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Sample records for contemporary virtue ethics

  1. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  2. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  3. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  4. Virtue ethics and social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lunt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Virtue ethics has emerged as an alternative to deontological and utilitarian theory in recent moral philosophy. The basic notion of virtue ethics is to reassert the importance of virtuous character in ethical judgement in contrast to the emphasis on principles and consequences. Since questions of virtue have been largely neglected in modern moral theory, there has been a return to Aristotle’s account of virtue as character. This in turn has been questioned as the basis of virtue ethics and t...

  5. The virtues in their place: virtue ethics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, L A

    2000-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of a revival of interest in the virtues. A number of contemporary moral philosophers have defended a virtue-based approach to ethics. But does this renewal of interest in the virtues have much to contribute to medical ethics and medical practice? This paper critically discusses this question. It considers and rejects a number of important arguments that purport to establish the significance of the virtues for medical practice. Against these arguments, the paper seeks to show that while the virtues have a genuine role to play in medical ethics, it is a limited role, one that is subordinate to the role that other moral concepts such as rules and principles play.

  6. Computer Ethics and Neoplatonic Virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...... attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics......n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...

  7. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Ethical virtues in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane's defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity.

  9. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  10. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  11. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  12. 美德伦理及其在当代的复兴%Virtue Ethics and its Revival in Contemporary Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春香; 杨瑞萍

    2012-01-01

    在西方,美德伦理指的是亚里士多德的以人为中心的伦理学说,在中国则指的是儒家所推崇的心性之学。启蒙运动形成的个人主义已日渐弥漫开来,形形色色的具体的个人主义观念导致了道德价值多元化,情感主义造成了当今道德语言的危机,规范伦理学局限性的日益凸显,美德伦理学逐渐被人们所关注。美德伦理学的复兴将会缓解当今时代的道德危机,关键在于找到传承美德伦理的共同体,发扬模范人物的带头作用,并借助于法律的规约,才能复兴美德伦理。%It is widely believed that virtue ethics refers to the Aristotle' s ethics which is the theory of Peo- ple -centered in the western world, while it refers to the philosophy of mind and Nature advocated by Confucianism in China. The individualism resulting from the Enlightenment has spread out, different kinds of specific ideas of individualism have brought about the diversity of moral values, and emotionalism has caused the contemporary crisis of moral language. Due to the limitation of the normative ethics, virtue ethics has gradually attracted people' s attention. The revival of virtue ethics will alleviate the contempo- rary moral crisis, the key lies in finding out the community of transmitting the virtue ethics. Only by pro- moting the leading role of role models, and by means of regulation and restraint of laws, can we revive the virtue ethics.

  13. Normative Virtue Theory in Theological Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Austin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What place is there for virtue theory in theological ethics? Many question the normative significance of virtue theory in theological ethics today, leaving it to rule-based ethics to provide action-guidance. There are three key objections to the normativity of virtue theory: that virtue theory is about agents rather than actions, that virtue theory has nothing to say directly about the morality of actions, and that the virtues are too vague to be of normative or action-guiding significance. This essay, drawing on Thomas Aquinas’s account of virtue, challenges these perceptions and argues for a genuinely normative, action-guiding virtue theory within theological ethics. Theological ethics, in turn, can contribute to virtue theory, especially by its emphasis on the ecstatic nature of mature moral virtue, and through its reflection on the virtue of spiritual discernment.

  14. Virtue ethics and its importance in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Milovan; Riznić, Dejan; Voza, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes virtue ethics which, together with deontology and utilitarianism, represents one of the three traditions of normative ethics frequently applied to the area of business ethics. The main part of this paper considers various aspects of virtue ethics - the oldest ethical tradition - both from the theoretical and empirical standpoint. Virtue ethics, which focuses on character (moral) traits of an individual, is becoming an increasingly important social issue in modern society d...

  15. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  17. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.

  18. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  19. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowden, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

  1. Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowden, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Because rural populations are at risk not only for clinically disparate care but also ethically disparate care, there is a need to enhance scholarship, research, and teaching about rural health care ethics. In this paper an argument for the applicability of a virtue ethics framework for professionals in rural healthcare is outlined. The argument…

  2. Virtue Ethics in School Counseling: A Framework for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…

  3. Virtue and the scientist: using virtue ethics to examine science's ethical and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiin-Yu

    2015-02-01

    As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronêsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronêsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronêsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronêsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses.

  4. How virtue ethics informs medical professionalism.

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    McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.

  5. From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation - Putting Virtues into Business Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the theory of virtue ethics in its application in the business arena. In contrast to other ethics approaches, virtue theory emphasises the virtues and moral characters of the individual as moral agent. As such, the theory of virtue ethics provides a useful perspective in making sense of various business ethics issues through placing an emphasis on the moral character of the individuals, and its transformational influences in driving ...

  6. Virtues of the self : ethics and the critique of feminist identity politics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is situated at the intersection of feminist political theory, identity politics and moral philosophy. Its broader aim is to show the positive consequences of returning the self and its inner activity to the ethical domain for feminist identity politics. To this end, it brings feminist identity politics into dialogue with contemporary developments in virtue ethics, in particular Christine Swanton’s pluralistic virtue ethics. As its starting point, it takes issue with...

  7. Ombuds’ corner: Virtue ethics and its applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics provides managers and business leaders with an opportunity to ask themselves what kind of people they become through their actions and how their decisions impact the lives of others. It gives them a chance to consider what kind of business environments and cultures they should build, how business goals, policies and procedures foster positive or negative learning in their employees and what kind of societies they contribute to developing through their operations and the products and services they offer.” (1)   During our work at CERN or in our institutes, we do not only produce deliverables and services, but we also develop abilities and competencies that shape our personalities. Not only do we transform the image of the Laboratory and the vision that people have about the physical world, but we also transform ourselves. In the ancient Greek philosophy, the key to existence relied on the search for excellence, which was intimately mixed with virtue ethics i...

  8. Virtue ethics and nursing: on what grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Within the nursing ethics literature, there has for some time now been a focus on the role and importance of character for nursing. An overarching rationale for this is the need to examine the sort of person one must be if one is to nurse well or be a good nurse. How one should be to live well or live a/the good life and to nurse well or be a good nurse seems to necessitate a focus on an agent's character as well as actions because character is (for the most part) expressed in action (e.g. see Laird). This paper will give an overview of the reasons for the role and importance of character in nursing practice and explain its relation to nursing's frequent use of virtue ethics in order to recommend caution. While the paper agrees that the role of character is important in nursing caution is needed in both how much moral and thus normative, emphasis is being placed on the psychology of character and on the drift to virtue ethics. The psychological which may be explanatory needs to be linked with the normative, and a justification for the normative is needed. A justification as virtue ethics is contested, and nursing practice does not need to take on this explanatory and justificatory burden. A tentative proposal raised but not discussed in depth in this paper is that when an ultimate explanation or explanatory ground is needed, nursing practice leads quite naturally to a form of consequentialism as well as a realist metaethic. On this account, there are two levels of moral thinking, and nursing practice entails the virtues at one level and leads quite naturally to moral thinking at another more critical level of the criterion of what makes something right and good independently of character. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Virtue ethics in Aristotle’s Nicomachean ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Küçükuysal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available People have always been in pursuit of moral values and right conduct since the beginning of the mankind. However, leading an honest and earnest life is not an easy task. Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers in history, argues that virtue is a habit which can be learned and gained through practice. This study is a modest attempt to examine Aristotelian theory of virtue ethics in his landmark work of Nicomachean Ethics and aims to push our thinking about being virtuous and leading righteous way of life.

  10. Understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that doctors' ethical challenges can be usefully conceptualised as role virtue conflicts. The hospital environment requires doctors to be simultaneously good doctors, good team members, good learners and good employees. I articulate a possible set of role virtues for each of these four roles, as a basis for a virtue ethics approach to analysing doctors' ethical challenges. Using one junior doctor's story, I argue that understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts enables recognition of important moral considerations that are overlooked by other approaches to ethical analysis.

  11. Virtue ethics and an ethics of care: complementary or in conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.

  12. A return to virtue ethics: Virtue ethics, cognitive science and character education

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    Nico J. Gr�num

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morality in church and society is a burning issue. Church leaders know that the challenges are both formidable and urgent, yet finding solutions is easier said than done. The question this article asks is how can we educate for character? In the past, deontology or rule ethics reigned supreme, virtue ethics, however, gradually made a comeback. Currently virtue ethics is an important part of character education in the United States of America, especially with schools affiliated with churches. Recent insights provided by researchers focusing on cognitive science (working from the vantage point of cognitive and social psychology have managed to prove the legitimacy of virtue ethics but remind us that virtues must not be drilled into children; moral deliberation and imagination must be fostered in order to cultivate individuals with moral character that will be able to reflect on their own received tradition. I provide an example of such a method of education when I explain Integrative Ethical Education as formulated by Darcia Narvaez.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article confirms the validity of virtue ethics but calls for a change in the standard method of character education that exclusively emphasises knowledge of the Bible and strict obedience to the morals that the local community derives from the Bible, to an approach that also encourages teachers to help foster independent thinkers neither lacking in character nor the ability to reflect critically on their own tradition. I do believe that such a change is possible as was recently shown by the implementation of Darcia Narvaez�s Integrative Ethical Education in the United States of America.

  13. From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation - Putting Virtues into Business Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the theory of virtue ethics in its application in the business arena. In contrast to other ethics approaches, virtue theory emphasises the virtues and moral characters of the individual as moral agent. As such, the theory of virtue ethics provides a useful perspective in making sense of various business ethics issues through placing an emphasis on the moral character of the individuals, and its transformational influences in driving ethical business conduct. Drawing from van Marrewijk's (2003 theory of agency and communion in understanding the corporate sustainability value systems, as well as Moore's (2002, 2005 & 2008 conceptualisation of Alasdair MacIntyre's philosophical approach to ethics, the paper presents a theoretical framework that seeks to explain how individuals, as moral agents, can serve to promote virtuous business conduct and help foster a moral and ethical climate in the organisation as well as society at large.

  14. Contemporary philosophical controversy on the nature of early Confucian ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Silius, Vytis

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation deals with the controversy between two contemporary Western philosophical interpretations of early Confucian ethics: Confucian virtue ethics and Confucian role ethics. The dissertation not only discusses the different presentations of what constitutes the core characteristics of early Confucian ethics, but also critically reconstructs and analysis the changing Western reception of early Confucian ethics. The two interpretations are compared in order to critically assess the o...

  15. Practical virtue ethics: healthcare whistleblowing and portable digital technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsin, S; Faunce, T; Oakley, J

    2005-10-01

    Medical school curricula and postgraduate education programmes expend considerable resources teaching medical ethics. Simultaneously, whistleblowers' agitation continues, at great personal cost, to prompt major intrainstitutional and public inquiries that reveal problems with the application of medical ethics at particular clinical "coalfaces". Virtue ethics, emphasising techniques promoting an agent's character and instructing their conscience, has become a significant mode of discourse in modern medical ethics. Healthcare whistleblowers, whose complaints are reasonable, made in good faith, in the public interest, and not vexatious, we argue, are practising those obligations of professional conscience foundational to virtue based medical ethics. Yet, little extant virtue ethics scholarship seriously considers the theoretical foundations of healthcare whistleblowing. The authors examine whether healthcare whistleblowing should be considered central to any medical ethics emphasising professional virtues and conscience. They consider possible causes for the paucity of professional or academic interest in this area and examine the counterinfluence of a continuing historical tradition of guild mentality professionalism that routinely places relationships with colleagues ahead of patient safety.Finally, it is proposed that a virtue based ethos of medical professionalism, exhibiting transparency and sincerity with regard to achieving uniform quality and safety of health care, may be facilitated by introducing a technological imperative using portable computing devices. Their use by trainees, focused on ethical competence, provides the practical face of virtue ethics in medical education and practice. Indeed, it assists in transforming the professional conscience of whistleblowing into a practical, virtue based culture of self reporting and personal development.

  16. The Virtues of National Ethics Committees.

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    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence. It has no authority merely by virtue of the position it holds. Rather, it has established relational authority based on its reputation. Unlike the U.S. bioethics commission, it is not part of executive government, nor is it constituted to contribute to the legislative branch, as does the French Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique. Its nongovernmental status notwithstanding, the Nuffield Council's work affects the U.K. government and the British public, and the Council has achieved international recognition for its reports. I was the chairperson from 2012 to 2017 and draw on my experience in this piece to consider three key audiences: governments, publics, and the international community. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  17. Virtue ethics--an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-03-01

    While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism.

  18. Virtue Ethics, Care Ethics, and "The Good Life of Teaching"

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    Silverman, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," Chris Higgins (2011) reminds people that "self-interest and altruism, personal freedom and social roles, and practical wisdom and personhood" have been ancient philosophical topics that remain vitally important in the practice of contemporary teaching and learning. One of the most…

  19. Virtue Ethics, Care Ethics, and "The Good Life of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa

    2012-01-01

    In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," Chris Higgins (2011) reminds people that "self-interest and altruism, personal freedom and social roles, and practical wisdom and personhood" have been ancient philosophical topics that remain vitally important in the practice of contemporary teaching and learning. One of the most…

  20. The Conception of Virtue in the Philosophy of Islamic Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Demirkol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ethics Theories which is based on the self have been developed by Muslim Philosophiers who based on the inherited ethics philisophy literature of Antic Period Greek Philosophiers. The most important feature that separates philosophical ethics perspective from teologic or mystical ethics perspectives is the self theory. At the same time this feature causes philosophical ethi cs to have universal character. Philosophical ethics theory aims at universal good and virtue. It is based on conditions and behaviors that have become skills and without change in a short time. Despite the effect of environmental factors, habits appear on a large scale based on people's temperament and they form moral behaviors' foundation. Habit is a general concept that express both virtue and non - virtue. because ideal of the ethics is virtue, we are going to talk about virtue in this communique. There a re three sources of habits in the self. Both lust power and wrath power are animal incitement powers. And the third one is mind that forms people's essence. The power of lust enables people to attract the things which they need while the power of wrath ena bles people to get rid of the things which they think think are harmful. Mind enables using of these powers in balance, therefore it is a manager and controller of them. The virtue of chastity arises from the balanced move of the lust power and the virtue of bravery originates from the balanced move of the power of wrath. The independent virtue of mind is wisdom. It is thought - ptovoking that the mind is responsible moderation and control of instigation powers. If the mind is balanced, it is a source of wisd om virtue. If the mind isn't balanced, it is a source of non - virtue. The virtue of justice appears when, based on the powers, the basic virtues which are formed from chastity, bravery and wisdom are in complete balance. In this case it is understood that j ustice a combination of virtues in one respect and

  1. Euthanasia, virtue ethics and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Liezl

    2002-02-01

    Following the recent revival of virtue ethics, a number of ethicists have discussed the moral problems surrounding euthanasia by drawing on concepts such as compassion, benevolence, death with dignity, mercy, and by inquiring whether euthanasia is compatible with human flourishing. Most of these writers assert, or simply assume, that their arguments concerning the morality of euthanasia also support their views with regard to legislation. I argue, against these writers, that legislation cannot and should not be based on our moral and religious beliefs concerning whether euthanasia allows a person to die a good death. I then outline an Aristotelian approach to the role of law and government in a good society, according to which the task of the legislator is not to ensure that people actually act virtuously, but is instead to make it possible for them to choose to live (and die) well by ensuring that they have access to the goods that are necessary for flourishing. In the second half of the paper I apply this approach to the question of whether voluntary active euthanasia should be legalised by asking (1) whether euthanasia always deprives people of the necessary conditions for flourishing, and (2) whether the option to request euthanasia is ever necessary for flourishing.

  2. Towards a strong virtue ethics for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alan E

    2006-07-01

    Illness creates a range of negative emotions in patients including anxiety, fear, powerlessness, and vulnerability. There is much debate on the 'therapeutic' or 'helping' nurse-patient relationship. However, despite the current agenda regarding patient-centred care, the literature concerning the development of good interpersonal responses and the view that a satisfactory nursing ethics should focus on persons and character traits rather than actions, nursing ethics is dominated by the traditional obligation, act-centred theories such as consequentialism and deontology. I critically examine these theories and the role of duty-based notions in both general ethics and nursing practice. Because of well-established flaws, I conclude that obligation-based moral theories are incomplete and inadequate for nursing practice. I examine the work of Hursthouse on virtue ethics' action guidance and the v-rules. I argue that the moral virtues and a strong (action-guiding) version of virtue ethics provide a plausible and viable alternative for nursing practice. I develop an account of a virtue-based helping relationship and a virtue-based approach to nursing. The latter is characterized by three features: (1) exercising the moral virtues such as compassion; (2) using judgement; and (3) using moral wisdom, understood to include at least moral perception, moral sensitivity, and moral imagination. Merits and problems of the virtue-based approach are examined. I relate the work of MacIntyre to nursing and I conceive nursing as a practice: nurses who exercise the virtues and seek the internal goods help to sustain the practice of nursing and thus prevent the marginalization of the virtues. The strong practice-based version of virtue ethics proposed is context-dependent, particularist, and relational. Several areas for future philosophical inquiry and empirical nursing research are suggested to develop this account yet further.

  3. Getting It Right in Ethical Experience: John McDowell and Virtue Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    Most forms of virtue ethics are characterized by two attractive features. The first is that proponents of virtue ethics acknowledge the need to describe how moral agents acquire or develop the traits and abilities necessary to become morally able agents. The second attractive feature of most forms...... of virtue ethics is that they are forms of moral realism. The two features come together in the attempt to describe virtue as a personal ability to distinguish morally good reasons for action. It follows from the general picture of virtue ethics presented here that we cannot evaluate ethical judgment...... independently of the viewpoint of the ideal of a virtuous person. We will examine how this ideal unfolds in the realistic form of virtue ethics advanced by John McDowell. McDowell offers a compelling description of virtue as a natural ability grounded in human nature, while at the same time insisting that we...

  4. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artz, J.M. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  5. Practising virtue: a challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie

    2005-11-01

    A virtue centred approach to ethics has been criticized for being vague owing to the nature of its central concept, the paradigm person. From the perspective of the practitioner the most damaging charge is that virtue ethics fails to be action guiding and, in addition to this, it does not offer any means of act appraisal. These criticisms leave virtue ethics in a weak position vis-à-vis traditional approaches to ethics. The criticism is, however, challenged by Hursthouse in her analysis of the accounts of right action offered by deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics. It is possible to defend the action guiding nature of virtue ethics: there are virtue rules and exemplars to guide action. Insights from Aristotle's practical approach to ethics are considered alongside Hursthouse's analysis and it is suggested that virtue ethics is also capable of facilitating action appraisal. It is at the same time acknowledged that approaches to virtue ethics vary widely and that the challenges offered here would be rejected by those who embrace a radical replacement virtue approach.

  6. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  7. A Plea for Virtue in Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Dominic A.; Baum-Baicker, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article represents comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (EJ945176). The current authors suggest that Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) presumed that the only ethical theories available for grounding decision-making models are of the…

  8. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, P

    2003-10-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine.

  9. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  10. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  11. The good engineer: giving virtue its due in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This "preventive ethics" project has been accomplished primarily by means of the promulgation of negative rules. However, some aspects of engineering professionalism, such as (1) sensitivity to risk (2) awareness of the social context of technology, (3) respect for nature, and (4) commitment to the public good, cannot be adequately accounted for in terms of rules, certainly not negative rules. Virtue ethics is a more appropriate vehicle for expressing these aspects of engineering professionalism. Some of the unique features of virtue ethics are the greater place it gives for discretion and judgment and also for inner motivation and commitment. Four of the many professional virtues that are important for engineers correspond to the four aspects of engineering professionalism listed above. Finally, the importance of the humanities and social sciences in promoting these virtues suggests that these disciplines are crucial in the professional education of engineers.

  12. Virtue ethics and public health: a practice-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2004-01-01

    Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical framework for public health may promote the identity and function of public health, address some of the shortcomings of utilitarianism, and help to combat the threat that public health faces through lack of political will in many parts of the world. In this paper I argue that Alasdair MacIntyre's account of practices and virtues can make a valuable contribution to public health ethics. The first part of the paper argues that public health may properly be described as the type of practice that provides an arena for the exercise of virtues. This is followed by an analysis of the three virtues of honesty, courage and justice in public health practice. Using virtue theory captures morally important elements of public health and helps to maintain awareness of significant moral values in the practice of public health. Such awareness is crucial in maintaining and defending the integrity of public health.

  13.  Getting It Right in Ethical Experience: John McDowell and Virtue Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    Most forms of virtue ethics are characterized by two attractive features. The first is that proponents of virtue ethics acknowledge the need to describe how moral agents acquire or develop the traits and abilities necessary to become morally able agents. The second attractive feature of most forms...... cannot understand the judgment resulting from virtue without drawing on that very perspective. However, McDowell's focus on the passive taking in of reasons in ethical experience and his idea of the silencing of wrong reasons lead us to three related problems. The first is that he cannot account...

  14. Practices, Virtue Ethics, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Music education is generally equated with the act of teaching music. In "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," the remarkable book that orients the essays in this issue of "Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education," Chris Higgins argues, among other things, that the view of teaching as a helping profession--one…

  15. Ethics without Virtue: Moral Education in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends and strategies in reforming moral education in higher education are traced and critiqued, including such approaches as values clarification, Kohlberg's moral development theory, and applied ethics. Traditional moral education is supported as the means to serving students best. (MSE)

  16. The Virtues of Scientific Practice: MacIntyre, Virtue Ethics, and the Historiography of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J; Stapleford, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    “Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself.

  17. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arries, E

    2005-08-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  18. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arries

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  19. From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Vorster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In chapter four of his book, The unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory argues that ethical thinking since the 1500’s experienced a major shift in emphasis from the teleological concept of a ‘substantive morality of the good’ to liberalism’s ‘formal morality of rights’. He attributes it to the religious upheavals and ‘sociopolitical disruptions’ during the Reformation era. This article probes three elements of Gregory’s argument. Firstly, the article offers a critical assessment of Gregory’s depiction of the Reformation’s stance towards reason. It pays particular attention to the Reformation’s understanding of the effects of sin on the human being’s image of God, reason and the possibility for a shared social ethics. Secondly, this study scrutinises Gregory’s argument that the Reformation created an individualist notion of selfhood in contrast to the Roman Catholic communal notion of selfhood and thereby paved the way for modernism. Lastly, the discussion probes into Gregory’s claim that the Reformation’s ethical paradigm diverged radically from the Latin Christendom paradigm and that this contributed to the subjectivisation of ethics, by replacing a virtue ethics with a rights ethics.

  20. Professional virtue and professional self-awareness: a case study in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Preston

    2011-03-01

    This paper articulates an Aristotelian theory of professional virtue and provides an application of that theory to the subject of engineering ethics. The leading idea is that Aristotle's analysis of the definitive function of human beings, and of the virtues humans require to fulfill that function, can serve as a model for an analysis of the definitive function or social role of a profession and thus of the virtues professionals must exhibit to fulfill that role. Special attention is given to a virtue of professional self-awareness, an analogue to Aristotle's phronesis or practical wisdom. In the course of laying out my account I argue that the virtuous professional is the successful professional, just as the virtuous life is the happy life for Aristotle. I close by suggesting that a virtue ethics approach toward professional ethics can enrich the pedagogy of professional ethics courses and help foster a sense of pride and responsibility in young professionals.

  1. A virtue ethics guide to best practices for community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are strengths of character that contribute to a life of flourishing or well-being for individuals and communities. This article provides an overview of virtue ethics theory, identifies common ethical problems in CBPR, and discusses how professional virtues can be used to guide ethical research practice. The virtues of compassion, courage, honesty, humility, justice, and practical reasoning are defined and applied to ethical practice in the development, implementation, and dissemination of CBPR. Best practices for CBPR that consider the well-being of communities are identified. The virtues of compassion and humility foster inclusiveness and integration of community perspectives in research collaboration. Courage requires researchers to step out of the research safety-net to listen to community member voices and wisdom and share power in research decisions. Honesty requires researchers to communicate realistic expectations for research outcomes, share all findings with the community, and consider community perspectives in research dissemination. Systematic involvement of the community in all steps of the research process represents the virtue of practical reasoning. From a justice perspective, CBPR aims to restore communities rather than take from them.

  2. Deliberation at the hub of medical education: beyond virtue ethics and codes of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2013-02-01

    Although both codes of practice and virtue ethics are integral to the ethos and history of "medical professionalism", the two trends appear mutually incompatible. Hence, in the first part of the paper we explore and explicate this apparent conflict and seek a direction for medical education. The theoretical and empirical literature indicates that moral deliberation may transcend the incompatibilities between the formal and the virtuous, may enhance moral and other aspects of personal sensitivity, may help design and improve other parts of the curricula, and may foster self-awareness and clarification of the professional role. Not only are these goals essential for good and conscientious doctoring, but they may also reduce physicians' "burn-out". We argue that medical education should focus on the ubiquitous practice of deliberation in contemporary medicine, and especially the practice of moral deliberation.

