether we should take Aristotle to be a virtue ethicist, understood as distinct from consequentialist and deontological approaches. For Aristotle the decisive questions whether virtue is prior to ethically good action or vice versa is equivalent to the question which mean is prior, the one characterising virtue or the one characterising good action. I argue that Aristotle would not seem to be a virtue ethicist because a) the definition of virtue in EN 2.6 tends towards p...

  13. Ethics and Economics: A Comment on Narvaez's "Revitalizing Human Virtue by Restoring Organic Morality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…

  14. Virtue and Moral Development, Changing Ethics Instruction in Business School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsha, Stephen K.

    2017-01-01

    Focus on business ethics has increased however, incidents of academic dishonesty among business school students has also increased at the same time. Simply adding ethics courses to business programs appears to offer little guidance for student action, action that is transferred from the university to the business world. More is needed if we wish…

  15. VIRTUES, SINS AND THE “GOOD LIFE” – 10 ETHICAL APPROACHES TO URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2008-10-01

    Ethical approaches to Urban Design are being brought to light, in a range including good wishes, statements and proposed rules, before a true ethical reflection illuminates professional practices. In this lecture I’ll try to enlarge the scope of the matter; and to demonstrate how Urban Design has a relevance of altruism and joy.

  16. Moral virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  17. Palliative sedation until death: an approach from Kant's ethics of virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselaar, Jeroen G J

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the moral justification for palliative sedation until death. Palliative sedation involves the intentional lowering of consciousness for the relief of untreatable symptoms. The paper focuses on the moral problems surrounding the intentional lowering of consciousness until death itself, rather than possible adjacent life-shortening effects. Starting from a Kantian perspective on virtue, it is shown that continuous deep sedation until death (CDS) does not conflict with the perfect duty of moral self-preservation because CDS does not destroy capacities for agency. In addition, it is argued that CDS can frustrate the imperfect duty of self-cultivation by reducing consciousness permanently. Nevertheless, there are cases where CDS is morally acceptable, namely, cases where the agent has already permanently lost the possibility for free action in advance of sedation--for example, due to excruciating and ongoing pain. Because the latter can be difficult to diagnose properly, safeguards may be needed in order to prevent the application of CDS for the wrong reasons.

  18. Can virtue be taught?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The teachability of virtue is an issue on which were crossed swords during the struggle for supremacy between two basic principles of ancient Greek spirit - sophistry and ancient Greek ethics. Two great representatives of these opposite principles, Plato and Protagoras, confronted their arguments in Plato's dialog named after the great sophist. Paradoxically, during this philosophical struggle, Protagoras, who at the beginning supposed that virtue is teachable, later, on the contrary, states that virtue is not knowledge and this would make it least likely to be teachable. On the other hand Plato, who is trying to preserve the ancient Greek principle that virtue is innate, claims that virtue is knowledge. The solution of this great dispute between two principles of antiquity Plato sees in philosophical theoretization of ancient Greek mythical worldview.

  19. Sexual ethics and communal judgments: on the pluralism of virtues, values, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, B Andrew

    1998-04-01

    Different judgments by Christian communities on issues in sexual ethics involve different weightings of various sources of moral authority, different understandings of the normativity of the natural, and different assessments of the scope of freedom to be exercised in relation to the goods of marriage. These fundamental differences of interpretation can be exemplified by the ongoing Roman Catholic discussion of the legitimacy of voluntary sterilization in certain "hard cases." The contributors to this issue of Christian Bioethics, in their spirited exchange on that issue, exemplify the need for careful attention to the ways that differences of theological emphasis and moral method lead to different judgements in particular cases, both within and between particular Christian communities.

  20. [How do first codes of medical ethics inspire contemporary physicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka-Lipińska, Anna; Basińska, Krystyna

    2014-02-01

    First codes of medical ethics appeared between 18th and 19th century. Their formation was inspired by changes that happened in medicine, positive in general but with some negative setbacks. Those negative consequences revealed the need to codify all those ethical duties, which were formerly passed from generation to generation by the word of mouth and individual example by master physicians. 210 years has passed since the publication of "Medical Ethics" by Thomas Percival, yet essential ethical guidelines remain the same. Similarly, ethical codes published in Poland in 19 century can still be an inspiration to modem physicians.

  1. Citizenship education in religious schools: An analysis of tolerance in Catholic schools from a virtue ethical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.T.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Hermans, C.A.M.; Vermeer, P.A.D.M.

    2010-01-01

    The question explored in this article is whether religious schools can contribute to the formation of the civic virtues in pupils by means of citizenship education. It is commonly agreed that civic virtues are needed in pluriform Western societies to promote social cohesion and reduce hostile

  2. Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-01-01

    The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA) uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, ma...

  3. Institutional Engagement and the Growing Role of Ethics in Contemporary Curatorial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, the core aesthetic domain of museums has switched from exhibiting artworks into creating social impact. Ethics has replaced aesthetics as the main focus of the art museum. Modern and contemporary art museums are using exhibitions and public programs’ initiatives as a means...... to engage with the audiences and with contemporary events that influence society. The paper defines museum curatorial ethics as a way of thinking and behaving that is engaged with and shaped by contingent events. The paper investigates Tate Liverpool’s exhibitions and public programs’ initiatives as a case...

  4. The contribution of Kantian moral theory to contemporary medical ethics: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubel, Friedrich; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Kantian deontology is one of three classic moral theories, among virtue ethics and consequentialism. Issues in medical ethics are frequently addressed within a Kantian paradigm, at least --although not exclusively--in European medical ethics. At the same time, critical voices have pointed to deficits of Kantian moral philosophy which must be examined and discussed. It is argued that taking concrete situations and complex relationships into account is of paramount importance in medical ethics. Encounters between medical or nursing staff and patients are rarely symmetrical relationships between autonomous and rational agents. Kantian ethics, the criticism reads, builds on the lofty ideal of such a relationship. In addition to the charge of an individualist and rationalist focus on autonomy, Kantian ethics has been accused of excluding those not actually in possession of these properties or of its rigorism. It is said to be focussed on laws and imperatives to an extent that it cannot appreciate the complex nuances of real conflicts. As a more detailed analysis will show, these charges are inadequate in at least some regards. This will be demonstrated by drawing on the Kantian notion of autonomy, the role of maxims and judgment and the conception of duties, as well as the role of emotions. Nevertheless the objections brought forward against Kantian moral theory can help determine, with greater precision, its strengths and shortcomings as an approach to current problems in medical ethics.

  5. The contribution of deontological Christian ethics to the contemporary human rights discourse

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Vorster

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the possible role of a Christian deontological ethics in the contemporary human rights debate. It concludes that a Christian deontological ethics in the Reformed tradition can be positively engaged in the human rights debate when Biblical theological topics are transposed into moral directives applicable to the current human rights concerns, such as religious extremism, femicide, ideologies of intolerance and ecocide. As an example of the applicability of a Christian deo...

  6. Teaching the Virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1993-01-01

    Recommends an approach to the teaching of ethics from the perspective of the philosophy of virtue that begins with the work of the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle. Offers guidance on how to prepare and teach such a course based on the author's and other teachers' experiences in the classroom. (JB)

  7. Ethical Dilemmas in Contemporary Ophthalmic Practice in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Jul-Dec 2014 / Vol 22 | Issue 2. 59. Address for ... universal applicability.[6,7]. In Nigeria ... As we approach the twilight of Vision 2020, a global initiative that ... Hypothetical five clinical scenarios that posed ethical questions in ..... towards a more holistic patient‑centered paradigm of care.

  8. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  9. The search for virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the combat for virtue, waged between Plato and the Sophists, Plato was striving to keep the contents of old Hellenic ethics, but not their mythical form, where Sophism discovered significant shortcomings and thanks to that challenged the whole contents of old Hellenic ethics. On the other hand, Plato accepted the new form of rational thinking, but not the dismantling unilateralism of Sohpism rationality. In other words, Plato embarked on theoreticizing the contents of old Hellenic ethics, aspiring to reconcile the fundamental principle of traditional view of the world with the new ruling form of thinking.

  10. Cnosť ako most medzi Aristotelovou rétorikou a etikou? ( Virtue as a Bridge between Aristotle’s Ethics and Rhetoric?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zvarík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of relation between Aristotle’s ethics and art of rhetoric. On the one hand, his concept of rhetoric stresses its instrumental, morally neutral character, which is substantial for every art. On the other hand, it seems that for Aristotle if speaker is truly good rhetorician and persuades truthfully and for just cause, his speech should appear more persuasive than in case of artful defence of injustice. Thus, truthfulness and justice appear to have inherent persuasive effect. In order to clarify the relation between ethical and rhetorical normative claims author highlights distinctive character of art in comparison to Aristotle’s concepts of moral virtue and prudence (phronēsis and shows how this character of art is integrated into Aristotle’s concept of rhetoric and how it transforms the function of virtue in the scope of rhetorical activity. The primary goal of rhetorician is not to be moral, but merely to appear as such. This conclusion does not call for rejection of rhetoric in the eyes of prudent person. Rather, it is useful, because it provides means to realize ends that are in favour of good life of the city and his fellow citizens.

  11. The virtue of multiculturalism: personal transformation, character, and openness to the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J; Davidov, Barbara J

    2006-09-01

    The social, intellectual, and moral movement known as multiculturalism has been enormously influential in psychology. Its ability to reshape psychology has been due to its ethical force, which derives from the attractiveness of its aims of inclusion, social justice, and mutual respect. The cultivation of cultural competence, presented as a developmental process of acquiring self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and skills, is an important emphasis in the multicultural literature. The authors place the cultural competence literature in dialogue with virtue ethics (a contemporary ethical theory derived from Aristotle) to develop a rich and illuminating way for psychologists to understand and embody the personal self-examination, commitment, and transformation required for learning and practicing in a culturally competent manner. According to virtue ethics, multiculturalism can be seen as the pursuit of worthwhile goals that require personal strengths or virtues, knowledge, consistent actions, proper motivation, and practical wisdom. The authors term the virtue of multiculturalism openness to the other and conclude by describing how attention to cultural matters also transforms virtue ethics in important and necessary ways. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Chekhov’s Ethical Heritage in the Contemporary American Medical Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenyia M. Butenina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Chekhovian ethical discourse in American fiction and non-fiction that forms part of an emerging literary canon of medical humanities in the USA. Besides Chekhov’s “medical” stories, special attention is given to his book Sakhalin Island seen as an object of “moral cartography.” The analysis of contemporary medical humanities in the USA shows that Chekhov’s ethical heritage has entered this field at several levels. One is teaching “medical” stories and Sakhalin Island as part of the future doctors’ ethical education. The other is expanding the literary-medical context by including these texts in comparative studies and anthologies. Finally, there is the overall level of developing the method of literary “diagnostic” bearing on Chekhov’s ethical heritage that is important for the study of both fiction and non-fiction authored by doctors-writers.

  13. The Human and Educational Significance of Honesty as an Epistemic and Moral Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    While honesty is clearly a virtue of some educational as well as moral significance, its virtue-ethical status is far from clear. In this essay, following some discussion of latter-day virtue ethics and virtue epistemology, David Carr argues that honesty exhibits key features of both moral and epistemic virtue, and, more precisely, that honesty as…

  14. Adam Smith's bougeois virtues in competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, T.; Graafland, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Whether or not capitalism is compatible with ethics is a long standing dispute. We take up an approach to virtue ethics inspired by Adam Smith and consider how market competition influences the virtues most associated with modern commercial society. Up to a point, competition nurtures and supports

  15. THE ROLE OF THE CODE OF ETHICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY FIRMS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA GANGONE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothing is eternal, except changes. This statement characterizes the contemporary world, as succinctly and correctly as possible. The field of economic affairs, strongly marked by the effects of the economic globalization process development, by the manifestation of the knowledge-based economy and by the moral, ecological and social consciousness of contemporary economic organizations, within the framework of the aggravation of some social and ecological problems, faces today the need for various fundamental changes, starting from the reconsideration of the validity of those principles that have governed it for the last decades. Respecting the ethical norms or principles in developing economic affairs does not represent a recent approach, but, as a result of the changes that marked the contemporary economy, tends to become an organic component of the process of adopting organizational decisions and an indissolubly respected principle in the process of planning the future of the organization. Moreover, the international organizations’ experience proclaimed the importance of respecting a unitary set of business ethics principles, disregarding the market or the geographical area where they develop their activity, leading thus to the enrichment of science and management functions with an ethical part.

  16. Self-with-Other in Teacher Practice: A Case Study through Care, Aristotelian Virtue, and Buddhist Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dave; Bai, Heesoon

    2016-01-01

    Many teacher candidates get their first taste of life as a full-time teacher in their practicums, during which they confront a host of challenges, pedagogical and ethical. Because ethics is fundamental to the connection between teachers and students, teacher candidates are often required to negotiate dilemmas in ways that keep with the ethical…

  17. Flexner's ethical oversight reprised? Contemporary medical education and the health impacts of corporate globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A; Gatenby, Paul

    2005-10-01

    Abraham Flexner's famous reports of 1910 and 1912, Medical Education in the United States and Canada and Medical Education in Europe, were written to assist the development of a positive response in university curricula to a revolution in understanding about the scientific foundations of clinical medicine. Flexner pointed out many deficiencies in medical education that retain contemporary resonance. Generally underemphasised in Flexner's reports, however, were recommendations promoting a firm understanding of and commitment to medical ethics as a basis of medical professionalism. Indeed, Flexner's praise for the scholastic basic of German medical education appeared somewhat ironic when the ethical inadequacies of prominent Nazi doctors were revealed at the Nuremberg Trials. This article suggests that contemporary medical educators, like Flexner, may be at risk of inadequately addressing a major challenge to evolving medical professionalism. Medical ethics, health law and even the international right to health are now increasingly emphasised in medical curricula. The same cannot be said, however, of lobbying principles arising from the structures of corporate globalisation, although these are rapidly becoming an even more dominant force in shaping medical practice around the globe. Conclusion Today it is the normative tension between medical ethics, health law and international human rights on the one hand and the lobbying principles and strategies of corporate globalisation that must urgently become the focus of major recommendations for reshaping the teaching of medical professionalism. Suggestions are made as to how this might practically be achieved.

  18. From ethics of care to psychology of care - Reconnecting ethics of care to contemporary moral psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner eGovrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care’s various insights. Moreover, ethics of care’s core concepts – compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development– are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology. Next, I will show that ethics of care’s most promising idea centered on the care given to an infant and the importance of that care to the development of moral thinking. In this context, I will be describing the implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theories, infant research, findings in moral psychology and neuroscience. I will argue that ethics of care needs to be radically re-thought and replaced by a psychology of care, an attachment approach to moral judgment, which would establish the centrality of the caregiver’s role in moral development. The philosophical implications of this approach to the understanding of the 'rationalists’’ and ‘intuitionists’’ debate about the true nature of moral judgment is also discussed.

  19. The contribution of deontological Christian ethics to the contemporary human rights discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possible role of a Christian deonto- logical ethics in the contemporary human rights debate. It concludes that a Christian deontological ethics in the Reformed tradition can be positively engaged in the human rights debate when Biblical theological topics are transposed into moral directives applicable to the current human rights concerns, such as religious extremism, femicide, ideologies of intolerance and ecocide. As an example of the applicability of a Christian deon- tological ethics from a reformed perspective, the following Bibli- cal topics are investigated: human dignity on the basis of the “imago dei”, creation and creational integrity, the kingdom of God and forgiveness. Furthermore, the article proposes that other concepts can be added to this list such as the Biblical idea of life, eschatology, covenant and holiness.

  20. Virtue reversed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to an understanding of the true virtues of argumentation, this paper sketches and exemplifies a theoretically reasoned but simple typology of argumentative vices or ‘malpractices’ that are rampant in political debate in modern democracies. The typology reflects, in negative, a set of...

  1. Can virtue be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, W

    1999-06-01

    Applying standards of virtue that define the "good doctor" in a complex and technologically sophisticated health care system is often challenging and sometimes confusing. What are the characteristics of a "good doctor," who wishes to live up to high ethical and professional standards but who also must live and work in a health care system in which moral ambiguity is pervasive? Medical educators are urgently faced with such questions as their schools try to equip students with the skills and capacities required of the virtuous physician. The author describes how Aristotelian concepts of virtue can be used to guide medical educators in defining and teaching virtue. He then discusses how such traits as the ability to tolerate moral differences and ambiguity, the ability to develop thoughtful individual moral positions, and the capacity to respect and understand various cultural traditions may be what might be considered virtues in today's health care system. A "good" doctor, then, would be someone who is thoughtful, fair-minded, respectful of differences, and committed to his or her professional values.

  2. Compassion as the reunion of feminine and masculine virtues in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2017-01-01

    The central role of the virtue of compassion in the shaping of the professional character of healthcare providers is a well-emphasized fact. On the other hand, the utmost obligation of physicians is to alleviate or eliminate human suffering. Traditionally, according to the Aristotelian understanding of virtues and virtue ethics, human virtues have been associated with masculinity. In recent decades, the founders of the ethics of care have introduced a set of virtues with feminine nature. This paper analyzes the notion of compassion as a common virtue between the traditional/masculine and care/feminine sets of virtues and shows that compassion is a reunion and merging point of both sets of human virtues. This role can be actualized through the development and promotion of compassion as an important part of the character of an ideal physician/healthcare provider. In addition, this paper argues that the notion of compassion can shed light on some important aspects of the contemporary debates on healthcare provider-patient relationship and medical futility. Despite the recent technological and scientific transformations in medicine, the interpersonal relationship between healthcare providers and patients still plays a vital role in pursuing the goals of healthcare. The virtue of compassion plays a central role in the establishment of a trust-based physician-patient relationship. This central role is discernible in the debate of medical futility in which making difficult decisions, depends largely on trust and rapport which are achievable by compassion in the physician and the recognition of this compassion by the patients and their surrogate decision makers.

  3. Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

  4. Some apparent obstacles to developing a kantian virtue theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Several neo-Kantians have questioned the standard deontological interpretation of Kant's ethical theory. They have also responded to charges of rationalism and rigorism by emphasizing the role of virtues and emotions in Kant's view. However, none have defended a fully virtue theoretic interpretation of Kant's theory. I claim that virtue theory has much to offer Kantians, but that resistance to developing a Kantian virtue theory rests on faulty assumptions about virtue theory. In this paper I ...

  5. The thoughts of reconstructing the current difficulty of the contemporary Chinese ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学马克思主义学院,山东青岛266003

    2016-01-01

    With the deepening of the reform and opening up and socialist market economy and development of China’s traditional ethics appeared between theory and reality, in addition to official corruption, all kinds of unfair distribution and the impact of the virtual network, facing national ethics identity crisis in contemporary China, all sorts of ethical problems, moral anomie and spirit flaw phenomenon is serious. Therefore, must be based on national conditions, dialectical treatment of traditional ethics and foreign ethics culture, correctly handle the relationship between efficiency and fairness, to strengthen the power restriction and supervision system, improve the modern market new order and new network moral order, promote the construction of a new moral ethics to satisfy the needs of The Times.%随着改革开放和社会主义市场经济的深入和发展,我国传统的伦理理论与现实出现了脱节,加之官员腐败、各种分配不公以及虚拟网络的冲击等原因,当代中国面临着国家伦理认同危机,各种伦理问题突出,道德失范和精神缺失现象严重。因此,必须立足国情,辩证的对待传统伦理及外来伦理文化,正确处理效率与公平的关系,强化权力运行制约和监督体系,完善建立现代市场新秩序和网络道德新秩序,推动适应时代需要的伦理新道德的构建。

  6. Contemporary nursing wisdom in the UK and ethical knowing: difficulties in conceptualising the ethics of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger; Curzio, Joan; Carr, Graham; Terry, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This paper's philosophical ideas are developed from a General Nursing Council for England and Wales Trust-funded study to explore nursing knowledge and wisdom and ways in which these can be translated into clinical practice and fostered in junior nurses. Participants using Carper's (1978) ways of knowing as a framework experienced difficulty conceptualizing a link between the empirics and ethics of nursing. The philosophical problem is how to understand praxis as a moral entity with intrinsic value when so much of value seems to be technical and extrinsic depending on desired ends. Using the Aristotelian terms poesis and praxis can articulate the concerns that the participants as well as Carper (1978) and Dreyfus (in Flyvbjerg, 1991) among others share that certain actions or ways of knowing important for nursing are being devalued and deformed by the importance placed on quantitative data and measurable outcomes. The sense of praxis is a moralized one and most of what nurses do is plausibly on any account of normative ethics a morally good thing; the articulation of the idea of praxis can go some way in showing how it is a part of the discipline of nursing. Nursing's acts as poesis can be a part of how practitioners come to have praxis as phronesis or practical wisdom. So to be a wise nurse, one needs be a wise person. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Virtue, Privacy and Self-Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    The ethical problem of privacy lies at the core of computer ethics and cyber ethics discussions. The extensive use of personal data in digital networks poses a serious threat to the user’s right of privacy not only at the level of a user’s data integrity and security but also at the level of a user......’s identity and freedom. In normative ethical theory the need for an informational self-deterministic approach of privacy is stressed with greater emphasis on the control over personal data. However, scant attention has been paid on a virtue ethics approach of information privacy. Plotinus’ discussion of self......-determination is related to ethical virtue, human freedom and intellectual autonomy. The Plotinian virtue ethics approach of self-determination is not primarily related to the sphere of moral action, but to the quality of the self prior to moral practice. In this paper, it is argued that the problem of information privacy...