  3. How should a nurse approach truth-telling? A virtue ethics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Kate

    2008-10-01

    Truth-telling is a key issue within the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses make decisions on a daily basis regarding what information to tell patients. This paper analyses truth-telling within an end of life scenario. Virtue ethics provides a useful philosophical approach for exploring decisions on information disclosure in more detail. Virtue ethics allows appropriate examination of the moral character of the nurse involved, their intention, ability to use wisdom and judgement when making decisions and the virtue of truth-telling. It is appropriate to discuss nursing as a 'practice' in relation to virtue ethics. This is achieved through consideration of the implications of arguments made by Alasdair MacIntyre who believes that qualities such as honesty, courage and justice are virtues because they enable us to achieve the internal goods of practices.

  4. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery 2016 ethics forum: Working virtues in surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Larry R

    2017-05-01

    Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring Ethics with Contemporary Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joyce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the way in which we should go about introducing ethics into the study of our interpersonal relations in the hope of formulating a foundation upon which to base our theories and analyze our behavior. We should ask ourselves whether there should be different criteria for interpersonal ethics than for ethics in other areas of…

  6. Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because the main argument for adopting a character-based approach is that it could be more successfully applied to engineering than traditional rule-based or algorithmic ethical approaches, this oversight is problematic for the proponents of the virtue-based view. Furthermore, without addressing these concerns, the wide adoption of a virtue-based approach to engineering ethics has the potential to isolate individuals with ASD and to devalue their contributions to moral practice. In the end, this paper gestures towards a way of incorporating important insights from virtue ethics in engineering that would be more inclusive of those with ASD.

  7. What Kind of Person Would Do Something Like That? A Christian Ecological Virtue Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma-Prediger, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In my book "For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision of Creation Care" (2001, rev edn 2010) I develop a set of ecological virtues from a Christian perspective. Although there are now monographs, e.g. "Character and Environment: A Virtue-Oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics" (2007), and anthologies, e.g.…

  8. What Kind of Person Would Do Something Like That? A Christian Ecological Virtue Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma-Prediger, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In my book "For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision of Creation Care" (2001, rev edn 2010) I develop a set of ecological virtues from a Christian perspective. Although there are now monographs, e.g. "Character and Environment: A Virtue-Oriented Approach to Environmental Ethics" (2007), and anthologies, e.g.…

  9. Facilitating the development of moral insight in practice: teaching ethics and teaching virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann M

    2006-10-01

    Abstract The teaching of ethics is discussed within the context of insights gleaned from ancient Greek ethics, particularly Aristotle and Plato and their conceptions of virtue (arete, meaning excellence). The virtues of excellence of character (moral virtue) and excellence of intelligence (intellectual virtue), particularly practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom, are considered. In Aristotelian ethics, a distinction is drawn between these intellectual virtues: experience and maturity is needed for practical wisdom, but not for theoretical wisdom. In addition to this, excellence of character is acquired through habitual practice, not instruction. This suggests that there is a need to teach more than theoretical ethics and that the ethics teacher must also facilitate the acquisition of practical wisdom and excellence of character. This distinction highlights a need for various educational approaches in cultivating these excellences which are required for a moral life. It also raises the question: is it possible to teach practical wisdom and excellence of character? It is suggested that virtue, conceived of as a type of knowledge, or skill, can be taught, and people can, with appropriate experience, habitual practice, and good role models, develop excellence of character and become moral experts. These students are the next generation of exemplars and they will educate others by example and sustain the practice of nursing. They need an education which includes theoretical ethics and the nurturing of practical wisdom and excellence of character. For this purpose, a humanities approach is suggested.

  10. The "MelArete" Project: Educating Children to the Ethics of Virtue and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Ubbiali, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The educative project MelArete proposes an interpretation of ethical education: a form of Education to Virtue Ethics in the light of the philosophy of care. Starting from the ontological assumption that care is prime in life and without it the human being cannot flourish in his/her humanity, the project is based on an interpretation of the…

  11. Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock's notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations-theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered-that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.

  12. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  13. The Relationship between Ethical Culture and Unethical Behavior in Work Groups: Testing the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, which is a model for measuring the ethical culture of organizations, has not been tested on its predictive validity. This study tests the relationship between this model and observed unethical behavior in work groups. The sample consists of 301 triads

  14. Cultivating an Ethic of Environmental Sustainability: Integrating Insights from Aristotelian Virtue Ethics and Pragmatist Cognitive Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Travis; Becker, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for environmental sustainability programming, large-scale adoption of pro-environmental behaviors has been slow and largely short-term. This article analyzes the crucial role of ethics in this respect. The authors utilize an interdisciplinary approach drawing on virtue ethics and cognitive development theory to…

  15. What Role Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigelman, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Explores the inescapable, irreconcilable role of virtue in rhetoric and writing instruction and the (im)possibilities of ethical response to student writing. Considers the place of values instruction in contemporary education by examining its historical precedents in classical rhetoric and its relationship to the liberatory, multicultural mission…

  16. Teaching Ethics to High School Students: Virtue Meets Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Nygard, Kim; Wood, William C.

    2009-01-01

    When highly visible lapses in ethics occur, education gets some of the blame. Principals in the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and the Enron scandal had been educated at Harvard and other elite business schools, where professional and moral ideals had arguably been replaced by a focus on profits at the expense of ethics. A long-standing tradition…

  17. Three sources of wisdom of Chinese traditional virtue and a contemporary examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chenggui

    2006-01-01

    There are three explanations of the sources of virtue in the history of Chinese traditional ethical thoughts.The first source is tian Dao(the Dao of Heaven)(natural),the second is xing Dao(the Dao of nature)(mind-nature),and the third is ren Dao(the Dao of human)(social).These explanations not only demonstrate the unique wisdom of ancient Chinese thinkers in constructing morality,but also have special revelations for us to comprehend more accurately the Chinese traditional morality,to clear up the wrong ideas about morality that have formed since modern times,to make virtue 'present' instead of 'latent',and to construct a moral society.

  18. Virtue Ethics and the Selection of Children with Impairments A Reply to Rosalind McDougall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In “Parental Virtues: A New Way of Thinking about the Morality of Reproductive Actions” Rosalind McDougall proposes a virtue-based framework to assess the morality of child selection. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children. In “Impairment, Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,” she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection, and claims that couples with an impairment are morally justified in selecting a child with the same impairment. This claim, she maintains, reveals that the flourishing of a child should be understood as requiring environment-specific characteristics. I argue that McDougall’s argument begs the question. More importantly, it does not do justice to virtue ethics. I also question to what extent a virtue ethics framework can be successfully applied to discussions about the moral permissibility of reproductive actions. PMID:19508307

  19. Virtue ethics and the selection of children with impairments: a reply to Rosalind McDougall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla

    2010-11-01

    In 'Parental Virtues: A New Way of Thinking about the Morality of Reproductive Actions' Rosalind McDougall proposes a virtue-based framework to assess the morality of child selection. Applying the virtue-based account to the selection of children with impairments does not lead, according to McDougall, to an unequivocal answer to the morality of selecting impaired children. In 'Impairment, Flourishing, and the Moral Nature of Parenthood,' she also applies the virtue-based account to the discussion of child selection, and claims that couples with an impairment are morally justified in selecting a child with the same impairment. This claim, she maintains, reveals that the flourishing of a child should be understood as requiring environment-specific characteristics. I argue that McDougall's argument begs the question. More importantly, it does not do justice to virtue ethics. I also question to what extent a virtue ethics framework can be successfully applied to discussions about the moral permissibility of reproductive actions. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Just allocation and team loyalty: a new virtue ethic for emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, J; Beckman, A

    2005-01-01

    When traditional virtue ethics is applied to clinical medicine, it often claims as its goal the good of the individual patient, and focuses on the dyadic relationship between one physician and one patient. An alternative model of virtue ethics, more appropriate to the practice of emergency medicine, will be outlined by this paper. This alternative model is based on the assumption that the appropriate goal of the practice of emergency medicine is a team approach to the medical wellbeing of individual patients, constrained by the wellbeing of the patient population served by a particular emergency department. By defining boundaries and using the key virtues of justice and team loyalty, this model fits emergency practice well and gives care givers the conceptual clarity to apply this model to various conflicts both within the department and with those outside the department. PMID:16199595

  1. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  2. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  3. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  4. Ethics: virtue and politics in the science and practice of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, J L

    1996-02-01

    The discipline of psychology is moving beyond the myth of detached neutrality to discover virtue and to recognize politics as forces which determine ethical behaviour. Humankind has struggled over the centuries to discover the nature of good and evil and to define the rightness and wrongness of human behaviour. Psychology has a short history in formalizing codes of ethics and codes of conduct. Current and historical events, concepts and values, including those based on philosophy and religion, have influenced the development of psychology's scientific and professional codes. The ethical behaviour of psychologists may be inspired by values, regulated by rules, determined by external pressures, or any combination of these. Emerging issues and challenges in today's changing and turbulent society require an incorporation of moral principles in finding acceptable strategies to achieve acceptable goals. May virtue and politics go hand in hand in creating a better world.

  5. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  6. Virtue and responsibility: Economic-ethical perspectives in the work of Etienne de Villiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naude

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed in six statements and attempted to reconstruct the basis for the�socio-economic ethics of Etienne de Villiers, as well as its ecclesio-centric nature and theoretical�formulation in virtue and responsibility ethics. There was reference to De Villiers�s shift from�an exclusive to an inclusive ethical view as a response to his interpretation of modernity and�secularism. Critical questions were raised as to the actual theological character of his ethics�and his re- interpretation of Weberian responsibility ethics. The article concluded with an�appreciative view on the applied ethics perspectives developed by De Villiers over the last�three decades.

  7. Conservation as virtue: a scientific and social process for conservation ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtan, Kyle S

    2006-10-01

    Most scientists take ethical arguments for conservation as given and focus on scientific or economic questions. Although nature conservation is often considered a just cause, it is given little further consideration. A lack of attention to ethical theory raises serious concerns for how conservation scientists conceive and practice ethics. I contrast two common ways scientists approach ethics, as demonstrated in the writings of Stephen Jay Gould and E. O. Wilson. Gould casts severe doubt as to whether any ethics are possible from science, whereas Wilson proposes science as the only path to ethics. I argue these two methods ultimately limit popular support for conservation and offer Alasdair MacIntyre's "virtue ethics" as an alternative. Unlike Gould and Wilson, MacIntyre provides an ethical theory that reconciles scientific inquiry and social traditions. Recent studies of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States affirm MacIntyre's claims and provide important insights for conservation today. These accounts argue that social solidarity and political success against segregation were possible only as rooted in the particular language, logic, and practices of a robust cultural tradition. If correct, conservation science should attend to several questions. On what basis can conservation achieve widespread cultural legitimacy? What are the particular social currencies for a conservation ethic? What role does science play in such a scheme? MacIntyre's careful positioning of scientific and social traditions provides a hopeful ethical direction for conservation.

  8. An Immanent Interpreatation of Kant's Virtue Ethics%康德德性伦理的内源性解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勋伟

    2011-01-01

    康德是规范伦理学中义务论的代表,但他的思想中也包含着丰富的德性伦理的思想,在他对道德形而上学进行论证时所提出的概念就等同于德性论。这些思想中的善良意志、德性自足、以德配福、人是目的构成了其德性伦理思想体系,这些思想当我们深入解读时会感觉的他就是为现代的人类所面临的困境提出来的,这些思想论证之严密、见解之高深、意义之深刻会对我们产生重大启示,并具有极其重要的当代价值。%Kant is the representative of dcontology in normative ethics, but his thought also contains a wealth of thought of virtue ethics, the concepts that he demonstrates in the moral metaphysics is equivalent to the concept of virtue theory. These thoughts of good will, self-contained virtue, to match happiness with morality, and human-oriented constitute his virtue ethics thought system. When we deeply understand his ideas, it seems just raised for the dilemma faced by modern human. We will be enlighten by the tightness of these thought demonstration, advancement of his views, and significance of its profound value. Kant's virtue ethics has extreme importance of contemporary value.

  9. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  10. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  11. 西方美德概念演变:从古典功能主义到哲学心理学%The Transmutation of The Conception of Virtue in Western Ethics:From Classical Functionalism to Philosophical Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永刚

    2015-01-01

    在当代西方美德伦理学中,美德被理解为内在的性格特质。但在古希腊,美德最初是被理解为人特有的角色和功能。在柏拉图著作中,美德开始具有心理学的内涵,在亚里士多德伦理学中,美德的心理学内涵得以强化。现代道德哲学家虽然把美德置于伦理学体系的边缘位置,但仍然重视美德的心理成分。当代西方美德伦理学家则基本上从哲学心理学的角度来构建美德概念。%Virtue is understood as the inner character traits in contemporary western virtue ethics.But in ancient Greece, virtue was originally understood as the role and function of human.In Plato’s works,the psychological connotation was given to virtue,and in Aristotle’s ethics,the psychological connotation of virtue was reinforced.Modern moral philosophers put vir-tues on the edge of ethics system,but still pay attention to the psychological composition of virtue.The contemporary western virtue ethicists basically build virtue concept from the perspective of philosophical psychology.

  12. Responsibly managing students' learning experiences in student-run clinics: a virtues-based ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, John H; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Many medical schools now offer students a distinctive clinical and learning opportunity, the student-run clinic (SRC), in which generalist physicians often play the major role. Although SRCs have become popular, they pose as-yet unexplored ethical challenges for the learning experiences of students. In SRCs students not only take on a significant administrative role especially in coordinating care, but also provide direct patient care for a clinically challenging, biopsychosocially vulnerable, medically indigent population of patients. SRCs provide an exemplar of the ethical challenges of care for such patients. The ethical framework proposed in this article emphasizes that these valued learning opportunities for students should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues, with faculty as role models for these virtues. The valued learning opportunities for students in SRCs should occur in the context of professional formation, with explicit attention to developing the professional virtues of integrity, compassion, self-effacement, self-sacrifice, and courage, which are required for the appropriate care of the vulnerable populations served by SRCs.

  13. Virtue ethics as an alternative to deontological and consequential reasoning in the harm reduction debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Timothy; Groarke, Louis; Sweet, William

    2008-02-01

    There is strong evidence that harm reduction interventions such as Supervised Injection Sites and Needle Exchange Programs prevent many of the negative consequences of problematic substance use. Yet many governments, including the United States and Canada, still do not endorse these interventions, claiming that they do not get people off of drugs and send a mixed message. This paper will analyze objections to harm reduction in light of the ethical theories of John Stuart Mill, Immanuel Kant and Aristotle. The most important ethical issue in the abstinence vs. harm reduction debate is whether harm reduction - because it does not require individuals to either reduce their consumption of illicit substances or to abstain from illicit substance use - can be ethically justified. Harm reduction interventions are clearly justified on Utilitarian grounds because, based on the evidence, such policies would produce the greatest good for the greatest number. However, Kant would not think that the values guiding harm reduction are ethical because the justification of harm reduction interventions focuses exclusively on examining consequences. Virtue Ethics seeks to find the proper balance between harm reduction and abstinence. We claim that the virtue of compassion would provide a defense of harm reduction.

  14. A Situationist Lesson for Character Education: Re-Conceptualising the Inculcation of Virtues by Converting Local Virtues to More Global Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the debate about character between situationism and virtue ethics, I argue that John Doris's idea, "local trait", offers a fresh insight into contemporary character education. Its positive variant, "local virtue", signals an inescapable relay station of the gradual development of virtue, and serves as a promising…

  15. Business ethics : exploring the field and contextualising its contemporary appeal

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kenneth Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The research is concerned with accounting for the contemporary forms of discourse and practice of business ethics. Through a review of the literature concerning both business ethics and organisational culture it is argued that each literature expresses the contemporary uncertainty regarding how organisational practices and management may be analyzed and understood. A case study of Sheffield Business School indicates that the interest in "managing" organisational culture, along with th...

  16. 环境美德伦理研究论纲%An Outline of Environmental Virtue Ethics Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓娜

    2012-01-01

    Environmental virtue ethics, the study of environmental ethics from the perspective of virtue, is a new discipline of environmental ethics. It is proposed to address the dilemma of research dimension regulation of environmental ethics and the revitalization of modern virtue ethics. The theme of environmental virtue ethics is concerned with virtue and nature, which has ideological sources in both eastern and western ethics. Virtue governs and reflects the existence of human, and environmental virtue, cultivated by ecological community, is the reflection of ecological existence of human. Environmental virtue contains items such as reverence, benevolence, simplicity, frugality, equality, just and duty etc.. Education of rural culture and environmental virtue is an important approach to environmental virtue cultivation.%环境美德伦理学是从美德伦理视角研究环境伦理,是环境伦理学的新兴视域。环境伦理学在规范伦理学向度建构的困境和当代美德伦理学的复兴方面提出了环境美德伦理学问题;环境美德伦理学的主题是"美德与自然",中西方伦理学有一定的思想资源;美德统摄并反映人的存在,环境美德反映人在生态之维的存在,并且共同体孕育人的美德,故而环境美德是反应人的生态存在并由生态共同体生活孕育的美德;根据拓展主义和建构主义的路径,环境美德的德目包括敬畏、仁爱、简朴、节约、平等、公正、责任等。乡土教育和日常生活批判中进行环境美德教育是培育具有环境美德人格的重要途径。

  17. Towards a Confucian virtue bioethics: reframing Chinese medical ethics in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People's Republic of China: the need to create an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing on the Confucian tradition's account of how virtue and human flourishing are compatible with the pursuit of profit. It offers the Confucian account of the division of labor and the financial inequalities this produces with special attention to China's socialist project of creating the profession of barefoot doctors as egalitarian peasant physicians and why this project failed. It then further develops the Confucian acknowledgement of the unequal value of different services and products and how this conflicts with the current system of payment to physicians which has led to the corruption of medical professionalism through illegal supplementary payments. It further gives an account the oblique intentionality of Confucian moral psychology that shows how virtuous persons can pursue benevolent actions while both foreseeing profit and avoiding defining their character by greed. This account of Confucian virtue offers the basis for a medical professionalism that can function morally within a robustly profit-oriented market economy. The paper concludes with a summary of the characteristics of Confucian medical professionalism and of how it places the profit motive within its account of virtue ethics.

  18. Teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students using a virtue ethics-based curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha Joan

    2014-06-01

    As professionals, nurses are expected to engage in respectful relationships with clients, other health care professionals, and each other. Regulatory bodies set standards and codes of ethics for professional behavior in nursing that clearly communicate expectations for civility. However, the wealth of literature on incivility in the profession indicates that nurses often fall short of meeting these standards in their interactions with other nurses. Currently, few effective strategies exist for nurse educators to teach civility to nursing students and prepare them to engage in healthy relationships with their colleagues. This article argues for the use of virtue ethics as a philosophical framework for teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students. The pedagogical strategies proposed may help students contribute to the development of healthy workplaces. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Social Ethics Governance from the Perspective of Virtue Ethics%美德伦理学视阈下的社会公德治理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳; 薛鹏

    2015-01-01

    This paper dissects the present situation , problems of social ethics governance and the main reasons for the failure of citizens'morality, and analyzes the main characteristics of virtue ethics .From the perspective of virtue ethics , this paper also presents the ethical basis of social ethics management , and makes the idea of social ethics education clearer , i.e.virtue ethics a-voids the over abstraction of moral education target .Virtue ethics has changed the "bottom line" status of social morality , and makes social ethics governance more systematic .The more successful results will be on the integration of moral ethics and social ethics governance which will provide better guidance on "comprehensive governance".The constructions of social governance and rule of law in China can run parallel in the perspective of virtue ethics .Theoretical features and practical value of virtue ethics have important practical significance on the current social ethics governance and rule of law construction in China .%从美德伦理学的视角出发,剖析社会公德治理的现状、问题以及公民道德失范的主要原因,分析美德伦理学的主要特征. 提出在美德伦理学视阈下,社会公德治理的伦理学基础,即美德伦理学避免了道德教化目标的过度抽象性,让社会公德教育的理想更加清晰;美德伦理学改变了社会公德的"底线道德"地位,让社会公德治理更具系统性;美德伦理学与社会公德治理相关学科的融合更加成功,对"综合治理"的指导意义更大. 在美德伦理学视阈下,社会公德治理与法治中国建设并行不悖,美德伦理学理论特征和实践价值对于当前社会公德治理与法治中国建设有重要的实践指导意义.

  20. Developing and teaching the virtue-ethics foundations of healthcare whistle blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    Healthcare whistle blowing, despite the benefits it has brought to healthcare systems in many developed countries, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential healthcare professionals and regulatory institutions. Few if any medical schools or law department health law and bioethics classes, teach whistle blowing in a formal sense. Yet without exception, public inquiries initiated by healthcare whistle blowers have validated their central allegations and demonstrated that the whistle blowers themselves were sincere in their desire to implement the fundamental virtues and principles of medical ethics, bioethics and public health law. In many jurisdictions, the law, this time remarkably in advance of professional opinion, has offered legislative protection for reasonable allegations of whistleblowers made in good faith and in the public interest concerning a substantial and imminent threat to public safety. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that healthcare whistle blowing lacks a firm virtue-based theoretical bioethical and jurisprudential foundation. The hypothesis discussed is that the lack of this bioethical and jurisprudential substrate has contributed to a situation where healthcare whistle blowing suffers in terms of institutional support due to its lack of academic legitimacy. This article commences the process of redressing this imbalance by attempting to lay the theoretical foundations for healthcare whistle blowing. As a case study, this article concludes by discussing the Personal and Professional Development course at the ANU Medical School where healthcare whistle blowing is a formal part of a virtue-based curriculum that emphasises the foundational importance of conscience. Illustrative elements of that program are discussed.

  1. Medical Ethics in Contemporary Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Williams

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes and analyzes ethical issues in medical practice, particularly those issues encountered by physicians in their relationships with their patients. These relationships often involve ethical conflicts between 2 or more interests, which physicians need to recognize and resolve. The article deals with 4 topics in clinical practice in which ethical conflicts occur: physicians' duty of confidentiality in a digital environment, their responsibilities for dealing with abuses of the human rights of patients, their role in clinical research, and their relationships with commercial enterprises. The ethical policies of the World Medical Association provide the basis for determining appropriate physician conduct on these matters. The article concludes with reflections on the need for international standards of medical ethics.

  2. Can Virtue Be Learned? An Exploration of Student Learning Experiences in Ethics Courses and Their Implications for Influencing Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew Cochran, Elizabeth; Fozard Weaver, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to teach virtue, or to learn it? We consider this question through an institutional review board (IRB) supported research study attending to student learning experiences in undergraduate ethics courses at a Catholic university with an explicit commitment to social justice. This essay draws on and interprets qualitative data…

  3. Character in Learning for Life: A Virtue-Ethical Rationale for Recent Research on Moral and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James; Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    This article has three broad aims. The first is to draw attention what is probably the largest empirical study of moral, values and character education in the United Kingdom to the present date. The second is to outline--sufficient for present purposes--a plausible conceptual or theoretical case for placing a particular virtue-ethical concept of…

  4. An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership through Ayn Rand's "The Virtues of Selfishness" (1964)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Educational leadership is vital to sustain quality educational institutions. It is the role of the school leader to indoctrinate stakeholders with the objectivist ethics-embracing egoism and relinquishing altruistic ideals when it comes to invigorating the system with sustainable change. Ayn Rand's timeless piece of literature "The Virtue of…

  5. Florence Nightingale's contribution to contemporary nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale brought nursing from a disreputable and immoral vocation into the honest and ethical profession that is enjoyed today by emphasizing strict morals in the personal and work lives of her nursing students. In modern day, ethical principles guide the nursing profession and have many relevant connections to Nightingale's morals. Just as the high moral character of Nightingale's nurses helped nursing rise to a profession in her day, teaching and following ethical principles is crucial in furthering the nursing profession in our day.

  6. Documentary ethics in contemporary practices. Alternative participation, alternative ethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.

    2013-01-01

    Documentary scholars have presupposed a certain documentary practice, and have ethically evaluated this practice, with a focus on the need for protection for a vulnerable and ignorant participant. But times have changed. By researching the experience of ethical challenges by both documentary filmmak

  7. Nasogastric feeding at the end of life: a virtue ethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit

    2011-07-01

    The use of Nasogastric (NG) feeding in the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration at the end of life has, for the most part, been regarded as futile by the medical community. This position has been led chiefly by prevailing medical data. In Singapore, however, there has been an increase in its utilization supported primarily by social, religious and cultural factors expressly to prolong life of the terminally ill patient. Here this article will seek to review the ethical and clinical impact of this treatment and provide some understanding for such decisions in the light of the Duty of Palliative Care [DoPC]. Complemented by virtue ethics theory, the DoPC highlights and seeks to realize the individual case specific goals of care that maximize comfort and quality of life of the patient in the face of rapid attenuation of treatment options and the eminence of the final outcome by considering each of these factors individually in order to provide the best outcome for the patient and the family.