  8. Vallor, Shannon. Technology and the Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg

    2017-01-01

    Technology and the Virtues is the first analysis of emerging technologies and the role of virtue ethics in an attempt to make us understand the urgency of immediate moral transformation. It is written by phenomenologist and philosopher Shannon Vallor, a William J. Rewak Professor at Santa Clara...

  9. The Genealogy of Epistemic Virtue Concepts | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the treatment of thick ethical concepts in Williams's work in order to evaluate the consistency of his treatment of ethical and epistemic concepts and to assess whether the idea of a thick concept can be extended from ethics to epistemology. A virtue epistemology is described modeled on a cognitivist ...

  10. The place of practical wisdom in science education: what can be learned from Aristotelian ethics and a virtue-based theory of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Sara

    2017-06-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher knowledge, its development, and consequently models of teacher education. Views of teacher knowledge presented in this paper are informed by philosophical literature that questions normative views of knowledge and argues for a virtue-based epistemology rather than a belief-based one. The paper first outlines general features of phronesis/practical wisdom. Later, a virtue-based view of knowledge is described. A virtue-based view binds knowledge with moral concepts and suggests that knowledge development is motivated by intellectual virtues such as intellectual sobriety, perseverance, fairness, and humility. A virtue-based theory of knowledge gives prominence to the virtue of phronesis/practical wisdom, whose primary function is to mediate among virtues and theoretical knowledge into a line of action that serves human goods. The role of phronesis and its relevance to teaching science are explained accordingly. I also discuss differences among various characterizations of practical knowledge in science education and a virtue-based characterization. Finally, implications and further questions for teacher education are presented.

  11. Responsibility: The First Virtue of Innovation? A discussion of some ethical and meta-ethical issues concerning the concept of ‘responsibility’ in technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen D. Stabell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the concept of responsibility in the context of technological innovation, with reference to two types of responsibility: ex post and ex ante responsibility. Exposing the shortcomings of ex post responsibility in the context of innovation, I examine different ways of conceiving of a form of ex ante responsibility suitable for our current technological situation. Here I identify two positions with very different approaches to the question of the ethical status of responsibility: Hans Jonas’s concept of responsibility as an ethical principle structuring moral behavior, and René von Schomberg’s idea of responsibility as “responsiveness” linked to procedures of communication and collaboration. Rejecting von Schomberg’s concept on ethico-philosophical grounds, I argue in favor of a critical rehabilitation of some basic thoughts in the philosophy of Jonas. Finally, I suggest taking the step from the Jonasian ethics of responsibility towards the Hegelian concept of Sittlichkeit – a concrete social morality that disentangles responsibility from the dilemmas of subjectivist morality.

  12. Virtue in Medical Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Thomas, Hywel

    2017-03-01

    Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor-like kindness, fairness and good judgement-have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education and throughout the medical career. However, until very recently, no empirical studies have attempted to investigate which virtues, in particular, medical doctors and medical students tend to have or not to have, nor how these virtues influence how they think about or practise medicine. The question of what virtuous medical practice is, is vast and, as we have written elsewhere, the question of how to study doctors' moral character is fraught with difficulty. In this paper, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind study that attempted to explore these issues at three medical schools (and associated practice regions) in the United Kingdom. We identify which character traits are important in the good doctor in the opinion of medical students and doctors and identify which virtues they say of themselves they possess and do not possess. Moreover, we identify how thinking about the virtues contributes to doctors' and medical students' thinking about common moral dilemmas in medicine. In ending, we remark on the implications for medical education.

  13. The Cat, the Cradle, and the Silver Spoon: Violence in Contemporary Art and the Question of Ethics for Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavin, Kevin; Kallio-Tavin, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of objective and subjective violence, two contemporary artworks are interpreted through theories of the Other. Zhu Yu's "Eating People" (2000) is considered through Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and, in particular, through an Ethics of the Real. Teemu Mäki's "My Way, a Work in Progress" (1995) is…

  14. A qualitative study on discrimination and ethical implications in stroke care in contemporary Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanidis, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary stroke care is diverse, contributing to complex ethical dilemmas and controversies. In Greece, continuing austerity measures and an ageing population are expected to increase the burden of stroke on health care delivery. We sought to explore ethical views and stances of health care professionals caring for stroke patients in Greece. Forms of discrimination against elderly hospitalized patients were also addressed. A qualitative design was adopted whereby an informal focus group interview and follow-up, face-to-face individual interviews were undertaken. The sample consisted of 12 nurses working in clinical areas with stroke patients. Their mean age was 31 years with a mean work experience of 10 years. Individual discussions were audio taped after subject consent and were transcribed verbatim subsequently for keywords-in-context analysis. Analysis of the focus interview revealed several recurring themes, namely, ward destination, admission policies, the concepts of age as related to stroke. Individual interviews highlighted several other topics, such as preferences for specific types of patients, communication capacity of the patient's condition, and his or her individual characteristics as a favoring or limiting factors, and challenges to age-related criteria for treatment. There is an age-related criteria of 65 years for ward destination after stroke as set by a ministerial decree, which is still practiced. Moreover, younger stroke patients may be offered more thorough assessments and clinical tests and therapies. Discrepancies in the level of care pose an ethical concern regarding levels of care for older stroke patients in Greece. A longstanding, age-related national policy in Greece regarding hospital admission criteria is shown to be a detrimental influence on ward admission for stroke patients. This policy, coupled with prehospital care protocols, was shown to promote ageism against this patient group. The age-related agenda in the Greek health

  15. Back to Essentials: Virtues and Character for Strategic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    the exercise of virtues . 10 Virtues are acquired through intensive practice and they help avoid excesses.31 In that sense, Aristotle emphasized...2012). 31 Kreeft, Back to Virtue ; Havard, Virtuous Leadership. 32 Aristotle . 33 Robert Turknett, Lyn Turknett, and Chris McCusker, “Going First and...Leading Ethically .” Principal Leadership, (May 2008): 64. This study coincides with the tree virtues identified by Glanz - courage judgment and

  16. The Soul, the Virtues, and the Human Good: Comments on Aristotle's Moral Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi Beier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern moral philosophy, virtue ethics has developed into one of the major approaches to ethical inquiry. As it seems, however, it is faced with a kind of perplexity similar to the one that Elisabeth Anscombe has described in Modern moral philosophy with regard to ethics in general. For if we assume that Anscombe is right in claiming that virtue ethics ought to be grounded in a sound philosophy of psychology, modern virtue ethics seems to be baseless since it lacks or even avoids reflections on the human soul. To overcome this difficulty, the paper explores the conceptual connections between virtue and soul in Aristotle's ethics. It claims that the human soul is the principle of virtue since reflections on the soul help us to define the nature of virtue, to understand the different kinds of virtues, and to answer the question why human beings need the virtues at all.

  17. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  18. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  19. Research on the Memory Ethics and Thought Transformation Pattern and the Applications on Contemporary Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Li[1

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct research on the memory ethics and thought transformation pattern and the applications on contemporary literature. Compared to scientifi c thinking, historical thinking, the thinking process characterized by direct image of literary creation of system integration, literary creation process is a fi ction. Literary psychology studies have shown that the transmission of literature as a kind of aesthetic experience, is far from perfect memories of feature, but memory, association, imagination, illusion, such as the result of the comprehensive sports psychological function, is in the creation subject specifi c emotions and as under the guidance of the appearance of the restructuring, merger. From the discussion above we can see that whether it is a literary language of authenticity, or false judgment characteristics of literary language, explain the fact that in literary text is not has direct realistic context, but a self-reference words, and it is a virtual space of the empirical. In this paper, we discuss the related theory with modifi cation that is innovative.

  20. Schizophrenia and the Virtues of Self-Effacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Barry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stocker’s “The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories” attacks versions of consequentialism and deontological ethics on the grounds that they are self-effacing. While it is often thought that Stocker’s argument gives us a reason to favour virtue ethics over those other theories, Simon Keller has argued that this is a mistake. He claims that virtue ethics is also self-effacing, and is therefore afflicted with the self-effacement-related problems that Stocker identifies in consequentialism and deontology. This paper defends virtue ethics against this claim. Although there is a kind of self-effacement involved in the exercise of virtue, this is quite different from the so-called schizophrenia that Stocker thinks is induced by modern ethical theory. Importantly, manifesting virtue does not require one to embrace mutually inconsistent moral commitments, as is at times encouraged by consequentialists and deontologists. This paper also considers a reading of the virtue-ethical criterion of right action that is encouraged by Bernard Williams’s distinction between a de re and a de dicto interpretation of the phrase “acting as the virtuous person would.” I argue that such a reading addresses concerns that a virtue-ethical criterion of right action inevitably generates a problematic form of self-effacement.

  1. Kant's Theory of virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)......Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)...

  2. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles.

  3. Virtuous States and Virtuous Traits: How the Empirical Evidence Regarding the Existence of Broad Traits Saves Virtue Ethics from the Situationist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William

    2014-01-01

    A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…

  4. The Place of Practical Wisdom in Science Education: What Can Be Learned from Aristotelian Ethics and a Virtue-Based Theory of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher…

  5. Purifying Impure Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A notorious objection to robust virtue epistemology—the view that an agent knows a proposition if and only if her cognitive success is because of her intellectual virtues—is that it fails to eliminate knowledge-undermining luck. Modest virtue epistemologists agree with robust virtue epistemologis...

  6. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  7. Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D

    2011-02-01

    In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.

  8. Virtues in participatory design : Cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and

  9. A Review of Contemporary Ethical Decision-Making Models for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.

    2015-01-01

    Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…

  10. A Contemporary Conspectus of Business Ethics Education: Content and Pedagogy for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to offer the suggestion that HRD (human resource development) become an ethics champion within the corporations and the organizations we serve. By surveying and synthesizing literature from higher education and professional associations on business ethics theory and practice, this paper provides both rationale as well…

  11. Purpose as a Moral Virtue for Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology has significantly influenced studies in the fields of moral philosophy, psychology and education, and scholars in those fields have attempted to apply its ideas and methods to moral education. Among various theoretical frameworks, virtue ethics is most likely to connect positive psychology to moral educational studies because…

  12. 从麦金太尔的德性理论谈新时期我国体育职业道德建设%Enlightenment of sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China from MacIntyre's virtue theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊云庆; 曹景川

    2016-01-01

    德性的缺乏是导致新时期我国体育职业道德问题层出不穷的原因之一,而麦金太尔的德性论为解决体育职业道德问题提供了新的思路。从德性理论的概述出发,系统介绍了新时期我国体育职业道德建设的成就及职业道德缺失的现实问题,结合德性理论的实践、人生统一性与传统三大观点,探讨了德性理论对新时期我国体育职业道德建设的深刻启示,构建与我国现代社会经济条件相适应的职业道德体系。%In the new period,virtue deficiency is the fundamental reason leading to the increasingly serious sports moral issues in China,However,Macintyre's virtue theory offers a new idea to solve the sports professional ethic issues.Starting from an overview of virtue theory, this paper systematicly introduced the achievements of the sports professional ethics construction and the practical problems of virtue deficiency in the new period of China. With the combination of three viewpoints of the practice of virtue theory,lifetime unity and tradition,it discussed the profound enlightenment of virtue theory for the sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China,so as to establish a suitable professional ethic system fitting in the social and economic condition of China.

  13. The Virtues of Unknowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Traditional epistemology is often said to have reached an impasse, and recent interest in virtue epistemology supposedly marks a turn away from philosophers' traditional focus on problems of knowledge and truth. Yet that focus re-emerges, especially among "reliabilist" virtue epistemologists. I argue for a more "responsibilist"…

  14. Virtue Broadcasting - directorate change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Virtue Broadcasting Plc ("Virtue") have announced the appointment of Mr. Klaus Ackerstaff as the CEO of the main Board. He began his professional career at CERN, where he was responsible for the IT infrastructure of the OPAL (particle physics) project (1/2 page).

  15. Segregation and civic virtue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Michael Merry defends the following prima facie argument: that civic virtue is not dependent on integration and in fact may be best fostered under conditions of segregation. He demonstrates that civic virtue can and does take place under conditions of involuntary segregation, but that

  16. 公正作为德性——亚里士多德公正德性探析%Justice as a virtue: An analysis of Aristotle's virtue of justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显中

    2007-01-01

    People currently regard justice as the main principle of institutions and society,while in ancient Greek people took it as the virtue of citizens.This article analyzes Aristotle's virtue of justice in his method of virtue ethics,discussing the nature of virtue,how justice is the virtue of citizens,what kind of virtue the iustice of citizens is,and the prospect of the virtue of iustice against a background of institutional justice.Since virtue can be said to be a specific individual character,Aristotle also defines the virtue of justice as the character of justice,with which citizens act justly and desire to do what is just.The virtue of justice is also an individual ethical virtue,differing from others for it is at the same time a social ethic.We can call the virtue of justice a"non-individual individual ethical virtue."It has been explained as between pure altruism and egoism,which is a wrong explanation.John Rawls regards justice as the first virtue of social institutions,challenging Aristotle's virtue,of justice,an assertion which also needs further deliberation.

  17. Teaching virtue: pedagogical implications of moral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William J

    2010-09-01

    Moral exemplar studies of computer and engineering professionals have led ethics teachers to expand their pedagogical aims beyond moral reasoning to include the skills of moral expertise. This paper frames this expanded moral curriculum in a psychologically informed virtue ethics. Moral psychology provides a description of character distributed across personality traits, integration of moral value into the self system, and moral skill sets. All of these elements play out on the stage of a social surround called a moral ecology. Expanding the practical and professional curriculum to cover the skills and competencies of moral expertise converts the classroom into a laboratory where students practice moral expertise under the guidance of their teachers. The good news is that this expanded pedagogical approach can be realized without revolutionizing existing methods of teaching ethics. What is required, instead, is a redeployment of existing pedagogical tools such as cases, professional codes, decision-making frameworks, and ethics tests. This essay begins with a summary of virtue ethics and informs this with recent research in moral psychology. After identifying pedagogical means for teaching ethics, it shows how these can be redeployed to meet a broader, skills based agenda. Finally, short module profiles offer concrete examples of the shape this redeployed pedagogical agenda would take in the practical and professional ethics classroom.

  18. THE PARADIGM OF ANTIGONE AND GACEL SAYAH: An approach to historical and contemporary Ethical/moral dilemmas of Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Castilhos Karam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities of
    some classical moral dilemmas in human history considering two
    paradigms as references: Antigone’s, created by Sophocles; and
    Gacel Sayah’s, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situates
    both historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism and
    points out examples furnished by professionals in activity and
    academic experts. At the same time, it relates immediate conflicts to particularities of journalistic activity – from the historical perspective of consolidation of values to the present scenario of professional journalism in both Cyberspace and the Information Society (in which ethics, techniques and aesthetics try to structure the perspective of moral convergence in order to support the activity and its social credibility and legitimacy.

  19. The paradigm of Antigone and Gacel Sayah: an approach to historical and contemporary ethical/moral dilemmas of journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Castilhos Karam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities of some classical moral dilemmas in human history considering two paradigms as references: Antigone’s, created by Sophocles; and Gacel Sayah’s, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situates both historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism and points out examples furnished by professionals in activity and academic experts. At the same time, it relates immediate conflicts to particularities of journalistic activity – from the historical perspective of consolidation of values to the present scenario of professional journalism in both Cyberspace and the Information Society (in which ethics, techniques and aesthetics try to structure the perspective of moral convergence in order to support the activity and its social credibility and legitimacy.

  20. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  1. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  2. Ethics and Dualism in Contemporary Psychology: From Avicenna and Descartes to Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Jeftiċ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From Avicenna and Descartes a long debate on the role of mind-body dilemma has left a huge impact on ethics of psychological research. That is especially applicable on researches that include both human and non-human participants, as well as their limitations and constraints that are connected to ethical principles. However, these principles are closely related to the interpretation of mind-body dilemma, which depends on different understandings of connection between soul and senses. The purpose of this paper is to examine the major impact of well-known “mind-body” dualism on ethics in psychological researches, with special emphasis on neuropsychology and neuroscience in general, as well as major constraints related to that dillema. The thought experiment has been recognized as a precursor to Rene Descartes’ famous ‘Cogito ergo sum’, as well as his body-mind dilemma. However, Avicenna's argument is more intended to demonstrate conceptually that Aristotle’s empirical axiom “there is nothing in the mind which was not first in the senses” is mistaken, since there is at least one thing in the mind which is not contingent upon experience, and that is self-awareness. The major contribution of this paper is the inclusion of two philosophical debates on mind-body dilemma while considering ethical approaches to neuropsychological research on both human and non-human participants.

  3. Toward a Borderlands Ethics: The Undocumented Migrant and Haunted Communities in Contemporary Chicana/o Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    By reading Helena Maria Viramontes's "Cariboo Cafe" and Daniel Chacon's "Godoy Lives," this essay argues that Chicana/o fiction articulates what I call a "borderlands ethics." Both Viramontes and Chacon give the undocumented migrant the power to merge the United States and Latin America, self and other, citizen and…

  4. Integrity and consensus: A Christian perspective on ethical management and education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kretzschmar

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the compliance- and values-based approaches to ethical management are explained and the challenges of the contemporary business and societal contexts in South Africa noted. The need for both moral integrity and character (with respect to perception, intention and virtue and ethical consensus is extensively discussed. The importance of ethical dialogue as a means of reaching moral consensus, and the contribution of public theology (particularly Christian theology are assessed. Finally, vital issues relating to business ethics management and education are outlined and some practical possibilities suggested.

  5. A Dialectic Model of Development of Stakeholders¡¯ Theory and Corporate Governance: from Hume Utilitarianism to Aristotelian Virtue Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    S. Morteza Ghayour B.; Meysam Doaei

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, developing the opinion of anti-corporation has formed a large part of biases and social judgments of the management science. Among these, because of performance of some companies and managers, the attention to the ethical issues in the field of theorizing and management practices has increased and has been considered by researchers in individual and organizational levels. In this study, the authors attempt to define a general orientation of management theories by emphasizing on the ...

  6. Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex

    2013-04-01

    The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care.

  7. Sustainability, Virtue Ethics, and the Virtue of Harmony with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Karen; Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the dominant sustainable development approach fails to acknowledge the interconnectedness and interrelatedness of social and environmental issues, and that sustainability requires a "transformational" approach, involving a fundamental change in how humans relate to each other and to nature. The authors propose…

  8. Solidarity in family medicine in Brazil and in Italy: reflecting on ethical issues and contemporary challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza Lima; Marta Inez Machado Verdi

    2010-01-01

    This study reflects on solidarity in the practice of family medicine in two realities. The objective is to search for solidarity as an ethical principle in the relationship between family doctor and subject. It is a descriptive exploratory research carried out in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and in the Province of Rome, Lazio Region, Italy. It included fourteen Brazilian family doctors and fifteen Italian family doctors. The theoretical framework consisted of Pierre Bourdie...

  9. ETHICS AND POLITICAL ACTION IN MARXISM: ELEMENTS FOR A CONTEMPORARY DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Fernandes Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to discussions around the relationship between ethics and political activism within Marxism. Thus, we have chosen to discuss the theme from the classic texts of Marx and Gramsci. Despite the clear limitation of the number of authors discussed, it can be argued that the problems and solutions raised by Marx and Gramsci cross the Marxist debate in general, allowing therefore to glimpse some dilemmas and opportunities related to the central issue in the field.

  10. The Role of Virtues in Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal Szerletics

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author applies virtue theory (virtue epistemology and virtue ethics in particular to the question of legal education and examines the prospects of a virtue-based discourse in this context. Following the Aristotelian distinction between intellectual and moral virtues, he argues that law schools need to equip students – besides appropriate skills and knowledge of legal regulations – with intellectual and moral virtues necessary for a socially productive legal practice. Identifying lawyerly virtues and exploring the ways they can be fostered in a university environment might be the first steps to change the exaggeratedly formalistic thinking that seems to characterize legal education and legal practice in the CEE region. El autor aplica la teoría de la virtud (epistemología y ética de la virtud, en particular a la cuestión de la educación jurídica, y, en ese contexto, examina las perspectivas futuras de un discurso basado en la virtud. Siguiendo la distinción aristotélica entre virtudes intelectuales y morales, el autor argumenta que las escuelas de Derecho deberían educar, además de en las destrezas apropiadas y en el conocimiento de la ley, en las virtudes intelectuales y morales necesarias para un ejercicio del Derecho socialmente productivo. Los primeros pasos para cambiar el pensamiento exageradamente formalista que parece caracterizar la educación jurídica y la práctica de la profesión en la región de Europa central y oriental podrían ser la identificación de las virtudes del jurista y la reflexión sobre cómo aquéllas podrían ser fomentadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3075146

  11. Privacy and security in the digital age: Contemporary ethical challenges and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    Privacy is at the core of civil rights from which all other human rights and freedoms flow. Since the twentieth century, and particularly since 9/11, rapid deployment of information and surveillance technologies in the name of national security has grave implications for individual privacy...... and human rights. This article reviews major strands in contemporary privacy-security debate, while critiquing existing conceptualisations of privacy that are inadequate in the context of multifaceted and ubiquitous surveillance technologies post 9/11. Further, this paper contends most privacy...