  8. Ethics and contemporary urology practice: Setting out principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several situations of great ethical implications are encountered by physicians in daily urological practice. Informed consent for interventions, selection of patients for operative demonstrations and educational workshops, enrollment of patients in clinical trials, and the use of technology are some issues that call for stringent application of ethical principles in decision making. The issues of autonomy, privacy, rights, duties, and privileges that arise have to pass the tests prescribed by contemporary social mores and regulations. Some of the issues encountered, principles applicable, and covenants and documents that guide decision making are discussed.

  9. The ethics of postmortem examinations in contemporary Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1993-09-01

    Postmortem examinations have recently become common practice in Western medicine: they are used to verify the cause of death and to obtain additional scientific information on certain diseases, as well as to train medical students. For religious people of the monotheistic faiths postmortems present several ethical questions even though the advantages attributed to postmortems in the West are also acknowledged by Jews, Christians and Muslims. The Islamic way of dealing with such questions will be surveyed via contemporary fatawa (legal opinions) issued primarily by Egyptian scholars; Islamic law, which was formulated in the eighth to ninth centuries, did not speak of postmortems. I will therefore depict the means whereby contemporary scholars approach postmortems in the absence of clear legal reference. The difficulties that postmortems create for Muslims at present will be weighed against some shar i instructions which may help circumvent them. While the ethical and religious debate continues, postmortems seem to be accepted but not, however, without certain reservations.

  10. Contemporary ethical challenges in industrial psychological testing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology) Psychometric testing in South Africa faces many challenges at present. Among these challenges is the fact that many individuals utilising psychometric tests are not professionally registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The key objective of this qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the contemporary ethical challenges in psychometric testing in South Africa. A total of ten industrial psychologists participated in the...

  11. 回归美德伦理--生态伦理的反思与重构%Return to Virtue Ethics--Reflection and Reconstruction of Ecological Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of ecological ethics is in pursuit of harmony between man and nature, but in the modern ecological ethics, either anthropocentrism or non-anthropocentrism has the features of normative eth⁃ics, and its own limitations is not able to guide people's ecological moral life in the round. The ethical virtue and the inherent nobility of virtue ethics can resolve the ethical norms of incommensurability and reconstruct the harmony of ethical thought.%生态伦理追求的主要目标是人与自然的和谐,然而现代生态伦理思想中无论是人类中心主义还是非人类中心主义都具有规范伦理的特征,而规范伦理因其自身的局限性并不能够全面指导人们的生态道德生活。美德伦理因其内在德性以及伦理崇高性可以化解规范伦理的不可公度性,重构和谐共生的生态伦理思想。

  12. [The virtues in clinical bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The return to the virtuous physician, in medical ethics, is the key point of the ethical model proposed by Pellegrino. Following MacIntyre thinking, Pellegrino introduces the "medical virtues" concept, alma mater idea of his reforming proposal. This article describes the thinking of the author from three different outlooks: 1) an approach to the theory of virtue; 2) the ends of Medicine and virtues; and 3) professionalism and the virtues ethics. Finally, summing up his vision on 'virtue', it describes his vision of Christian virtues in medical practice along with the virtue of self-effacement of physician, though directs to specific articles where these issues are addressed in the monography.

  13. Awakening – Transformation, agency and virtue from three contemporary philosophical inspirations: Bhaskar, Segal and Slote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Schreiber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For some, ‘transformation’ is the new non-reductive and non-normative ‘development’, attracting attention from interdisciplinary array, but of particular theoretical and practical interest to Spirituality scholars. In philosophical context, transformation theory has suffered greatly from ’agency-structure’ dualism and suspension of ontology in body-mind dualism and rationalist virtue controversy. Drawing on the work of Bhaskar, Segal and Slote, a renegotiated and more meaningful sense of transformation emerges from their cumulative analytical and conceptual enrichment. In the complexity of possible relations between self, self-concept and society, lies the traditionally neglected transformative middle of sui-generis human depth. In redress, arguably, Bhaskar’s meta-philosophy accommodates Segal’s experiential depth analysis and Slote’s understanding of empathy and receptivity as valuable insights for ’awakening’ to transformative process.

  14. Virtue and austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is often proposed as a third way in health-care ethics, that while consequentialism and deontology focus on action guidelines, virtue focuses on character; all three aim to help agents discern morally right action although virtue seems to have least to contribute to political issues, such as austerity. I claim: (1) This is a bad way to characterize virtue ethics. The 20th century renaissance of virtue ethics was first proposed as a response to the difficulty of making sense of 'moral rightness' outside a religious context. For Aristotle the right action is that which is practically best; that means best for the agent in order to live a flourishing life. There are no moral considerations besides this. (2) Properly characterized, virtue ethics can contribute to discussion of austerity. A criticism of virtue ethics is that fixed characteristics seem a bad idea in ever-changing environments; perhaps we should be generous in prosperity, selfish in austerity. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that people indeed do change with their environment. However, I argue that virtues concern fixed values not fixed behaviour; the values underlying virtue allow for different behaviour in different circumstances: in austerity, virtues still give the agent the best chance of flourishing. Two questions arise. (a) In austere environments might not injustice help an individual flourish by, say, obtaining material goods? No, because unjust acts undermine the type of society the agent needs for flourishing. (b) What good is virtue to those lacking the other means to flourish? The notion of degrees of flourishing shows that most people would benefit somewhat from virtue. However, in extreme circumstances virtue might harm rather than benefit the agent: such circumstances are to be avoided; virtue ethics thus has a political agenda to enable flourishing. This requires justice, a fortiori when in austerity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Epistemic Virtues in Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies emerging research on epistemic virtues to business ethics. Inspired by recent work on epistemic virtues in philosophy, I develop a view in which epistemic virtues contribute to the acquisition of knowledge that is instrumentally valuable in the realisation of particular ends, busi

  16. Contemporary Aesth-Ethics. The Ethical Turn in the 21st Century Art Institutions”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, the core aesthetic domain of museums has switched from exhibiting artworks into creating social impact. Ethics has replaced aesthetics as the main focus of the art museum. Modern and contemporary art museums are using exhibitions and public programs’ initiatives as a mea...

  17. A Review And Reflection On The Academic History Of McIntyre’s Virtue Ethics%麦金太尔美德伦理学的学术史回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建兵; 陈绍辉

    2016-01-01

    麦金太尔一生致力于道德哲学理论的研究,取得了重大的影响。他的美德伦理学以“美德”为核心概念,对当代西方道德哲学的合理性提出怀疑,并展开了对规范伦理学和道德情感主义的激烈批判,从而实现了伦理学在20世纪的一个转向。然而,麦金太尔的美德伦理学也不是完美无缺的,它不断遭到道德情境主义的挑战,麦金太尔教授为此不得不对美德存在的合理性予以回应,最终捍卫了美德伦理学的价值和功能。在当代中国社会,深刻领会和把握麦金太尔美德伦理学应有的、特定的价值,在道德教育中更加有效地以美德伦理思想为指导,使一代又一代人追求美好崇高的道德境界,我们的民族就会永远充满希望。%McIntyre devoted his life to researches on the theory of moral philosophy,in which he has made a significant impact.McIntyre’s virtue ethics doubts about the rationality of the contemporary western moral philosophy by taking “virtue”as the core of his theory,which expands fierce criticism to the moral feelings of among normative ethics and virtue ethics,so as to realize the ethics turn of the 20th century. McIntyre’s virtue ethics,however,are not perfect.It has been challenged so continuously by the moral situationism that McIntyre therefore has to response the rationality of the existence of virtue,and eventu-ally defend the value and function of virtue ethics.In contemporary Chinese society,understanding and grasping the specific value of McIntyre’s virtue ethics,and taking virtue ethics as a guide in the moral edu-cation will prompt the pursuit of fine and noble moral realm generation after generation,through which our nation will always be full of hope.

  18. Confucian ethic of death with dignity and its contemporary relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, P-C

    1999-01-01

    This paper advances three claims. First, according to contemporary Western advocates of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia, "death with dignity" is understood negatively as bringing about death to avoid or prevent indignity, that is, to avoid a degrading existence. Second, there is a similar morally affirmative view on death with dignity in ancient China, in classical Confucianism in particular. Third, there is a consonance as well as dissonance between these two ethics of death with dignity, such as that the Confucian perspective would regard the argument for physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia as less than compelling because of the latter's impoverished vision of human life.

  19. Exploring the contemporary ethical challenges in coaching psychology in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Claire E. Simon; Aletta Odendaal; Xenia Goosen

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: This article focuses on the contemporary ethical challenges in coaching psychology in the South African context.Research purpose: The primary objective was to qualitatively explore the contemporary ethical challenges faced by coaching psychologists when coaching clients and organisations and develop an exploratory framework of ethical challenges.Motivation for the study: There may not be sufficient practical guidance to resolving the ethical challenges coaching psychologists enco...

  20. Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, major accounting scandals could have been nipped in the bud by whistle blowing before the wrong deeds escalated. However whistle blowing is a major issue and is viewed as disloyalty. In this paper, the dilemmas of whistle blowing are evaluated using contemporary ethical theories which are: egoism, deontology and utilitarianism. The analysis shows that deontology and utilitarianism are based on altruism and may support whistle blowing because they are grounded on consideration of other people. It is worth noting that morally upright adults are often a result of being brought up as ethical children from a psychological standpoint.

  1. CONTEMPORARY LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Perše

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe experiments on animals remain to play an important and yet unreplaceble role in the progress of biomedicine. Therefore, under certain legal conditions, it is morally acceptable to use animals for scientific purposes. Directive 86/609/EEC adopted in 1986 has started to regulate the legislation on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes in Europe and in Slovenia. In 2010, after a public consultation involving scientific community and animal protectionist associations, the European parliament released revised Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The aim of the paper is to present contemporary legislation from the field of experimental animals and basic ethical principles that are foundation of responsible use of animals in research as well as valid science.   ConclusionThe society`s relationship to the animals varies throughtout history, also thanks to animal experimentation which definitively confirmed that animals are sentient beings that like humans experience pain, suffering, distres or enjoyment. In western developed society the number of people defending animal rights and contradicting the use of animals in experiments is increasing. Therefore, increasing effort and financial stimulation for the development and implementation of the methods to replace animal experimentation takes place in the EU. But as long as this does not occur the revised legislation requires careful and responsible use of animals in accordance with the legislative and contemporary ethical principles.

  2. Ethics and Economics: A Comment on Narvaez's "Revitalizing Human Virtue by Restoring Organic Morality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…

  3. VIRTUES, SINS AND THE “GOOD LIFE” – 10 ETHICAL APPROACHES TO URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2008-10-01

    Ethical approaches to Urban Design are being brought to light, in a range including good wishes, statements and proposed rules, before a true ethical reflection illuminates professional practices. In this lecture I’ll try to enlarge the scope of the matter; and to demonstrate how Urban Design has a relevance of altruism and joy.

  4. Ethics and Economics: A Comment on Narvaez's "Revitalizing Human Virtue by Restoring Organic Morality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…

  5. The goal of Christian virtue ethics: From ontological foundation and covenant relationship to the Kingdom of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Yiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich’s ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton’s covenantal model revealed a human being’s encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine ‘otherness’ under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine ‘presence’ and ‘absence’ as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God’s imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is ’n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te

  6. A View from the Analysis of the College Students' Environment Virtue Ethics%大学生环境美德伦理刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴细玲

    2012-01-01

    环境美德伦理是当今环境伦理研究的新转向。对大学生进行环境美德培养和教育,从学科发展需要而言,是解决当今环境美德主体宽泛培养、环境美德德目缺乏统一认识的一次探索;从大学生发展需要而言,则有利于大学生形成在过去传统道德关系基础上纳入包含环境对象的,具有对自然的适当的谦逊、正义、简单、仁爱的新型人格。为此,高校要通过对国内外典型环境美德人格的宣传、发挥高校课堂教育主阵地作用、加强大学生的环境美德实践等途径培养大学生的环境美德。%Environment virtue ethics is a new research way of environment ethics.On the one hand,,we must encourage students to form environment virtue in order to develop the subject of environment ethics.It is an effective adventure to solve the problem that environment virtue body is in a far widely range and the problem that environment virtue contents doesn't be known as a unity;On the other hand,environment virtue ethics will benefit college students to form the late-model personality.Environment virtue ethics that the college students must possess include appropriate modest,justice,simplicity and kindness to the nature.Therefore,colleges and universities must cultivate the students' environment virtue by propagating some environment virtue personality,playing its role of classroom education and reinforcing college students' virtue practice.

  7. 从心理学视角看情境主义与美德伦理学之争%Situationist and Virtue Ethics Dispute from Psychological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霞

    2014-01-01

    Developments in psychology and virtue ethics of development, they have a very similar development context. Doctrine of virtue ethics in the context of the challenges, we introduce rational psychology perspective on the debate between the situationist and virtue ethics given to re-examine. From the perspective of psychology, why should adopt the analysis, the specific arguments situationist and virtue ethics, psychology look for controversy, how to solve the debate four levels given theoretically elaborated.%心理学的发展与美德在伦理学中的发展,他们的发展脉络有着极其的相似。在情境主义对美德伦理学挑战中,我们合理地引入心理学的视角,对情境主义和美德伦理学之间的争论给予重新审视。本文从为什么要采用心理学的视角分析、情境主义与美德伦理学的具体争论、对争论的心理学审视、对争论如何解决四个层次给予理论上地阐述。

  8. 德性伦理应用于企业的合理性及其建构%Rationality and Construction of Applying Virtue Ethic to Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫茂伟

    2015-01-01

    在西方,德性伦理的应用性早已呈现在相关的理论和实践中,并为当今德性伦理应用于企业提供了基本的理论依据和实践旨向。而德性伦理的独特立场、明显优势以及作为企业解决现实道德难题的伦理资源为德性伦理应用于企业提供了一定的现实合理性。为此,惟有建构目的善、品质善和实体善有机统一的德性伦理体系和利益与责任相关者共同参与的公司治理体系,德性伦理应用于企业的合理性方能得以建构,进而才能使得企业以德性为其自身以及活动的本源。%In the West,the applicability of virtue ethic has already rendered in related theory and prac-tice,furthermore,it has provided basic theory foundation and practice aims for applying virtue ethic to enter-prises nowadays.However,with unique position and evident advantages and being one of ethics resources for enterprise to solve actual moral dilemmas,virtue ethic has provided some actual rationality for applying virtue ethic to enterprise.Thus,only constructing the virtue ethic system within organic unity of purposes good, character good as well as entity good and the corporate governance systems within joint participation of related parties of interests and responsibilities,can realize the rationality and construction of applying virtue ethic to enterprise,and then make enterprises put on virtue as it and its own activities roots.

  9. Marriage and Family Counseling: Ethics in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.; Oliver, Marvarene

    2005-01-01

    Codes of ethics typically provide rules and guidelines for best practices in marriage and family counseling. An emerging model for ethical decision making emphasizes the ethics of virtues and aspirations. Exploring fundamental models of helping, as well as contemporary issues in community systems, affords context for examining the professional…

  10. 德性伦理视域下的校长领导%Principal Leadership from the Perspective of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金海

    2012-01-01

    德性伦理是一种关注个人道德认识和道德修养,立足于个人道德品质的提高,并以实现主体自我完善和自我发展为终极目标的道德。德性伦理要求校长成为德性领导,校长德性领导应注重在真正的“人的意义世界”中展开其领导行为;要慎用权力、以德服人,重视道德领导的价值;应成为学习型领导者,并自觉提升自身领导力。%Virtue ethics is a kind of morality which pays attention to individual moral cognition and moral cultivation, based on the individual moral quality improvement, and to achieve the ultimate goal of the main self improvement and development. Virtue ethics requires the principal to become virtue leadership. Principal virtue leadership requires the leadership behavior in the real "man's meaning world" conduct; to caution with power, win people by virtue, and attach importance to the value of moral leadership; to be learning leader, and enhance their own leadership.

  11. From Regulation to Virtue: A Critique of Ethical Formalism in Research Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Timothy N.; Butler, Jesse W.

    2012-01-01

    The following article argues that the research compliance system has some flaws that should be addressed, particularly with regard to excessive emphasis of and reliance upon formal regulations in research administration. Ethical formalism, understood here as the use of formal rules for the determination of behavior, is not an optimal perspective…

  12. 生态德性原则与美好生活的道德基础--兼论生态伦理的德性路向%Ecology Virtue Principle and Good life’s Moral Foundation---On the Virtue Approach to Ecology Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹怀斌

    2015-01-01

    “Anthropocentrism”and “Non anthropocentrism”as two different approaches in the con-temporary research on ecology ethics advocate different theory foundation and principle,but “Centrism”embodies the obvious practical limitations.Now in the course of developing ecology ethics in order to promote the construction of ecology civilization,we attach importance to the application of normal eth-ics,but disregard this kind of ecology ethics based in virtue theory.So we conclude that we should put forward the concept and principle of ecology virtue,which can help set up the moral foundation of good life.Ecology virtue should be understood,obtained and applied in the practical relationship between hu-man being and nature.Constructing the good life founded in ecology virtue promotes us to rethink many important problems.%当代生态伦理的探讨呈现出两大对立的路向,“人类中心主义”和“非人类中心主义”,两者都有各自的立论基础和理论原则,但“中心论”具有明显的实践局限性。当前以生态伦理推进生态文明建设,侧重于规范伦理的应用,以德性理论为基础的生态伦理探索不够,为此有必要提出生态德性的概念和原则,进而明确美好生活的道德基础。生态德性只能在人与自然的实践关系中被理解、获得和运用,以生态德性为基础的美好生活需要人们作出多方面的反思。

  13. The Virtues of Organizational Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author begins by describing the organizational virtues that are associated with structural and ethical integrity. Virtues are the focus instead of behaviors, traits, or values, because virtues contain all these components: the stable characteristics of traits, the behaviors that are evidence of traits, and the values that…

  14. Moral virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  15. Care Ethics:The Effective Growing Point of the Confucian Virtue Ethics%关怀伦理:儒家德性伦理的有效生长点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浚

    2015-01-01

    关怀伦理以知识为基础,以尊重为前提,以关切为核心,以责任为准绳,体现为一种广泛的“爱”。这种“爱”关照个体、家庭、国家,表现为修身之德、齐家之德和治国之德,而“修身、齐家、治国”正是儒家德性伦理的内核。离开了关怀伦理,难以养成伦理的德性,“修身、齐家、治国”是儒家德性伦理的关怀路径,“平天下”是儒家德性伦理的政治理想和终极德性关怀,因此,关怀伦理是儒家德性伦理的有效生长点。%Taking knowledge as the basis, respect as the premise, concern as the core, responsibility as the criterion, caring ethics manifests a wide range of love.The love concerning individuals, families, countries reflects cultivating virtue, virtue of regulating the family and governing the country, and it is the rational kernel of the Confucian virtue ethics.It is difficult to develop the virtue of ethics without care ethics.Culti-vating, regulating and governing are the approaches of care ethics, therefore, care ethics is the effective growing point of the Confucian virtue ethics.

  16. Palliative sedation until death: an approach from Kant's ethics of virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselaar, Jeroen G J

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the moral justification for palliative sedation until death. Palliative sedation involves the intentional lowering of consciousness for the relief of untreatable symptoms. The paper focuses on the moral problems surrounding the intentional lowering of consciousness until death itself, rather than possible adjacent life-shortening effects. Starting from a Kantian perspective on virtue, it is shown that continuous deep sedation until death (CDS) does not conflict with the perfect duty of moral self-preservation because CDS does not destroy capacities for agency. In addition, it is argued that CDS can frustrate the imperfect duty of self-cultivation by reducing consciousness permanently. Nevertheless, there are cases where CDS is morally acceptable, namely, cases where the agent has already permanently lost the possibility for free action in advance of sedation--for example, due to excruciating and ongoing pain. Because the latter can be difficult to diagnose properly, safeguards may be needed in order to prevent the application of CDS for the wrong reasons.

  17. Knowledge Workers and Virtues in Peter Drucker’s Management Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Turriago-Hoyos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis and frequent disregard for labor, environmental, and social standards have instilled new vigor into the study of ethics and virtues. In the contemporary knowledge society, the issue of which virtues the modern day workforce needs to possess is of crucial significance. This study specifies the virtues laid out in the management theory of Peter Drucker (1909-2005, focusing upon the conceptual category of the knowledge worker as the primary unit of the contemporary information and innovation-based knowledge society. The idea and role of intellectual virtues are not yet fully developed in the literature, especially as those identified in this article are the source of critical and creative thinking. This intervention, therefore, identifies prudence, effectiveness, excellence, integrity, and truthfulness as the knowledge worker’s intellectual virtues, whereas practical wisdom, responsibility, cooperation, and courage are seen to constitute the knowledge worker’s moral character.

  18. Can virtue be taught?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The teachability of virtue is an issue on which were crossed swords during the struggle for supremacy between two basic principles of ancient Greek spirit - sophistry and ancient Greek ethics. Two great representatives of these opposite principles, Plato and Protagoras, confronted their arguments in Plato's dialog named after the great sophist. Paradoxically, during this philosophical struggle, Protagoras, who at the beginning supposed that virtue is teachable, later, on the contrary, states that virtue is not knowledge and this would make it least likely to be teachable. On the other hand Plato, who is trying to preserve the ancient Greek principle that virtue is innate, claims that virtue is knowledge. The solution of this great dispute between two principles of antiquity Plato sees in philosophical theoretization of ancient Greek mythical worldview.

  19. Exploring the contemporary ethical challenges in coaching psychology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Simon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article focuses on the contemporary ethical challenges in coaching psychology in the South African context.Research purpose: The primary objective was to qualitatively explore the contemporary ethical challenges faced by coaching psychologists when coaching clients and organisations and develop an exploratory framework of ethical challenges.Motivation for the study: There may not be sufficient practical guidance to resolving the ethical challenges coaching psychologists encounter when coaching clients within organisations.In addition, available codes of ethics may not fundamentally cover all important ethical challenges, particularly in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: An interpretative paradigm with an explorative approach was applied. Semi-structured interviews and the Delphi technique were used to gather data from 16 participants who were purposively selected: six coaching psychologists were interviewed, whilst feedback from 10 expert panel members was obtained using the Delphi technique. The data was analysed using thematic analysis.Main findings: The findings point to a number of common ethical challenges in coaching psychology, as well as the typical ethical principles used by psychologists who coach as a guide to best ethical practice. The exploratory framework represents the broad systemic outline of factors that contribute to the ethical challenges and articulates these from the coach’s, coachee’s and organisation’s perspective.Practical/managerial implications: The framework can be applied by professionals and coaching clients and can be utilised proactively in identifying potential ethical challenges in the coaching relationship.Contribution/value-add: The framework identifies ethical principles that could be used as the foundation for a code of ethics in coaching psychology.

  20. Citizenship education in religious schools: an analysis of tolerance in Catholic schools from a virtue ethical point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.T.M.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Hermans, C.A.M.; Vermeer, P.A.D.M.

    2010-01-01

    The question explored in this article is whether religious schools can contribute to the formation of the civic virtues in pupils by means of citizenship education. It is commonly agreed that civic virtues are needed in pluriform Western societies to promote social cohesion and reduce hostile

  1. Rasgos fundamentales de la ética clásica de la virtud Fundamental features of classical ethics of virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACOB BUGANZA TORIO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor expone algunos aspectos que considera fundamentales sobre la ética clásica de la virtud. Partiendo de algunos libros y artículos recientes, el autor destaca, primero, la gestación de esta ética en el marco de la antropología filosófica. Luego, expone la distinción clásica entre virtudes morales y dianoéticas para conceptuar con claridad el problema de la relación entre entendimiento y voluntad. Finalmente, expone en qué consiste la (φρóυησις y la temperantia, así como la vinculación de las virtudes morales, el fenómeno moral y el bien moral.In this article, the author presents some fundamental aspeets considered classical ethics of virtue. Based on some recent books and articles, the author emphasizes, first, the creation of this ethic in the context of phihsophical anthropology. Then exposes the classic distinction between moral virtues and dianoetic to conceptualize clearly the problem of the relationship between intellect and will. Finally, it states what the φρóυησις and temperantia and linking the moral virtues, moral phenomena and moral goodness.