  12. Contemporary view of the effect of managed care on the ethics in perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter A

    2003-03-01

    Managed care has significantly altered the patient-physician relationship, and these changes have created new ethical challenges within that relationship. The physician's obligation of beneficence has been challenged by his contract with managed care. Physicians have faced increasing apparent and real conflicts of interest. The patient's right of choice has been challenged by her contract with managed care. Within perinatal medicine, those challenges have affected mode of delivery, use of technology, length of stay, and pharmaceutical choices. Additional challenges and opportunities to enhance quality of care lie ahead in the evolution of the health care system.

  13. The Ethics of ROE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the combination of virtues , both those of the intellect and those of character, is where practical wisdom enables ethical virtue to flourish.21...unethical behavior in the fog of individual conflict? Aristotle seems to have lit the way to an answer - - the development of individual virtue ...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE ETHICS OF ROE BY COLONEL JOSEPH P. DIMINICK United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  14. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to

  15. Contracts to Communities: A Processual Model of Organizational Virtue

    OpenAIRE

    Heugens, Pursey; Kaptein, Muel; Oosterhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the face of systemic challenges to corporate legitimacy, scholars and managers alike have been rethinking traditional answers to the question: What does it take to be a good company? We approach this question in two novel ways. We offer a normative answer, grounded in virtue ethics, by introducing a threefold typology of organizational forms. The moral goodness of each form depends on the congruence between its purpose and virtues. But we also offer a positive answer in the for...

  16. Storytelling and Virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, William

    1997-01-01

    Emphasizes the power of storytelling, particularly heroic stories of virtue, in moral education. Provides a careful delineation of the differences between modern moral "fables" (a man contemplates stealing drugs for his dying wife) and classical stories involving heroes such as Ulysses and Galahad. (MJP)

  17. Whose life is it anyway? An exploration of five contemporary ethical issues that pertain to the psychiatric nursing care of the person who is suicidal: part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Links, Paul S

    2008-08-01

    It is self-evident that ethical issues are important topics for consideration for those involved in the care of the person who is suicidal. Nevertheless, despite the obvious relationship between Mental Health nurses and care of the person who is suicidal, such nurses have hitherto been mostly silent on these matters. As a result, this two-part paper focuses on a number of contemporary issues which might help inform the ethical discourse and resultant Mental Health nursing care of the person who is suicidal. Part one of this paper focuses on the issues: Whose life is it anyway? Harming of our bodies and the inconsistency in ethical responses and, Is suicide ever a reasonable thing to do? The authors find that this contemporary view within the suicidology academe and the corresponding legal position in most western (developed) countries is that the individual owns his/her own body. Yet given that contemporary mental healthcare policy and associated practice positions do not reflect view, this can easily lead to the scenario where a Mental Health nurse is faced with a major ethical dilemma, and the corresponding probability of moral distress. The authors also find that it is inaccurate to posit a simple positive correlation between the potential seriousness and/or extent of bodily harm and the degree of paternalistic removal of an individual's rights to personal body ownership. Lastly, the authors find that the relevant theoretical and ethical literature in this area suggests, at least for some and under certain conditions, suicide can be the right thing to do.

  18. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  19. How Should Ethical Theories Be Dealt with in Engineering Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    Contemporary engineering ethics scholars deal with contesting several ethical theories without criticizing them radically and try to use them to solve ethical problems. In this paper I first show that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial, and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Second, I claim that the way to deal with contesting ethical theories in contemporary engineering ethics has an unacceptable side which does not accord with my argument that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Finally, I conclude that this inconsistency in contemporary engineering ethics should be corrected to make contemporary engineering ethics consistent.

  20. The relevance of the Hippocratic Oath to the ethical and moral values of contemporary medicine. Part I: The Hippocratic Oath from antiquity to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askitopoulou, Helen; Vgontzas, Antoniοs N

    2017-10-27

    The present paper discusses the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to contemporary medical ethical and moral values. It attempts to answer the questions about some controversial issues related to the Oath. The text is divided in two parts. Part I discusses the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath, while Part II presents a detailed analysis of each passage of the Oath with regard to perennial ethical principles and moral values. Part I starts with the contribution of Hippocrates and his School of Cos to medicine. It continues by examining the moral dilemmas concerning physicians and patients in the Classical Times and in the Modern World. It also investigates how the Hippocratic Oath stands nowadays, with regard to the remarkable and often revolutionary advancements in medical practice and the significant evolution in medical ethics. Further, it presents the debate and the criticism about the relevance of the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath to those of modern societies. Finally, it discusses the endurance of the ethical values of the Hippocratic Oath over the centuries until today with respect to the physicians' commitment to the practice of patient-oriented medicine. Part I concludes with the Oath's historic input in the Judgment delivered at the close of the Nuremberg "Doctors' Trial"; this Judgement has become legally binding for the discipline in the Western World and was the basis of the Nuremberg Code. The ethical code of the Oath turned out to be a fundamental part of western law not only on medical ethics but also on patients' rights regarding research.

  1. Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Marc

    2013-09-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

  2. Moral motivation and judgment in virtue ethics

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPAIO DA SILVA, Rui

    2018-01-01

    L’éthique normative contemporaine est dominée par trois courants : l’éthique déontologique, le conséquentialisme et l’éthique de la vertu. Parce qu’elle rejette les calculs fondés sur les règles de l’éthique (tout comme la conséquentialisme et l’éthique déontologique), l’éthique de la vertu porte une attention particulière sur notre capacité à former des jugements moraux, comprise comme une capacité qui ne peut être réduite à une connaissance propositionnelle. Dans cet article, j’analyserai l...

  3. Sports Coaching, Virtue Ethics and Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Jones, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: The argument in this paper is founded on two related premises. First, we claim that the moral imperative of sport is derived not from specific rules or laws associated with it but from its intrinsic nature. As engaging in sporting practices inevitably require us to be pre-occupied with central principles such as fairness (and therefore…

  4. Buddhism and Ecology: A Virtue Ethics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Keown, Damien V.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Whether Buddhism has a compelling ecological dimension or not has been a much discussed question in recent years. I think I should put my cards on the table at the outset and say that I count myself among the sceptics in this respect. I see little evidence that the Buddha or his followers, at least down to modern times, have been greatly concerned with questions of ecology. If anything, there is more evidence of a negative presupposition about the value and status of the natural...

  5. The Promising but Challenging Case of Humility as a Positive Psychology Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C.; Sandage, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In maintaining that virtue is a legitimate concept worthy of empirical study, a strong situationist approach to the study of behavior is countered. An earlier analysis is then drawn upon to maintain that virtue has the capability of integrating several themes in positive psychology: ethics and health, embodied character, strength and resilience,…

  6. Environmental Virtue: Motivation, Skill and (In)formation Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Environmental virtue ethics faces the problem of motivation: there is a gap between knowledge and action. This paper first analyzes the roots of this problem and discusses possible solutions that require the use of imagination and information technology. Then it reformulates the problem of

  7. Contracts to Communities: A Processual Model of Organizational Virtue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); S.P. Kaptein (Muel); J. van Oosterhout (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the face of systemic challenges to corporate legitimacy, scholars and managers alike have been rethinking traditional answers to the question: What does it take to be a good company? We approach this question in two novel ways. We offer a normative answer, grounded in virtue ethics,

  8. Contemporary Modernity and 'Death Ethics': Antecedents and Impacts of Western Expansion as War in the Northern Plains, 1820 - 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Leece Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In the broadest sense, the dissertation identifies the "death ethics of war" during Western expansion of the United States, its claims to exceptionalism, and its enduring legacies in Native American contexts historically and today. The logic of Western European expansion in the Americas can be argued to have exemplified the theory the "death ethics of war". I engage Nelson Maldonado-Torres's articulation of the "death ethics of war" to identify the political logics behind the normalization of...

  9. The virtues of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Lisa K; Kornell, Nate

    2010-02-01

    Although ignorance and uncertainty are usually unwelcome feelings, they have unintuitive advantages for both human and non-human animals, which we review here. We begin with the perils of too much information: expertise and knowledge can come with illusions (and delusions) of knowing. We then describe how withholding information can counteract these perils: providing people with less information enables them to judge more precisely what they know and do not know, which in turn enhances long-term memory. Data are presented from a new experiment that illustrates how knowing what we do not know can result in helpful choices and enhanced learning. We conclude by showing that ignorance can be a virtue, as long as it is recognized and rectified. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Should "Eudaimonia" Structure Professional Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a "eudaimonistic" account of professional virtue. Using the case of teaching, the article argues that professional virtue requires that role holders care about the ends of their work. Care is understood in terms of an investment of the self. Virtuous role holders are invested in their practice in a way that makes…

  11. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.

  12. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  13. A Survey on Virtue in Business and Management (1980-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Ferrero; Alejo José G. Sison

    2012-01-01

    Virtue ethics is generally recognized as one of the three major schools of ethics, but is often waylaid by utilitarianism and deontology in business and management literature. Focusing on publications in the Thomson-Reuters Journal of Citation Report between 1980 and 2011, we use EBSCO and ABI databases to look for articles containing the keywords “virtue ethics”, “virtue theory” or “virtuousness” in the abstract together with “business” or “management” in the text. We refined ...

  14. Moral Fitness: Ethical Education for Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ethics through the key virtues of honor, courage, and commitment early in a Marine’s career. This ethos is enforced during the indoctrination process...thinking about the right thing to do. A basic introduction into moral reasoning, virtue ethics and ethical standards educate new members on ethics and...one must practice the physical fitness test to be successful, ethics must be demonstrated by action and practice. Finally, Aristotle states that

  15. On the fragility of medical virtue in a neoliberal context: the case of commercial conflicts of interest in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Blakely, Brette; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul; Olver, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2016-02-01

    Social, political, and economic environments play an active role in nurturing professional virtue. Yet, these environments can also lead to the erosion of virtue. As such, professional virtue is fragile and vulnerable to environmental shifts. While physicians are often considered to be among the most virtuous of professional groups, concern has also always existed about the impact of commercial arrangements on physicians' willingness and capacity to enact their professional virtues. This article examines the ways in which commercial arrangements have been negotiated to secure medical virtue from real or perceived threats of erosion. In particular, we focus on the concern surrounding conflicts of interest arising from commercial arrangements that have developed as a result of neoliberal economic and social policies. The deregulation of medical markets and privatization of services have produced new commercial relationships that are often misunderstood by patients, publics, and physicians themselves. 'Conflicts of interest' policies have been introduced in an attempt to safeguard ethical conduct and medical practice. However, a number of virtue ethicists have critiqued these policies as inadequate for securing virtue. We examine the ways in which commercial arrangements have been seen to impact upon medical virtue, both historically and in the context of modern medicine (using the example of fertility services in Australia). We then describe and critique current efforts to restore clinical virtue through both conflict of interest policies and through virtue ethics. Finally, we suggest some possible ways of addressing the corrosive effects of neoliberalism on medical virtue.

  16. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    but troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  17. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  18. Aldo Leopold on Education: An Educator and His Land Ethic in the Context of Contemporary Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, J. Baird

    1982-01-01

    Aldo Leopold, the founder of wildlife management (wildlife ecology) is credited with powerfully advocating for the first time in Western intellectual history, broad human ethical responsibility to the nonhuman natural world. Leopold's views on education and Leopold as an educator are discussed. (Author/JN)

  19. Respect for patient autonomy as a medical virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas; Mavroudis, Constantine D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Mavroudis, Constantine

    2015-12-01

    Respect for patient autonomy is an important and indispensable principle in the ethical practice of clinical medicine. Legal tenets recognise the centrality of this principle and the inherent right of patients of sound mind - properly informed - to make their own personal medical decisions. In the course of everyday medical practice, however, challenging cases may result in ethical dilemmas for the patient, the physician, and society. Resolution of these dilemmas requires a thorough understanding of the underlying principles that allow the clinician to make informed decisions and to offer considered therapeutic options to the patient. We argue in this paper that there is also need for a transition of moral competency from understanding principles to attaining virtue in the classic Aristotelian tradition. Achieving moral virtue is based on a lifetime of learning, practising, and watching how others, who have achieved virtue, act and perform their duties. We further claim that learning moral virtue in medical practice is best realised by incorporating the lessons learnt during daily rounds where frank discussions and considered resolutions can occur under the leadership of senior practitioners who have achieved a semblance of moral excellence.

  20. Good governance and virtue in South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Good governance from an ethical perspective in cyberdefence policy has been seen in terms of duty and consequentialism. Yet the negotiated view of virtue ethics can also address how nation states mitigate the risks of a cyber attack...

  1. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  2. ″The Anthropocene″, Ecosystem Management, and Environmental Virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    *Portions of this article are drawn from: Sandler, R. Environmental Ethics: Theory in Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, in press. In this article I consider contrasting views on the implications of rapid, macroscale anthropogenic change for environmental ethics, particularly ecosystem management, species conservation, and environmental virtue. I begin by reviewing the Anthropocene debate, which has become a primary point of discourse on whether we ought to embrace a more interventionist stance regarding ecosystem management and species conservation. I then discuss the challenges posed by rapid ecological change to predominant ecosystem management and species conservation practices. I argue that these challenges not withstanding, we ought not go all in on interventionist management, even as novel conservation and management techniques can be justified in particular cases. It is possible to adopt a more forward looking normative stance, without licensing robust interventionism. Finally, I discuss the implications of this for some environmental virtues.

  3. Ethical, legal and clinical aspects of live surgery in urology - contemporary issues and a glimpse of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpanas, Alin Adrian; Ferician, Ovidiu Catalin; Latcu, Silviu Constantin; Pricop, Catalin; Bardan, Razvan Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Beside dry and wet lab training, simulators, video tapes, fellowships and clinical visits, live surgery has gained popularity during the last years, being an attraction point at large scientific meetings and at postgraduate courses as well. This type of surgical training raises both ethical and legal issues. Thus, there are professional societies that have banned such meetings, mainly due to safety reasons for the patient. The current article aims to identify and to discuss ethical and legal issues related to the topic, advantages, disadvantages and weak points of this emerging challenge for modern medicine, trying to analyze the issues from all relevant points of view: those of the patient, the surgeon and the session attendant.

  4. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  5. 原始儒家伦理政治的范导功能及其当代检视%On the Model Functions and Contemporary Viewing of the Original Confucian Ethics Political Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高男

    2011-01-01

    The ethical politics is a typical pattern of social politics in classical China.The theory of the ethical politics is structured by the original Confucianism which is endowed with the model functions at the same time.Such as society pattern of ruling by law and unifying the country,political spirit of no punishment,ruling principle of giving priority to developing a person's virtue supplemented by punishment,gentleman's personality demand in paragon of politics.However,an over-emphasis on core value status of ethics is the case that ethical and political theory possesses characteristic of moral idealism and tendency of extensive ethics.%伦理政治是中国古典社会典型的社会政治模式。原始儒家在建构伦理政治理论的同时赋予其以世乱文治与天下归往的社会模式、无讼去刑的政治精神与德主刑辅的治国原则、典范政治中的君子人格诉求等范导功能。但因其过于强调伦理的核心价值地位,致使伦理政治理论具有道德理想主义性质和泛伦理主义倾向。

  6. Ethical Decisions in Experience-Based Training and Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; Wurdinger, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates how principle and virtue ethics can be applied to decision-making processes in experience-based training and development programs. Principle ethics is guided by predetermined rules and assumes that issues being examined are somewhat similar in context, whereas virtue ethics assumes that "correct behavior" is determined from…

  7. Virtue training in medical schools: the perspective of behavioral science course directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Although the multidisciplinary research on physician socialization has focused on areas such as developments in learners' ideological commitments and ethics knowledge and skills, the literature on physician virtues has been anecdotal. To contribute empirical knowledge of virtue development during socialization, I performed constant comparisons on interviews with 20 directors of preclinical behavioral science courses. In discussing their courses, participants revealed foci on virtues involved in making intimate connections with patients (e.g., empathy) and "being professional" with colleagues (e.g., trustworthiness). To cultivate virtues for intimate connections, participants used the strategies of learner engagement with patients' narratives of illness, service in underserved communities, and shadowing and observing role models. To develop virtues for being professional, participants used the strategy of small learner groups, which consisted of discussions, project collaborations, and group evaluations. I conclude with implications for training students of various health sciences and managing health care teams.

  8. After Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick; Haber, Alejandro

    While books on archaeological and anthropological ethics have proliferated in recent years, few attempt to move beyond a conventional discourse on ethics to consider how a discussion of the social and political implications of archaeological practice might be conceptualized differently....... The conceptual ideas about ethics posited in this volume make it of interest to readers outside of the discipline; in fact, to anyone interested in contemporary debates around the possibilities and limitations of a discourse on ethics. The authors in this volume set out to do three things. The first is to track...... the historical development of a discussion around ethics, in tandem with the development and “disciplining” of archaeology. The second is to examine the meanings, consequences and efficacies of a discourse on ethics in contemporary worlds of practice in archaeology. The third is to push beyond the language...

  9. Ethical education in software engineering: responsibility in the production of complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario; Fraga, Anabel

    2007-12-01

    Among the various contemporary schools of moral thinking, consequence-based ethics, as opposed to rule-based, seems to have a good acceptance among professionals such as software engineers. But naïve consequentialism is intellectually too weak to serve as a practical guide in the profession. Besides, the complexity of software systems makes it very hard to know in advance the consequences that will derive from professional activities in the production of software. Therefore, following the spirit of well-known codes of ethics such as the ACM/IEEE's, we advocate for a more solid position in the ethical education of software engineers, which we call 'moderate deontologism', that takes into account both rules and consequences to assess the goodness of actions, and at the same time pays an adequate consideration to the absolute values of human dignity. In order to educate responsible professionals, however, this position should be complemented with a pedagogical approach to virtue ethics.

  10. Animal ethics based on friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some aspects of animal ethics from an Aristotelian virtue ethics point of view. Because the notion of friendship (philia) is central to Aristotle's ethical theory, the focus of the article is whether humans and animals can be friends. It is argued that new empirical findings

  11. The Moral and Ethical Implications of Precision-Guided Munitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Scott

    2003-01-01

    .... In a world where international relations are dominated increasingly by pragmatism, this study recognizes the importance of moral virtues and ethical reasoning in political and military affairs...

  12. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  13. The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J; Stapleford, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    “Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself.

  14. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  15. Educating for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena

    2010-04-01

    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  16. Implications of Odera Oruka's ethics of consumerism for reducing globesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem

    2018-02-20

    In this paper, I advance Odera Oruka's insights on the ethics of consumerism in order to draw relevant implications of his thoughts on rethinking the problem of obesity. I argue that Oruka's ethics of consumerism and his right to human minimum theory entail some salient ideas that might serve as a better ethical model for reducing the global obesity prevalence. Though Oruka's African moral philosophy is yet to receive universal attention it arguably deserves, the interests of the international and 'globesity' community would be better served learning from the contributions of an African moral theory to contemporary bioethical discourse on obesity. Oruka's moral thoughts are by constitution, a deontological and cosmopolitan call for reducing hunger in globalized world, while also indirectly, addressing obesity of the poor. I show the limitations of his ethics of consumerism, and the shortcomings of such ethics in the context of obesity of the poor. Consequently, I develop a neo-Orukan virtue based ethics that is worthy of attention in efforts towards addressing the obesity tide. No such perspective currently exists in the context of obesity; yet the exigent need for one is necessitated by the defects of the libertarian and harm principle approaches in Western bioethical discourse. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...... evidence from 83 nations and data on second generation immigrants in 29 countries with ancestry in 85 nations. Strong families cultivate universalist values and produce more civic and altruistic individuals. The results provide a constructive role for families in promoting family values that support...

  18. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.

  19. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  20. [Toward a practical ethic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  1. Ética e educação clássica: virtude e felicidade no justo meio Ethics and classical education: virtue and happiness in the golden mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Boto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo debruça-se sobre a interface do problema educativo com a problemática da ética, compreendendo a pedagogia com a arte/ciência voltada para a busca do bem educar/instruir/formar. Para tanto, o texto mobilizará conceitos da concepção ética da Aristóteles; e, na atmosfera mental da Grécia clássica, recorre-se ao termo específico grego e transdisciplinar na origem: paideia. A seguir, este ensaio procura pontuar alguns aspectos da concepção iluminista a propósito do tema, valendo-se da noção kantiana de imperativo categórico, a qual teria sido precedida pelo parecer de Rousseau, segundo o qual a vontade - e não a razão - seria a marca distintiva do gênero humano no ambiente natural. A idéia de Piaget de uma ética da reciprocidade também é aqui mobilizada. Abordando diacronicamente a temática, serão analisados conceitos de autores clássicos no debate da relação entre educação e ética, com destaque para o sentido conferido por Hanna Arendt para a autoridade como critério distintivo da relação assimétrica entre o educador (as gerações adultas de maneira geral e os estudantes (ou as novas gerações. Arendt defende, como conceito e pressuposto operatório, a dimensão necessariamente conservadora do ato educativo: compete ao educador preservar do mundo as novas gerações e preservar o mundo das novas gerações - para que estas não destruam o suporte e o acervo cultural acumulados.The present study is an in-depth discussion of the interface between educational and ethical problems, understanding pedagogy as the art/science aiming at good education/instruction/training. For this purpose, the text will summon concepts from Aristotle's ethics. Immersed in Classical Greek Thought, it will attempt to rescue a term which is originally interdisciplinary - paideia. Next, this essay tries to highlight some aspects of the illuminist concept of the theme, taking advantage of the Kantian notion of categoric

  2. The moral experience of the patient with chronic pain: bridging the gap between first and third person ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Thacker, Michael; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2014-03-01

    There has been a widespread call for an ethics in the management of patients with chronic pain which is patient centered and takes into account the lived experience of the patient. It has been argued in literature that current "duty" or principlist-based models of ethics (so-called 3rd person ethics) have not adequately addressed the needs of either patients or practitioners in this area. Two strands of literature within phenomenology were reviewed: the literature of interpretative phenomenological analysis and the study of the lived experience of the person with chronic pain; and the contribution of phenomenology in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics (1st person ethics). Patients experience chronic pain in existential and moral terms in addition to their biomedical issues, facing dilemmas in understanding their own self-identity and in attempting to recover a sense of moral worth and agency. We outline a patient-centered ethics to underpin contemporary collaborative, multimodal approaches in the management of chronic pain. We firstly describe an agency-oriented, neo-Aristotelian 1st person ethics and then outline a hermeneutic relationship with extant "duty-based," 3rd person bioethics. The utility of the ethics model we propose (the ethical reasoning bridge) lies in its capacity for developing a sense of moral agency for both practitioner and patient, resonating with the current emphasis of seeking active engagement of patients in management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Mainstream environmental ethics grew out of an approach to value that was rooted in a particular conception of rationality and rational choice. As weaknesses in this approach have become more evident, environmental philosophers have experimented with both virtue ethics and with pragmatism as alternative starting points for developing a more truly ecological orientation to environmental philosophy. However, it is possible to see both virtue ethics and pragmatism as emerging from older philosophical traditions that are here characterized as "agrarian." Agrarian philosophy stresses the role of nature, soil and climate in the formation of moral character as well as social and political institutions. As such, reaching back to the agrarian tradition may provide a way to move forward with both virtue oriented themes as well as pragmatist themes in developing ecological ethics.

  4. How to Assess Children's Virtue Literacy: Methodological Lessons Learnt from the Knightly Virtues Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Ian; Harrison, Tom; Hayes, Dan; Higgins, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Character education is of growing importance in educational discourse. The Knightly Virtues programme draws on selected classic stories to teach eight moral virtues to nine- to 11-year-olds; it has proved to be hugely popular with UK schools. A finding of the trial was the different levels of "virtue literacy" in faith and non-faith…

  5. Teaching Ethics to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…

  6. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabri; Seyed Mohammad Kazem Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant eff...

  7. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  8. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  9. Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the "paradox of striving". The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving--forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and…

  10. Anti-Luck (Too Weak) Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Duncan Pritchard’s anti-luck virtue epistemology is insufficient for knowledge. I show that Pritchard fails to achieve the aim that motivates his adoption of a virtue-theoretic condition in the first place: to guarantee the appropriate direction of fit that known beliefs have. Finally...

  11. THE GUIDE OF THE DESIGN ETHICS THEORY TO THE DESIGN OF THE CONTEMPORARY CERAMICS FOR DALLY USE%设计伦理学对当代日用陶瓷设计的规范引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓松; 孟凡茜

    2013-01-01

    This paper, from the research perspective of the design ethics, uses the development characteristics of contemporary ceramics for daily use as the basic point, elaborating how the design ethics guide the design practice of ceramic products for daily use, from the utilitarian realm of serving the human use and the aesthetic realm of serving the human emotions, eventually reach the ethical realm of serving the entire ecosystem. At last, This paper proposes that the new generation of designers should establish correct concept of the design ethics, while creating objects, creating harmonious natural and social environment.%从设计伦理学的研究角度,以当代日用陶瓷本身的发展特征为基本点,阐述设计伦理学如何引导日用陶瓷产品设计实践从服务于人类使用的功利境界,服务于人类情感的审美境界,最终到达服务于整个生态系统的伦理境界.并提出新一代的设计师应树立正确的设计伦理观念,在创物的同时,创造出和谐的自然环境和社会环境.

  12. Moral Entrepreneurship: Resource Based Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, V.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the role of entrepreneurship in business ethics and promotes a resource-based ethics. The need for and usefulness of this form of ethics emerge from an analysis of contemporary business ethics that appears to be inefficacious and from a moral business practice formed out of the

  13. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  14. Reverence and ethics in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Codes of ethics abound in science, but the question of why such codes should be obeyed is rarely asked. Various reasons for obeying a professional code have been proposed, but all are unsatisfactory in that they do not really motivate behavior. This article suggests that the long forgotten virtue of reverence provides both a reason to obey a professional code and motivation to do so. In addition, it discusses the importance of reverence as a cardinal virtue for scientists drawing on the ideas of Paul Woodruff on the role of virtue in community.

  15. Confucian ethics and emotions%儒家伦理与情感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云萍

    2008-01-01

    The Confucian understanding of emotions and their ethical importance confirms and exemplifies the contemporary Western renewed understanding of the nature of emotions. By virtue of a systematic conceptual analysis of Confucian ethics, one can see that, according to Confucians, the ethical significance of emotions, lies in that an ethical life is also emotional and virtues are inclinational. And a further exploration shows that the reason for the ethical significance is both that emotions are heavenly-endowed and that there exists a union of emotions and reason in Confucian ethics. This will constitute a challenge to the so-called mainstream ethical theories which have been popularly engaged in seeking justifications for abstract moral rules.%儒家伦理学对情感的理解,印证了当代西方伦理学对情感的性质及其伦理重要性的某些理解.对儒家伦理进行系统的概念分析可见,情感的伦理重要性不仅表现在伦理生活就是情感丰富的生活,而且儒家品德本身就是内在倾向性的;进一步的探索还表明,儒家伦理对情感重要性的强调源于情感的天赋性及情感与理性的联合.这可能会对一向着重论证抽象伦理原则的主流伦理理论形成一种挑战.

  16. The Virtue of Freedom in Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, Tibor R.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the sort of liberty associated with a capitalist economic system is of particular value because it ensures moral self-responsibility. Two conceptions of freedom are developed and related to private property and public virtue. (Author/JDH)

  17. Virtues and defects of peruvians colonial heritage

    OpenAIRE

    León, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This communication reports a study in 691 students (414 women, 277 men, 16-60 years old), who were asked to rate (on a scale of 0 to 4) ten virtues and ten defects of an average Peruvian. The virtues considered were hard-working, honest, enterprising, ambitious, thrifty, sympathetic, creative, tidy, proud, and wel.organized; the defects were lazy, corrupt, conformist, fatalist, spendthrift, individualist, passive, envious, inhibited, talkative. They were asked too to rate the influence of col...

  18. Diagnosing true virtue? Remote scenarios, warranted virtue attributions, and virtuous medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Immanuel Kant argues in the Foundations that remote scenarios are diagnostic of genuine virtue. When agents commonly thought to have a particular virtue fail to exhibit that virtue in an extreme situation, he argues, they do not truly have the virtue at all, and our propensities to fail in such ways indicate that true virtue might never have existed. Kant's suggestion that failure to show, say, courage in extraordinary circumstances necessarily silences one's claim to have genuine courage seems to rely on an implausibly demanding standard for warranted virtue attributions. In contrast to this approach, some philosophers-such as Robert Adams and John Doris-have argued for probabilistic accounts of warranted virtue attributions. But despite the initial plausibility of such accounts, I argue that a sole reliance on probabilistic approaches is inadequate, as they are insufficiently sensitive to considerations of credit and fault, which emerge when agents have developed various insurance strategies and protective capacities against their responding poorly to particular eventualities. I also argue that medical graduates should develop the sorts of virtuous dispositions necessary to protect patient welfare against various countervailing influences (even where such influences might be encountered only rarely), and that repeated failures to uphold the proper goals of medicine in emergency scenarios might indeed be diagnostic of whether an individual practitioner does have the relevant medical virtue. In closing, I consider the dispositions involved in friendship. I seek to develop a principled way of determining when remote scenarios can be illuminating of genuine friendship and genuine virtue.

  19. A humble task: restoring virtue in an age of conflicted interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Kraus, Elena M; Mikulec, Anthony A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Bakanas, Erin

    2013-07-01

    Virtues define how we behave when no one else is watching; accordingly, they serve as a bedrock for professional self-regulation, particularly at the level of the individual physician. From the time of William Osler through the end of the 20th century, physician virtue was viewed as an important safeguard for patients and research participants. However, the Institute of Medicine, Association of American Medical Colleges, and other policy groups-relying on social science data indicating that ethical decisions often result from unconscious and biased processes, particularly in the face of financial conflicts of interest-have increasingly rejected physician virtue as an important safeguard for patients.The authors argue that virtue is still needed in medicine-at least as a supplement to regulatory solutions (such as mandatory disclosures). For example, although rarely treated as a reportable conflict of interest, standard fee-for-service medicine can present motives to prioritize self-interest or institutional interests over patient interests. Because conflicts of interest broadly construed are ubiquitous, physician self-regulation (or professional virtue) is still needed. Therefore, the authors explore three strategies that physicians can adopt to minimize the influence of self-serving biases when making medical business ethics decisions. They further argue that humility must serve as a crowning virtue-not a meek humility but, rather, a courageous willingness to recognize one's own limitations and one's need to use "compensating strategies," such as time-outs and consultation with more objective others, when making decisions in the face of conflicting interests.

  20. Peeling Onions: Some Tools and a Recipe for Solving Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joan Claire

    1993-01-01

    Presents a process for solving ethical dilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)

  1. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  2. Mediation of Conflict Handling Styles in the Relation between Virtues and Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین نادری

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite awareness of the adjusted conflict tactics, sometimes there is no motivation for proper behavior. It is expected that virtues increase the likelihood of adaptive behaviors by affecting motivation for ethical behaviors. This research studied the relation between marital satisfaction, character and its underlying virtues that are the internal elements necessary for adjusted life from a positive psychology perspective. It is assumed that spouse's conflict handling styles is a mediator that play a role between character, virtues, and marital satisfaction. In a correlation plan, the married university students living in dormitories were asked to complete three questionnaires: Character Strengths, Conflict Management Style, and Marital Satisfaction. Finally, the data was analyzed based on SEM method. The courage and transcendence are found as predictors of marital satisfaction and adaptive conflict handling tactics; The Humanity doesn't show a significant relationship with satisfaction. Results also support the mediating role of adaptive conflict handling styles in relation between virtues and satisfaction. It seems that marital satisfaction stems basically from the individual's inner characteristics rather than love between spouses. Virtues affect marital outcomes through their impact on spouses' interaction styles during conflicts. Clinical implications of these results are discussed as suggestions for family therapy interventions based on a positive perspective.

  3. Living well with end stage renal disease: patients' narratives interrupted from a virtue perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Wim; Uerz, Inez; Wils, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been a revival of interest in virtue ethics, with the emphasis on the virtuous caregiver. This paper deals with the 'virtuous patient', specifically the patient with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). We believe that a virtue approach provides insights not available to current methods of studying coping styles and coping strategies. Data are derived from seven semi-structured in-depth interviews. The transcripts of the interviews were subjected to an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The focus of the analysis was on 'living well with chronic illness.' It appears that the moral challenges faced by patients with ESRD are manifold. When they are invited to tell the story of their illness, they do not explicitly speak of virtues, but they often refer to moral qualities, and to attitudes that can be regarded as virtuous. We identify several such concepts in the narratives of patients with ESRD. We conclude that the Aristotelian model of virtue ethics is particularly descriptively (and possibly also normatively) relevant to the explanation of the life narratives and the moral challenges of patients with an ESRD.

  4. A Study on Ethics in Chinese Modern and Contemporary Translation Theories%中国现当代译论中的伦理探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秀凤

    2016-01-01

    对中国现当代译论中的伦理进行探究,需从译者的责任和义务,翻译批评中的伦理,翻译研究中的伦理以及翻译研究、翻译活动和翻译批评的综合伦理等几个方面入手。翻译理论研究本身需要伦理的规范,进而运用伦理去规范翻译理论研究者和翻译理论著作出版者的研究行为,最终在我国构建起具有中国特色的、科学的翻译理论。%The ethical problems in Chinese modern translation theories have been stud-ied in terms of translator's responsibility and obligation ,ethics in translation criticism ,ethics in translation studies and the comprehensive ethical aspects of translation criticism .Transla-tion needs to be standardized with ethics ,which can be used to standardize translation theory researchers and publishers .Finally,it is hoped to establish the scientific translation theories with Chinese characteristics .

  5. May we eat our fellow creatures? Virtues and animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    for veganism holds that industrial meat production is by necessity cruel and partaking in it is not virtuous. Diamond agrees that fellow creatures should not be regarded as stages in the production of a meat product but she admits that this attitude to animals as worthy of respect and compassion does...... not necessarily lead to veganism. We suggest that one possible case of virtuous non-veganism is eating domestic animals that lead good lives and are humanely slaughtered. Another could be eating wild animals that could be worse off unless some of them are killed through humane hunting practices...

  6. Whistleblowing and scientific misconduct: renewing legal and virtue ethics foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-09-01

    Whistleblowing in relation to scientific research misconduct, despite the benefits of increased transparency and accountability it often has brought to society and the discipline of science itself, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential relevant organizations. The motivations of whistleblowers and those supporting them continued to be questioned and their actions criticised by colleagues and management, despite statutory protections for reasonable disclosures appropriately made in good faith and for the public interest. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that whistle blowing concerning scientific misconduct lacks the policy support customarily derived from firm bioethical and jurisprudential foundations. Recommendations are made for altering this situation in the public interest.

  7. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    E Arries

    2005-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consider...

  8. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  9. 从“善有恶报”看当今社会的伦理困境%A Critical Look at Ethical Dilemma in Contemporary Society from "One Good Turn Never Deserves Another"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁; 吴杨婷

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the various immoral phenomena caused by some people′s ill-treatment towards good deeds,starting from the moral options of utilitarianism as well as the ineffectiveness of the moral law,the paper critically analyzed the ethical dilemma in contemporary society,and proposed relevant measures to solve current moral problems.%分析各种"善有恶报"的不道德现象,从功利主义的道德选择和道德律令的失效着手,深入剖析当今社会的伦理困境,在此基础上提出解决现存道德问题的相应对策。

  10. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald eRuch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the

  11. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  12. Philosophy at the bedside - phenomenology, complexity and virtue in the care of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2014-12-01

    This personal reflection, based partly on my own experience as a patient, is written from the triple perspective of patient, former Health Service manager and philosopher. By beginning with the accounts of the first-hand lived experiences of patients (my own and those of Havi Carel), which I argue are central to an understanding of illness, and by then moving through the complexity of the health care environment, I aim to show that only the promulgation of a virtue-based theory of ethics and action can lead to real improvements in the quality of care delivered to patients. The case is set out to bring together the philosophical insights of phenomenology, complexity theory and Virtue Ethics. The argument shows that only Virtue Ethics provides an adequate means to respond to the unique situation and feelings of the individual person who is ill. This conclusion inevitably implies criticism of the ways that the performance of the institutions and the people who provide health care have been measured and regulated in the UK National Health Service. Overall the conclusions of this paper suggest that an approach based on virtuous agency and more closely directed towards the lived experience of people who are ill is needed to ensure both safety and improved quality in health care services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  14. Toward an Ethics of Professional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanchuk, Nicolas; Scramstad, Carly; Kruse, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we advance a novel conception of normative ethics and draw out its implications within the domain of professional ethics. We argue that all moral agents, and thus professionals, share a fundamental and constitutive normative interest in correctly conceiving of their ends. All professionals, we claim, by virtue of their positions of…

  15. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  16. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  17. Strengthening ethical political leadership for sustainable peace and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening ethical political leadership: Uganda as a case study meaningful .... needed are short and long-term strategies for inculcating ethical leadership .... Ethics comprises principles and concepts that guide humans between right ... Virtues of kindness, generosity, hospitality, honesty, compassion, forgiveness, and.

  18. An introduction to ethical theory for healthcare assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodger, Daniel; Blackshaw, B

    2017-01-01

    This article will explore and summarise the four main ethical theories that have relevance for healthcare assistants. These are: utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics and principlism. Understanding different ethical theories can have a number of significant benefits, which have the potential to shape and inform the care of patients, challenge bad practice and lead staff to become better informed about areas of moral disagreement.

  19. Measuring virtues--development of a scale to measure employee virtues and their influence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnå-Furu, Carola; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Santavirta, Nina

    2010-12-01

    The objectives of this article are to present a measurement instrument for virtues, and to examine the link between virtues and health. The instrument was tested by the occupational health care at a large Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer and was shown to be consistent, valid and reliable. In developing the scale, we had two samples of employees and used factor analysis and partial least squares modelling (PLS) on both samples. Factor analysis showed that pride is the most important virtue, followed by love and generosity. In the PLS analysis, we found virtues to significantly reduce the number of sick days. In addition, we found significant relationships between virtues and fatigue, depression and happiness. Virtuous behaviour decreased sick leave and depression. The virtues had a positive influence on happiness and on improvement in one's health. The results show that by taking into account virtues in working life, companies can significantly improve their employees' well-being. The measurement instrument helps broaden the traditional view on health and is meant to be used by health care professionals in their daily practice. By addressing a person's physical, mental and virtual well-being, health care practitioners can take care of employees on a broader level than before. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautassi G, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics

  1. Going Home in Peace: The Economy of Virtues, and Apathy as a Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Reis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proceeds from the premise that, even if you accept the principle that justice is impossible in the complete absence of virtue, a good political system ought to be parsimonious in any requirement of virtue as an input, so as not to impose undue restrictions on its own ability to function. Assuming a more or less random distribution of virtue through time and space, it would be preferable, all other things being equal, to have a system equipped to operate not only in periods of abundant moral and ethical virtue, but also — and particularly — in periods of scarcity, when such qualities seem depleted in human nature. This exigency grows critical in the context of a modern society, in which the ever-increasing complexity and impersonal nature of social relations will produce anonymity that would urge extreme caution in the presumption of virtue as an element of social relations — a caution that sociology unanimously teaches us. In such a context — one in which not all issues will involve everyone equally, nor will all voices be always audible — prudence advises and tolerance demands that political apathy — or, rather, mere abstention — should be recognized, if not as a new modality of virtue, at least as a basic right: in the exercise of which, I will respectfully silence myself whenever appropriate before the judgment of actors more intensely immersed than I, and let myself hope for silence from a few so as to be heard when I see fit to express myself.

  2. The Virtues of New Water Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the implications of post-positivism for water knowledge by answering the question: what is good water knowledge? I use Plato's four cardinal virtues, i.e. Fortitude, Temperance, Prudence and Justice, to answer the question. Fortitude means acknowledging that there are

  3. Nurturing democratic virtues: educators' perspectives | Green | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education ... It is widely accepted that certain values and their associated virtues are desirable in citizens of a democracy. Schools in South Africa and elsewhere are expected to play a part in the development of ...

  4. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  5. Trust as a Virtue in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Olimpio, Laura

    2018-01-01

    As social and political beings, we are able to flourish only if we collaborate with others. Trust, understood as a virtue, incorporates appropriate rational emotional dispositions such as compassion as well as action that is contextual, situated in a time and place. We judge responses as appropriate and characters as trustworthy or untrustworthy…

  6. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M; Lee, Walter T

    2013-10-29

    Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership 'Basic Training' is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this 'Basic Training'. Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (pvirtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  8. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  9. G. Harman 與J. Doris 社會心理學情境論與德行倫理學的品格辯論及其對品格教育的啟示 Social Psychological Situationism vs. Virtue Ethics: A Debate about Character and Its Implications for Character Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳伊琳 Yi-Lin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 近來備受討論的品格辯論與品格教育密切相關,因為受到社會心理學情境論的實驗結果所啟發的一派哲學家試圖挑戰Aristotle 的品格觀,而後者正是當代品格教育主要的哲學基礎。面對情境論的挑戰,致力維護Aristotle 品格觀的德行倫理學家表示,情境論所操弄的行為主義式的品格觀是有問題的,在完全以外顯行為與跨情境的行為一致性做為觀察重點,卻忽視行動者內在道德心理的情況下,它非但無法適當反映,遑論測試Aristotle 整體論式的品格觀,甚至有誤將品格特質化約成行為的氣質性傾向之虞,因而扭曲品格的本質。儘管情境論的挑戰並未成功,但它對品格教育至少有如下五點啟示,包括:一、品格教育需關照(道德)品格的完整內涵―外顯行為與內在道德心理;二、基本歸因偏誤彰顯品格特質歸因與評量的難度與複雜性;三、完整的品格特質的罕見性促使我們反省品格特質歸因與評量的適當用詞;四、情境因素微妙的行為影響力有助於解釋道德現象及改善道德行動;五、情境管理與品格建構應被視為促成道德行為的夥伴。 The currently heated debate about character is highly relevant to character education, since a camp of philosophers inspired by the empirical findings of situationism in social psychology purport to question an Aristotelian conception of character which fuels contemporary character education. This challenge is countered by some virtue ethicists who respond that this behaviourist conception of character is problematic .Overwhelmingly focusing on one’s overt behaviour at the cost of his moral psychology, it risk reducing character traits to mere behavioural dispositions. In addition to, distorting the nature of character, it does not have sufficient resources to represent and even test a more appropriate holistic Aristotelian

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Mate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Slovenian entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurship. We have conducted our own empirical quantitative study on the representative sample of Slovenian entrepreneurs (n =114. Using the obtained results, we tried to verify the six hypotheses. We were particularly interested in those hypotheses that presuppose the entrepreneur who highly appreciates and respects the values and virtues of an ethical businesspearson in practice, will be more economically successful. Based on the results of our research we indicated that the Slovenian entrepreneurs are largely aware of the relevant organizational values and moral virtues, although this is not always obvious in their actions in everyday business practices. The article concludes with an interpretation of the results and discussion of the prospects and challenges for further exploration of the topics covered.