  2. Kant's Virtue Theory and Its Contemporary Significance of Moral Practice%康德的德性理论及其当代道德实践意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹怀斌

    2012-01-01

    Kant's moral philosophy contains abundant virtue theory. As the most important part, the doctrine of virtue is the end of his moral philosophy. The core issues of Kant's virtue theory include: virtue only belongs to human being as the limited rational being, and only human being can pos- sess virtue we need grasp the contact between virtue and duty, inner freedom, maxim in order to understand the virtue concept accurately. Virtue is the premise and condition of happiness. The consistent relation of virtue and the happiness in proportion to virtue is the pursuit of moral practice of human being. The people's contemporary moral practice should attach importance to the unification of the moral principle and character, and reflect on the individual practice of happiness.%康德的道德哲学中包含有丰富的德性理论,德性论是其道德哲学研究的目的,具有最重要的地位。康德德性理论的核心问题包括:德性专属于人这种“有限的理性存在者”,只有人才能够拥有德性;从德性与义务、内在自由、准则的关系中才能准确把握德性概念;德性是幸福的前提和条件,德性与“配享的幸福”的一致才是人类道德实践应当追求的目的。当代人们的道德实践应注重道德原则与品格担当的统一,反思个体幸福实践。

  3. Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-01-01

    The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA) uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, ma...

  4. Justice, Courage, and Truthfulness: Virtues That Medical Trainees Can and Must Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karches, Kyle E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Medical educators and powerful physician organizations agree on the importance of professionalism for the formation of good physicians. However, the many definitions of professionalism found in the literature lack content and differ significantly, undermining attempts to describe and implement professionalism curricula. The work of the contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre on the virtues may help provide some of the content that the concept of professionalism currently lacks. MacIntyre shows the importance of the virtues, particularly justice, courage, and truthfulness, for the success of any "practice," defined as a form of cooperative human activity. Medicine fits his definition of a practice, and accordingly, medical trainees require these virtues, among others, to succeed. This analysis may provide a foundation for a new form of ethical instruction, in which excellent clinician-educators model the virtues for students and residents, thereby combating the "hidden curriculum" that sometimes corrodes these values. This educational model resembles the way in which masters of other practices, such as music, teach their students and help them become lifelong learners. Such an approach requires leaders at academic medical centers to commit to the establishment of communities in which the virtues flourish. Instruction in the virtues could supplement the emphasis on principles and rule following that predominates in medical education. It would also allow physicians and students to engage with the various cultural and religious traditions in which virtue ethics has flourished, enriching the diversity of medical ethics education and promoting trainees' professional development.

  5. The search for virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the combat for virtue, waged between Plato and the Sophists, Plato was striving to keep the contents of old Hellenic ethics, but not their mythical form, where Sophism discovered significant shortcomings and thanks to that challenged the whole contents of old Hellenic ethics. On the other hand, Plato accepted the new form of rational thinking, but not the dismantling unilateralism of Sohpism rationality. In other words, Plato embarked on theoreticizing the contents of old Hellenic ethics, aspiring to reconcile the fundamental principle of traditional view of the world with the new ruling form of thinking.

  6. The virtue of multiculturalism: personal transformation, character, and openness to the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J; Davidov, Barbara J

    2006-09-01

    The social, intellectual, and moral movement known as multiculturalism has been enormously influential in psychology. Its ability to reshape psychology has been due to its ethical force, which derives from the attractiveness of its aims of inclusion, social justice, and mutual respect. The cultivation of cultural competence, presented as a developmental process of acquiring self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and skills, is an important emphasis in the multicultural literature. The authors place the cultural competence literature in dialogue with virtue ethics (a contemporary ethical theory derived from Aristotle) to develop a rich and illuminating way for psychologists to understand and embody the personal self-examination, commitment, and transformation required for learning and practicing in a culturally competent manner. According to virtue ethics, multiculturalism can be seen as the pursuit of worthwhile goals that require personal strengths or virtues, knowledge, consistent actions, proper motivation, and practical wisdom. The authors term the virtue of multiculturalism openness to the other and conclude by describing how attention to cultural matters also transforms virtue ethics in important and necessary ways.

  7. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  8. Character virtues in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radden, Jennifer; Sadler, John Z

    2008-01-01

    The character-focused approach known as virtue ethics is especially well suited to understanding and promoting ethical psychiatric practice. Virtues are stable dispositions and responses attributed to character, and a virtue-based ethics is one in which people's selves or characters are at the center of moral assessment. In this discussion by a clinician and a philosopher, clinical scenarios using exchanges and inner monologue illustrate key aspects of virtues. Virtues are acquired through habituation; they are habits of mind as much as behavior; they are as a group heterogeneous, and individually composite; they involve affective responses; they are not impartial; they are compatible with the "role morality" required of professionals; they are responses to particular temptations and weaknesses; and they include, in the capacity for practical judgment known as phronesis, a way of resolving many of the conflicts and dilemmas that arise in practice. The virtue approach to ethics will likely be most useful in the educational setting where practitioners are learning clinical skills and socialized into the broad ethos of professional practice. Aspects of this educational effort are briefly reviewed, including whether it ought to be undertaken at all, whether the effort to teach virtues is possible, and, if so, how it can be achieved.

  9. Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2014-09-30

    Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE CODE OF ETHICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY FIRMS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA GANGONE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothing is eternal, except changes. This statement characterizes the contemporary world, as succinctly and correctly as possible. The field of economic affairs, strongly marked by the effects of the economic globalization process development, by the manifestation of the knowledge-based economy and by the moral, ecological and social consciousness of contemporary economic organizations, within the framework of the aggravation of some social and ecological problems, faces today the need for various fundamental changes, starting from the reconsideration of the validity of those principles that have governed it for the last decades. Respecting the ethical norms or principles in developing economic affairs does not represent a recent approach, but, as a result of the changes that marked the contemporary economy, tends to become an organic component of the process of adopting organizational decisions and an indissolubly respected principle in the process of planning the future of the organization. Moreover, the international organizations’ experience proclaimed the importance of respecting a unitary set of business ethics principles, disregarding the market or the geographical area where they develop their activity, leading thus to the enrichment of science and management functions with an ethical part.

  11. Self-with-Other in Teacher Practice: A Case Study through Care, Aristotelian Virtue, and Buddhist Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dave; Bai, Heesoon

    2016-01-01

    Many teacher candidates get their first taste of life as a full-time teacher in their practicums, during which they confront a host of challenges, pedagogical and ethical. Because ethics is fundamental to the connection between teachers and students, teacher candidates are often required to negotiate dilemmas in ways that keep with the ethical…

  12. Self-with-Other in Teacher Practice: A Case Study through Care, Aristotelian Virtue, and Buddhist Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dave; Bai, Heesoon

    2016-01-01

    Many teacher candidates get their first taste of life as a full-time teacher in their practicums, during which they confront a host of challenges, pedagogical and ethical. Because ethics is fundamental to the connection between teachers and students, teacher candidates are often required to negotiate dilemmas in ways that keep with the ethical…

  13. The Human and Educational Significance of Honesty as an Epistemic and Moral Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    While honesty is clearly a virtue of some educational as well as moral significance, its virtue-ethical status is far from clear. In this essay, following some discussion of latter-day virtue ethics and virtue epistemology, David Carr argues that honesty exhibits key features of both moral and epistemic virtue, and, more precisely, that honesty as…

  14. Solidarity in family medicine in Brazil and in Italy: reflecting on ethical issues and contemporary challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on solidarity in the practice of family medicine in two realities. The objective is to search for solidarity as an ethical principle in the relationship between family doctor and subject. It is a descriptive exploratory research carried out in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and in the Province of Rome, Lazio Region, Italy. It included fourteen Brazilian family doctors and fifteen Italian family doctors. The theoretical framework consisted of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of Symbolic Power. The results show the importance of the role of the family doctor in the materialization of this ethical principle, as a spokesman for scientific knowledge and as an agent of a State policy. Solidarity was understood within distinct domains and the discursive productions also demonstrated the negation of solidarity in such practice. Globalization proved to be a contemporary challenge for an ethical practice of family medicine that is marked by solidarity.

  15. From ethics of care to psychology of care: reconnecting ethics of care to contemporary moral psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govrin, Aner

    2014-01-01

    Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care’s various insights. Moreover, ethics of care’s core concepts – compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development– are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology. Next, I will show that ethics of care’s most promising idea centered on the care given to an infant and the importance of that care to the development of moral thinking. In this context, I will be describing the implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theories, infant research, findings in moral psychology and neuroscience. I will argue that ethics of care needs to be radically re-thought and replaced by a psychology of care, an attachment approach to moral judgment, which would establish the centrality of the caregiver’s role in moral development. The philosophical implications of this approach to the understanding of the “rationalists” and “intuitionists” debate about the true nature of moral judgment is also discussed. PMID:25368588

  16. From ethics of care to psychology of care - Reconnecting ethics of care to contemporary moral psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner eGovrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care’s various insights. Moreover, ethics of care’s core concepts – compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development– are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology. Next, I will show that ethics of care’s most promising idea centered on the care given to an infant and the importance of that care to the development of moral thinking. In this context, I will be describing the implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theories, infant research, findings in moral psychology and neuroscience. I will argue that ethics of care needs to be radically re-thought and replaced by a psychology of care, an attachment approach to moral judgment, which would establish the centrality of the caregiver’s role in moral development. The philosophical implications of this approach to the understanding of the 'rationalists’’ and ‘intuitionists’’ debate about the true nature of moral judgment is also discussed.

  17. Traits and skills for managerial leadership : a virtue theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lampou, Konstantin

    2002-01-01

    This is a contemporary study of traits and skills for managerial leadership which applies a virtue theory approach from moral philosophy. A classification of virtues for leadership is proposed. Traits and skills as virtues are divided in four categories: general intellectual, specific intellectual, general moral and specific moral. The model is substantiated by an example of a detailed catalogue of virtues for managerial leadership.

  18. [Ethical values and virtues of the Diatriba. A tribute to Bernardino Ramazzini on the tercentenary of his death (1714)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Based on Hyppocratic values of ancient medicine, Ramazzini's way of thinking prefigures the social medicine that was to be an achievement of the Enlightenment. This contribution aims at analyzing the ethical aspects of the Diatriba. The preface already contains elements that constitute the ethical manifesto of Ramazzini. He shows compassion ("...we must admit that the workers in certain arts and crafts sometimes derive from them grave injuries"), expresses gratitude ("we owe this to the wretched condition of the workers from whose manual toil...so many benefits accrue"), demonstrates a sense of justice ("...in our own time also laws have been passed in well-ordered cities to secure good conditions for the workers; so it is only right that the art of medicine should contribute its portion for the benefit and relief of those for whom the law has shown such foresight") and demonstrates his willingness to be helpful to workers ("...I have tried to unearth in the shops of craftsmen...to suggest medical precautions for the prevention and treatment of such diseases as usually affect the workers"). The ethical contribution of Ramazzini, however, goes far beyond these noble and heartfelt words, demonstrating his intellectual and moral depth. In fact, alongside comments and suggestions, quotations and proposals, information and warnings, the Magister offers a framework for his beliefs on the attitude that the physician should adopt. Prudence and moderation inspire his recommendations when he speaks directly and indirectly to workers; irony and sarcasm pervade his thoughts when he talks to his colleagues, fairness and integrity inspire his remarks to authorities. Although current practice is based on ethical rules dating back to more recent times, the ethical vision of the Magister, that is admirable for its honesty, originality and depth, is in some respects still relevant today.

  19. The thoughts of reconstructing the current difficulty of the contemporary Chinese ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学马克思主义学院,山东青岛266003

    2016-01-01

    With the deepening of the reform and opening up and socialist market economy and development of China’s traditional ethics appeared between theory and reality, in addition to official corruption, all kinds of unfair distribution and the impact of the virtual network, facing national ethics identity crisis in contemporary China, all sorts of ethical problems, moral anomie and spirit flaw phenomenon is serious. Therefore, must be based on national conditions, dialectical treatment of traditional ethics and foreign ethics culture, correctly handle the relationship between efficiency and fairness, to strengthen the power restriction and supervision system, improve the modern market new order and new network moral order, promote the construction of a new moral ethics to satisfy the needs of The Times.%随着改革开放和社会主义市场经济的深入和发展,我国传统的伦理理论与现实出现了脱节,加之官员腐败、各种分配不公以及虚拟网络的冲击等原因,当代中国面临着国家伦理认同危机,各种伦理问题突出,道德失范和精神缺失现象严重。因此,必须立足国情,辩证的对待传统伦理及外来伦理文化,正确处理效率与公平的关系,强化权力运行制约和监督体系,完善建立现代市场新秩序和网络道德新秩序,推动适应时代需要的伦理新道德的构建。

  20. Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

  1. Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

  2. Contemporary nursing wisdom in the UK and ethical knowing: difficulties in conceptualising the ethics of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger; Curzio, Joan; Carr, Graham; Terry, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This paper's philosophical ideas are developed from a General Nursing Council for England and Wales Trust-funded study to explore nursing knowledge and wisdom and ways in which these can be translated into clinical practice and fostered in junior nurses. Participants using Carper's (1978) ways of knowing as a framework experienced difficulty conceptualizing a link between the empirics and ethics of nursing. The philosophical problem is how to understand praxis as a moral entity with intrinsic value when so much of value seems to be technical and extrinsic depending on desired ends. Using the Aristotelian terms poesis and praxis can articulate the concerns that the participants as well as Carper (1978) and Dreyfus (in Flyvbjerg, 1991) among others share that certain actions or ways of knowing important for nursing are being devalued and deformed by the importance placed on quantitative data and measurable outcomes. The sense of praxis is a moralized one and most of what nurses do is plausibly on any account of normative ethics a morally good thing; the articulation of the idea of praxis can go some way in showing how it is a part of the discipline of nursing. Nursing's acts as poesis can be a part of how practitioners come to have praxis as phronesis or practical wisdom. So to be a wise nurse, one needs be a wise person.

  3. Upon opening the black box and finding it full : Exploring the ethics in design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary design practices, such as participatory design (PD), human-centered design (HCD), and codesign, have inherent ethical qualities, which often remain implicit and unexamined. Three design projects in the high-tech industry were studied using three ethical traditions as lenses. Virtue ethi

  4. Virtue reversed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to an understanding of the true virtues of argumentation, this paper sketches and exemplifies a theoretically reasoned but simple typology of argumentative vices or ‘malpractices’ that are rampant in political debate in modern democracies. The typology reflects, in negative, a set of...... of argumentative norms, thus making a bid for something that civic instruction might profitably teach students at all levels about deliberative democracy....

  5. 伦理视野中的离婚%The Divorce under the Perspective of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金小燕

    2015-01-01

    从基本的伦理关系出发,简要分析围城内外的两种离婚情形,以及社会上的三种“当离不离”的原因,最后陈述如何正确对待“离婚”这一社会现象。一方面要正确给“离婚”问题定性,另一方面还要透过“离婚”这种社会现象分析并确定正确的道德取向。通过伦理视阈的透视,阐述离婚的实质和问题。%From the basic ethical relations,this paper analyzes two forms of divorce briefly,including three causes of‘divorce or not’. Lastly,it tries to indicate how to correctly treat the phenomenon of divorce. On the one hand, the nature of divorce should be determined;on the other hand,correct moral orientation should be analyzed and de-termined through social phenomena of divorce. From the ethical perspective,the essence and problems of the divor-ce are stated.

  6. Vallor, Shannon. Technology and the Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg

    2017-01-01

    Technology and the Virtues is the first analysis of emerging technologies and the role of virtue ethics in an attempt to make us understand the urgency of immediate moral transformation. It is written by phenomenologist and philosopher Shannon Vallor, a William J. Rewak Professor at Santa Clara...

  7. Responsibility: The First Virtue of Innovation? A discussion of some ethical and meta-ethical issues concerning the concept of ‘responsibility’ in technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen D. Stabell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the concept of responsibility in the context of technological innovation, with reference to two types of responsibility: ex post and ex ante responsibility. Exposing the shortcomings of ex post responsibility in the context of innovation, I examine different ways of conceiving of a form of ex ante responsibility suitable for our current technological situation. Here I identify two positions with very different approaches to the question of the ethical status of responsibility: Hans Jonas’s concept of responsibility as an ethical principle structuring moral behavior, and René von Schomberg’s idea of responsibility as “responsiveness” linked to procedures of communication and collaboration. Rejecting von Schomberg’s concept on ethico-philosophical grounds, I argue in favor of a critical rehabilitation of some basic thoughts in the philosophy of Jonas. Finally, I suggest taking the step from the Jonasian ethics of responsibility towards the Hegelian concept of Sittlichkeit – a concrete social morality that disentangles responsibility from the dilemmas of subjectivist morality.

  8. 德行、德性、良品抑或美德——论"virtue ethics"的译名

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永刚; 易瑜

    2016-01-01

    目前virtue ethics主要有四种译名:德行伦理,德性伦理,良品伦理,美德伦理."德行伦理"将"virtue"的内涵限定为外部道德行为,改变了我们对"virtue"的一般理解,也不符合virtue ethics把道德品格作为核心关注的事实."德性伦理"使得virtue和virtue ethics的意义狭窄化,且该词的使用比较混乱,容易引起virtue ethics和中国传统伦理学理论之间的概念混淆."良品伦理"是一种过度翻译.相比之下,"美德伦理"这一译名较为妥当.

  9. The Cat, the Cradle, and the Silver Spoon: Violence in Contemporary Art and the Question of Ethics for Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavin, Kevin; Kallio-Tavin, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of objective and subjective violence, two contemporary artworks are interpreted through theories of the Other. Zhu Yu's "Eating People" (2000) is considered through Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and, in particular, through an Ethics of the Real. Teemu Mäki's "My Way, a Work in Progress" (1995) is…

  10. The Cat, the Cradle, and the Silver Spoon: Violence in Contemporary Art and the Question of Ethics for Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavin, Kevin; Kallio-Tavin, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of objective and subjective violence, two contemporary artworks are interpreted through theories of the Other. Zhu Yu's "Eating People" (2000) is considered through Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and, in particular, through an Ethics of the Real. Teemu Mäki's "My Way, a Work in Progress" (1995) is…

  11. [Phronesis: Medicine's indispensable virtue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Facing those who defend that Medicine is not but an applied science, Pellegrino argues that the ultimate goal of Medicine is facing to a human being in his illness condition. Thus, it is not sufficient to have scientific knowledge but proximity to man kindness. Cure is not the only goal -achievable in only a few cases- but healing, caring with a person as an ill person and as a person. For this reason, professional competence is not enough; the physician needs to have the necessary dispositions to be a good person, a good professional. To get the goals of Medicine, the physician has to achieve those qualities who allow him to do the good he is intended to, that is, he needs to be virtuous. Prudence -phronesis- is the virtue that allows him to apply a general rule to a particular case and, furthermore, addresses his actions to be not only technically correct, but excellent. Prudence is, then, the link between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. Pellegrino's main objective has been to elaborate a Philosophy of Medicine, different from the Philosophy of Science, useful for clinical practice and used by clinical practitioners. By nurturing prudence, a small bit of the final goal is reached: the healing, the goodness for the sick. This should be possible if we are embedded in a moral community, and for Pellegrino, sharing knowledge and ethical values is the way of being part of a moral community.

  12. The place of practical wisdom in science education: what can be learned from Aristotelian ethics and a virtue-based theory of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Sara

    2017-06-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher knowledge, its development, and consequently models of teacher education. Views of teacher knowledge presented in this paper are informed by philosophical literature that questions normative views of knowledge and argues for a virtue-based epistemology rather than a belief-based one. The paper first outlines general features of phronesis/practical wisdom. Later, a virtue-based view of knowledge is described. A virtue-based view binds knowledge with moral concepts and suggests that knowledge development is motivated by intellectual virtues such as intellectual sobriety, perseverance, fairness, and humility. A virtue-based theory of knowledge gives prominence to the virtue of phronesis/practical wisdom, whose primary function is to mediate among virtues and theoretical knowledge into a line of action that serves human goods. The role of phronesis and its relevance to teaching science are explained accordingly. I also discuss differences among various characterizations of practical knowledge in science education and a virtue-based characterization. Finally, implications and further questions for teacher education are presented.

  13. The place of practical wisdom in science education: what can be learned from Aristotelian ethics and a virtue-based theory of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Sara

    2016-04-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher knowledge, its development, and consequently models of teacher education. Views of teacher knowledge presented in this paper are informed by philosophical literature that questions normative views of knowledge and argues for a virtue-based epistemology rather than a belief-based one. The paper first outlines general features of phronesis/practical wisdom. Later, a virtue-based view of knowledge is described. A virtue-based view binds knowledge with moral concepts and suggests that knowledge development is motivated by intellectual virtues such as intellectual sobriety, perseverance, fairness, and humility. A virtue-based theory of knowledge gives prominence to the virtue of phronesis/practical wisdom, whose primary function is to mediate among virtues and theoretical knowledge into a line of action that serves human goods. The role of phronesis and its relevance to teaching science are explained accordingly. I also discuss differences among various characterizations of practical knowledge in science education and a virtue-based characterization. Finally, implications and further questions for teacher education are presented.

  14. Place as an ethical dilemma in contemporary art. Events of solidarity of multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Vergara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing a parallel with the rich participation of the individual as both body and voice, now active on the streets of Brazil, this paper explores the changes in process in contemporary artistic practice and identifies an urgent ethical clamor for visual art. From the vantage point of emerging ethical-esthetic practices, the street protests can be seen as symptoms of an exhausted social order. Increasingly we are seeing a body of work emerge that is tired of art ruled by the production of objects and favors the development of a visual aesthetic that gives place to the meaning of the local and the relational artistic event tied to the multi-sensorial activation of the body where the meaning of presence and the presence of meanings are interwoven. The paper examines the meaning of presence and the temporality of body and voice as forms of therapeutic and microgeographic poetic resistance that speak to the emergence of new ethicalaesthetic caring practices for the public meaning of art in institutions, museums and biennials.

  15. Virtue in Medical Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Thomas, Hywel

    2017-03-01

    Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor-like kindness, fairness and good judgement-have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education and throughout the medical career. However, until very recently, no empirical studies have attempted to investigate which virtues, in particular, medical doctors and medical students tend to have or not to have, nor how these virtues influence how they think about or practise medicine. The question of what virtuous medical practice is, is vast and, as we have written elsewhere, the question of how to study doctors' moral character is fraught with difficulty. In this paper, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind study that attempted to explore these issues at three medical schools (and associated practice regions) in the United Kingdom. We identify which character traits are important in the good doctor in the opinion of medical students and doctors and identify which virtues they say of themselves they possess and do not possess. Moreover, we identify how thinking about the virtues contributes to doctors' and medical students' thinking about common moral dilemmas in medicine. In ending, we remark on the implications for medical education.

  16. 羞耻脆弱性的德性伦理反思%Reflection on Shame Vulnerability from the Perspective of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童建军

    2016-01-01

    羞耻是中国伦理思想与道德实践中的重要概念。人对羞耻的恰当反应被儒学视为良知的体现。羞耻同视觉相关,是行动者被他者“看穿”或者“识破”后的负性情绪体验。羞耻是行动者做了不正当之事后的自我意识,涉及的主要是是整体的自我,折射了行动者的德性瑕疵。羞耻固然是需要培养的一种道德心理或者道德情感,但是,羞耻与德性这二者之间没有普遍的逻辑上和事实上的必然联系。羞耻式微是必然的历史进程,也可能隐含着德性发展的新趋向。%Shame is an important concept in Chinese ethics and moral practice. Appropriate shame is viewed as the manifestation of conscience by Confucianism. Shame is associated with vision, which is a negative emotional experience when “seen through”by others. Shame is self-consciousness of wrong doings, which mainly involves a whole self and reflects the moral flaws of the wrong doers. Shame is certainly a moral psychology and feeling that needs to be cultivated, but there is no necessary correlation between shame and virtue in both logical and real sense. Loss of shame is the natural trend in history. It may hint a new trend in morality.

  17. The Aesthetic Value Orientation of Contemporary Urban Family Ethics Operas%当代都市家庭伦理剧的审美价值取向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉芬

    2014-01-01

    Since the broadcast of TV Play Expectation 20 years ago , lots of family ethics operas hae been produced with kinds of themes, which display the urban family relationship and life's variable.Contemporary urban family ethics operas concentrate on four aesthetic value orientations .Firstly, the story pursues life-long marriage and family happiness .Secondly, figure characterization and moral evaluation are the unity of beauty and kindness , and believe virtue is its own reward .Thirdly, the traditional concept of "proper-ly matched marriage"is still widely recognized .Fourthly, people are always longing for "a comfortable home and a satisfactory job".%从《渴望》播出至今20多年来,家庭伦理剧数量大,题材丰富,其中主要是反映城市家庭关系与城市平民家庭生活的喜怒哀乐。当代都市家庭伦理剧的审美取向有四:一是电视叙事追求夫妻白头到老、家庭关系和谐幸福;二是人物塑造与道德评价的“美善合一”、“善恶有报”;三是对“门当户对”传统婚姻观念的认同;四是百姓安居乐业的现实渴望。

  18. Integrity and consensus: A Christian perspective on ethical management and education in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kretzschmar

    2002-01-01

    In this article the compliance- and values-based approaches to ethical management are explained and the challenges of the contemporary business and societal contexts in South Africa noted. The need for both moral integrity and character (with respect to perception, intention and virtue) and ethical consensus is extensively discussed. The importance of ethical dialogue as a means of reaching moral consensus, and the contribution of public theology (particularly Christian theology) are assessed...

  19. 当代公民的幸福内涵导向及思考--基于德性主义与功利主义的视角%The Orientation and Thinking of the Happiness of Contemporary Chinese Citizens- Based on the Perspective of Virtue and Utilitarianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红林

    2016-01-01

    Aristotle's virtue theory of happiness and Bentham's utilitarian concept of happiness are suitable for different social e-cology.In Aristotle's view of happiness,the citizens who want to live a happy life are to live a life of virtue,and only when the community members have the virtues required,can they enjoy the happiness of life.On the contrary,in Bentham’s view of hap-piness,the purpose and result—pleasure and happiness—are the standards of the actors’ethicality.Bentham will equate hap-piness with personal happiness,and holds that each person has the same value of happiness with others.By comparing the so-cial,political and cultural conditions of the two kinds of happiness,it is proposed that as the contemporary Chinese social popu-lation is in a pluralistic era,the orientation of happiness advocated to them should be in multi-mode too.%亚里士多德的德性主义幸福观与边沁的功利主义幸福观分别适合于不同社会生态。在亚里士多德的幸福观里,公民希望过幸福的生活,就是希望过一种有德性的生活,共同体成员只有先具备德性的完善,然后才能够配享人生的幸福。边沁的幸福观以目的和结果作为衡量行为者的行为是否符合道德的标准,边沁将幸福等同于个人所获得的快乐,并且认为每个人的快乐与其他人的快乐具有同样的价值。通过对两种幸福观的社会、政治和文化条件进行比较,当代中国社会人群处于一个多元变化时代,公民的幸福内涵导向也应是多元模式。

  20. 走出医学伦理困境:要规则,也要德性%Get Out the Medical Ethics Dilemmas:Dual Pursuit of Norms and Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜治政

    2016-01-01

    我国20世纪80年代开启的思想解放运动将个人权益从种种束缚中解放出来,极大地调动了医务人员的积极性,但同时在另一方面或者说客观上也诱发了无节制的自由的产生与私欲的极大膨胀,促成了去道德化倾向的形成。而规范伦理适应了新兴市场的需要,能够发挥调节人们之间相互关系的作用,但它的诸多弱点,需要德性伦理的补充。而推动规范伦理与德性伦理的结合,有助于医学走出伦理困境。%The enlightenment movements began from 1980’ s in the 20th century, and it liberated personal rights and interests from all sorts of fetters. This movement boosted enthusiasm of the medical workers. Meanwhile, it brought out unlimited freedom, expansive individualism and inclination of discarding morals. The norm ethics a-dapted to the need of the markets and democratic societies, and it played a role in regulating the relationship among people. However, it still bears many weak points and need the supplement from virtue ethics. Pushing the combi-nation of the normal ethics with virtue ethic may promote the process of getting out the predicament of ethics.

  1. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  2. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  3. Pharmaceutical virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily

    2006-06-01

    In the early history of psychopharmacology, the prospect of developing technologically sophisticated drugs to alleviate human ills was surrounded with a fervor that could be described as religious. This paper explores the subsequent history of the development of psychopharmacological agents, focusing on the ambivalent position of both the industry and its employees. Based on interviews with retired pharmaceutical employees who were active in the industry in the 1950s and 1960s when the major breakthroughs were made in the development of MAOIs and SSRIs, the paper explores the initial development of educational materials for use in sales campaigns. In addition, based on interviews with current employees in pharmaceutical sales and marketing, the paper describes the complex perspective of contemporary pharmaceutical employees who must live surrounded by the growing public vilification of the industry as rapacious and profit hungry and yet find ways to make their jobs meaningful and dignified. The paper will contribute to the understudied problem of how individuals function in positions that require them to be part of processes that on one description constitute a social evil, but on another, constitute a social good.

  4. The Place of Practical Wisdom in Science Education: What Can Be Learned from Aristotelian Ethics and a Virtue-Based Theory of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to characterize science teachers' practical knowledge utilizing a virtue-based theory of knowledge and the Aristotelian notion of phronesis/practical wisdom. The article argues that a greater understanding of the concept of phronesis and its relevance to science education would enrich our understandings of teacher…

  5. Virtuous States and Virtuous Traits: How the Empirical Evidence Regarding the Existence of Broad Traits Saves Virtue Ethics from the Situationist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William

    2014-01-01

    A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…

  6. Kant's Theory of virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)......Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)...

  7. Kant's Theory of virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)......Anmeldelse af Anne Margaret Baxleys bog: "Kant's Thery of Virtue. The Value of Autocracy" (Cambridge University Press, 2010)...

  8. The union of physical education ethics and traditional virtue of Kung Fu%体育伦理与传统武德的契合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宇宁

    2015-01-01

    By using documentary, logical analysis and so on to the Chinese traditional Kung Fu from the perspective of physical education ethics, analyzed and concluded that Kung Fu’s ethics, physical education ethic relations, ethical activity.%通过运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等对中国传统武德从体育伦理学的视角进行剖析,得出武术的体育伦理意识、体育伦理关系、体育伦理的活动。

  9. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  10. A Review of Contemporary Ethical Decision-Making Models for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.

    2015-01-01

    Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…

  11. A Contemporary Conspectus of Business Ethics Education: Content and Pedagogy for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to offer the suggestion that HRD (human resource development) become an ethics champion within the corporations and the organizations we serve. By surveying and synthesizing literature from higher education and professional associations on business ethics theory and practice, this paper provides both rationale as well…

  12. Are virtues national, supranational, or universal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; de Raad, Boele; Timmerman, Marieke E; Askevis-Leherpeux, Françoise; Boski, Pawel; Carmona, Carmen; Choubisa, Rajneesh; Del Carmen Dominguez, Alejandra; Bye, Hege H; Kurylo, Anastacia; Lahmann, Cornelia; Mastor, Khairul; Selenko, Eva; Slezáčková, Alena; Smith, Ripley; Tip, Linda; Yik, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Many studies investigated cultural differences in values, most notably by Hofstede and Schwarz. Relatively few have focused on virtues, a related and important concept in contemporary social science. The present paper examines the similarities and differences between nations, or blocks of - cultural

  13. Are virtues national, supranational, or universal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; de Raad, Boele; Timmerman, Marieke E; Askevis-Leherpeux, Françoise; Boski, Pawel; Carmona, Carmen; Choubisa, Rajneesh; Del Carmen Dominguez, Alejandra; Bye, Hege H; Kurylo, Anastacia; Lahmann, Cornelia; Mastor, Khairul; Selenko, Eva; Slezáčková, Alena; Smith, Ripley; Tip, Linda; Yik, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Many studies investigated cultural differences in values, most notably by Hofstede and Schwarz. Relatively few have focused on virtues, a related and important concept in contemporary social science. The present paper examines the similarities and differences between nations, or blocks of -

  14. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  15. A Survey on Virtue in Business and Management (1980-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, I.; Sison, A.J. (Alejo José)

    2012-01-01

    Virtue ethics is generally recognized as one of the three major schools of ethics, but is often waylaid by utilitarianism and deontology in business and management literature. Focusing on publications in the Thomson-Reuters Journal of Citation Report between 1980 and 2011, we use EBSCO and ABI databases to look for articles containing the keywords 'virtue ethics', 'virtue theory' or 'virtuousness' in the abstract together with 'business' or 'management' in the text. We refined our search to d...

  16. Virtues in participatory design : Cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and

  17. Virtues in participatory design : Cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and base

  18. 从《瓦尔登湖》的环境美德伦理看我国生态环境保护%Ecological Environment Protection of China from the Perspective of Environmental Virtue Ethics in "Walden"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丹

    2012-01-01

    梭罗的《瓦尔登湖》被人们誉为美国文学史上最优美的散文,它是根据作者在瓦尔登湖畔的亲身经历写成.梭罗本人主张简单自足的生活方式,反对恣意向自然索取,提倡人与自然和谐共处.随着全球生态环境问题的日益突出,其思想越来越受到学者们的关注.文章对环境美德伦理学进行阐述,然后对《瓦尔登湖》中所体现的环境美德伦理思想进行分析,提出了几点该作品对我国环境保护的启示.%Thoreau's "Walden" is known as the most beautiful prose in the history of American literature. It is based on the author's personal experiences in Walden. Thoreau advocated simple self-sufficient lifestyle behaviors and harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and apposed natural claim intention. With the global ecological and environmental issues become increasingly prominent, the idea of "Walden" attracts more and more attention from scholars. This article elaborates the environmental virtue ethics, then carries on the analysis of the environmental virtue ethics embodied in "Walden", and finally puts forward environmental protection of China's enlightenment of the work.

  19. Purpose as a Moral Virtue for Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology has significantly influenced studies in the fields of moral philosophy, psychology and education, and scholars in those fields have attempted to apply its ideas and methods to moral education. Among various theoretical frameworks, virtue ethics is most likely to connect positive psychology to moral educational studies because…

  20. Purpose as a Moral Virtue for Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology has significantly influenced studies in the fields of moral philosophy, psychology and education, and scholars in those fields have attempted to apply its ideas and methods to moral education. Among various theoretical frameworks, virtue ethics is most likely to connect positive psychology to moral educational studies because…

  1. 从麦金太尔的德性理论谈新时期我国体育职业道德建设%Enlightenment of sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China from MacIntyre's virtue theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊云庆; 曹景川

    2016-01-01

    德性的缺乏是导致新时期我国体育职业道德问题层出不穷的原因之一,而麦金太尔的德性论为解决体育职业道德问题提供了新的思路。从德性理论的概述出发,系统介绍了新时期我国体育职业道德建设的成就及职业道德缺失的现实问题,结合德性理论的实践、人生统一性与传统三大观点,探讨了德性理论对新时期我国体育职业道德建设的深刻启示,构建与我国现代社会经济条件相适应的职业道德体系。%In the new period,virtue deficiency is the fundamental reason leading to the increasingly serious sports moral issues in China,However,Macintyre's virtue theory offers a new idea to solve the sports professional ethic issues.Starting from an overview of virtue theory, this paper systematicly introduced the achievements of the sports professional ethics construction and the practical problems of virtue deficiency in the new period of China. With the combination of three viewpoints of the practice of virtue theory,lifetime unity and tradition,it discussed the profound enlightenment of virtue theory for the sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China,so as to establish a suitable professional ethic system fitting in the social and economic condition of China.

  2. Stoic Virtues in Tertullian’s Works and Their Relation to Cicero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap Levente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Q. S. F. Tertullian was one of the most prominent writers and apologists of the early Christian Church. He had two important goals with his works: on the one hand, to introduce, according to the spirit of the age, the Christian teachings embedded in contemporary Roman culture; on the other hand, to highlight and emphasize the difference between the Christian teachings and the pagan ideas. This dichotomy is characteristic of his ethical teachings as well: while he emphasizes the importance of the Christian virtues, he does not forget about their philosophical background either. Tertullian demonstrably considered Stoic philosophy as the most acceptable philosophical thinking. Virtues have an important status in the teachings of the stoic body, just as they are a fundamental part of Christian ethics. The question arises whether Tertullian’s views on virtues could have been influenced by his pagan Roman ancestor, M. T. Cicero, who also shared stoic doctrines. This is the question the present lecture tries to answer.

  3. Virtue's Turn and Return%美德的转向及其再转向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈克尔·斯洛特[美; 郭金鸿(译)

    2014-01-01

    individualism that emerged in the modern West, and that is why the Confucian virtue tradition was never eclipsed the way Aristotelianism was in the West. And the fact that contemporary sentimentalist virtue ethics resembles Confucianism and differs from Aristotelianism in its emphasis on moral humility is some indication that Aristotelianism is not the inevitable way forward for virtue ethics. Moreover, since humility is also an epistemic virtue, virtue epistemology may have more to learn from a sentimentalism that emphasizes empathy with the point of view of others, than it has previously recognized.

  4. Ethics and Dualism in Contemporary Psychology: From Avicenna and Descartes to Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Jeftiċ, Alma

    2014-01-01

    From Avicenna and Descartes a long debate on the role of mind-body dilemma has left a huge impact on ethics of psychological research. That is especially applicable on researches that include both human and non-human participants, as well as their limitations and constraints that are connected to ethical principles. However, these principles are closely related to the interpretation of mind-body dilemma, which depends on different understandings of connection between soul and senses. The purp...

  5. Use the Marxist Ethics Guiding the Construction of Civic Virtue%用马克思主义的伦理观指导公民道德建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莎莎

    2012-01-01

    Small Yue Yue incident set off a discussion about the social and moral and ethical issues of academia, and how to alleviate today's social and ethical missing, the reconstruction of civic virtue solved a topic. In this paper, the basic meaning of Marxist ethics and correct understanding of moral failure on the problem that exists in our country today, and ex~unded China's social and moral construction of urgency and ways. Trying to explore reasonable Marxist ethics to guide our civic morality, to comply with the basic requirements of the socialist core value system, building a socialist harmonious society contribution forces in today's market economic system in China.%“小悦悦”事件掀起了我国学术界关于社会道德与伦理问题的讨论,如何缓解当今社会伦理缺失,重建公民道德成为当前亟待解决的一个课题。本文利用马克思主义的伦理观的基本内涵,正确认识了当今我国存在的道德缺失问题,并阐述了中国社会道德建设紧迫性与途径。试图探索在当今我国市场经济体制下,合理地利用马克思主义伦理观指导我国公民道德建设,以符合我国社会主义核心价值体系的基本要求,为构建社会主义和谐社会贡献力量。

  6. Integrity and consensus: A Christian perspective on ethical management and education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kretzschmar

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the compliance- and values-based approaches to ethical management are explained and the challenges of the contemporary business and societal contexts in South Africa noted. The need for both moral integrity and character (with respect to perception, intention and virtue and ethical consensus is extensively discussed. The importance of ethical dialogue as a means of reaching moral consensus, and the contribution of public theology (particularly Christian theology are assessed. Finally, vital issues relating to business ethics management and education are outlined and some practical possibilities suggested.

  7. Contemporary ethical issues in human milk-banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Donna J; Szucs, Kinga A; Torke, Alexia M; Helft, Paul R

    2011-12-01

    Donor human milk has been used in the United States for >90 years, but recent advances in human milk science and laboratory techniques have led to increasing use of this resource. Pediatricians began using donor human milk in the 1900s in response to anecdotal observation that premature infants had better health outcomes when receiving their own mothers' milk. Since then, a formalized human milk-banking system developed in the mid-1980s and distributed >1 million ounces of pasteurized donor human milk in 2008. Despite growth in the use of pasteurized donor human milk, there is little discussion in the medical literature regarding the ethical considerations of collection and use of this resource. Key ethical considerations include issues surrounding medical decision-making and informed consent, increasing the limited supply of human milk, how ethically to allocate this scarce resource, and concerns linked to the marketing of a human milk.

  8. Virtue: A Necessary Component of Ethical Administration Virtud: componente necesario para la gestión ética Virtude: componente necessário da gestão ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Fontrodona-Felip

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to offer a theoretical model to help conceptualize ethics and to clarify the characteristics and constraints of the different ethical theories. An integral ethical approach must include three dimensions: norms, good and virtue. It is argued that each of these dimensions stems from a comprehensive anthropology that deals with understanding human action. The article describes the principal aspects in terms of the pursuit of objectives, principles to be followed and virtues to be acquired. It concludes with a description of an experience in the application of this framework at two different universities in Spain: a Catholic inspired institution and a state university.El objetivo es ofrecer un modelo teórico que ayude a conceptualizar la ética y clarificar las características y los límites de las diferentes teorías éticas. Las tres dimensiones que deben estar presentes en un enfoque integral de la ética son: las normas, los bienes y las virtudes, las cuales, según se argumenta, proceden de una antropología integral que trata de comprender la acción humana. En el artículo se describen los principales aspectos, en términos de búsqueda de objetivos, principios que se deben seguir y virtudes que hay que adquirir. Se concluye con una experiencia en el uso de este marco en dos universidades diferentes en España, una de inspiración católica y una universidad estatal.O objetivo é fornecer um modelo teórico para conceituar a ética e esclarecer as características e os limites das teorias éticas. Uma abordagem amplia da ética deve ter três dimensões: regras, bens e virtudes. Estas vêm de uma antropologia integral que procura compreender a ação humana. O artigo descreve os principais aspectos sobre consecução de objectivos, princípios a serem seguidos e virtudes a serem adquiridas. Conclui-se com a experiência de este quadro em duas universidades na Espanha: uma de inspiração católica e outra estadual.

  9. 公正作为德性——亚里士多德公正德性探析%Justice as a virtue: An analysis of Aristotle's virtue of justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显中

    2007-01-01

    People currently regard justice as the main principle of institutions and society,while in ancient Greek people took it as the virtue of citizens.This article analyzes Aristotle's virtue of justice in his method of virtue ethics,discussing the nature of virtue,how justice is the virtue of citizens,what kind of virtue the iustice of citizens is,and the prospect of the virtue of iustice against a background of institutional justice.Since virtue can be said to be a specific individual character,Aristotle also defines the virtue of justice as the character of justice,with which citizens act justly and desire to do what is just.The virtue of justice is also an individual ethical virtue,differing from others for it is at the same time a social ethic.We can call the virtue of justice a"non-individual individual ethical virtue."It has been explained as between pure altruism and egoism,which is a wrong explanation.John Rawls regards justice as the first virtue of social institutions,challenging Aristotle's virtue,of justice,an assertion which also needs further deliberation.

  10. Privacy and security in the digital age: Contemporary ethical challenges and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    and human rights. This article reviews major strands in contemporary privacy-security debate, while critiquing existing conceptualisations of privacy that are inadequate in the context of multifaceted and ubiquitous surveillance technologies post 9/11. Further, this paper contends most privacy...

  11. The Neglect of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  12. Virtue Broadcasting - directorate change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Virtue Broadcasting Plc ("Virtue") have announced the appointment of Mr. Klaus Ackerstaff as the CEO of the main Board. He began his professional career at CERN, where he was responsible for the IT infrastructure of the OPAL (particle physics) project (1/2 page).

  13. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  14. Toward a Borderlands Ethics: The Undocumented Migrant and Haunted Communities in Contemporary Chicana/o Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    By reading Helena Maria Viramontes's "Cariboo Cafe" and Daniel Chacon's "Godoy Lives," this essay argues that Chicana/o fiction articulates what I call a "borderlands ethics." Both Viramontes and Chacon give the undocumented migrant the power to merge the United States and Latin America, self and other, citizen and…

  15. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  16. Teaching virtue: pedagogical implications of moral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William J

    2010-09-01

    Moral exemplar studies of computer and engineering professionals have led ethics teachers to expand their pedagogical aims beyond moral reasoning to include the skills of moral expertise. This paper frames this expanded moral curriculum in a psychologically informed virtue ethics. Moral psychology provides a description of character distributed across personality traits, integration of moral value into the self system, and moral skill sets. All of these elements play out on the stage of a social surround called a moral ecology. Expanding the practical and professional curriculum to cover the skills and competencies of moral expertise converts the classroom into a laboratory where students practice moral expertise under the guidance of their teachers. The good news is that this expanded pedagogical approach can be realized without revolutionizing existing methods of teaching ethics. What is required, instead, is a redeployment of existing pedagogical tools such as cases, professional codes, decision-making frameworks, and ethics tests. This essay begins with a summary of virtue ethics and informs this with recent research in moral psychology. After identifying pedagogical means for teaching ethics, it shows how these can be redeployed to meet a broader, skills based agenda. Finally, short module profiles offer concrete examples of the shape this redeployed pedagogical agenda would take in the practical and professional ethics classroom.

  17. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  18. Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex

    2013-04-01

    The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care.

  19. ETHICS AND POLITICAL ACTION IN MARXISM: ELEMENTS FOR A CONTEMPORARY DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Fernandes Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to discussions around the relationship between ethics and political activism within Marxism. Thus, we have chosen to discuss the theme from the classic texts of Marx and Gramsci. Despite the clear limitation of the number of authors discussed, it can be argued that the problems and solutions raised by Marx and Gramsci cross the Marxist debate in general, allowing therefore to glimpse some dilemmas and opportunities related to the central issue in the field.

  20. Ethical Reflection on Lies-Also on the Inner Tension of Contemporary Moral Education%谎言的伦理反思--兼论当代道德教育的内在张力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志丹

    2015-01-01

    从道德哲学视域对谎言问题进行刨根究底式的辩证拷问,弄清其存在的正当性根据及其必要性边界,不仅有利于拓展对谎言、道德性谎言和诚实德性等基本道德问题的理解,而且对深化道德教育应该保持必要张力的思考也具有十分重要的启发。即当代道德教育需要保持道德理论与道德实践之间的张力,保持道德理念、道德要求与道德行为之间的张力,保持积极的道德与消极的道德之间的张力。%Investigating lies dialectically and thoroughly from the perspective of moral philosophy, clarifying the le⁃gitimacy and necessity boundary of the existence of lies, is not only conducive to broadening the understanding of the basic moral issues such as lies, morale lies and honest virtue, but also has very important inspiration on deepe⁃ning contemporary moral education. Namely, it needs to keep the necessary tension between ethical theory and mor⁃al practice, moral requirements and ethical behavior, positive morality and negative morality.

  1. Harm in the absence of care: Towards a medical ethics that cares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Elin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the concept of care in contemporary medical practice and medical ethics. Although care has been hailed throughout the centuries as a crucial ideal in medical practice and as an honourable virtue to be observed in codes of medical ethics, I argue that contemporary medicine and medical ethics suffer from the lack of a theoretically sustainable concept of care and then discuss possible reasons that may help to explain this absence. I draw on the empirical studies of Carol Gilligan on care and connectedness as ontologically situated realities in human life. Based on a philosophical elaboration of her findings on the ethics of care emphasizing relationality, I try to show how the notion of 'relational ontology' originating from this stream of thought may be of help in developing a medical ethics that acknowledges care as a perspective to be observed in all interactions between physicians and patients.

  2. Whose life is it anyway? An exploration of five contemporary ethical issues that pertain to the psychiatric nursing care of the person who is suicidal: part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Links, Paul S

    2008-08-01

    It is self-evident that ethical issues are important topics for consideration for those involved in the care of the person who is suicidal. Nevertheless, despite the obvious relationship between Mental Health nurses and care of the person who is suicidal, such nurses have hitherto been mostly silent on these matters. As a result, this two-part paper focuses on a number of contemporary issues which might help inform the ethical discourse and resultant Mental Health nursing care of the person who is suicidal. Part one of this paper focuses on the issues: Whose life is it anyway? Harming of our bodies and the inconsistency in ethical responses and, Is suicide ever a reasonable thing to do? The authors find that this contemporary view within the suicidology academe and the corresponding legal position in most western (developed) countries is that the individual owns his/her own body. Yet given that contemporary mental healthcare policy and associated practice positions do not reflect view, this can easily lead to the scenario where a Mental Health nurse is faced with a major ethical dilemma, and the corresponding probability of moral distress. The authors also find that it is inaccurate to posit a simple positive correlation between the potential seriousness and/or extent of bodily harm and the degree of paternalistic removal of an individual's rights to personal body ownership. Lastly, the authors find that the relevant theoretical and ethical literature in this area suggests, at least for some and under certain conditions, suicide can be the right thing to do.

  3. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  4. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  5. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  6. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  7. From "The ethical treatment of patients in a persistent vegetative state" to a philosophical reflection on contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamau, M L; Cadore, B; Boitte, P

    1997-09-01

    The reflections put forward in this text concern the clinical and practical difficulties posed by the existence of patients in PVS, and the essential ethical issues raised, combining these ethical questions with practical and theoretical experience. Section 1 presents the methodology of the ethical reflection as we see it. Section 2 describes the clinical condition of patients in PVS. Section 3 develops the ethical difficulties relative to PVS from the French point of view. Section 4 illustrates the relevance of debating the ethical significance of such problematic situations, whilst defending a practical position based on a philosophical conviction. Section 5 points out the limits of ethical reflection in a biomedical context, and calls for reflection closer to the source of the problems described. For a comprehensive appraisal of biomedical rationality, the final section suggests combining the bioethical debates with traditional philosophical ethical reflection so as to get a clearer understanding of the real, if limited, relevance of these debates.