  11. Ethics in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.

  12. Business Ethics of The Hui Nationality & Its Contemporary Significance%回族的商业伦理思想及其当代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓华; 吕广文

    2012-01-01

      回族起源于唐宋时期阿拉伯地区的来华商人,是一个以商为本的民族。回族商人在长期的经济活动中形成了一套集法律、宗教、道德于一体的商业伦理思想,在这一独具特色思想的指导下,回民族的经济健康、有序地发展,民族不断繁荣强大。在今天的社会主义市场经济体制下,弘扬回族商业伦理思想,仍然具有十分重要的现实指导意义。%  The Hui Nationality originated from the Arabian merchants came to china in the Tang and Song Dynasties, it is a business-oriented nation. By the long-term economic activities, Hui merchants formed a set of business ethics incorporating the law, religion and morality. Under the guidance of this unique idea, Hui's economy achieves sound and orderly development, and their nation becomes more and more prosperous and powerful. In the context of today’s socialist market economic system, carrying forward the business ethics of the Hui Nationality sill has important practical and guiding significance.

  13. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.

  14. How bad it is to be good: Impact of organizational ethical culture on whistleblowing (the ethical partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Farooqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowers are ostracized and isolated for identifying wrongdoings. Despite this deterrent, the whistleblowers have not recoiled. Nonetheless, organizations need to develop an ethical corporate culture, where employees become ‘ethical partners’ and do the right thing, not because they have to, but because they want to. The study aimed to measure the effects of ethical cultural practices using the lens of Kaptein's (2008 Corporate Ethical Virtues Model (CEVM. Split Questionnaire Survey Design (SDSD was chosen to record responses of 104 internal auditors working in nine public and sixteen private sector organizations. Results reveal significant positive relationships between whistleblowing and the CEVM virtues.

  15. Teaching ethical aptitude to graduate student researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Harvill, Eric T

    2013-01-01

    Limited time dedicated to each training areas, irrelevant case-studies, and ethics "checklists" have resulted in bare-bones Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training for present biomedical graduate student researchers. Here, we argue that science graduate students be taught classical ethical theory, such as virtue ethics, consequentialist theory, and deontological theory, to provide a basic framework to guide researchers through ethically complex situations and examine the applicability, implications, and societal ramifications of their research. Using a relevant biomedical research example to illustrate this point, we argue that proper ethics training for graduate student researchers not only will enhance current RCR training, but train more creative, responsible scientists.

  16. Guidance and justification in particularistic ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlbom, U

    2000-10-01

    This paper argues that, contrary to a common line of criticism followed by scholars such as Helga Kuhse, a particularistic version of virtue ethics properly elaborated, can provide sound moral guidance and a satisfactory account for moral justification of our opinions regarding, for instance, health care practice. In the first part of the paper, three criteria for comparing normative theories with respect to action-guiding power are outlined, and it is argued that the presented particularistic version of virtue ethics actually can provide more guidance than the universalistic theories followed by Kuhse and others. In the second part of the paper it is claimed that universalist normative theories have serious problems accounting for the role that moral principles are supposed to play in the justification, of moral opinions, whereas the present version of virtue ethics accommodates a plausible alternative idea of justification without invoking moral principles or eschewing objectivity.

  17. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-01-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to th...

  18. Using neurotechnologies to develop virtues: a Buddhist approach to cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Fenton (2009) has argued that Buddhist ethics can accommodate the use of attention-enhancing drugs, and Walker (2006 , 2009) has argued that future neurotechnologies may be used to enhance happiness and virtue. This paper uses a Western Buddhist perspective, drawing on many Buddhist traditions, to explore how emerging neurotechnologies may be used to suppress vices and enhance happiness and virtue. A Buddhist approach to the authenticity of technologically-mediated spiritual progress is discussed. The potential utility and dangers of mood manipulation for a Buddhist understanding of liberation are outlined. Then the ten paramitas of Theravadan Buddhism are explored to frame an exploration of the potential genes, neurochemicals and brain structures that could be targeted as part of a program of neurotechnological moral enhancement.

  19. The virtues in the moral education of nurses: Florence Nightingale revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, D

    1997-01-01

    The virtues have been a neglected aspect of morality; only recently has reference been made to their place in professional ethics. Unfashionable as Florence Nightingale is, it is nonetheless worth noting that she was instrumental in continuing the Aristotelian tradition of being concerned with the moral character of persons. Nurses who came under Nightingale's sphere of influence were expected to develop certain exemplary habits of behaviour. A corollary can be drawn with the current UK professional body: nurses are expected to behave in certain ways and to display particular kinds of disposition. The difference lies in the fact that, while Nightingale was clear about the need for moral education, current emphasis is placed on ethical theory and ethical decision-making.

  20. Identificação e culpa: questões éticas contemporâneas Identification and guilt: contemporary ethical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo França Neto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Freud colocou o processo de identificação na gênese do aparelho psíquico. Enquanto conceito, porém, ele é marcado por alguns paradoxos. Este artigo se propõe a formalizar tais impasses, assim como a necessária vinculação, no texto freudiano, do conceito de identificação com o fenômeno da culpa. Em seguida, serão levantadas algumas situações contemporâneas nas quais, aos olhos da psicanálise e do sistema jurídico, essa vinculação (identificação-culpa tem sido colocada em questão.Freud has presented the process of identification in the origin of the psychic apparatus. As a concept, though, it is marked by a few paradoxes. This article aims to formalize such impasses, as well as the necessary link, in a Freudian text, of the concept of identification with the guilt phenomenon. Throughout the text, a number of contemporary situations will be drawn upon, where within the areas of psychoanalysis and the judicial system, this link (identification-guilt has come into serious question.

  1. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant effects on Islamic thinkers. In other words, they claim they have been strongly influenced by Aristotle’s ideas. An obvious example for this can be ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ which attracted the attention of both western and eastern thinkers. As the greatest and the most salient commentator, Al-Fārābī could elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on ethics and so suggest a comprehensive theory of ultimate happiness and Utopia' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah'. On the other hand, following Aristotle, Al-Fārābī divided ethics into two theoretical and practical branches. Hence, basis of ethical theories introduced by the two of these philosophers is based on happiness; However, Al-Fārābī added notions of Islam and mysticism to happiness. The most straightforward definition that Aristotle offers for happiness concerns an ultimate goal which humans are eagerly seeking to acquire it. He considers the best life as a happy life which can be reached by reasoning about humans’ actions and reactions and through adopting a viewpoint. In this sense, Aristotle introduced three types of lives, namely life with pleasure, political life, and life with intellect; he knows the third type of life better and more sublime than the other two. In his book on ethics, Aristotle defined happiness as soul’s performance according to perfect virtue. Regarding soul, Aristotle divided virtues into moral and rational ones. He believed that virtue is inasmuch as its genus is a hexis (habit

  2. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Necessity of Considering Folk Ethics in Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Peykani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary ethics and moral philosophy need a kind of revision due to their negligence in human moral capacities, ordinary life, and humans’ expectations of ethics. The assumptions and presuppositions of ethics result in their current unsatisfactory status. In this paper, we first explore and criticize those presuppositions. Then, instead of introducing ideal presuppositions of ethics, we introduce folk ethics and its components in order to show that contemporary ethics and moral philosophy should always begin with folk ethics. The most important advantage of folk ethics is its realistic foundation, which in turn will produce better results.

  4. Thai and American doctors on medical ethics: religion, regulation, and moral reasoning across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent scholarship argues that successful international medical collaboration depends crucially on improving cross-cultural understanding. To this end, this study analyzes recent writings on medical ethics by physicians in two countries actively participating in global medicine, Thailand and the United States. Articles (133; published 2004-2008) from JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine, and the Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand are analyzed to inductively build a portrait of two discursive ethical cultures. Frameworks of moral reasoning are identified across and within the two groups, with a focus on what authority (religion, law, etc.) is invoked to define and evaluate ethical problems. How might similarities and differences in ethical paradigms reflect the countries' historical "semicolonial" relationship, shed light on debates about Eastern vs. Western bioethics, and facilitate or hinder contemporary cross-national communication? Findings demonstrate substantial overlap in Thai and American doctors' vocabulary, points of reference, and topics covered, though only Thai doctors emphasize national interests and identity. American authors display a striking homogeneity in styles of moral reasoning, embracing a secular, legalistic, deontological ethics that generally eschews discussion of religion, personal character, or national culture. Among Thai authors, there is a schism in ethical styles: while some hew closely to the secular, deontological model, others embrace a virtue ethics that liberally cites Buddhist principles and emphasizes the role of doctors' good character. These two approaches may represent opposing reactions-assimilation and resistance, respectively-to Western influence. The current findings undermine the stereotype of Western individualism versus Eastern collectivism. Implications for cross-national dialog are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethics and Moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Macena Figueiredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and moral are terms frequently used in our every-day life; however, defining their meanings is not an easy task. If we just ask people whether there is any distinction between these terms, we will notice that it is very difficult for them to answer. This essay has the objective to present the theoretical-philosophical principles related to the conceptual inaccuracies from the analysis of the primitive root of the terms. Thus, it begins from a brief review on the etymological origin of the terms ethos and mos. The several meanings in which these terms can be employed and the concepts used are presented. At the end, there is a reflection on the comprehension of Ethics as science or as a branch of study of philosophy. Keywords: Ethics; Moral; Virtues; Social values

  6. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  7. Loophole ethics in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical challenges in sports occur when the practitioners are caught between the will to win and the overall task of staying within the realm of acceptable values and virtues. One way to prepare for these challenges is to formulate comprehensive and specific rules of acceptable conduct. In this paper we will draw attention to one serious problem with such a rule-based approach. It may inadvertently encourage what we will call loophole ethics, an attitude where every action that is not explicitly defined as wrong, will be seen as a viable option. Detailed codes of conduct leave little room for personal judgement, and instead promote a loophole mentality. We argue that loophole ethics can be avoided by operating with only a limited set of general principles, thus leaving more space for personal judgement and wisdom.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1740

  8. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  9. Professional competence and palliative care: an ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Gert; Dekkers, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore an ethical view of professional competence by examining the professional competence of physicians in the context of palliative care. A discussion of the four dimensions of professional competence--knowledge, technical skills, relationships, and affective and moral attitude--leads us to the conclusion that "habits of mind" are important in every aspect of professional competence. This observation is then considered in the context of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Virtue ethics focuses on personal qualities and moral attitudes, while the ethics of care concentrates on the way these qualities are lived out in specific care relationships. Our conclusion points up the importance of education in ethics in the development of professional competence, and argues that because palliative care involves intense human interactions, integrating palliative care into the medical curriculum may improve the ethical culture of health care as a whole.

  10. Virtuous acts as practical medical ethics: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    To examine the nature, scope and significance of virtues in the biographies of medical practitioners and to determine what kind of virtues are at play in their ethical behaviour and reflection. A case study involving 19 medical practitioners associated with the Sydney Medical School, using semi-structured narrative interviews. Narrative data were analysed using dialectical empiricism, constant comparison and iterative reformulation of research questions. Participants represented virtuous acts as centrally important in their moral assessments of both themselves and others. Acts appeared to be contextually virtuous, rather than expressions of stable character traits, and virtue was linked to acts that served to protect or enhance fundamental values attached to ontological security and human flourishing. Virtue ethics, in this sense, was the single most important ethical system for each of the participants. Virtue ethics, construed as the appraisal of acts in contexts of risk, danger or threat to foundational values, emerged as the 'natural' ethical approach for medical practitioners in this case study. Teaching medical ethics to students and graduates alike needs to accommodate the priority attached to virtuous acts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Absent virtues: the poacher becomes gamekeeper

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, T

    2003-01-01

    Since its inception, bioethics' principled stance has been to argue against paternalism and elitism, and for an inclusive ethical perspective. But at least in North America, the growth of bioethics as a special area of applied ethics has created conflicts within the field itself. Those who, a generation earlier, argued against paternalism and for both professional and public accountability in medical decision making are now part of the decision making process. Too often, it is argued in this ...

  12. The Transformative Intellectual: An Examination of Henry Giroux's Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Henry Giroux's contributions to critical pedagogy. The author demonstrates how Giroux, as a public intellectual, has found his Ethics in the right place. The author further argues that Giroux's Ethics of virtue are present not only in the public person but also in his transformative writing.

  13. Aristotle's Humanistic Ethics | Onwuegbusi | Global Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to argue that Aristotle has no clear metaphysical basis for his ethical treatise as presented in his Nicomachean Ethics. What he claims as the supreme good for man which is happiness in accordance with the highest virtue of the soul has no metaphysical foundation in his metaphysical system.

  14. Towards Ethical Information Systems: The Contribution of Discourse Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mingers, John; Walsham, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is important in the Information Systems field as illustrated, for example, by the direct effect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on the work of IS professionals. There is a substantial literature on ethical issues surrounding computing and information technology in the contemporary world, but much of this work is not published nor widely cited in the mainstream IS literature. The purpose of this paper is to offer one contribution to an increased emphasis on ethics in the IS field. The distinc...

  15. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Schulz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods: As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results: Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9 and military personnel (n=2,433 as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001 in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions: A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  16. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053

  17. Theories of normative ethics - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics:  The most basic question...... is not what we ought to do, but what kind of persons we ought to be. Besides, the ethics of right, the ethics of care and theories of justice will be mentioned. The theories' advantages and problems will be actualised by relevant examples. Conclusion at discretion...

  18. Virtues, Vices, and Political Influence in the U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, Leanne; Liu, Christopher C; Keltner, Dacher; Srivastava, Sameer B

    2016-01-01

    What qualities make a political leader more influential or less influential? Philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists have puzzled over this question, positing two opposing routes to political power--one driven by human virtues, such as courage and wisdom, and the other driven by vices, such as Machiavellianism and psychopathy. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in political speeches, we assessed the virtues and vices of 151 U.S. senators. We found that virtuous senators became more influential after they assumed leadership roles, whereas senators who displayed behaviors consistent with vices--particularly psychopathy--became no more influential or even less influential after they assumed leadership roles. Our results inform a long-standing debate about the role of morality and ethics in leadership and have important implications for electing effective government officials. Citizens would be wise to consider a candidate's virtue in casting their votes, which might increase the likelihood that elected officials will have genuine concern for their constituents and simultaneously promote cooperation and progress in government. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Contemporary cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oppliger, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're new to the field or looking to broaden your knowledge of contemporary cryptography, this newly revised edition of an Artech House classic puts all aspects of this important topic into perspective. Delivering an accurate introduction to the current state-of-the-art in modern cryptography, the book offers you an in-depth understanding of essential tools and applications to help you with your daily work. The second edition has been reorganized and expanded, providing mathematical fundamentals and important cryptography principles in the appropriate appendixes, rather than summarize

  20. Aristotle, nursing and health care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P A

    1995-12-01

    Even a brief consideration of the nature of nursing will indicate that an ethical dimension underlies much, if not all, of nursing practice. It is therefore important that students and practitioners are facilitated in developing an ethical awareness and sensitivity from early in their professional development. This paper argues that Aristotelian virtue theory provides a practice-based focus for health care ethics for a number of reasons. Also, because of his emphasis on the character of the moral agent, and on the importance of perception and emotion in moral decision-making, Aristotelian virtue theory provides a useful supplement to the traditional duty-based approaches to health care ethics analysis, which are increasingly being identified in the literature as having limits to their application within the health care context.

  1. Relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist Debate for Ethics and Professionalism in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, G. Michael; Mueller, Ross A. Oakes; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no…

  2. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  3. Understanding medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-03-01

    Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place.

  4. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  5. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  6. Memory, place, and ecology in the contemporary American novel

    OpenAIRE

    Schliephake, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Memory, place, and ecology in the contemporary American novel. - In: Literature, ecology, ethics / Timo Müller ... (eds.). - Heidelberg : Univ.-Verl. Winter, 2012. - S. 95-112. - (Anglistische Forschungen ; 432)

  7. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  8. Assessing Virtue: Measurement in Moral Education at Home and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan A.

    2016-01-01

    How should we assess programs dedicated to education in virtue? One influential answer draws on quantitative research designs. By measuring the inputs and processes that produce the highest levels of virtue among participants according to some reasonable criterion, in this view, we can determine which programs engender the most desired results.…

  9. Hope as a Political Virtue | Moellendorf | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... understand why it is a political virtue of persons. I also argue that securing the institutional bases of hope is a virtue of state institutions, particularly in states in transition from severe injustice. And, finally, when the bases are secure, a person who fails to hope for the political future is in that regard prima facie blameworthy.

  10. Teaching Virtue through Physical Education: Some Comments and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carwyn

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore a number of important implications for a moral pedagogy through sport and physical education. In order to do so, I first reiterate the credentials of a virtue theoretical approach to moral action and moral agency and reinforce the claim that the philosophy and psychology of virtue are best suited to provide the firm ground…

  11. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  12. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-HASAN AL-AIDAROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision making process. Despite their utility, this paper intends to argue that the Western concepts and understanding of what ethics are limited and incomprehensive in explaining what is right and what is wrong. In its place, this paper argues that to understand the concepts of ethics that can extend beyond time and space. It has to be analysed from an Islamic perspective. Toward this purpose, this paper will compare and contrast between Islamic and Western perspectives of ethics, and highlight the main weaknesses and limitations of the former. Then, an argument on why Islam can provide the best understanding of ethics will be made.

  13. Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A comparative analysis of different business ethics in the perspective of the Common Good

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Montesi

    2009-01-01

    The paper concerns the connection between different tipologies of business ethics (kantian, utilitarian, aristotelic) and the alternative vision of economic development, company’s organizational and managerial context together with interest in Common Good more or less associated to profit to which they have given rise. In this comparison virtue ethics stands out for its capacity of creating, specially through the business virtue of generosity, social capital so precious to economic developmen...

  15. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  16. Ethical Issues with Genetic Testing for Tay-Sachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Tricia

    Several genetic disorders are specific to Jewish heritage; one of the most devastating is Tay-Sachs disease.Tay-Sachs is a fatal hereditary disease, causing progressive neurological problems for which there is no cure. Ethical issues surrounding genetic testing for Tay-Sachs within the Jewish community continue to be complex and multifaceted. A perspective of Tay-Sachs, using rights-based ethics and virtue ethics as a theoretical framework, is explored.

  17. Teacher’s Professional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文玲

    2014-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in society, whose career is considered to be the most glorious one under the sun. They have deep and lifelong influence on students and the prosperity of a country and even the bright future of the whole world. Teacher should be a person with great virtue that sets good examples for the students. However, nowadays, there exist various problems about teacher’s ethics due to complex social, economical, cultural or personal issues. It’s urgent and imperative for teachers to learn and improve professional ethics to be a better mentor. This paper begins with the definition of ethics, emphasizes the importance of teachers’professional ethics, talks about current situation in this area, analyzes the reasons why there are im-moral problems about teachers and suggests some practical strategies on how to improve it.

  18. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...... philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations....

  19. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN NURSING

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Nurten; Turan, Nuray; Ozdemir Aydin, Gulsun

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is one of the characteristics of contemporary civilization.Health care system faces uniquely complex ethical problems. Many points of seriousconcern need to be raised under the concept of ethics. For nurse entrepreneursto be professionally credible they have to be competent and accountable. Whilefundamental responsibility lies with the individual nurse entrepreneur, theprofessions have to evidently improve these essential attributes as well. Thecode of nursing ethics would constitute s...

  20. understanding medical ethics in a contemporary society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    these basic principles will go a long way in reducing the ... medical practitioner must therefore be prepared at all ... physician accepts to see a patient, he must define in his ... tells the nurse who is doing daily ..... International Journal of Medical ...