  8. Cultivating Environmental Virtue among 7th and 8th Graders in an Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce; Bright, Alan; Cafaro, Philip; Mittelstaedt, Robin; Bruyere, Brett

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the development of environmental virtue in 7th and 8th grade students in an Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound school. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the researchers were interested in introducing a virtue ethics perspective into their teaching of environmental ethics. Second, the researchers were…

  9. Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Marc

    2013-09-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

  10. Sports Coaching, Virtue Ethics and Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Jones, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: The argument in this paper is founded on two related premises. First, we claim that the moral imperative of sport is derived not from specific rules or laws associated with it but from its intrinsic nature. As engaging in sporting practices inevitably require us to be pre-occupied with central principles such as fairness (and therefore…

  11. Humanizing business : a modern virtue ethics approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins by exploring whether a "tendency to avarice" exists in most capitalist business organisations. It concludes that it does and that this is problematic. The problem centres on the potential threat to the integrity of human character and the disablement of community. What, then, can be done about it? Building on previous work (Moore, 2002) in which Macintyre's notions of practice and institution were explored (Maclntyre, 1985), the paper offers a philosophically based argument i...

  12. The Paradox of Virtue: (Re)Thinking Deviance, Anorexia and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine; Honey, Anne; Boughtwood, Desiree

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we posit a radical retheorization of anorexia as a form of deviance. We examine how the disciplinary practices and moral technologies typical of contemporary secondary schooling signify and enter into the articulation of three "virtue discourses" (discipline, achievement and healthism), and tease out how these "virtue discourses"…

  13. The "Manifesto" of New-Confucianism and the evival of virtue ethics%新儒学的《宣言》与德性伦理学的复兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余纪元

    2008-01-01

    1958年,现代新儒家发表了.该宣言批判西方文化的缺陷,并通过探索中国文化对世界人类问题的贡献而倡导中国文化的复兴.同样在1958年,英国学者安思康发表了.这两篇文献有着共同的批评目标--近现代西方道德,而且,各自提出的解决方案也有相似之处.然而,安思康并没有提及孔子,而宣言也漠视亚里士多德传统.进一步说,从19世纪60年代到90年代,由他们所分别推动的新儒学复兴与德性伦理学复兴这两大运动之间缺少对话和交流.通过比较分析这两篇同年发表的历史性文献,不仅可以找到两大复兴运动对话缺失的原因,而且还可以解释为什么没有能够发现孔子与亚里士多德在德性伦理学方面的一致性.%In 1958, a group of New-Confucians issued "A Manifesto for a Re-Appraisal of Sinology and Reconstruction of Chinese Culture." Equally in 1958, the British philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe published her classical paper "Modern Moral Philosophy." These two papers have the same target - modern Western morality - and the solutions they proposed respectively. Yet Anscombe's paper did not mention Confucianism, and the "Manifesto" ignored Aristotelian tradition of virtue. Furthermore, from 1960s to 1990s, the revival movement of Confucianism and the revival movement of Aristotelian ethics have not had much dialogue. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by comparing these two historically important documents. In particular it tries to understand why the "Manifesto" fails to see the similarities between Aristotle and Confucius.

  14. The Promising but Challenging Case of Humility as a Positive Psychology Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C.; Sandage, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In maintaining that virtue is a legitimate concept worthy of empirical study, a strong situationist approach to the study of behavior is countered. An earlier analysis is then drawn upon to maintain that virtue has the capability of integrating several themes in positive psychology: ethics and health, embodied character, strength and resilience,…

  15. The Promising but Challenging Case of Humility as a Positive Psychology Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C.; Sandage, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In maintaining that virtue is a legitimate concept worthy of empirical study, a strong situationist approach to the study of behavior is countered. An earlier analysis is then drawn upon to maintain that virtue has the capability of integrating several themes in positive psychology: ethics and health, embodied character, strength and resilience,…

  16. Contracts to Communities: A Processual Model of Organizational Virtue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); S.P. Kaptein (Muel); J. van Oosterhout (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the face of systemic challenges to corporate legitimacy, scholars and managers alike have been rethinking traditional answers to the question: What does it take to be a good company? We approach this question in two novel ways. We offer a normative answer, grounded in virtue ethics, b

  17. WU Mengchao: A Contemporary Model of Medical Ethical Spirit%吴孟超:医学伦理精神的当代楷模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威

    2012-01-01

    吴孟超的医学伦理精神是他卓越医学成就的内在支撑,堪为当代楷模,值得世人学习.它包括独立自强、奋勇争先的科研伦理精神,事业为重、生命为本的医务伦理精神,慧眼识才、业以人兴的人才伦理精神,以及矢志报国、为国争光的医学价值追求.弘扬吴孟超的医学伦理精神,具有重要的时代意义.%WU Mengchao's medical ethical spirit is the inner support of his outstanding medical achievements. It can be a contemporary model and worthy for us to learn from. It involves ethical spirit of independence, self—reliance and courageously striving in medical research, taking career as the foremost and life as the foundation in medical treatment, distinguishing greatness from mediocrity and taking talent as foundation of prosperous career in talent cultivation, and pledging his devotion to serve and win glory for the country in medical value pursuit. It is of great significance in our times to carry forward Wu's medical ethical spirit.

  18. 利益关系和实体态伦理分化--当今中国伦理分化的表层%Differentiating Interest Relation from Substantive Ethics:Surface of Ethical Relation Differentiation in Contemporary China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国钧

    2014-01-01

    伦理分化是借用生物分化、社会分化范畴、理论、方法,表征伦理随社会分化而生的多方面特异性或异质性变化。当今中国,实体态伦理和利益关系,从一体化的传统形态改变为:利益关系从实体态伦理中迅速分化出来、独立起来,从表层启动伦理分化:市场化启动大规模人口流动,促使众多实体态伦理从世代聚居向大范围空间加速分散;利益关系从中迅速发育,促进利益主体多元化,进而反渗入甚至嵌入实体态伦理。这种分化有利有弊,须继续研究。%In contemporary China , the relation between substantive ethics and interest relation has rapid-ly changed from traditional integrative morphology to highly differentiated .The interest relation quickly separa-ted and independent from the substantive ethics and started the ethical differentiation from the surface : the large-scale population mobility in progress of marketization prompted many substantive ethics to diffuse to large-scale space from living together from generation to generation , from which interest relation developed rap-idly and interest subjects diversified , and even embedded into the substantive ethics .There are both advanta-ges and disadvantages in this differentiation which needs further studies .

  19. Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2012-01-01

    The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…

  20. 我国高等教育改革政策伦理目标演变及启示--从道德论走向德性论%On the Evolution and Enlightenment of Reform Policy Ethical Goal China's Higher Education--From a Moral Theory to the Theory of Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国动

    2013-01-01

    The higher education development is a higher education the reform of the history in China,and the direction of reform is embodied in policy ethics target.Based on the perspective of ethics,our country’s higher education reform policy objectives of the evolutionary ethics have experienced from the moral ethics to virtue ethics course. Whether from the contract to Kant socialist until freedom, lifted from the consequences or socialist toward the theory of virtue,China’s higher education reform that policy ethics goal,in education negative function in the practice,get constantly reflection,evolution and trend of the origin of life education and humanity. Attention from opportunity,program to process,the substantial fairness,justice,and constantly reshape the role and position of the government,the society and the university.%  我国高等教育发展史是一部改革历程史,改革的方向集中体现在政策伦理目标上。基于伦理学视角,政策伦理目标演变经历了从道德伦理学走向德性伦理学的历程。无论是从契约走向康德主义直至自由,仰或是从后果主义走向德性论,都表明我国高等教育改革政策伦理目标在教育负功能的实践中,得到不断的反思、演进和趋向生活本源以及人性关怀。从关注机会、程序公平走向关注过程、实质公平,不断重塑政府、社会和大学的角色地位。

  1. 亚里士多德与孔子论“射”--德性伦理的理性逻辑与情感逻辑%On Archery of Aristotle and Confucius:Rational Logic and Emotional Logic of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2014-01-01

    亚里士多德和孔子都曾用“射”来说明中庸德性,但各有特色。亚里士多德论“射”关注射箭之理,目的在于善,价值指向是幸福,侧重于功能实现卓越;其理论预设是灵魂,人的灵魂的本质所在就是理性,故其德性论是一种理性逻辑。孔子论“射”关注射箭之德,目的在于礼,价值指向是和谐,侧重于情感表现中和;其理论预设是天道,天道下贯而成的人道始于情感,故其德性论是一种情感逻辑。通过中西方这两条传统德性伦理学路径的对比发现,当今德性伦理学的复兴不仅需要亚里士多德之学,也需要孔子之学。%Aristotle and Confucius illustrate golden mean by archery while with its own characteristics . Aristotle pays attention to the principle of archery , whose aim is good , value direction is happiness , and excel-lence of function realization is his focus .Since Aristotle thinks that rationality of the soul is its essence , his theory of virtue is based on the rationality logic .Confucius concerns about the morality of archery , which aim is LI, and value direction is harmony .Confucius’ theoretical supposition is TianDao and RenDao manifested from TianDao is evolved from emotion , then we can say that Confucius ’ theory of virtue obeys the emotional logic.Through the contrast of the two traditional paths of virtue ethics between China and West , we can make the conclusion that revival of virtue ethics of the time not only need Aristotle ’ s theory , but also Confucius ’ .

  2. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  3. The Ethical Foundation of Critical Pedagogy in Contemporary Academia: (Self)-Reflection and Complicity in the Process of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabikowska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ethical approach to educational methodology is discussed in relation to the philosophies of Emanuel Levinas and Robert Cox. Cox's anti-essentialist understanding of historical materialism and Levinas' metaphysical idealism are applied to an analysis of the (self)-reflective methods required today in Higher Education in the UK,…

  4. Good governance and virtue in South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Good governance from an ethical perspective in cyberdefence policy has been seen in terms of duty and consequentialism. Yet the negotiated view of virtue ethics can also address how nation states mitigate the risks of a cyber attack...

  5. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  6. Care Ethics in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Candice L.

    2003-01-01

    Difficulties with current models of ethics education (correct reasoning, virtue theory, directive moral education) include emphasis on reward/punishment and a presumptive bias toward abstract reasoning. Teaching a care-based ethics would promote a fuller notion of mature moral agents and broaden the school climate beyond compliance. (Contains 19…

  7. Biogerontology and the intellectual virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2012-06-01

    The case for prioritizing the study of the biology of aging can be persuasively made by making explicit its connection to the exercise of the intellectual virtues needed to realize well-ordered science. These intellectual virtues include a range of attitudes and dispositions integral to all areas of science (e.g. sensitivity to details, adaptability of intellect, the detective's virtues), but the so-called "teaching virtues" are especially important for biogerontology. Without the foresight to anticipate how their audience will likely respond, biogerontologists risk marginalizing the field's importance to well-ordered science as the general public are likely to dismiss, or underestimate, the health and economic benefits of an intervention that retards the rate of biological aging.

  8. Ethical education in software engineering: responsibility in the production of complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario; Fraga, Anabel

    2007-12-01

    Among the various contemporary schools of moral thinking, consequence-based ethics, as opposed to rule-based, seems to have a good acceptance among professionals such as software engineers. But naïve consequentialism is intellectually too weak to serve as a practical guide in the profession. Besides, the complexity of software systems makes it very hard to know in advance the consequences that will derive from professional activities in the production of software. Therefore, following the spirit of well-known codes of ethics such as the ACM/IEEE's, we advocate for a more solid position in the ethical education of software engineers, which we call 'moderate deontologism', that takes into account both rules and consequences to assess the goodness of actions, and at the same time pays an adequate consideration to the absolute values of human dignity. In order to educate responsible professionals, however, this position should be complemented with a pedagogical approach to virtue ethics.

  9. A review of contemporary work on the ethics of ambient assisted living technologies for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzky, Peter; Smeaton, Alan F; Chen, Cynthia; Irving, Kate; Jacquemard, Tim; O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Gordijn, Bert

    2015-06-01

    Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies can provide assistance and support to persons with dementia. They might allow them the possibility of living at home for longer whilst maintaining their comfort and security as well as offering a way towards reducing the huge economic and personal costs forecast as the incidence of dementia increases worldwide over coming decades. However, the development, introduction and use of AAL technologies also trigger serious ethical issues. This paper is a systematic literature review of the on-going scholarly debate about these issues. More specifically, we look at the ethical issues involved in research and development, clinical experimentation, and clinical application of AAL technologies for people with dementia and related stakeholders. In the discussion we focus on: (1) the value of the goals of AAL technologies, (2) the special vulnerability of persons with dementia in their private homes, (3) the complex question of informed consent for the usage of AAL technologies.

  10. VIRTUES AND VICES ABOUT MONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kessler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the New Testament ‘the love of money’ is a root of all evil and a no-go for church elders. After the financial crises this warning and old virtues are re-discovered. The articles analyse virtues and vices dealing with money. Consulting insights from old texts such as Aristotle, the New Testament, Thomas Aquinas and modern authors like Comte-Sponville and Sofsky we develop a classification with two virtues, generosity and frugality, and two corresponding vices, meanness and greed. Due to the different facets of the topic we discuss these virtues and vices by combining explanations from philosophy, theology, psychology, sociology, and economy. These discussions are led by the question “how can we live these virtues in our modern society?”. Especially, we discuss the challenge of living frugal in a market economy, which regards greed as a ‘virtue in disguise’. doi: 10.7833/111-1-34

  11. 原始儒家伦理政治的范导功能及其当代检视%On the Model Functions and Contemporary Viewing of the Original Confucian Ethics Political Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高男

    2011-01-01

    The ethical politics is a typical pattern of social politics in classical China.The theory of the ethical politics is structured by the original Confucianism which is endowed with the model functions at the same time.Such as society pattern of ruling by law and unifying the country,political spirit of no punishment,ruling principle of giving priority to developing a person's virtue supplemented by punishment,gentleman's personality demand in paragon of politics.However,an over-emphasis on core value status of ethics is the case that ethical and political theory possesses characteristic of moral idealism and tendency of extensive ethics.%伦理政治是中国古典社会典型的社会政治模式。原始儒家在建构伦理政治理论的同时赋予其以世乱文治与天下归往的社会模式、无讼去刑的政治精神与德主刑辅的治国原则、典范政治中的君子人格诉求等范导功能。但因其过于强调伦理的核心价值地位,致使伦理政治理论具有道德理想主义性质和泛伦理主义倾向。

  12. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  14. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  15. Virtue training in medical schools: the perspective of behavioral science course directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufowote, James Olumide

    2015-01-01

    Although the multidisciplinary research on physician socialization has focused on areas such as developments in learners' ideological commitments and ethics knowledge and skills, the literature on physician virtues has been anecdotal. To contribute empirical knowledge of virtue development during socialization, I performed constant comparisons on interviews with 20 directors of preclinical behavioral science courses. In discussing their courses, participants revealed foci on virtues involved in making intimate connections with patients (e.g., empathy) and "being professional" with colleagues (e.g., trustworthiness). To cultivate virtues for intimate connections, participants used the strategies of learner engagement with patients' narratives of illness, service in underserved communities, and shadowing and observing role models. To develop virtues for being professional, participants used the strategy of small learner groups, which consisted of discussions, project collaborations, and group evaluations. I conclude with implications for training students of various health sciences and managing health care teams.

  16. A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust...... virtue epistemology further developing and systematizing this idea offer different accounts of the relation that must hold between an agent’s cognitive success and the exercise of her cognitive abilities as well as of the very nature of those abilities. This paper aims to give a new robust virtue...... epistemological account of knowledge based on a different understanding of the nature and structure of the kind of abilities that give rise to knowledge....

  17. Educating for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena

    2010-04-01

    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  18. Old Virtue,New Catchphrase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Filial piety might not be a familiar term in the West. My personal experience indicates that some Westerners are even clueless about its meaning. But here in China, it has been regarded as one of the most important virtues a decent person is supposed to have. Actually, it has been an indispensable spiritual and moral

  19. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...

  20. A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust...

  1. History evolution and contemporary enlightenment of China's administrative ethics concept%中国行政伦理观的历史演进及当代启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东铭

    2011-01-01

    行政伦理观是公共行政主体和国家公务员在公共行政领域中关于行政伦理价值追求的总体观念,从行政伦理观的历史演变的角度出发,采用了理论研究方法,分析了不同历史时期行政伦理观的传承与变迁,针对不同历史时期行政伦理观的价值观念转变,归纳当代行政伦理观建设的启示。%Administrative ethics concept is the overall concept of public administrative subjects and civ-il servants about administrative ethics value pursuit in public field.Based on the historical evolution of administrative ethics concept and corresponding theory,analyses were made of the inheritance and changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods.Based on the value concept changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods,the contemporary enlightenment on the construction of administrative ethics concept are summed up.

  2. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  3. [Toward a practical ethic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  4. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.

  5. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  6. 论儒家传统德性观的伦理领导力在企业中的实现%On Chinese Local Ethical Leadership from Traditional Confucian Virtues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圯姣

    2015-01-01

    伴随着社会主义市场经济的不断发展,传统儒学当中的伦理道德观念正在受到人们的重视。而频繁出现的企业产品质量安全问题和企业内部管理失当所造成的社会问题,也要求人们用不同于西方企业管理理念的方式,重新看待企业和各种组织的领导过程。本文将立足于对儒家传统德性观的分析和把握,结合儒家思想在我国长期存在所形成的社会基础,从方式方法、适用范围等角度,分析中国本土伦理领导力在企业中的实现方式。%With the continuous development of the socialist market economy, the traditional Confucian ethics moral concept is paid attention to by people. For social problems caused by product quality safety and the improper internal management of enterprises, it is required that methods different from management concept of western enterprises should be adopted and the leading process of enterprises should be regarded in different view. Based on the understanding and analysis of the traditional Confucian ethics and combining the social base formed by confucian thought, this paer analyzes the realization approach of Chinese local ethical leadership from pespectives of styles, methods, application scope, etc.

  7. The moral experience of the patient with chronic pain: bridging the gap between first and third person ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Jones, Mark; Thacker, Michael; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2014-03-01

    There has been a widespread call for an ethics in the management of patients with chronic pain which is patient centered and takes into account the lived experience of the patient. It has been argued in literature that current "duty" or principlist-based models of ethics (so-called 3rd person ethics) have not adequately addressed the needs of either patients or practitioners in this area. Two strands of literature within phenomenology were reviewed: the literature of interpretative phenomenological analysis and the study of the lived experience of the person with chronic pain; and the contribution of phenomenology in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics (1st person ethics). Patients experience chronic pain in existential and moral terms in addition to their biomedical issues, facing dilemmas in understanding their own self-identity and in attempting to recover a sense of moral worth and agency. We outline a patient-centered ethics to underpin contemporary collaborative, multimodal approaches in the management of chronic pain. We firstly describe an agency-oriented, neo-Aristotelian 1st person ethics and then outline a hermeneutic relationship with extant "duty-based," 3rd person bioethics. The utility of the ethics model we propose (the ethical reasoning bridge) lies in its capacity for developing a sense of moral agency for both practitioner and patient, resonating with the current emphasis of seeking active engagement of patients in management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Virtue and Happiness in Socrates’ Moral Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahboobi Arani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of “what is happiness?” is among the most important questions of Greek philosophy. In those early works of Plato that very likely represent the views of Socrates, Socrates mainly focuses on moral issues and tries to get close to an explanation of the nature of virtue (or virtues, the happy life and the relation between virtue (or virtues and the realization of happiness (Eudemonia. Given the Principle of Eudemonism, in this paper it is tried to examine Socrates’ views on the relation between virtue and happiness and defend what is known as the “Principle of the Sovereignty of Virtue”.

  9. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  10. Teaching Ethics to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…

  11. A Monotheistic Look at Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmad Shojaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical ethics in a reductive look can be handed to physician’s ethics and then call a physician who adheres to medical ethics attributed to the moral virtues. Moral virtues are counted to be about one hundred and fifty in the teachings of Shiite most of which are not related to the practice of medicine but nearly eighty virtues are linked to the to the practice of medicine. This number is too much to be handled in a paper and analyzed by verses and hadiths. Therefore, we should take two steps: - limit therapeutic virtues - analyze therapeutic virtues METHODOLOGY: Factor analysis method was used and therapeutic virtues were limited to thirteen virtues. Then library study and focus group discussions were used to analyze the selected therapeutic virtues. Results: believe and practice the virtues emphasized in the teachings of Shiite leads to a monotheistic look to the practice of medicine and provides physicians with a different and transcendental worldview.This insight that stood upon the teachings of the Qur'an and hadiths by Imams (AS first knows the practice of medicine a divine relation and then shows the communication between a physician and others. The current paper analyzes the divine relation of the physician and its impact to the practice of medicine. The practical conclusions is that if we consider medical ethics practice based on virtue, and define and interpret virtues based on the teachings of Shiite, then we will get to a monotheistic view in the practice of medicine that distinguishes Shiite medical ethics monotheistic feature and the secular one, and helps to link between faith and morals.

  12. Deferring Virtue: The New Management of Students and the Civic Role of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    The expectation that schools resuscitate civic virtues and create a vibrant civic and public sphere competes with a more powerful contemporary demand on schools, namely, that they generate equal opportunity and mobility, especially for poor and minority youth. This equal opportunity is framed solely in the context of grades on standardized tests.…

  13. Ética e educação clássica: virtude e felicidade no justo meio Ethics and classical education: virtue and happiness in the golden mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Boto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo debruça-se sobre a interface do problema educativo com a problemática da ética, compreendendo a pedagogia com a arte/ciência voltada para a busca do bem educar/instruir/formar. Para tanto, o texto mobilizará conceitos da concepção ética da Aristóteles; e, na atmosfera mental da Grécia clássica, recorre-se ao termo específico grego e transdisciplinar na origem: paideia. A seguir, este ensaio procura pontuar alguns aspectos da concepção iluminista a propósito do tema, valendo-se da noção kantiana de imperativo categórico, a qual teria sido precedida pelo parecer de Rousseau, segundo o qual a vontade - e não a razão - seria a marca distintiva do gênero humano no ambiente natural. A idéia de Piaget de uma ética da reciprocidade também é aqui mobilizada. Abordando diacronicamente a temática, serão analisados conceitos de autores clássicos no debate da relação entre educação e ética, com destaque para o sentido conferido por Hanna Arendt para a autoridade como critério distintivo da relação assimétrica entre o educador (as gerações adultas de maneira geral e os estudantes (ou as novas gerações. Arendt defende, como conceito e pressuposto operatório, a dimensão necessariamente conservadora do ato educativo: compete ao educador preservar do mundo as novas gerações e preservar o mundo das novas gerações - para que estas não destruam o suporte e o acervo cultural acumulados.The present study is an in-depth discussion of the interface between educational and ethical problems, understanding pedagogy as the art/science aiming at good education/instruction/training. For this purpose, the text will summon concepts from Aristotle's ethics. Immersed in Classical Greek Thought, it will attempt to rescue a term which is originally interdisciplinary - paideia. Next, this essay tries to highlight some aspects of the illuminist concept of the theme, taking advantage of the Kantian notion of categoric

  14. 当代美国公共行政美德伦理的复兴与实践%The Revival and Practice of virtue ethics in Contemporary American public administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬艳

    2010-01-01

    20世纪80年代美德伦理在美国公共行政领域的复兴,使得美德与公共行政实践的内在利益紧密相关.实现公共行政的内在利益需要有德性的公共行政人员,而公共行政人员的美德决定了公共行政实践内在利益的实现.

  15. Dirty Hands or Political Virtue? Walzer's and MacIntyre's Answers to Machiavelli's Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, J.H.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Can it be right to do wrong in order to do good? Can torture, for instance, be justified? This commentary argues that Michael Walzer's often-cited answer on these dirty hands issues is problematic, and that a properly elaborated virtue ethics is more convincing. The argument is of particular consequ

  16. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...... evidence from 83 nations and data on second generation immigrants in 29 countries with ancestry in 85 nations. Strong families cultivate universalist values and produce more civic and altruistic individuals. The results provide a constructive role for families in promoting family values that support...

  17. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  18. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  19. Virtues in Nicomachean Ethics and Ahlak-i Alai and their etymological equivalents in Terceme-i Kamusu’l-muhitNikomakhos'a Etik ile Ahlak-ı Alai'de erdemler ve Mütercim Asım'ın Kamus'undaki etimolojik karşılıkları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Nejdet Ertuğ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral examinations were enlarged not via the traditional thought but in accordance with the relatively scientific standards in the subareas like applied ethics and business ethics. Some peculiar terms of morality and of related areas were used as interchangeable or in different meanings and hence a terminology problem emerged. Therefore, we can say that in the examination of the traditional philosophy, knowing the original meaning and the historical evolution of the specific concepts will be helpful for the articulation of thought and can make a contribution for new and original insights. In this work firstly I specify the main virtues set forth in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and Kinali-zade Ali Efendi’s Ahlak-i Alai and compare the ideas of them. Secondly, I cite the etymological roots of the main virtues from Mutercim Asim Efendi’s Terceme-i Kamusu’l-muhit and give the meanings of each concept by taking into consideration of their historical alterations.   Özet Aristoteles, Platon ve İslam felsefesinde görüldüğü gibi, geleneksel düşüncenin hayatı organize eden belirleyici unsurlar olarak erdemleri esas aldığı anlayış günümüze kadar devam etmiştir.  Ancak ahlaki sorgulamalar salt geleneksel düşünce ile değil uygulamalı etik ve meslek etikleri gibi alt alanlarda görece bilimsel ölçütlerle genişletilmiştir. Bu sebeple geleneksel düşünceyle alakalı araştırmalarda karşılaşılan kavramların kök anlamlarının ve tarihsel süreç içerisindeki evrilişinin bilinmesi düşüncenin açımlanmasını kolaylaştıracağı gibi yeni ve özgün bakış açılarına da katkıda bulunabilecektir. Bununla birlikte ahlak ve ilişkili diğer alanlarda kullanılan terimler bazen birbirinin yerine bazen farklı anlamlar yüklenerek kullanılmaya başlanmış ve bir terminoloji sorununu da ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu çalışmada önce Aristoteles'in Nikomakhos'a Etik ve Kınalı-zade Ali Efendi'nin Ahlak

  20. THE GUIDE OF THE DESIGN ETHICS THEORY TO THE DESIGN OF THE CONTEMPORARY CERAMICS FOR DALLY USE%设计伦理学对当代日用陶瓷设计的规范引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓松; 孟凡茜

    2013-01-01

    This paper, from the research perspective of the design ethics, uses the development characteristics of contemporary ceramics for daily use as the basic point, elaborating how the design ethics guide the design practice of ceramic products for daily use, from the utilitarian realm of serving the human use and the aesthetic realm of serving the human emotions, eventually reach the ethical realm of serving the entire ecosystem. At last, This paper proposes that the new generation of designers should establish correct concept of the design ethics, while creating objects, creating harmonious natural and social environment.%从设计伦理学的研究角度,以当代日用陶瓷本身的发展特征为基本点,阐述设计伦理学如何引导日用陶瓷产品设计实践从服务于人类使用的功利境界,服务于人类情感的审美境界,最终到达服务于整个生态系统的伦理境界.并提出新一代的设计师应树立正确的设计伦理观念,在创物的同时,创造出和谐的自然环境和社会环境.

  1. 对当代中国男性家庭伦理角色冲突的反思%On Contemporary Chinese Men’s Ethical Role Conflict within Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2015-01-01

    Men and women as the main family members are playing various important ethical roles respective-ly.With the development and transformation of contemporary Chinese society,elements from economy,poli-tics,culture,and so on,are influencing social roles of men and women,thus stimulate the gender roles in family to change in contemporary China.Along with the modern transformation of female roles,there arise a lot of problems about the male role conflicts in family.Gender ethical role and inter -generational ethical role have brought new challenges to men’s family responsibility and role playing.Men who have not adapted to the transition,will inevitably face a variety of family ethical role conflicts.%男女两性作为构成家庭的主要成员在家庭中分别承担着各种重要的伦理角色。随着当代中国社会的发展与转型,经济、政治、文化等各方面因素对男女两性在社会角色方面的影响,也促使了当代中国家庭中男女角色的新型转变。伴随着女性角色的现代转型,男性在家庭中的角色冲突也越发明显。性别伦理角色、代际伦理角色等都对男性的家庭责任与角色扮演带来了新的挑战,还未适应转型期的当代中国男性不可避免地面临着各种家庭伦理角色的冲突。

  2. 当代中国水伦理的理论形态与研究领域∗%Theoretical Forms and Domains of Contemporary China′s Water Ethics Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹顺仙

    2014-01-01

    Water ethics refers to the moral principles and norms to adjust the ethical relation between human and water. Water ethicscontains three theoretical forms: ″water virtues″ based on the universe ontology; ″centered″water ethics with″anthropocentrism″or″ecological centeredness″at the core;″harmonious″water ethics based on the dialectical unity. The contemporary water ethics study in china embodies the rules and tendency for the evolu-tion of the three forms. Three interconnected research domains have initially taken shape, including water ethics which highlights the value of harmony between human and water, river ethics and ocean ethics. However, in or-der to construct China′s water ethical theory by discarding the western centrism in real sense, we need to advo-cate the ecological holism of dialectical materialism.%水伦理是调控人与水之间伦理关系的道德原则、规范的总和。水伦理包含三种理论形态:以宇宙本体论为始基的“水德论”;以“人类中心主义”或“生态中心主义”为内核的“中心论”水伦理;基于人与自然关系辩证统一的“和谐论”水伦理。当代中国水伦理的研究体现着水伦理理论形态演进的规律和趋势,初步形成了以人水和谐为价值取向的河流伦理、水伦理和海洋伦理等三个相互联系的研究领域。然而,如要在理论上真正摆脱西方中心立场并建构中国的水伦理学,则有待于倡导唯物辩证的生态整体论。

  3. Confucian ethics and emotions%儒家伦理与情感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云萍

    2008-01-01

    The Confucian understanding of emotions and their ethical importance confirms and exemplifies the contemporary Western renewed understanding of the nature of emotions. By virtue of a systematic conceptual analysis of Confucian ethics, one can see that, according to Confucians, the ethical significance of emotions, lies in that an ethical life is also emotional and virtues are inclinational. And a further exploration shows that the reason for the ethical significance is both that emotions are heavenly-endowed and that there exists a union of emotions and reason in Confucian ethics. This will constitute a challenge to the so-called mainstream ethical theories which have been popularly engaged in seeking justifications for abstract moral rules.%儒家伦理学对情感的理解,印证了当代西方伦理学对情感的性质及其伦理重要性的某些理解.对儒家伦理进行系统的概念分析可见,情感的伦理重要性不仅表现在伦理生活就是情感丰富的生活,而且儒家品德本身就是内在倾向性的;进一步的探索还表明,儒家伦理对情感重要性的强调源于情感的天赋性及情感与理性的联合.这可能会对一向着重论证抽象伦理原则的主流伦理理论形成一种挑战.

  4. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabri; Seyed Mohammad Kazem Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant eff...

  5. Ethics in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of ethics, namely Alasdair MacIntyre’s virtue ethics and Charles Taylor’s ethics of authenticity. I will argue that these two ethical approaches fail to substantiate an adequate practice theoretical approach to the study of organizational practices. I will further argue that practice theoretical approaches...... recognized that organizational theory also presumes and express ethical and normative perspectives on organizations. This is also the case in the new branch of organizational theory that has been developed with an inspiration from theories of practice (e.g. Schatzki 2005, 2006; Nicolini 2013; Gherardi 2015......). Although practice theoretical approaches have made an effort to critically reflect on the ontological and epistemological assumptions of organizational theory the literature only contains very few attempts to understand the role played by normativity and ethics in organizations (Erden et al. 2014...

  6. Reverence and ethics in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Codes of ethics abound in science, but the question of why such codes should be obeyed is rarely asked. Various reasons for obeying a professional code have been proposed, but all are unsatisfactory in that they do not really motivate behavior. This article suggests that the long forgotten virtue of reverence provides both a reason to obey a professional code and motivation to do so. In addition, it discusses the importance of reverence as a cardinal virtue for scientists drawing on the ideas of Paul Woodruff on the role of virtue in community.

  7. Moral Foundations of Contemporary Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Pavlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an inquiry into the fundamentals of contemporary liberalism. I defend the following claim: the premises of contemporary liberal theory cannot avoid referring to the ideal of equality of individuals in some way. equality is a principle to orga­nize the fundamental level of the theory from which to derive the principles for organi­zing liberal institutions. To support these claims, I distinguish justificatory from perfectio­nist liberalism, and then look into some of the most relevant theories of contemporary political philosophy that provide the ethical basis for contemporary liberalism.

  8. Toward an horizon in design ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  9. Ben Franklin's 13 Virtues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RonKurtus; 方海昌

    2005-01-01

    During the early 1700s and while in his late 20s, Benjamin Franklin gathered thirteen virtues that he felt were a guide to live by.These virtues consisted of temperance, silence, order, resolution, frugality, industry,sincerity, justice, moderation, cleanliness,tranquility, chastity, and humility.

  10. Stories and the Development of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    From folk tales to movies, stories possess features which naturally suit them to contribute to the growth of virtue. In this article I show that the fictional exemplars help the learner to grasp the moral importance of internal states and resolves a tension between existing kinds of exemplars discussed by virtue ethicists. Stories also increase…

  11. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  12. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  13. Anti-Luck (Too Weak) Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Duncan Pritchard’s anti-luck virtue epistemology is insufficient for knowledge. I show that Pritchard fails to achieve the aim that motivates his adoption of a virtue-theoretic condition in the first place: to guarantee the appropriate direction of fit that known beliefs have. Finally...

  14. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  15. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  16. Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the "paradox of striving". The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving--forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and…

  17. 当代中国民生伦理的基本内涵及其价值诉求%The Basic Connotation and Value Claims of Contemporary Chinese People's Livelihood Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永军

    2014-01-01

    To study people’ s livelihood from the perspective of ethics and construct people’ s livelihood ethics are brand-new in people’ s livelihood research. People's livelihood ethics refers to the ethical spirits and moral orientation in government-made policies and decisions in solving problems of people's livelihood, and the moral attitudes, moral evaluation and moral standards people have when in face of people’ s livelihood state and government’ s concerning policies. People’ s livelihood ethics in contemporary China should be based on the value of fairness and justice, adhere to the core value of being people-oriented and take the happiness of the people's livelihood as its ultimate goal.%从伦理学角度研究民生问题并提出建构民生伦理的任务,是研究民生问题的一个全新视野。民生伦理就是指政府在解决民生问题过程中提出的政策或主张及其内蕴的伦理精神和道德取向,民众对社会的民生状态和政府的民生政策所持的道德态度、所作的道德评价及其道德标准。当代中国民生伦理应坚持以公平正义为价值基础;以以人为本为价值核心;以民生幸福为价值目标。

  18. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  19. Peeling Onions: Some Tools and a Recipe for Solving Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joan Claire

    1993-01-01

    Presents a process for solving ethical dilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)

  20. An Analysis of the Canadian Defense Ethics Program Decision-Making Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-18

    into four broad categories: deontological ethics theories, 16 consequential ethics theories, virtue ethics theories, and situational ethics ...require different ethics . For example, the need for professional ethics in the fields of medicine or law is generally accepted today. Most feel that...priority. This assumption is backed up by utilitarian ethical theory, which advocates the maximum utility for the maximum number of people. When the

  1. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  2. A Study on Ethics in Chinese Modern and Contemporary Translation Theories%中国现当代译论中的伦理探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秀凤

    2016-01-01

    对中国现当代译论中的伦理进行探究,需从译者的责任和义务,翻译批评中的伦理,翻译研究中的伦理以及翻译研究、翻译活动和翻译批评的综合伦理等几个方面入手。翻译理论研究本身需要伦理的规范,进而运用伦理去规范翻译理论研究者和翻译理论著作出版者的研究行为,最终在我国构建起具有中国特色的、科学的翻译理论。%The ethical problems in Chinese modern translation theories have been stud-ied in terms of translator's responsibility and obligation ,ethics in translation criticism ,ethics in translation studies and the comprehensive ethical aspects of translation criticism .Transla-tion needs to be standardized with ethics ,which can be used to standardize translation theory researchers and publishers .Finally,it is hoped to establish the scientific translation theories with Chinese characteristics .

  3. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  4. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  5. Toward an Ethics of Professional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanchuk, Nicolas; Scramstad, Carly; Kruse, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we advance a novel conception of normative ethics and draw out its implications within the domain of professional ethics. We argue that all moral agents, and thus professionals, share a fundamental and constitutive normative interest in correctly conceiving of their ends. All professionals, we claim, by virtue of their positions of…

  6. A humble task: restoring virtue in an age of conflicted interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Kraus, Elena M; Mikulec, Anthony A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Bakanas, Erin

    2013-07-01

    Virtues define how we behave when no one else is watching; accordingly, they serve as a bedrock for professional self-regulation, particularly at the level of the individual physician. From the time of William Osler through the end of the 20th century, physician virtue was viewed as an important safeguard for patients and research participants. However, the Institute of Medicine, Association of American Medical Colleges, and other policy groups-relying on social science data indicating that ethical decisions often result from unconscious and biased processes, particularly in the face of financial conflicts of interest-have increasingly rejected physician virtue as an important safeguard for patients.The authors argue that virtue is still needed in medicine-at least as a supplement to regulatory solutions (such as mandatory disclosures). For example, although rarely treated as a reportable conflict of interest, standard fee-for-service medicine can present motives to prioritize self-interest or institutional interests over patient interests. Because conflicts of interest broadly construed are ubiquitous, physician self-regulation (or professional virtue) is still needed. Therefore, the authors explore three strategies that physicians can adopt to minimize the influence of self-serving biases when making medical business ethics decisions. They further argue that humility must serve as a crowning virtue-not a meek humility but, rather, a courageous willingness to recognize one's own limitations and one's need to use "compensating strategies," such as time-outs and consultation with more objective others, when making decisions in the face of conflicting interests.

  7. 从《傻春》看传统家庭主义的当代解组与伦理转向%From the TV Series Sha Chun to Observe the Contemporary Disorganization and Ethical Turn of Traditional Familism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅

    2012-01-01

    The TV Series Sha Chun is a typical show of traditional Chinese family ethics life. Familism has a strong family unity and emphasis on family heir reproduction, the tress of the Ancestor command, focusing on public property, the family characteristics of the overall honors. However, in contemporary China, conflicts between the family interests and the rights of the individual, family private morali- ty and public morality , that emphasis on men and equal rights of every member,make the old ethics face the danger of disorganization. The new family ethic should adhere to the principle of unity of emotion and justice, respect for freedom and individuality of each member, the principle of great importance to the cultivation of a sense of social responsibility. This shift is the contemporary fate of traditional Chinese family ethics.%电视连续剧《傻春》是中国典型的传统主义家庭伦理生活的当代写照。家庭主义具有强烈的家庭一体感、重视家族嗣繁衍、强调属遵祖训、注重财物公有、重视家庭整体荣誉的特点。然而在当代中国,家庭利益与个人权利的矛盾、家庭私德与社会公德的矛盾、重男思想与权利平等的矛盾,使这种伦理观在当代面临解组的危险。新型家庭伦理观应坚持亲情与正义相统一原则、尊重每个成员的自由与个性、重视社会责任感的培养等原则,这种伦理转向是传统家庭主义的当代宿命。

  8. Ethical principles and concepts in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical ethics is the application of ethical theories, principles, rules, and guidelines to clinical situations in medicine. Therefore, clinical ethics is analogous to clinical medicine in that general principles and concepts must be applied intelligently and thoughtfully to unique clinical circumstances. The three major ethical theories are consequentialism, whereby the consequences of an action determine whether it is ethical; deontology, whereby to be ethical is to do one's duty, and virtue ethics, whereby ethics is a matter of cultivating appropriate virtues. In the real world of medicine, most people find that all three perspectives offer useful insights and are complementary rather than contradictory. The most common approach to clinical ethical analysis is principlism. According to principlism, the medical practitioner must attempt to uphold four important principles: respect for patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. When these principles conflict, resolving them depends on the details of the case. Alternative approaches to medical ethics, including the primacy of beneficence, care-based ethics, feminist ethics, and narrative ethics, help to define the limitations of principlism and provide a broader perspective on medical ethics.

  9. Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, David P

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how

  10. 从“善有恶报”看当今社会的伦理困境%A Critical Look at Ethical Dilemma in Contemporary Society from "One Good Turn Never Deserves Another"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁; 吴杨婷

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the various immoral phenomena caused by some people′s ill-treatment towards good deeds,starting from the moral options of utilitarianism as well as the ineffectiveness of the moral law,the paper critically analyzed the ethical dilemma in contemporary society,and proposed relevant measures to solve current moral problems.%分析各种"善有恶报"的不道德现象,从功利主义的道德选择和道德律令的失效着手,深入剖析当今社会的伦理困境,在此基础上提出解决现存道德问题的相应对策。

  11. 陈实功的医德思想对当代医者的启示∗%The Enlightenment of Chen Shigong′s Medical Ethics Thought to Contemporary Healer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 王夏强

    2016-01-01

    陈实功的“医家五戒十要”是祖国医学医德传统的精华。其从医生个人品德修养、学习医学的方法、工作态度、价值取向与同道之间的人际关系等方面对医务工作者提出了要求,对当代医者完善自身修养有着重要的现实意义。%The “Five Precepts and Ten Requirements for Doctors” of Chen Shigong is the quintessence in our traditional medical ethics. It put forward requires for doctors in several aspects including personal moral cultivation, methods of learning, attitude towards job, value orientation, and relationship between coworkers. And it has impor-tant practical significance for contemporary doctors to improve their self-cultivation.

  12. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  13. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  14. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  15. Confucian Ethics in the Vision of Bioethics and Its Contemporary Value%生命伦理学视野中的儒家伦理及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步臻

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Confucian ethics can provide profound cultural foundation for bioethics.From the perspective of bioethics, this paper discusses Confucian ethics including view of life and death, the overall concept of heaven and human, the principle of human relations and orders, and Confucian principle of getting the profit by the right way, aiming to absorb the essence of traditional Confucian culture, discard the dross, and provide reference for contemporary bioethical study.%中国传统儒家伦理可以为生命伦理学提供深厚的文化根基.从生命伦理学的视野探讨儒家的生死观、天人整体现、人伦秩序原则和儒家的见利思义原则,吸取儒家传统文化中的有益成分,剔除其糟粕,为当代生命伦理学研究提供借鉴.

  16. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed.

  17. Philosophy at the bedside - phenomenology, complexity and virtue in the care of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2014-12-01

    This personal reflection, based partly on my own experience as a patient, is written from the triple perspective of patient, former Health Service manager and philosopher. By beginning with the accounts of the first-hand lived experiences of patients (my own and those of Havi Carel), which I argue are central to an understanding of illness, and by then moving through the complexity of the health care environment, I aim to show that only the promulgation of a virtue-based theory of ethics and action can lead to real improvements in the quality of care delivered to patients. The case is set out to bring together the philosophical insights of phenomenology, complexity theory and Virtue Ethics. The argument shows that only Virtue Ethics provides an adequate means to respond to the unique situation and feelings of the individual person who is ill. This conclusion inevitably implies criticism of the ways that the performance of the institutions and the people who provide health care have been measured and regulated in the UK National Health Service. Overall the conclusions of this paper suggest that an approach based on virtuous agency and more closely directed towards the lived experience of people who are ill is needed to ensure both safety and improved quality in health care services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Likeness to the Divinity? Virtues and Charismatic Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Juurikkala, Oskari

    2012-01-01

    Classical virtue theory provides a fruitful framework for understanding charismatic leadership. The article outlines the theory of virtues and demonstrates the contribution of virtues to the personality traits and behaviours that are associated with charisma. The virtue of magnanimity of high-mindedness is shown to play a special role. The virtue-based perspective to charismatic leadership clarifies disagreements concerning the definition and delineation of the concept of charisma. It also pr...

  19. Ethics in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.

  20. The Administrative Ethics and Its Construction Paths of the Contemporary Government%当代政府的行政伦理及建设路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜佳英

    2011-01-01

    政府的行政伦理问题由来已久,行政伦理建设也是政府建设的一项重要内容。行政伦理问题随着政府的产生而产生,并随着政府的发展而发展。行政伦理的核心是行政责任,由于政府行政人员身份的特殊性,其在履行行政责任的过程中经常会遇到各种责任冲突,包括权力冲突、角色冲突和利益冲突等。行政伦理的建设与加强体现于冲突的应对过程中,组织、个人与法制三个方面则是加强行政伦理建设的三个方向。%The administrative ethics has been a problem of the government for far too long.And its construction is alsoan important content to that of the government.There has been administrative ethics ever since the government came into being.And it develops with the development of government.The core factor of administrative ethics is administrative responsibility.Government officers will face different kinds of responsibility conflicts due to their special roles in the society,including authority conflicts,role conflicts and interest conflicts.Thus there will be the construction of administrative ethics in dealing with all the conflicts,in the three aspects of organization,individual and law.

  1. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald eRuch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the

  2. Ethical analysis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy.

  3. Virtue, Privacy and Self-Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    The ethical problem of privacy lies at the core of computer ethics and cyber ethics discussions. The extensive use of personal data in digital networks poses a serious threat to the user’s right of privacy not only at the level of a user’s data integrity and security but also at the level of a user...

  4. 马克思消费伦理思想及其时代意义%Marx’s Consumption Ethics and Its Contemporary Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠华

    2014-01-01

    马克思对消费的论述完全符合消费伦理的主旨。解读《马克思恩格斯文集》可以看出,马克思消费伦理思想体现在以批判的方式把人本消费伦理思想贯穿于生态消费、生产消费、个人消费三大视域,建构了一个完整的消费伦理思想体系。而文本意义上的马克思消费伦理思想为当下消费态度、消费行为和消费方式的伦理评价提供了原生性指导理论和研判平台,对审视现代消费剥削、消费异化、消费自由等具有重要意义。%Marx constructed a complete system of consumption ethics in Marx and Engels Corpus.This thought runs through ecological consumption,production consumption and individual consumption in a critical way. Marx’s consumption ethics provides the primordial guidance theory and analysis platforms of ethical evaluation for consumer attitudes,consumer behavior and consumption patterns,and it is of great significance to review modern consuming exploitation,consuming alienation and consuming freedom.

  5. Ethics of justice vs the ethics of care in moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, A

    1998-03-01

    The question to be addressed in this paper is: How can the ethics of justice and the ethics of care be used complementary to each other in ethical decision making within the health care team? Various arguments are presented that justify the reasons that the ethics of justice and the ethics of care should be used complementary to each other for effective ethical decision making within the health care team. The objective is to explore and describe the compatibility of the ethics of justice and the ethics of care from two perspectives: firstly an analysis of the characteristics of the two ethical theories, and secondly the scientific-philosophical viewpoints of these theories. The two theories are incompatible when viewed from these perspectives. For a probable solution to this incompatibility arguments are presented from the perspectives of reflection and virtue-based ethics.

  6. Going Home in Peace: The Economy of Virtues, and Apathy as a Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Reis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proceeds from the premise that, even if you accept the principle that justice is impossible in the complete absence of virtue, a good political system ought to be parsimonious in any requirement of virtue as an input, so as not to impose undue restrictions on its own ability to function. Assuming a more or less random distribution of virtue through time and space, it would be preferable, all other things being equal, to have a system equipped to operate not only in periods of abundant moral and ethical virtue, but also — and particularly — in periods of scarcity, when such qualities seem depleted in human nature. This exigency grows critical in the context of a modern society, in which the ever-increasing complexity and impersonal nature of social relations will produce anonymity that would urge extreme caution in the presumption of virtue as an element of social relations — a caution that sociology unanimously teaches us. In such a context — one in which not all issues will involve everyone equally, nor will all voices be always audible — prudence advises and tolerance demands that political apathy — or, rather, mere abstention — should be recognized, if not as a new modality of virtue, at least as a basic right: in the exercise of which, I will respectfully silence myself whenever appropriate before the judgment of actors more intensely immersed than I, and let myself hope for silence from a few so as to be heard when I see fit to express myself.

  7. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  8. Business Ethics of The Hui Nationality & Its Contemporary Significance%回族的商业伦理思想及其当代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓华; 吕广文

    2012-01-01

      回族起源于唐宋时期阿拉伯地区的来华商人,是一个以商为本的民族。回族商人在长期的经济活动中形成了一套集法律、宗教、道德于一体的商业伦理思想,在这一独具特色思想的指导下,回民族的经济健康、有序地发展,民族不断繁荣强大。在今天的社会主义市场经济体制下,弘扬回族商业伦理思想,仍然具有十分重要的现实指导意义。%  The Hui Nationality originated from the Arabian merchants came to china in the Tang and Song Dynasties, it is a business-oriented nation. By the long-term economic activities, Hui merchants formed a set of business ethics incorporating the law, religion and morality. Under the guidance of this unique idea, Hui's economy achieves sound and orderly development, and their nation becomes more and more prosperous and powerful. In the context of today’s socialist market economic system, carrying forward the business ethics of the Hui Nationality sill has important practical and guiding significance.