  1. Interactive Contemporary Art : Participation in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Audience participation has polarized the critical debate surrounding contemporary art's social, moral and aesthetic potential. This incisive collection of essays sheds new light on the political, ethical and artistic capacity of participatory works and tests the most recent theoretical approaches to

  2. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  3. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity. PMID:28725771

  4. Relação, encontro e reciprocidade: algumas reflexões sobre a ética no cinema documentário contemporâneo Relations, encounters and reciprocity: reflections about ethics in contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Freire

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos traços mais marcantes do cinema documentário é a sua vocação para tratar do outro, para ter a alteridade como centro de sua construção. Subjacente a esta última, há o evento sem o qual o filme não existe: o encontro entre o cineasta e as pessoas filmadas. Qualquer apreciação sobre as condições em que se deu esse encontro deve ter como pressuposto básico que aquele que empunha a câmera detém um poder inquestionável sobre os sujeitos de sua mirada. Independentemente dos procedimentos de compartilhamento desse poder, em voga já há algum tempo, como distribuição de câmeras aos sujeitos observados, ou da bem mais antiga antropologia partilhada de Jean Rouch, em que o filme toma forma a partir da devolução às pessoas filmadas das imagens registradas e do diálogo que se estabelece entre elas e o cineasta, esse poder está sempre lá, pois, em sua quase totalidade, a edição final dos filmes fica nas mãos do realizador. É sobre essa relação de força e seus desdobramentos, e os aspectos éticos e estéticos a ela subjacentes, que nos debruçaremos. Relations, encounters and reciprocity: reflections about ethics in contemporary documentary cinema — One of the most noteworthy features of documentary cinema is its ability to deal with the other, to have otherness at the core of its construction. Underlying this is the event without which a movie does not exist: the encounter between the filmmaker and the people he films. Any appreciation of the conditions in which this encounter takes place must be based primarily on the assumption that the person holding the camera wields unquestionable power over those targeted by the camera's viewfinder. This power is always present, independently of the procedures involved in sharing it, which have been in fashion for some time — such as distributing cameras to the subjects under observation, or the much older "shared anthropology" of Jean Rouch, in which the film takes shape

  5. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit. In contrast to its medical use, the recreational use of marijuana cannot be justified for at least three reasons. First, as scientists have amply documented, it harms the organic functioning of the human body. Second, it impedes our ability to reason and in so doing does harm to us. Finally, it has lasting detrimental effects on the user and his neighbor, even when it occurs in a casual setting. Intoxication is always contrary to the integral good of the person. Thus, the use of marijuana is never warranted even for good, non-medical reasons.

  6. Absent virtues: the poacher becomes gamekeeper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, T

    2003-12-01

    Since its inception, bioethics' principled stance has been to argue against paternalism and elitism, and for an inclusive ethical perspective. But at least in North America, the growth of bioethics as a special area of applied ethics has created conflicts within the field itself. Those who, a generation earlier, argued against paternalism and for both professional and public accountability in medical decision making are now part of the decision making process. Too often, it is argued in this paper, their allegiance is to the employer, or to a view of medicine that is institutionally based. As a result, it is suggested by this review, medical ethicists have adopted the perspective that, in the early 1970s, they most criticised. The answer, it is argued here, is to revisit a lexicographical ordering of responsibility in bioethics, one that recognises professionals as individuals with responsibilities, as citizens with a public posture, and finally, as professionals involved in the process of medical decision making.

  7. Organizational Learning, Agility and Social Technologies in Contemporary Workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkamäki , Kati; Mavengere , Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Part 8: Discussion Groups; International audience; The contemporary workplaces face demanding challenges, such as expectations to be agile, competitive, efficient and adept to using employee knowledge. There are several required virtues in order to have a conductive workplace, for example, organizational learning and agility. The discussion forum aimed to bring out the inter-related roles of organizational learning, agility and social technologies in modern workplaces. The working methods in ...

  8. In search of an appropriate contemporary approach in Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article addresses the question: 'To what extent can Max Weber's ethic of responsibility be a helpful resource in the search of Christian Social Ethics for an appropriate contemporary approach'? This question is addressed by, first of all, providing a summary of Weber's famous speech Politics as a Vocation in which he ...

  9. Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill

    2015-08-05

    This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included.

  10. Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Lynn

    2014-10-28

    Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas.

  11. Ethical hot spots of combined individual and group therapy: applying four ethical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabender, Virginia M; Fallon, April

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Combined therapy presents ethical quandaries that occur in individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy, and dilemmas specifically associated with their integration. This paper examines two types of ethical frameworks (a classical principle-based framework and a set of context-based frameworks) for addressing the ethical hot spots of combined therapy: self-referral, transfer of information, and termination. The principle-based approach enables the practitioner to see what core values may be served or violated by different courses of action in combined therapy dilemmas. Yet, the therapist is more likely to do justice to the complexity and richness of the combined therapy situation by supplementing a principle analysis with three additional ethical frameworks. These approaches are: virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and casuistry. An analysis of three vignettes illustrates how these contrasting ethical models not only expand the range of features to which the therapist attends but also the array of solutions the therapist generates.

  12. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND NURSES IN PORTUGUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Costa Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses deontological issues of health care professions in relation to their ethical foundation. We present four models of teaching ethics and deontology in doctors’ training and the results of a PhD research on the teaching of these subjects in nurses’ training in Portugal. Given the importance of bioethics in deontological training of health care professions, we present a comparative analysis of. bioethical principles enunciated by Beauchamp and Childress (1979, related to ‘ethics of justice’, and Kemp’s(2000 proposal, associated to an ‘ethics of care’. Given the ambiguity of these bioethical expressions, we focus on the analysis of its contents and the need to discuss the fundamentals of ethical training of doctors and nurses in relation to the ethical theories they are derived from. Utilitarian ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics, when the analysis of bioethics’ fundaments is not trained, the duty of caring of suffering can be put at risk.

  13. Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Paquita C

    2015-01-01

    'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Virtude e amor em Rousseau - Virtue and love in Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Hermann, Brasil.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rousseau rompe o vínculo considerado indissolúvel entre consciência moral e consciência cultural, para dar lugar à relação entre natureza e ética e revoluciona o modo de compreender o homem e sua relação com o mundo. Desconfiado da razão que não é educada pelos sentimentos o filósofo propõe, em Emílio, uma educação que defenda  o coração do homem do erro e do vício provenientes da sociedade. Em Júlia ou a Nova Heloísa, um romance por meio de cartas, o autor combina o discurso da paixão com o discurso moral para mostrar o conflito entre o amor e o dever e indicar que amor e virtude são inseparáveis. Dramatiza posições filosóficas e contribui com a criação de uma nova ética e uma nova estética, em que se reafirma a formação do homem virtuoso. O artigo conclui que as duas obras marcam a contribuição decisiva de Rousseau para a criação de uma nova mentalidade que aspira à interioridade e à espontaneidade provenientes da natureza e que desperta a sensibilidade romântica.Palavras-chave: Rousseau, virtude, amor, nova sensibilidade. VIRTUE AND LOVE IN ROUSSEAU AbstractRousseau breaks the tie considered  indissoluble between moral conscience and cultural conscience, replacing it by the relationship between nature and ethics. This revolutionizes the way man and his relationship with the world are understood. The philosopher, who is suspicious of reason which is not educated by feelings, in Emile proposes an education that will defend man’s heart from error and vice coming from society.  In Julia, or the New Heloise, a novel written in the form of letters, the author combines the discourse of passion with a moral discourse to show the conflict between love and duty, and to indicate that love and virtue are inseparable.  He dramatizes philosophical positions, contributing to create a new ethics and a new esthetics, in which the education of the virtuous man is reaffirmed. The article concludes that the two

  15. [Ethics and epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2005-01-01

    Human actions take place at the confluence of circumstances that require us to discern the proper way to act. Ethics falls within the terrain of practical knowledge, of knowledge about what is contingent. It belongs to the domain of moral judgments or value judgments. The counterpart of disenchantment with our contemporary world lies in an effort to re-establish an interest in ethics. There are basically three orders of relations between public health and human rights: the quest for balance between the collective good and individual rights; methods and techniques for identifying human rights violations and assessing their negative impact; and the tie between protecting individual rights and promoting health. The relationship between ethics and epidemiology goes beyond the ethical aspects involving research on human beings to encompass political commitments, practices within health services, and the production of knowledge.

  16. Moral Virtues in J. A. Comenius’ Mundus Moralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šolcová Kateřina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reconstruct Jan Amos Comenius’ (1592–1670 conception of moral virtues as it is presented in his major work General Consultation on an Improvement of All Things Human (De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica, mainly in its part Pansophia – Mundus Moralis with respect to the role which prudence plays (prudentia in relation to the other cardinal virtues – fortitude (fortitude, justice (justitia, and temperance (temperantia. Comenius’ conception of virtues is further compared with the traditional Aristotelian-Scholastic doctrine formulated prevailingly by Aquinas. In conclusion, it is shown that it is the position of prudence (prudentia, as an intellectual virtue that connects significantly Comenius with the Aristotle-Thomistic tradition in this perspective.

  17. To Take Care of Them: An Ethical Case Study of the Canal Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    opinions, emotional responses, and systems such as ethical relativism ,87 divine command theory,88 utilitarianism,89 deontology,90 and virtue ethics .91...TO TAKE CARE OF THEM: AN ETHICAL CASE STUDY OF THE CANAL INCIDENT A... ETHICAL CASE STUDY OF THE CANAL INCIDENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Emmitt Maxwell Furner II 5d. PROJECT

  18. Artificial persons against nature: environmental governmentality, economic corporations, and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the 194 nation-state signatories to the global Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation effort is failing to halt an ongoing spiral of decline in most habitats and ecological communities on land and ocean. Environmental ethicists argue that the failure to halt the unsustainable predation on the ecosystems that sustain industrial civilization is indicative of a moral as well as a scientific crisis. Principal ethical interventions in ecology include the ascription of value to species and ecosystems, wilderness ethics, and ecological virtue. Ecological virtue ethics identifies agency, character, institutions, and practices as crucial to moral formation and outcomes. However, the dominant role of the economic corporation in ecological destruction subverts a virtues approach. Corporations as fictive persons will not learn ecological virtue absent of legal and regulatory reform and the ecological education of business leaders and owners. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

  1. Applied Ethics and eHealth: Principles, Identity, and RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Diane; Duquenoy, Penny

    The social and ethical implications of contemporary technologies are becoming an issue of steadily growing importance. This paper offers an overview in terms of identity and the field of ethics, and explores how these apply to eHealth in both theory and practice. The paper selects a specific circumstance in which these ethical issues can be explored. It focuses particularly on radio-frequency identifiers (RFID). It ends by discussing ethical issues more generally, and the practice of ethical consideration.

  2. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.

  3. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Runyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtues, generally understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition is called into question by studies showing that, to a significant degree, an individual’s situation can influence their responses. In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that these kinds of situational studies are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life—a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling. We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI. While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  4. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  5. Treatises “On Virtues and Vices”: Translation from the Greek into Russian and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sanzhenakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into three sections: an introduction, a translation of Pseudo-Aristotelian treatise “On Virtues and Vices” (De virtutibus et vitiis, and a commentary to this text. In the introduction, the author briefly describes textual tradition, critical editions and available translations of the treatise in European languages. The major issue, discussed in the introduction, concerns the question of authenticity and authorship of the treatise. Arguments by E. Zeller, C. Schuchhardt, F. Susemihl, E. Schmidt, who seriously questioned the authenticity of the text, are contrasted with the opinion of P. Simpson, who insisted on its authenticity. The author of the present work is inclined to think that the treatise is a later composition. Respective arguments are presented in length in the commentary, where the author attempts to place the treatise in the context of the ethical works of the Corpus Aristotelicum, on the one hand, and this of the later Hellenistic developments, on the other.

  6. EDUCATION IN VIRTUES AND VALUES FORMING THE CHARACTER AND BUILDING FULL AND FREE CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Education in virtues and values is the antidote in these times of decadence social, political and unfair distribution of economic wealth to rescue the concepts of dignity, responsibility and freedom in educational projects that Government should be implemented globally, in order to promote a series of tools for learners can pass through self-knowledge and self-confidence helping them build a personality that allows them to settle in their work, social and family environment and which also conducive to the development of ethical behavior that have social impact, and can contribute to change the reality of decline and corruption that we are living today, building to full and free citizens.

  7. Truth or lie--some ethical dilemmas in the communication of a severe diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramma, Rodica; Parvu, Andrada; Enache, Angela; Roman, G; Ioan, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Informing the patient about his disease is a very important issue in the medical practice, thus communication becomes imperative in healthcare services. Communicating the diagnosis of a pathology that doesn't bear any imminent risk for life is a common procedure for physicians. However, the situation changes drastically in the case of a severe diagnosis or a hopeless prognosis, with terminally ill patients. In this article the authors proceed to a critical analysis of the dilemma of communication or non-communication of a severe diagnosis. The problem of communicating a severe diagnosis is described from a philosophical perspective (in terms of three fundamental ethical theories: Aristotle's theory of virtue, Kant's ethical theory and Bentham and Mill's moral theories). At the same time, certain physiological and medical approaches are presented. In order to avoid any communication conflict, especially considering the particular situation of the seriously ill patient in the context of the contemporary medical activities, the authors propose the debating of two opposing approaches: "the sacred lie principle" and "the justified medical truth" in the physician--patient relation.

  8. Conversing on Ethics, Morality and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    In philosophical use, "ethics" and "moral philosophy" are more closely synonymous--one deriving from Greek, "ethike" and the other from Latin "moralis." In typical social science paradigms, there generally prevails a consensual sense of contemporary everyday use of "ethics," except where earlier…

  9. Ecology, Ethics, and Responsibility in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that working with marital and family problems complicates the concept of therapeutic responsibility. Discusses several societal contributors to ethical dilemmas in contemporary family therapy and summarizes an ecological framework for therapy on the basis of which a profile of the ethical family therapist is derived. (Author/NB)

  10. Critical Naturalism : A Quantum Mechanical Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolphijn, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rereading Derrida, both Donna Haraway and Karen Barad are in search for an ethics that is not based on critique but that offers an affirmative alternative to the dualist construction of naturalism today. Whereas Haraway practices this ethics mainly by reading contemporary biology into the

  11. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  12. Changes in the welfare state and the ethics of early childhood educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Ethical reflection is more relevant than ever before. As a reaction to both the trend of utilitarianism in early childhood education and the changes in the organisation of welfare sevices in the Nordic countries a professional ethics of virtue must be revitalized. However, it is not an easy path...

  13. Ethical leadership and employee pro-social rule-breaking behavior in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Jinqiang; Xu, Shiyong; Ouyang, Kan; Herst, David; Farndale, E.

    2018-01-01

    Chinese people generally show flexibility in obeying formal rules and emphasize rules in terms of virtue. In such a cultural background, we explore the effects of ethical leadership and ethical idealism on employee pro-social rule-breaking behavior (PSRB). Our study incorporates individual traits

  14. Ethics and research in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Lemaire, Francois

    2006-11-01

    The past few years have witnessed several controversies regarding the ethics of conducting research involving critically ill patients, and such research is ethically challenging. Research ethics is a changing field, one that is influenced by empirical data, contemporary events, and new ideas regarding aspects of clinical trial design and protection of human subjects. We describe recent thoughts regarding several aspects of research ethics in the critical care context. The ability of the research community to conduct research ethically and to maintain public trust would benefit from heightened awareness to the principles and requirements that govern such research.

  15. The Dilemma of Practical Ethics Education for Contemporary College Students and the Research for a Solution%当代大学生道德实践教育的困境及对策探寻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2016-01-01

    当前大学生道德实践教育遭遇严峻挑战,这与社会层面的功利主义、实用主义等思想的侵蚀和个人境界的层次、自律性不强等主客观方面原因都有内在关联。可通过道德教育目标的崇高定位、道德教育内容的德性培育和道德教育方式的体验养成等途径来加以完善。%The practical ethics education for college students is facing a severe challenge which shares a connection with objective and subjective factors such as,social utilitarianism,the influence of pragmatism,personal ideological level, lacking of self-discipline, etc. The dilemma can be enhanced by aiming at a higher target in ethical education, fostering the ethical characters of ethical education,and the acquirement of experiencing ethical teaching methods.

  16. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  17. Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

  18. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  19. History and theory in "applied ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    2007-03-01

    Robert Baker and Laurence McCullough argue that the "applied ethics model" is deficient and in need of a replacement model. However, they supply no clear meaning to "applied ethics" and miss most of what is important in the literature on methodology that treats this question. The Baker-McCullough account of medical and applied ethics is a straw man that has had no influence in these fields or in philosophical ethics. The authors are also on shaky historical grounds in dealing with two problems: (1) the historical source of the notion of "practical ethics" and (2) the historical source of and the assimilation of the term "autonomy" into applied philosophy and professional ethics. They mistakenly hold (1) that the expression "practical ethics" was first used in a publication by Thomas Percival and (2) that Kant is the primary historical source of the notion of autonomy as that notion is used in contemporary applied ethics.

  20. Analyzing Trouble on Ethics of Choosing Occupation about Contemporary College graduates and Enlightenment of Marx'view of Choosing Occupation%当代大学生择业伦理的困境分析与马克思择业观的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂平荣

    2012-01-01

    Under the Sociology background of a difficult employment situation intensified, contemporary college students ' words and deeds in choosing occupation have shown trouble on ethics of choosing occupation such as serious utility tendency in employment expectation occupational value more self-centered perceptual career orientation secular employment idea Lack of employment integrity. To investigate their reason, the author thinks there are not any deep objective factors of the sociology and school, but also college students' personal subjective components. But Marx discussed detailed and insightfully employment attitude of youth, the main factors should be considered, main principles and basic principle of career theory in "the consideration on the choice of occupation for youth". From interpretation of those view on choosing occupations, some appropriate countermeasures can be mined and combed to resolve the above trouble on ethics of choosing occupation: namely, choosing occupations serious and carefully, got out of the utilitarian errors of choosing occupation ethics; understanding myself correctly, removing perceptual color of choosing occupation ethics; firming career beliefs, changing secular concept on choosing occupation ethics; establishing high occupation ideal, criticize malpractice of individualistic choosing occupation ethics.%在就业难愈演愈烈的社会背景下,当代大学生的择业言行已表现出择业期望功利倾向严重、择业价值以自我为中心、择业定位感性、择业观念世俗、择业诚信缺失等择业伦理困境。究其成因,既有社会与学校深层次的客观因素,也有大学生个人的主观成分。马克思在《青年在选择职业时的考虑》一文中详尽而精辟地论述了青年择业时的态度、应考虑的主要因素、主要原则与基本方针,可为化解上述择业伦理困境提供相应对策:严肃认真择业,走出择业伦理的功利误区;正确认识自我,清除

  1. Moral Intuition and the Professional Military Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    civilization. Emotion is primary in human culture and it‟s in influence is unquestionable – it absolutely dominates the human sense of morality . The...person that are made with respect to a set of virtues [and behaviors] held to be obligatory by members of a culture or sub- culture . Moral reasoning...formula for postmodern relativism . When it comes to morality and ethics, the “how to” decision-making process is never as important as what our Soldier

  2. The Public Ethics of Sovereignty of Evil and Political Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Baccarini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper debates the issue of the preventive procedural concept of politics versus the aspirational liberal concept of politics as discussed in Derek Edyvane's book Civic Virtue and the Sovereignty of Evil: Political Ethics in Uncertain Times. The author indicates the necessity to conceptually differentiate sovereign evils from universal evils, and offers a defense of the liberal concept of justice.

  3. Privileged and Undocumented: Toward a Borderland Love Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I seek to explore the tensions of what it means to be a "deserving" native researcher. I begin by experimenting with the meaning of a "borderland love ethic" as a theoretical framework that centers on: nurturing our strength to love in spaces of contention, tolerance of ambiguity as a revolutionary virtue, and…

  4. Filial Piety (xiao 孝 for the Contemporary and Global World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta POŠKAITĖ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between children and parents seem to be one of the most urgent issues in the contemporary world, spanning from the United States and European countries to East Asian societies, as a consequence of the transformation of traditional family ethics, values and institutions brought about by the processes of modernization and globalization. The present paper aims to reveal the ways and problems of the application of xiao 孝 (filial piety ethics in the contemporary Western and Chinese societies, as reflected in the works by a number of famous Western Protestant missionaries, religious philosophers, sinologists and present-day Lithuanian Sinology students, and counterbalance their views with the insights of contemporary Chinese sociologists. The place of xiao in the contemporary inter-cultural dialogue will be discussed from the point of view of dialogue between religions, theory and practice, Western and Chinese culture, traditional and modern societies and values.

  5. Higher Education, Academic Communities, and the Intellectual Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ward E.

    2012-01-01

    Because higher education brings members of academic communities in direct contact with students, the reflective higher education student is in an excellent position for developing two important intellectual virtues: confidence and humility. However, academic communities differ as to whether their members reach consensus, and their teaching…

  6. Thoughts on Racial Democratic Education and Moral Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The taking of Black life by state authorities is a long-standing tragic tradition in America. However, in recent years, instances of Black death have gained wider media attention. This is a potentially important teaching moment, especially as it regards moral virtue and racism. In this article, I argue that Blacks have been put through a kind of…

  7. Virtue through Challenge: Moral Development and Self-Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I argue that although the Aristotelian ideal of leading a virtuous life for its own sake is admirable, conventional Aristotelian and neo-Aristotelian accounts of how it might be realised are empirically inadequate: Habituation is unlikely to produce "a love of virtue", practical experience cannot then produce practical…

  8. Motivation in Moral Education: The Case for Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that virtues be taught in moral education as motivational concepts of a distinctively moral kind. Believes that this process will link mind, heart and will thereby bind together reason, emotion and action in concrete compartments of behavior. (Author/R K)

  9. Admiration for Virtue: Neuroscientific Perspectives on a Motivating Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Sylvan, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Social emotions like admiration for another person's virtue are often associated with a desire to be virtuous one's self, and to engage in meaningful and socially relevant activities against any odds (Haidt & Seder, 2007). These emotions can profoundly inspire us, sometimes motivating our most significant life-course decisions. Yet despite the…

  10. Higher prudence as the supreme virtue in international politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    This article defends a radical, morally ambitious version of prudence in international politics. Thus, it claims that, rather than the ‘lower prudence’ favoured by political realist Hans Morgenthau, ‘higher prudence’ (Cochran 1983) should be regarded as the supreme virtue in international politics.

  11. Frameworks for Teaching and Learning Business Ethics within the Global Context: Background of Ethical Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judith; Taft, Susan

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we provide a summary of several major traditional and contemporary philosophical and psychological perspectives on ethical conduct for businesses, along with five different sets of internationally accepted ethical guidelines for corporations operating anywhere in the world. We include examples of corporate codes of conduct from…

  12. A Bridge Back to the Future: Public Health Ethics, Bioethics, and Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Contemporary biomedical ethics and environmental ethics share a common ancestry in Aldo Leopold's and Van Rensselaer Potter's initial broad visions of a connected biosphere. Over the past five decades, the two fields have become strangers. Public health ethics, a new subfield of bioethics, emerged from the belly of contemporary biomedical ethics and has evolved over the past 25 years. It has moved from its traditional concern with the tension between individual autonomy and community health to a wider focus on social justice and solidarity. Public health has a broad focus that includes individual, community, and environmental health. Public health ethics attends to these broad commitments reflected in the increasing concern with the connectedness of health of individuals to the health of populations, to the health of animals, to the health of the environment; it is well situated to reconnect all three "fields" of ethics to promote a healthier planet.

  13. Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  14. Ethical issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul; Rubenfeld, Sheldon

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. These principles were gradually adopted after World War II, primarily in response to the unethical behavior of German physicians and scientists during the Third Reich. This review emphasizes the importance of historical milestones and the essential role that ethics has in contemporary medical research. Research protocols should achieve maximum benefits for the society, have clinical and scientific value, be subject to independent review, respect human dignity, and follow the principles of informed consent, and most importantly, subjects should have complete autonomy. However, current principles and regulations cannot cover every conceivable situation, particularly in view of the new advances in science and technology. New and evolving medical technology, genetic research, therapeutic interventions, and innovations challenge society to maintain the highest moral and ethical principles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Research ethics in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Schmitt Rocha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective here is to point out ethics in Physical Education research against a backdrop of individual and collective human conduct. Since Plato, the question of ethics in the Western world has been an incessant search for the virtues to harmonize personal and social wellbeing and for the absolute principles of conduct: Autonomy, Beneficence and Justice. Physical Education cannot exempt itself from these and its countless areas of research. In addition to the moral education that develops and solidifies within social groups, the characteristic of which is action on an individual level, we must also consider ethical principles such as those defended by the Physical Education World Manifesto and those that regulate the professional activities of Physical Education professionals. Irrespective of the area investigated, Research in Physical Education will always clash with institutionalized ethical principles enforced by ethics committees, councils and the values accepted by the researchers. Committees strive to preserve the integrity and dignity of the people enrolled on research studies while the researchers challenge the limits of knowledge at an uncomfortable frontier between the acceptable and the unacceptable within a given context of academic vision and needs.

  16. Contemporary jewelry definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Aparecido Mercaldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary jewelry terminology is open to many criticism and weaknesses as it is confronted with the classic definition of jewelry and also often attached to the historical widespread idea of adornment and jewelry to modernity. Therefore one of the this article issues is to approach about what it is contemporary jewelry and how it can be defined. Thus, we present the topics related to the jewel discussion in contemporary times that are organized into a set of assumptions and approaches that help us provide an overview about the contemporary jewelry.

  17. Virtues and Character Strengths Related to Approach Coping Strategies of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to describe virtues, character strengths and coping strategies of college students; (2) to analyze the relationship between virtues, character strengths and coping strategies; and (3) to evaluate the predictive relationship between virtues and coping strategies. Ninety-one college students (98% females), aged…

  18. Developing Virtue and Rehabilitating Vice: Worries about Self-Cultivation and Self-Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaly, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian virtue theorists have emphasized the role of the self in developing virtue and in rehabilitating vice. But this article argues that, as Aristotelians, we have placed too much emphasis on self-cultivation and self-reform. Self-cultivation is not required for developing virtue or vice. Nor will "sophia"-inspired self-reform…

  19. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  20. An ethical analysis of a home visit case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pibernat, Artur Dalfó; Vidal, Jessica Rosell; Pibernat, Enric Dalfó; Rodríguez, Francisco Javier Pelegrina; Colomer, Gerard; Cid, Maria Feijoo

    2017-12-01

    This article will explore a clinical case study of a home visit carried out by the case manager nurse. In this case, we will discuss the dilemma of finding the balance between autonomy and beneficence from the perspective of principlist ethics, virtue ethics and the 'ethics of care'. The main conflict in this case study deals with all proposals are unsuitable and it is not necessary for a nurse to pay him a home visit, whereas for the healthcare system it is considered necessary. We could conclude that, during the home visit, the case manager aspires to achieve excellence, and throughout his clinical relationship with Francesc, searches for a series of virtues, respecting certain fundamental principles. In this way, the case managers ensure that Jaume's care is more humanised. The case has been anonymised and confidentiality maintained.

  1. A critical consideration of ethical foundations for the accounting profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Buys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When considering some of the key reasons for the desperate state of the current global economic environment, it is difficult to deny accounting’s role therein. Although accounting institutes require adherence to codes of conduct, the question remains as to what happened to the stewardship function of the accounting profession. This article has critically reflected on the question, ‘What constitutes an ethical accounting profession’? The key principles within many institutes’ codes of conduct, such as competency, integrity, objectivity and confidentiality, have been considered against the background of utilitarianism, formalism and virtue ethics as foundational ethical theories. This article has concluded that although these principles aim to provide a framework for ethical accounting conduct, individual subjectivity on the part of the accountant will play a role in how these ethical principles become ethical practices.

  2. The practice setting: site of ethical conflict for some mothers and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Faye E

    2003-11-01

    Practitioners' ethical orientation and responses vary between practice settings. Yet, currently, the ethics for midwifery practice that is explicit in the literature and which provides the ideals of socialization into practice, is that of bio(medical)ethics. Traditional bioethics, developed because of World War II atrocities and increased scientific research, is based on moral philosophy, normative theory, abstract universal principles and objective problem solving, all of which focus on right and wrong 'action' for resolving dilemmas. They exclude context and relationship. Personal narratives of mothers and midwives contest the appropriateness of these accepted values and systems for childbirth because they induce conflict between workplace/service provider ethics and personal/professional midwifery ethics. In contrast to the disembedded and disembodied approach of biomedical ethics, an ethically adequate response in midwifery practice resonates more with the ethics of intimates, such as feminist virtue ethics.

  3. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  4. Brave New Worlds? The Once and Future Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2010-01-01

    in both Western and Eastern countries, and correlative shifts from the communication technologies of literacy and print to a “secondary orality.” These consequences in turn imply that current and future information ethics should focus on developing a global but pluralistic virtue ethics - one that may......I highlight several aspects of current and future developments of the internet, in order to draw from these in turn specific consequences of particular significance for the ongoing development and expansion of information ethics. These consequences include changing conceptions of self and privacy...

  5. Contemporary Art from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Danish contemporary art is currently expanding bot quantitatively and qualitatively to such a degree that we can speak of a new Danish Golden Age. The article introduces some of the most interesting, Danish contemporary artists which are being exposed at the exhibition in the European Central Bank...

  6. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  7. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  8. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  9. Why ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang, Huber

    2015-01-01

    In this address, the author explores the necessity of ethical reflection on our moral responsibility regarding the challenges of today's globalized world and the future of humankind in the midst of God's creation. In this context, the differentiation of modern ethics is seen as accompanied by the task to reintegrate the ethical discourse by means of an interdisciplinary exchange and to further especially the dialogue between theological and philosophical ethics. By agreeing on Hans-Richard Re...

  10. Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  11. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a

  12. Ética e política: a psicanálise diante da realidade, dos ideais e das violências contemporâneos Ethics and politics: psychoanalysis in face of contemporary reality, ideals and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Procura-se demonstrar como os discursos a que são expostos os sujeitos do capitalismo avançado indicam um modo de laço que empurra o sujeito violentamente ao gozo, seja sob a forma de consumo e lucro, seja sob a forma de sofrimento. Sua estratégia é propor aos sujeitos uma realidade posta (imposta, que os abstém dos dilemas éticos, o que gera, para além do mal-estar, violências. Ressituar o sujeito e a ética como elementos indissociáveis aponta para uma política de resistência à instrumentalização social do gozo.The article demonstrates how the speach of post-capitalist subjects underpins a type of social bond in which they see themselves immersed in a culture that violently thrusts them toward enjoyment (jouissance in the form of either consumption and profit or suffering. Its strategy relies on proposing the suspension of ethical dilemmas to subjects submitted to the posed (imposed reality. Besides discontents, that results in violence. Resituating both subjects and ethics as indissoluble elements points to a resistance policy to the social instrumentalization of enjoyment.

  13. Beyond Dominance and Competence: A Moral Virtue Theory of Status Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Recognition has grown that moral behavior (e.g., generosity) plays a role in status attainment, yet it remains unclear how, why, and when demonstrating moral characteristics enhances status. Drawing on philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and organizational behavior, I critically review a third route to attaining status: virtue, and propose a moral virtue theory of status attainment to provide a generalized account of the role of morality in status attainment. The moral virtue theory posits that acts of virtue elicit feelings of warmth and admiration (for virtue), and willing deference, toward the virtuous actor. I further consider how the scope and priority of moralities and virtues endorsed by a moral community are bound by culture and social class to affect which moral characteristics enhance status. I end by outlining an agenda for future research into the role of virtue in status attainment.

  14. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  15. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  16. Ethical Components in Radiological Protection Communication: First Feedbacks from Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The presentation started by underlying that moral philosophy relates to deontology, virtues and utilitarianism: deontology defines the way an actor is acting; an actor is judged based on the virtues of his actions and the actions are judged by their consequences (Utilitarianism). The presentation then moves on by talking about ethical history in medicine and focusing the attention on the three basic principles of bio-ethics: Autonomy (deontology), Beneficence or non-maleficence (utilitarianism) and Justice (deontology). The three principles of radiation protection: justification, optimization and limitation were then framed within the ICRP publications 103 and 105 and discussed with reference to the bio-ethics basic of deontology, virtue and utilitarianism. For a practical application of these principles, the lecturer used different examples to demonstrate the difficulties encountered in applying them and the degree of flexibility needed in doing so. Examples were related to: back scattering images (airplane boarding); annual effective dose related to the decision to leave the house; person genetically more radiosensitive (risk of leukaemia) and people tobacco smoking. The scheme to present the examples is the same in three steps: 1. First answers to a question involving moral or ethical elements; 2. Rephrasing the same question with an ethical perspective; 3. Second answers to the rephrased question. Finally the first and second answers are compared and commented. After the discussion around these examples, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ethical principles are enshrined in radiation protection and in medicine; Ethical decisions need to be taken with the help of different schools of moral philosophy and Ethics and radiation protection are dynamic (Now and here versus tomorrow and there)

  17. Comenius’ ethics: from the heart to the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misseri Lucas E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ethical views of the 17th century Czech thinker Jan Amos Komenský, also known as Johann Amos Comenius. Comeniologic studies are focused on different aspects of his contribution to education, theology and philosophy but surprisingly there are only a few studies on his ethical standpoints. Jan Patočka classified Comenius’s work in three periods: prepansophic, pansophic and panorthotic. Here the focus is on the panorthotic works in order to trace the different conceptions of ethics, virtue and other ethical concepts specially the virtue of prudence (prudentia/phronesis. Furthermore, to have a broader perspective, a short analysis of his prepansophic period book The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart is also included in order to contrast the evolution of the concept of prudence and the ethical sphere in his world-view. The methodology is based on conceptual analysis, the contrast of different references to ethics in his late period books. At the same time, this work is an attempt to extract secular elements for understanding his ethics, although the organic link between philosophy, theology and politics is recognized in his thought.

  18. Need for ethics support in healthcare institutions: views of Dutch board members and ethics support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwerse, Linda; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions in order to understand why ethics support is often not used in practice and which factors are relevant in this context. This study had a mixed methods design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Two survey questionnaires, two focus groups and 17 interviews were conducted among board members and ethics support staff in Dutch healthcare institutions. Most respondents see a need for ethics support. This need is related to the complexity of contemporary healthcare, the contribution of ethics support to the core business of the organisation and to the surplus value of paying structural attention to ethical issues. The need for ethics support is, however, not unconditional. Reasons for a lacking need include: aversion of innovations, negative associations with the notion of ethics support service, and organisational factors like resources and setting. There is a conditioned need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions. The promotion of ethics support in healthcare can be fostered by focusing on formats which fit the needs of (practitioners in) healthcare institutions. The emphasis should be on creating a (culture of) dialogue about the complex situations which emerge daily in contemporary healthcare practice.

  19. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  20. Utilitarianism and the evolution of ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Gary

    2008-12-01

    R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering modifications to their codes. From a Harean perspective, a professional society should ask both "Are there kinds of situations that members of this profession will normally encounter which members of other professions and/or the general public will not?" and "What habits of thought and action would it be good for individuals encountering such situations to have?"

  1. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension.

  2. Celebrity and contemporary context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guimarães Simões

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hermeneutic power of a celebrity (seen from the concept of event, seeking to understand what it reveals about the contemporary context. Based on this premise, we attempt to recognize some aspects of contemporary social life that emerge from the trajectory of a specific celebrity: the former soccer player Ronaldo Fenômeno. This analysis brings to light the hermeneutic power of Ronaldo, i.e., how his life story reveals characteristics of contemporary social life. Individualism, machismo, emphasis on a heteronormative ideal, shifts in the construction of romantic relationships, and the overlapping spheres of public and private life, are some important aspects of contemporary society revealed by this analysis.

  3. 亚里士多德伦理学对医德培养的启示%Inspirations from Aristotelian Ethics for Medical Ethics Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莲

    2015-01-01

    探讨了亚里士多德对德性的论述,结合医务人员心理过程的变化分析,对如何处理德性与医学伦理的关系、德性与医学德性的关系以及德性与医学伦理教育的关系进行了讨论,认为当代仍然需要培养医德,而医德的内容、形成过程和培养方式都符合亚里士多德德性伦理学的论述。因此,医德培养并非提出过高的道德要求,而是现实中从规范到行为必然的过程;不能停留在知识传授和了解规范上,而应当引入更多的实践教学、案例教学以及终身教育,在课程安排、课程内容、授课方式和考核方式上都需要进行变革。%The article firstly introduced Aristotelian virtue ethics theory . Secondly , through psychological analysis of medical staffs ,the author discussed on the relation between virtue and medical ethics ,the relation between virtue and medical virtue ,as well as the relation between virtue and medical ethics education .The author argued that medical virtue was still necessary in modern times since its content ,development progress and medical ethics education were accordance with Aristotelian ethics .Therefore ,medical virtue cultivation is not an unachievable moral principle but a process of shifting from principle to activities .The medical ethics education should not be limited to pass on knowledge .In addition , more practice education ,case study and life‐time education should be included in medical virtue cultivation with the reform of curriculum ,course content ,teaching method and examination .

  4. Ethics and technology : some issues ; a booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Garasic, Mirko Daniel; Steinert, Steffen; Knutzen, Sönke; Ladwig, Tina; Dürkop, Axel; Heinemann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Bioethical questions have a crucial role both in people’s personal choices and in the political domain. The aim of this booklet is to introduce you to the main controversies in contemporary bioethics, especially to those concerning the intersection between ethics and technology. At the end of reading the booklet, you will be equipped with the conceptual tools required to understand the main debates in ethics and technology and the most relevant positions in the debate. Hopefully, you will ...

  5. Ethical aspects of hunting tourism in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Prentović Risto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiv...

  6. Contemporary Obstetric Triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Edward Allen; Kaminski, Robert; Simhan, Hygriv; Beigi, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The role of obstetric triage in the care of pregnant women has expanded significantly. Factors driving this change include the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, improved methods of testing for fetal well-being, increasing litigation risk, and changes in resident duty hour guidelines. The contemporary obstetric triage facility must have processes in place to provide a medical screening examination that complies with regulatory statues while considering both the facility's maternal level of care and available resources. This review examines the history of the development of obstetric triage, current considerations in a contemporary obstetric triage paradigm, and future areas for consideration. An example of a contemporary obstetric triage program at an academic medical center is presented. A successful contemporary obstetric triage paradigm is one that addresses the questions of "sick or not sick" and "labor or no labor," for every obstetric patient that presents for care. Failure to do so risks poor patient outcome, poor patient satisfaction, adverse litigation outcome, regulatory scrutiny, and exclusion from federal payment programs. Understanding the role of contemporary obstetric triage in the current health care environment is important for both providers and health care leadership. This study is for obstetricians and gynecologists as well as family physicians. After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to understand the scope of a medical screening examination within the context of contemporary obstetric triage; understand how a facility's level of maternal care influences clinical decision making in a contemporary obstetric triage setting; and understand the considerations necessary for the systematic evaluation of the 2 basic contemporary obstetric questions, "sick or not sick?" and "labor or no labor?"

  7. Critical Reflection on Authentic Leadership and School Leader Development from a Virtue Ethical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Authentic leadership has attracted recent empirical research from a wide range of social science disciplines interested largely in its relationship to human resource management and organisational effectiveness. In contrast, the focus of this study is specifically on the philosophical foundations of authentic leadership and their implications for…

  8. Ethics and classical education: virtue and happiness in the golden mean

    OpenAIRE

    Boto, Carlota [UNESP

    2001-01-01

    O presente estudo debruça-se sobre a interface do problema educativo com a problemática da ética, compreendendo a pedagogia com a arte/ciência voltada para a busca do bem educar/instruir/formar. Para tanto, o texto mobilizará conceitos da concepção ética da Aristóteles; e, na atmosfera mental da Grécia clássica, recorre-se ao termo específico grego e transdisciplinar na origem: paideia. A seguir, este ensaio procura pontuar alguns aspectos da concepção iluminista a propósito do tema, valendo-...

  9. On the use of Internet in promoting social virtues. Case study: Civic Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción NAVAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizen participation is essential for democracies to be viable, sustainable and healthy. But it is necessary to establish the appropriate channels for exercising it; and we can not fail to consider the fact that people live in an increasingly interconnected society, where the mass media are a key social resource and can play an important role in fostering critical thinking and active citizenship (Livingstone, 2004; Buckingham, 2007. We understand that to achieve this, from the field of civic education, digital spaces should be considered as privileged spaces for participation. In this paper we show the initiatives undertaken by the «Civic Parliament» project to provide online teaching materials to the teachers so they can raise in their students certain social virtues. The challenges in this order are diverse, we could highlight two: to promote participatory awareness in students, and to combine the technical, pedagogical and ethical-civic aspects of media use (Gonzálvez, 2012. 

  10. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Panter-Brick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.

  11. The Psychoanalysis of Heroine Alissa on the Path of Virtue

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Kol

    2016-01-01

    André Gide, a writer of the twentieth century, has his way of interpreting the problems of his generation. He differs from other writers because he does not like imitation. In his novel, Strait Is the Gate, Gide criticizes the exaggeration on the path of virtue. By renouncing life, Alissa not only spoils her life but also spoils the lives of those who love her. The narrative appears like this on the surface but we must go down into the depths to clarify things. As it is said so we...

  12. The unrealised ethical potential of the Methodist theology of prevenient grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the unrealised ethical potential of the theology of prevenient grace. It begins with a brief analysis of John Wesley’s rejection of slavery as rooted in his theology of prevenient grace. This is demonstrated in the next section which analyses Wesley’s notion of prevenient grace. This is followed by a constructive proposal for a contemporary theology of prevenient grace and some ethical implications of this theology, for contemporary social and political ethics, are developed.

  13. sCEthics: Embedding Ethical Values in Cognitive Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T. de; Mohabir, A.; Poelm I. van der; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary and future technologies are getting more intelligent and connect easily to one another, potentially leading to conflicts with human ethical values. Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is promising for its focus on ethical values but lacks an explicit and systematical elicitation of

  14. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  15. Virtue and Happiness in Socrates’ Moral Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahboobi Arani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of “what is happiness?” is among the most important questions of Greek philosophy. In those early works of Plato that very likely represent the views of Socrates, Socrates mainly focuses on moral issues and tries to get close to an explanation of the nature of virtue (or virtues, the happy life and the relation between virtue (or virtues and the realization of happiness (Eudemonia. Given the Principle of Eudemonism, in this paper it is tried to examine Socrates’ views on the relation between virtue and happiness and defend what is known as the “Principle of the Sovereignty of Virtue”.

  16. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  17. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  18. Should Professional Ethics Education Incorporate Single-Professional or Interprofessional Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V.; Braun, Eli A.

    2011-01-01

    Since ethical issues in the contemporary delivery of health care involve doctors, nurses, technicians, and members of other health professions, the authors consider whether members of diverse health care occupations might benefit from studying ethics in a single classroom. While interprofessional courses may be better at teaching the ethics of the…

  19. A Spectrum Pedagogy for Christian Ethics: Respecting Difference without Resorting to Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Joel J.; Scovill, Nelia Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a newly developed spectrum pedagogy of Christian ethics that emerged from the authors' experience of teaching a contemporary Christian ethics course for seven years. A spectrum pedagogy is a comprehensive approach to teaching Christian ethics that combines the modeling of key dispositions using specific tools…

  20. Bioethics and conflicting ethical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major problematic issues in contemporary ethical discourse are highlighted in the field of bioethics. The need to incorporate new understandings and foundational shifts in essential criteria because of technological advances in the areas of medicine and human sciences increasingly challenges traditional and accepted notions of ethics. As the possibilities of technical progress increase, more and more pressure is put on traditional understandings of the human person, identity, and value. In the face of ethical relativism and emotivism, which are already widespread in social and political discourse, the immediacy of bioethics as a response to technology and its impact on human lives reinforces the need for ethics to become interdisciplinary, while attempting to provide some coherence to both the questions and the responses that contemporary life generates. In this paper, the author intends to sketch the outlines of some of these problems, and suggest one approach which might allow a certain methodical intelligibility to emerge which takes into account shifts in consciousness and the dependence on historically grounded perspective.

  1. A Proposal for a UK Ethics Council for Animal Policy: The Case for Putting Ethics Back into Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. McCulloch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy is a consistent feature of UK animal health and welfare policy. BSE,~foot and mouth disease, bovine TB and badger culling, large indoor dairies, and wild animals in circuses are examples. Such policy issues are inherently normative; they include a substantial moral dimension. This paper reviews UK animal welfare advisory bodies such as the Animal Health and Welfare Board of England, the Farm Animal Welfare Committee and the Animals in Science Committee. These bodies play a key advisory role, but do not have adequate expertise in ethics to inform the moral dimension of policy. We propose an “Ethics Council for Animal Policy” to inform the UK government on policy that significantly impacts sentient species. We review existing Councils (e.g., the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and The Netherlands Council on Animal Affairs and examine some widely used ethical frameworks (e.g., Banner’s principles and the ethical matrix. The Ethics Council for Animal Policy should be independent from government and members should have substantial expertise in ethics and related disciplines. A pluralistic six-stage ethical framework is proposed: (i Problematisation of the policy issue, (ii utilitarian analysis, (iii animal rights analysis, (iv virtue-based analysis, (v animal welfare ethic analysis, and (vi integrated ethical analysis. The~paper concludes that an Ethics Council for Animal Policy is necessary for just and democratic policy making in all societies that use sentient nonhuman species.

  2. A Proposal for a UK Ethics Council for Animal Policy: The Case for Putting Ethics Back into Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Steven P; Reiss, Michael J

    2018-06-07

    Substantial controversy is a consistent feature of UK animal health and welfare policy. BSE, foot and mouth disease, bovine TB and badger culling, large indoor dairies, and wild animals in circuses are examples. Such policy issues are inherently normative; they include a substantial moral dimension. This paper reviews UK animal welfare advisory bodies such as the Animal Health and Welfare Board of England, the Farm Animal Welfare Council and the Animals in Science Committee. These bodies play a key advisory role, but do not have adequate expertise in ethics to inform the moral dimension of policy. We propose an "Ethics Council for Animal Policy" to inform the UK government on policy that significantly impacts sentient species. We review existing Councils (e.g., the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and The Netherlands Council on Animal Affairs) and examine some widely used ethical frameworks (e.g., Banner's principles and the ethical matrix). The Ethics Council for Animal Policy should be independent from government and members should have substantial expertise in ethics and related disciplines. A pluralistic six-stage ethical framework is proposed: (i) Problematisation of the policy issue, (ii) utilitarian analysis, (iii) animal rights analysis, (iv) virtue-based analysis, (v) animal welfare ethic analysis, and (vi) integrated ethical analysis. The paper concludes that an Ethics Council for Animal Policy is necessary for just and democratic policy making in all societies that use sentient nonhuman species.

  3. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  4. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  5. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  6. Many Worlds, Many Theories, Many Rules: Formulating an Ethical System for the World to Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Onuf

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many ways to speak about the modern world, and many theories setting it apart. I focus on a world facing economic decline and a return to the status-ordering of traditional societies. With republican theory as a backdrop, I show that an updated virtue ethics constitutes an ethical system uniquely suiting any society that is significantly status-ordered.

  7. the Army Ethic-Educating and Equipping the Army Mid-Level Leaders in the CGSOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    course covered the topics of just war theory, virtue ethics, deontological and consequential ethics, and objectivism and moral relativism with the...theory and discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. To wrap up the course, E105 explores and evaluates moral objectivism and relativism in an effort...study on just war, six and eight possible 63 scenarios for E103 and E104 respectively, and one case study for E105 on moral relativism .22 What

  8. Returning friendship to ethics: a Nierzschean perspectiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its prominence in Greek ethical theory, friendship has generally been ignored by modern ethicists; and since most of the recent attempts  to revive it have been Aristotelian in inspiration, the impression of a straight choice between ancient and modern perspectives has actually been re-enforced by contemporary efforts at rehabilitation. In this paper I aim to complicate the debate by adding a third –Nietzschean – perspective, which cannot be subsumed within the ancient/modern dichotomy and which offers a way of connecting friendship and ethics very different from Aristotle’s. For whereas Aristotelianism sees ethics as a search for the good life and character friendship as contributing to thecreation of a shared understanding of the good, Nietzsche sees ethics as an arena of contest between different ways of valuing and “self-overcoming”, and character friendship as a process of challenge by which we push each other further along our own very different paths. The paper compares a Nietzschean way of linking ethics and friendship with the approaches of contemporary neo-Aristotelians, especiallyMacIntyre, and argues that Nietzsche’s pluralism  allows him to escape modern ethical theory’s powerful objections to (neo-Aristotelianism. A Nietzschean approach therefore offers, I conclude, a far more credible way of reconnecting ethics and friendship in our sceptical modern worl

  9. The business of ethics. Hospitals need to focus on managerial ethics as much as clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L J

    1990-01-01

    Business ethics begins with the recognition of the various values and "goods" involved in judgements of what to do. Four key values are individual rights, individual self-interest, the company's best interest, and the public good. Often a company has to choose which of these goals or values should be subordinated to another. Business ethics, then, must clarify priorities among these values and establish priority principles to resolve conflicts. One approach to contemporary business ethics emphasizes personal integrity, focusing on conflicts of interest; another approach stresses social responsibility, focusing on the effect of company policy on groups and individuals in society. In business, most of the attention to conflicts of interest focuses on the conflict between employee self-interest and the firm's interest. Healthcare organizations may need to focus on potential conflicts between the patient's interest and the institution's or physician's interest. Physician referrals and pharmaceutical companies' marketing practices are two areas with potential conflicts. Not-for-profit organizations have been quicker than the business world to acknowledge social responsibility. In many ways, however, the social impact of healthcare policies and decisions has not been as carefully considered as it should be. Institutionalizing deliberation about clinical ethical issues has helped to raise awareness about the ethical dimensions of medical care. It would also be useful to institutionalize attention to business ethics in healthcare.

  10. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  11. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  12. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  13. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  14. Perspectives on contemporary mysticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, N S

    1979-07-01

    Contemporary mysticism is in continuity with religious mysticism of all ages. Mysticism, like all religion, has an ideological and an experiential dimension. Traditional Freudian theory is inadequate for understanding either the ideological or the cognitive aspect, because it does not adequately account for either the cognitive process or the self-conscious "I." Categories of both ego psychology and the social scientific approach to religion illuminate contemporary mysticism in ways unavailable to the traditional Freudian psychoanalytic approach. The epistemological implications of the mystical attitude are considered, in both the religious and the scientific enterprises.

  15. Islamic Philosophy and the Ethics of Belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, Anthony Robert

    In this book the author argues that the Falasifa, the Philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age, are usefully interpreted through the prism of the contemporary, western ethics of belief. He contends that their position amounts to what he calls ‘Moderate Evidentialism’ – that only for the epistemic

  16. Ethics before Equality: Moral Education after Levinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses nihilism as a characteristic of contemporary discourse regarding morality and moral education. Examines this discourse in light of Emmanuel Levinas' account of the primacy of ethics: absolute responsibility in the face of the other, of the asymmetry of relations to each other. (CAJ)

  17. GreCo : Green code of ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga, Ma Ángeles; García-Rodríguez de Guzmán, Ignacio; Calero, Coral; Johann, Timo; Me, Gianantonio; Münzel, Harald; Kindelsberger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Codes of ethics (CoE) are widely adopted in several professional areas, including that of Software Engineering. However, contemporary CoE do not pay sufficient attention to one of the most important trends to have appeared in the last years environmental issues. Aim: The aim of this

  18. Teaching Communication with Ethics-Based Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Argues the importance of presenting ethics and communication as twin concepts in the management communication class. Presents two cases useful in the classroom that address two contemporary issues (harassment in the workplace and the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women) that have implications for business professionals and allow students to…

  19. Learning theological ethics through the Heidelberg Catechism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HC) in order to examine a disposing pattern of sensibility and affection as well as four lessons for a contemporary Protestant theological ethic. It also suggests a revision of the catechism's basic theology in light of the current ecological crisis ...

  20. Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Educational Leadership" is a major research book on contemporary leadership challenges for educational leaders. In this groundbreaking new work, educational leaders in schools, including teachers, are provided with ways of analysing and resolving common but complex leadership challenges. Ethical tensions inherent in these challenges are…

  1. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  2. Communication, Ethics, and Relativism: An Interpersonal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    This paper proposes that there is available in contemporary philosophy a foundation for an ethic of communication that avoids the naive belief in absolutes and yet provides a coherent, defensible, and practical set of standards to guide communication choices. The philosophers and philosophies identified are Hans-Georg Gadamer and his discussion of…

  3. The Ethics of Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Correia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative theories of argumentation tend to assume that logical and dialectical rules suffice to ensure the rationality of argumentative discourse. Yet, in everyday debates people use arguments that seem valid in light of such rules but nonetheless biased and tendentious. This article seeks to show that the rationality of argumentation can only be fully promoted if we take into account its ethical dimension. To substantiate this claim, I review some of the empirical evidence indicating that people’s inferential reasoning is systematically affected by a variety of biases and heuristics. Insofar as these cognitive illusions are typically unintentional, it appears that arguers may be biased despite their well-intended efforts to follow the rules of critical argumentation. Nevertheless, I argue that people remain responsible for the rationality of their arguments, given that there are a number of measures that they can (and ought to take to avoid such distortions. I highlight the importance of argumentational virtues and critical thinking to rational debates, and describe a set of indirect strategies of “argumentative self-control”.

  4. Business Ethics, Strategy and Organizational Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2011-01-01

    With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept...... of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here...

  5. Mass Extinction in Phanerozoic Eon and Its Ethic Enlightment on Contemporary Climate Disorder%显生宙时期生物大灭绝及其对当代气候失律的伦理启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽苹; 魏艾

    2016-01-01

    Many times of mass extinction occurred in Phanerozoic eon and when exploring the reasons, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial causes can be found. The terrestrial causes include sea level fluctuation, deterioration of the marine environment, food chain disruption, massive volcanic eruptions, climate cataclysm and changes in earth magnetic field while extraterrestrial causes involve asteroid collisions with earth, etc.. No matter what the cause is, climate changes undeniably affect the living environment on the earth. The reason that creatures of the nature can adapt to climate changes and survive and multiply on the earth is the evolution rules of the natural environment. Milankovich, a former Yugoslavia scholar, proposed that it was the minute quasi⁃periodic changes of the three elements of the earth orbit (eclipticinclination, precession and eccentricity ratio) that caused the worldwide seasonal changes in the amount of solar radiation, eventually leading to global climate changes. Nowadays, the natural change rule is being artificially broken for modern industrialization and urbanization resulting in a severe climate disorder. The urgency of the climate problem requires that a deep ethical reflection on the global environmental change be made imminently. To reflect on the climate disorder from the ethics perspective requires clarification of two things. For one thing, when faced with climate changes, human should give first priority to the long term development and the common interests of mankind rather than individual rights, following the principle that“benevolence”comes before“legitimacy”and“utility”takes precedence over“rights”;for another, human should follow the law of“limits of survival”. Human should be aware of the importance of human destiny community, and meanwhile, personal preferences and lifestyles should be restricted or even“re⁃moralized”to make people aware of the situation and willing to life a moderate life.%显

  6. When Being Virtuous Makes Sense: Bourgeois Ethics in the Golden Age vs. Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Yalç intas

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHave you ever thought of virtues? Temperance, Courage, Justice, Hope, and Love, just to name a few. And, have you ever thought that they could have anything to do with economics? Economists have long ago separated the moral philosophy (ethics) and the science of choice (economics) from

  7. The Egoistic Teacher: Educational Implications of Spinoza's Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbeck, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I suggest that Spinoza's understanding of virtue and collective flourishing, rooted in his psychological and ethical egoism, offers a fresh perspective on the question of egoism in education. To this end, I suggest an understanding of the teacher as egoist, where the self-seeking of the teacher is conditioned by--and runs parallel…

  8. The Contemporary Significance of the Holocaust for Australian Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Light, Edwina; Lipworth, Wendy; Walter, Garry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we survey briefly the components of the Holocaust directly relevant to the psychiatric profession and identify the main themes of relevance to contemporary psychiatry. The ‘euthanasia’ program; the persecution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) citizens; and the complex relationship between the psychiatric profession and Nazi state are the main themes to emerge from this survey. We then compare this period with key themes in the history of Australian psychiatry and link these themes to some of the contemporary ethical challenges the profession faces.

  9. Evaluation of Ethical Attitude Approaches in Midwives and their Relationship with their Demographic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afhami, Narges; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Bahadoran, Parvin; Taleghani-Esfahani, HamidReza

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ethical approach is one of the paramount aspects of life. The position of this approach in medical occupations has always been noticed. This study was carried out to analyze the types of ethical approaches in midwives and their relationship with their demographic features. Materials and Methods: The current descriptive-correlation and cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2014 using quota random sampling technique. The participants consisted of 189 midwives employed in Isfahan, Iran. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The midwives' attitudes were examined in the four fields of virtue ethics, deontologism, utilitarianism, and religious ethics. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software (p ethics with the mean value of 64.36 out of 100. A positive significant relationship was found between deontologism and education level (F = 8.74; p = 0.004), and total ethical approach and workplace (F = 2.60; p = 0.053). There was a reverse significant relationship between age and work experience and virtue ethics (r = −0.15; p = 0.035 and r = −0.20; p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions: The existing high percentage of religious ethics shows the religious tendency of the participants. The determination of ethical approach among midwives as one of the important medical groups and creation and improvement of the most appropriate attitude among them based on the present regulations and requirements in society are principles that we should attempt to achieve.

  10. Contemporary theories of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to analyze several contemporary theories of democracy, and secondly, to propose a theoretical framework for further investigations based on analyzed theories. The following four theories will be analyzed: pluralism, social choice theory, deliberative democracy and participatory democracy.

  11. Contemporary Famine Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    to the newer economic approaches based on Amartya Sen. While all approaches contribute with important insights on famine dynamics, they also struggle to capture the political dimension of contemporary famines. The Brief develops a political approach capable of addressing this important but messy political...

  12. Heutiges Russisch (Contemporary Russian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying information on actual contemporary Russian usage, this article excerpts sections on noun usage and variations of the genitive ending in the masculine singular from "Stilistik der russischen Sprache" (Russian Language Style) by D. Rosental and M. Telenkowa. (Text is in German.) (FB)

  13. Diet, embodiment, and virtue in the mechanical philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin E H

    2012-06-01

    This paper considers the relationship between diet, embodiment, nature and virtue in several seventeenth-century natural philosophers, all of whom sought to overcome or to radically reform inherited ideas about the self as a hylomorphic compound of form and matter, but who nonetheless were not entirely ready to discard the notion that the self is intimately united with the body. One implication of this intimate union, for them, is that what one does with the body, including what one puts into it, is directly relevant to the supreme end of achieving a virtuous life. I thus consider food--its preparation and its consumption--as a link between natural and moral philosophy in the early modern period, showing in particular the parallels between the search for the diet that is 'natural to man', on the one hand, and the project of establishing rules of virtue on the other. Key to discerning these parallels, I argue, is an understanding of early modern ideas about diet and eating as rooted in the Stoic notion of oikeiôsis, which may be translated as 'assimilation' or 'appropriation', and which, as recent work by Lisa Shapiro has shown, played an important role in early modern ideas about a bodily contribution to the human good. The most general thesis is that dietary questions were far more important in early modern philosophy than has yet been recognized: nearly every prominent natural philosopher was preoccupied with them. A narrower thesis is that this parallelism between natural philosophy and moral philosophy is reflected in the conception of cooking as both a fundamental physiological process ('coction') as well as the most basic form of social existence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Enhancement Using ICT and Its Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Spyros; Stamatellos, Giannis; Glinou, Nektaria

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of digital tools aiming at the cognitive enhancement of students and adults, so that they can achieve better performance and professional or academic success, has increased in recent years. This paper focuses on ICT tools such as computer games, programming languages and educational software as means for cognitive enhancement and attempts to highlight their contributions. Issues of design and the limitations of digital tools are discussed. In the final section, the ethical implications of using educational ICT tools for cognitive enhancement from a virtue ethics perspective are presented.

  15. Ethics, Justice and the Sale of Kidneys for Transplantation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slabbert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Living kidney donor transplantations are complex; add to that financial compensation to the donor and one enters an ethical maze. Debates on whether the buying and selling of kidneys should be allowed are mainly between utilitarians, deontologists and virtue ethicists as legal transplants are more common in the Western world. The pros and cons of each theory in relation to the sale of human organs are analysed, after which the foundational principles for all bio-ethical judgments; beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice are also scrutinised in seeking to justify the sale of human kidneys for transplantation purposes in a country with a human rights culture.

  16. Ethical decision making in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M D

    1989-12-01

    Contemporary nursing ethics education focuses on the use of an analytical model of ethical decision making for both its process and its content. Perhaps this is the case because it bears some resemblance to the nursing process, which is taught in a similar fashion. Thus, a deductivist method of ethical decision making fits within the same general schema of the hypotheticodeductive method of decision making that is taught for nursing diagnosis. Ethics requires that nurses respect persons, inform patients and secure their consent, not inflict harm, preserve the patient's quality of life, prevent harm and remove harmful conditions, do good for patients, and minimize risk to themselves. These are among the norms of obligation that guide ethical analysis and judgment in nursing practice and are the substance of the analytical model of ethical decision making. Nursing's ethics has established high ideals and strong demands for nurses. These are demands which nurses have met and ideals which have often been realized. Whatever the strength of our science, nursing is an inherently moral endeavor and is only as strong as its commitment to its ethical obligations and values. Between the grinding edges of the forces that affect it, nursing must establish its priorities among the aspects of its environment that it attempts to control. Ethics must be chief among those priorities.

  17. Developing an Australian code of construction ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Francis McCarthy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the increasing need to consider the role of ethics in construction. The industry, historically, has been challenged by allegations of a serious shortfall in ethical standards. Only limited attempts to date in Australia have been made to address that concern. Any ethical analysis should consider the definition of ethics and its historical development. This paper considers major historical developments in ethical thinking as well as contemporary thinking on ethics for professional sub-sets. A code could be developed specific to construction. Current methods of addressing ethics in construction and in other industries are also reviewed. This paper argues that developing a code of ethics, supported by other measures is the way forward. The author’s aim is to promote further discussion and promote the drafting of a code. This paper includes a summary of other ethical codes that may provide a starting point. The time for reform is upon us, and there is an urgent need for an independent body to take the lead, for fear of floundering and having only found ‘another debating topic’ (Uff 2006.

  18. Marital Well-Being and Religiousness as Mediated by Relational Virtue and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; Acock, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated religiousness and couple well-being as mediated by relational virtue and equality. Relational spiritual framework theory posits that religiousness is associated with couple well-being through relational virtues (e.g., forgiveness, commitment, and sacrifice). Theories of relational inequality postulate that religion…

  19. The Politics of Virtue: A New Compact for Leadership in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The politics of division arises from applying formal organizational theories of governance, management, and leadership to schools. Rational-choice theory and cultural pluralism lack the unifying power of civic virtue. Creating a politics of virtue requires that we renew commitments to our nation's democratic legacy. Principals must practice…

  20. Cultivating Virtue in Teaching: The Role of the Personal, the Professional, and the Situational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Aaron S.

    2018-01-01

    tIt has been argued that virtuous teaching dispositions are essential to high-quality teaching. Discourse around dispositions, however, is still murky because there are contradictions in the field in regard to the issue of virtue. What is the source of teacher virtue, and how might it be cultivated? This essay explores evidence and implications…