  9. Questioning (as) Violence: Teaching Ethics in a Global Knowledge Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofd, Ingrid M.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address the contemporary politics and ethics at work in the teaching of ethics in higher education. It will do so by addressing the stakes inherent in the translation of certain "urgent reformulations" of teaching ethics in a contemporary Asian university, in light of a "demise of politics" due to…

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  11. Reverence and Teaching: The Forgotten Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jim; Rud, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to understand the spiritual dimensions of teaching by elucidating the cardinal and forgotten virtue of reverence. Reverence has a power beyond a typical understanding of it as something religious. Reverence involves a sense of wonder and awe for something or someone that meets at least one of the following…

  12. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  13. The Virtues of New Water Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the implications of post-positivism for water knowledge by answering the question: what is good water knowledge? I use Plato's four cardinal virtues, i.e. Fortitude, Temperance, Prudence and Justice, to answer the question. Fortitude means acknowledging that there are man

  14. A Probe into the Moral Anomy and Construction of Contemporary Chinese Ethics%道德失范及当代中国的伦理建构探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹峻

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary China, moral anomy phenomena arise along with the deepening and progress of reform and opening - up, and with the market -oriented economy. Causes for moral anomy are numerous and perplex, major ones including: negative impacts of market - oriented economy on society ; inadequate respects to, insufficient understanding of and inappropriate adher- ence and ridding of traditional moral principles ; inadequate attention drawn to socialist ethics construction with regards to degrees of emphasis, research, propaganda and applications. It calls for profound reflections on moral anomy in terms of contemporary Chinese ethics construction, which is a systematic project and must be pushed forward along a correct route. It is vital to raise our moral consciousness and to strengthen our operations; to lay a solid foundation for, and to guarantee its execution with moral and lawful administration; and finally, to further advance inheritance and innovation of the core social values.%随着改革开放和市场经济建设的深入和发展,当代中国社会出现了一些道德失范现象。造成道德失范的原因是多方面的,其主要原因是市场经济的消极影响;对传统道德尊重不够,认识不足,取舍不当;对社会主义道德建设重视不够,研究不够,宣传不够,应用不够等。道德失范需要重新思考当代中国的伦理建构,当代中国的伦理建构是系统工程,要沿着正确的途径推进。要在思想上提高觉悟,在行动上加大力度;要让法制建设成为道德建设的坚强后盾;要大力推进社会核心价值观的传承与创新。

  15. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M; Lee, Walter T

    2013-10-29

    Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership 'Basic Training' is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this 'Basic Training'. Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (pvirtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  16. Thai and American doctors on medical ethics: religion, regulation, and moral reasoning across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent scholarship argues that successful international medical collaboration depends crucially on improving cross-cultural understanding. To this end, this study analyzes recent writings on medical ethics by physicians in two countries actively participating in global medicine, Thailand and the United States. Articles (133; published 2004-2008) from JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine, and the Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand are analyzed to inductively build a portrait of two discursive ethical cultures. Frameworks of moral reasoning are identified across and within the two groups, with a focus on what authority (religion, law, etc.) is invoked to define and evaluate ethical problems. How might similarities and differences in ethical paradigms reflect the countries' historical "semicolonial" relationship, shed light on debates about Eastern vs. Western bioethics, and facilitate or hinder contemporary cross-national communication? Findings demonstrate substantial overlap in Thai and American doctors' vocabulary, points of reference, and topics covered, though only Thai doctors emphasize national interests and identity. American authors display a striking homogeneity in styles of moral reasoning, embracing a secular, legalistic, deontological ethics that generally eschews discussion of religion, personal character, or national culture. Among Thai authors, there is a schism in ethical styles: while some hew closely to the secular, deontological model, others embrace a virtue ethics that liberally cites Buddhist principles and emphasizes the role of doctors' good character. These two approaches may represent opposing reactions-assimilation and resistance, respectively-to Western influence. The current findings undermine the stereotype of Western individualism versus Eastern collectivism. Implications for cross-national dialog are discussed.

  17. 朱熹孝伦理思想及其当代启示%Chu Hsi’s Ethics of Filially Piety and its Contemporary Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋颖荣; 叶文振

    2015-01-01

    朱熹认为宇宙万物都是由理与气构成的,孝是对理的分殊,是当然之则。由此,朱熹提出仁是孝之本、行孝以为仁的主张,并进而指出孝的敬事父母、以父母之心为心、几谏父母以养父母之志的伦理内涵。朱熹关于孝的伦理思想对当下家风家教建设、家庭养老模式与社会养老模式的有机结合、个体人生价值之梦与中国梦之通融一体具有十分重要的理论价值与实践意义。%According to his li-chi Dualism,Chu Hsi explains filial piety as manifestation of li,and as principle of what ought to be.he also argues that jen (Goodness/Humanity) constitutes the root of filial piety,and that to be filial in order to achieve Goodness.Ethically,the filial piety implies that the young should reverentially sever the parents,sympathetically understand them,and patiently admonish them.Chu Hsi’s ethical thoughts of filial piety gives us theoretical and practical enlightenment about firstly how to cultivate family trait and home training,secondly how to combine the family and social modes of old-age pension system,and finally how to join every individual dream into the Chinese Dream.

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Mate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Slovenian entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurship. We have conducted our own empirical quantitative study on the representative sample of Slovenian entrepreneurs (n =114. Using the obtained results, we tried to verify the six hypotheses. We were particularly interested in those hypotheses that presuppose the entrepreneur who highly appreciates and respects the values and virtues of an ethical businesspearson in practice, will be more economically successful. Based on the results of our research we indicated that the Slovenian entrepreneurs are largely aware of the relevant organizational values and moral virtues, although this is not always obvious in their actions in everyday business practices. The article concludes with an interpretation of the results and discussion of the prospects and challenges for further exploration of the topics covered.

  19. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 当代大学生就业伦理缺失分析及对策研究%The Analysis and Countermeasure of the Lack of Career Ethics with Contemporary College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古璇

    2013-01-01

    面对知识经济迅猛的浪潮,我国加快了教育改革的步伐,高等教育实现了跨越式发展,高校扩招,大学生数量剧增,毕业生就业竞争日趋激烈。大学生就业难引发了一系列社会问题,同时也考验着大学生的就业道德素质,就业市场陷入前所未有的伦理困境。将理论与实际相结合,归纳出当代大学生就业伦理缺失的表现,分析其伦理缺失的原因,并强调要依靠社会、高校和大学生自身等多方之力来改善毕业生的就业伦理观,从而走出就业伦理困境,构建和谐诚信的就业环境。%With the fast development of knowledge economy,China has accelerated the pace of educational reform,which contributes greatly to the rapid progress of the higher education.Meanwhile,the increased enrollment of Universities has brought about series of social problems.Besides the fierce competition in the j ob market,the harsh employment condition also induces an ethical predicament for new graduates.This paper,theoretically and practically,enumerates the contemporary graduates’flaws in their business eth-ics.After a detailed analysis of the causes,it points out that the compound effort made by the society,the universities and the individuals is the right force to help students polish their ethical views and extricate themselves from the ethical predicament,hence to build a harmonious and honest employment environment.

  1. Loophole ethics in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical challenges in sports occur when the practitioners are caught between the will to win and the overall task of staying within the realm of acceptable values and virtues. One way to prepare for these challenges is to formulate comprehensive and specific rules of acceptable conduct. In this paper we will draw attention to one serious problem with such a rule-based approach. It may inadvertently encourage what we will call loophole ethics, an attitude where every action that is not explicitly defined as wrong, will be seen as a viable option. Detailed codes of conduct leave little room for personal judgement, and instead promote a loophole mentality. We argue that loophole ethics can be avoided by operating with only a limited set of general principles, thus leaving more space for personal judgement and wisdom.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1740

  2. Identificação e culpa: questões éticas contemporâneas Identification and guilt: contemporary ethical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo França Neto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Freud colocou o processo de identificação na gênese do aparelho psíquico. Enquanto conceito, porém, ele é marcado por alguns paradoxos. Este artigo se propõe a formalizar tais impasses, assim como a necessária vinculação, no texto freudiano, do conceito de identificação com o fenômeno da culpa. Em seguida, serão levantadas algumas situações contemporâneas nas quais, aos olhos da psicanálise e do sistema jurídico, essa vinculação (identificação-culpa tem sido colocada em questão.Freud has presented the process of identification in the origin of the psychic apparatus. As a concept, though, it is marked by a few paradoxes. This article aims to formalize such impasses, as well as the necessary link, in a Freudian text, of the concept of identification with the guilt phenomenon. Throughout the text, a number of contemporary situations will be drawn upon, where within the areas of psychoanalysis and the judicial system, this link (identification-guilt has come into serious question.

  3. Using neurotechnologies to develop virtues: a Buddhist approach to cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Fenton (2009) has argued that Buddhist ethics can accommodate the use of attention-enhancing drugs, and Walker (2006 , 2009) has argued that future neurotechnologies may be used to enhance happiness and virtue. This paper uses a Western Buddhist perspective, drawing on many Buddhist traditions, to explore how emerging neurotechnologies may be used to suppress vices and enhance happiness and virtue. A Buddhist approach to the authenticity of technologically-mediated spiritual progress is discussed. The potential utility and dangers of mood manipulation for a Buddhist understanding of liberation are outlined. Then the ten paramitas of Theravadan Buddhism are explored to frame an exploration of the potential genes, neurochemicals and brain structures that could be targeted as part of a program of neurotechnological moral enhancement.

  4. The development of virtue through Situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele BALDUZZI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to underline the educative potential of the teaching method called «Situated learning». Thanks to the introduction of Tablets and iPads into the school environment, teachers have more instruments (i.e. interactive slides, video and audio support, Internet based sources to let knowledge, abilities and skills grow into their students’ mind: this is «Situated learning». Although the learning potential of these new learning instruments is clear, there must be the support of the students’ and teachers’ qualities and virtues (in particular the virtue of sharing knowledge, otherwise the whole potential would be nullified anyway: students with no will to learn will not learn, with or without an iPad, and the same is for a teacher with no will to teach.

  5. Ethical Behavior and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to the Decision to Obtain Professional Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    credentials. In this case , Ethical Egoism and Ethical Relativism had the most impact. • which elements of the decision-making process can influence...the theories Rights Ethics, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and Ethical Egoism as having the greatest impact on engineers (Lewis, undated). Similarly...Fan & Fox, 2012 identify legal requirements and self-interest (Ethical Egoism ) as the two primary factors which influenced construction

  6. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant effects on Islamic thinkers. In other words, they claim they have been strongly influenced by Aristotle’s ideas. An obvious example for this can be ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ which attracted the attention of both western and eastern thinkers. As the greatest and the most salient commentator, Al-Fārābī could elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on ethics and so suggest a comprehensive theory of ultimate happiness and Utopia' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah'. On the other hand, following Aristotle, Al-Fārābī divided ethics into two theoretical and practical branches. Hence, basis of ethical theories introduced by the two of these philosophers is based on happiness; However, Al-Fārābī added notions of Islam and mysticism to happiness. The most straightforward definition that Aristotle offers for happiness concerns an ultimate goal which humans are eagerly seeking to acquire it. He considers the best life as a happy life which can be reached by reasoning about humans’ actions and reactions and through adopting a viewpoint. In this sense, Aristotle introduced three types of lives, namely life with pleasure, political life, and life with intellect; he knows the third type of life better and more sublime than the other two. In his book on ethics, Aristotle defined happiness as soul’s performance according to perfect virtue. Regarding soul, Aristotle divided virtues into moral and rational ones. He believed that virtue is inasmuch as its genus is a hexis (habit

  7. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Virtuous acts as practical medical ethics: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    To examine the nature, scope and significance of virtues in the biographies of medical practitioners and to determine what kind of virtues are at play in their ethical behaviour and reflection. A case study involving 19 medical practitioners associated with the Sydney Medical School, using semi-structured narrative interviews. Narrative data were analysed using dialectical empiricism, constant comparison and iterative reformulation of research questions. Participants represented virtuous acts as centrally important in their moral assessments of both themselves and others. Acts appeared to be contextually virtuous, rather than expressions of stable character traits, and virtue was linked to acts that served to protect or enhance fundamental values attached to ontological security and human flourishing. Virtue ethics, in this sense, was the single most important ethical system for each of the participants. Virtue ethics, construed as the appraisal of acts in contexts of risk, danger or threat to foundational values, emerged as the 'natural' ethical approach for medical practitioners in this case study. Teaching medical ethics to students and graduates alike needs to accommodate the priority attached to virtuous acts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  10. The Transformative Intellectual: An Examination of Henry Giroux's Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Henry Giroux's contributions to critical pedagogy. The author demonstrates how Giroux, as a public intellectual, has found his Ethics in the right place. The author further argues that Giroux's Ethics of virtue are present not only in the public person but also in his transformative writing.

  11. The Transformative Intellectual: An Examination of Henry Giroux's Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Henry Giroux's contributions to critical pedagogy. The author demonstrates how Giroux, as a public intellectual, has found his Ethics in the right place. The author further argues that Giroux's Ethics of virtue are present not only in the public person but also in his transformative writing.

  12. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-HASAN AL-AIDAROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision making process. Despite their utility, this paper intends to argue that the Western concepts and understanding of what ethics are limited and incomprehensive in explaining what is right and what is wrong. In its place, this paper argues that to understand the concepts of ethics that can extend beyond time and space. It has to be analysed from an Islamic perspective. Toward this purpose, this paper will compare and contrast between Islamic and Western perspectives of ethics, and highlight the main weaknesses and limitations of the former. Then, an argument on why Islam can provide the best understanding of ethics will be made.

  13. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  14. Theories of normative ethics - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics:  The most basic question......Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed...... at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures...

  15. Social, Professional, Professorial and Scientific Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Amaro Cano

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of ethics and morals, virtues and flaws of human beings and the societies they build in different places and historical periods as well as the construction of values as a result of their own material and spiritual needs and the dialectical interrelationship between the material base and social consciousness. It also includes the main ethical paradigms, traditions, customs and habits as important elements in the process of value formation. It underlines the rol...

  16. The Inspiration of Emerson’s Literary Ethic Thoughts on Chinese Contemporary Literature%爱默生文学伦理思想对中国当代文学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云

    2011-01-01

    As the spiritual leader of American Renaissance,Emerson’s thoughts have exerted profound influence on culture and literature in both America and the whole world.Emerson has always been kept intense attention in China.Virtually,besides the propositions of independence and politics,Emerson in his works also insists on the ethicality of literary creation and the convergence of literary truth.He refers particularly to the literary function of the inner introspection and the experience of the spiritual exploration.Emerson’s proposition of meshing humanism with social dimension opens up a new perspective for literary research.Emerson’s literary ethical thoughts provide an approach of literary sociology,which has certain reference meanings in Chinese contemporary literature and promotes the exploration of utilizing literary texts to inaugurate new civilization of the times.%爱默生作为美国文艺复兴时期的精神领袖,其思想对美国文化、文学乃至世界文化和文学都产生了深远的影响。爱默生的作品中除了对自立、政治的倡导外,还主张文本创作的伦理性和文学真理的共通性,特别强调了文本对内心的反省和对灵魂的探索的伦理功能。爱默生提倡人本主义和社会维度相契合的观点为文学研究开辟了新的视角。爱默生的文学伦理思想提供了一种文学社会学的方法,对中国当代文学创作具有一定的启示意义,有助于探寻如何利用文本去开创新的时代文明。

  17. The Path of Teacher’s Moral Education Based on Teacher’s Virtue%基于德性伦理的教师德育路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许烨; 龙献忠

    2013-01-01

      对教师德性伦理性质的探寻,实际上是探求教师德育的可能性。从德性的哲学历史来说,德性是做人的根基。教师德性的伦理性质就是从道德哲学的角度审视教师行为所必须的德性及其伦理内涵和伦理规约,以人性的善与恶的根本来激发教师的“教育良知”。教师德育应从教师德性的塑造、教师权力的控制、道德关怀的养成、教师自我的伦理反省等方面来进行。%Seeking the ethical nature of teacher’s virtue is seeking the possibility of teacher’s moral education. Virtue is the root of being a human viewing from the philosophy history of virtue. The ethical nature of teacher’s virtue is to look closely at the necessary virtue and ethical implication from his behavior and excitate teacher’s educational virtue by the goodness and badness of humanity. We should mould teacher’s virtue, control teacher’s power, develop teacher’s moral care and let teacher to make self-examination in teacher’s moral education.

  18. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations.......This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...

  19. The Ethical Stance in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...

  20. Relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist Debate for Ethics and Professionalism in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, G. Michael; Mueller, Ross A. Oakes; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no…

  1. Filosofías del don: Usos y abusos de la donación en la ética contemporánea Philoscphies of the gift: Uses and abuses of contemporary ethics donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Domingo Moratalla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el concepto de donación en la ética contemporánea. Este análisis se realiza en tres momentos: el primero se sitúa en la introducción y muestra que es un concepto importante en el que convergen la fenomenología, el personalismo y la hermenéutica. Esta convergencia no solo supone un uso frecuente del concepto sino un abuso del mismo cuando se construye de espalda a las mediaciones objetivas o institucionales que lo condicionan. El segundo presenta una antropología del don y muestra su relación con los objetos, la reciprocidad, la deuda y la libertad. En el tercer momento se describe la filosofía de la donación de Paul Ricoeur, donde se comprueba un uso crítico y reflexivo de esta categoría, así como su diálogo con M. Hénaff.The aim of this paper is to analyze the concept of donation in contemporary ethics. This analysis is done in three stages: the first is the introduction and shows that it is an important concept in the converging phenomenology, personalism and hermeneutics. This convergence is not only a frequent use of the concept but an abuse of it when builáng back to mediation or institutional objective that condition. The second presents an anthropology of the gift and shows their relationship to objects, reciprocity, debí and freedom. The third moment descubes the philosophy of Paúl Ricoeur donation, which verifies critical and reflective use of this category and its dialogue with M. Hénaff.

  2. Inspi rations of Modern Neo-Confucianism Ethics on Contemporary Moral Education of Minors%现代新儒学伦理思想对当代未成年人道德观教育的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐青青; 叶松庆; 荣梅

    2015-01-01

    归纳了现代新儒学伦理思想的传承性、形而上性、融合性、个体内省性等基本特征,分析了当代未成年人道德观发展的基本现状,从“天人合德”思想与坚定未成年人道德信仰的教育、人文精神的凸显完善未成年人“人性”的教育、“求道”“求真”目标培养未成年人自强不息的民族精神、追求“君子”理想人格培养未成年人懂得奉献的道德品质等方面探究了对未成年人道德观教育的启示。%The basic characteristics of modern Neo‐Confucianism ethics are generalized ,which include in‐heritance ,metaphysics ,integration and individual introspective ,etc .The basic situation of contemporary moral development of minors is analyzed .Then ,the inspirations of modern neo‐Confucianism to moral edu‐cation of minors are explored from the following aspects :the thought of "harmonious virtuous Heaven and man"and firm moral beliefs education of minors ,highlighting the human spirit and perfecting minors'hu‐manity education ,the target of "seeking the truth"to bring up minors'unyielding national spirit ,the pursuit of "man of honor" to train minors'dedicative personality .

  3. Private Law, Public Consequences, And Virtue Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapin F. Cimino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Everything we know about legal theory is wrong. Or at least, this is the claim made by Colin Farrelly and Lawrence Solum in their important new anthology, Virtue Jurisprudence. Specifically, Farrelly and Solum tell us that we are arguing over the wrong question. The wrong question is whether normative legal theory should rest on either law and economic notions of welfare and efficiency or on rights-based notions of liberty and equality. To Farrelly and Solum, the answer to this question is neither.

  4. Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ethical Issues with Genetic Testing for Tay-Sachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Tricia

    Several genetic disorders are specific to Jewish heritage; one of the most devastating is Tay-Sachs disease.Tay-Sachs is a fatal hereditary disease, causing progressive neurological problems for which there is no cure. Ethical issues surrounding genetic testing for Tay-Sachs within the Jewish community continue to be complex and multifaceted. A perspective of Tay-Sachs, using rights-based ethics and virtue ethics as a theoretical framework, is explored.

  6. Teacher’s Professional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文玲

    2014-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in society, whose career is considered to be the most glorious one under the sun. They have deep and lifelong influence on students and the prosperity of a country and even the bright future of the whole world. Teacher should be a person with great virtue that sets good examples for the students. However, nowadays, there exist various problems about teacher’s ethics due to complex social, economical, cultural or personal issues. It’s urgent and imperative for teachers to learn and improve professional ethics to be a better mentor. This paper begins with the definition of ethics, emphasizes the importance of teachers’professional ethics, talks about current situation in this area, analyzes the reasons why there are im-moral problems about teachers and suggests some practical strategies on how to improve it.

  7. Virtues, Vices, and Political Influence in the U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, Leanne; Liu, Christopher C; Keltner, Dacher; Srivastava, Sameer B

    2016-01-01

    What qualities make a political leader more influential or less influential? Philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists have puzzled over this question, positing two opposing routes to political power--one driven by human virtues, such as courage and wisdom, and the other driven by vices, such as Machiavellianism and psychopathy. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in political speeches, we assessed the virtues and vices of 151 U.S. senators. We found that virtuous senators became more influential after they assumed leadership roles, whereas senators who displayed behaviors consistent with vices--particularly psychopathy--became no more influential or even less influential after they assumed leadership roles. Our results inform a long-standing debate about the role of morality and ethics in leadership and have important implications for electing effective government officials. Citizens would be wise to consider a candidate's virtue in casting their votes, which might increase the likelihood that elected officials will have genuine concern for their constituents and simultaneously promote cooperation and progress in government.

  8. Implications of Chinese Traditional Moral Education of Thanksgiving on the Contemporary College Students’ Family Ethics Education Mode%中国传统感恩道德教育对当代大学生家庭伦理教育模式的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新宏

    2014-01-01

    Moral education must focus on the role of family education. Chinese traditional culture contains a wealth of moral philosophy of thanksgiving family ethics. This will be instructive in guiding the contemporary college students to solve the problems. Contemporary College family ethics and moral education should rely on traditional thanksgiving, strengthening the role of family education, forming a warm, effective family thanksgiving ethics education mode.%道德教育必须重视家庭教育的作用,中国传统文化中蕴含的丰富感恩道德理念对解决当代大学生家庭伦理教育存在的问题具有指导性作用。当代大学生家庭伦理教育应以传统感恩道德为依托,强化家庭教育的作用,构设温情、有效的家庭感恩道伦理教育模式。

  9. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Schulz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods: As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results: Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9 and military personnel (n=2,433 as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001 in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions: A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  10. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053

  11. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  12. 德性伦理与企业伦理%Virtue Ethic and Business Ethic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚天平

    2009-01-01

    企业伦理不能化约为个人伦理,但包含德性伦理.德性伦理以行为者的德性为核心,以其幸福为目标指向.企业伦理既包括规范伦理,也包括德性伦理,其中德性伦理是企业家和员工所应具备的经济美德,其德性观、实践论视野、团体论视野、幸福观和成功观都有力地支持着企业伦理,但德性伦理还需要规范伦理作为副本,才能有效地发挥作用.

  13. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AND NURSES IN PORTUGUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Costa Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses deontological issues of health care professions in relation to their ethical foundation. We present four models of teaching ethics and deontology in doctors’ training and the results of a PhD research on the teaching of these subjects in nurses’ training in Portugal. Given the importance of bioethics in deontological training of health care professions, we present a comparative analysis of. bioethical principles enunciated by Beauchamp and Childress (1979, related to ‘ethics of justice’, and Kemp’s(2000 proposal, associated to an ‘ethics of care’. Given the ambiguity of these bioethical expressions, we focus on the analysis of its contents and the need to discuss the fundamentals of ethical training of doctors and nurses in relation to the ethical theories they are derived from. Utilitarian ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics, when the analysis of bioethics’ fundaments is not trained, the duty of caring of suffering can be put at risk.

  14. Contemporary cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oppliger, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're new to the field or looking to broaden your knowledge of contemporary cryptography, this newly revised edition of an Artech House classic puts all aspects of this important topic into perspective. Delivering an accurate introduction to the current state-of-the-art in modern cryptography, the book offers you an in-depth understanding of essential tools and applications to help you with your daily work. The second edition has been reorganized and expanded, providing mathematical fundamentals and important cryptography principles in the appropriate appendixes, rather than summarize

  15. DEMOCRACIES VIRTUES AND VICES VIRTUDES E VÍCIUS DA DEMOCRACIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Esser dos Reis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Democracy can be regarded, following Alexis de Tocquevilles
    thoughts, from two complementary standpoints: the equality standpoint – where equality is understood as a social condition; and the liberty standpoint – understood as a political condition. However, he observes, democracy is not a priori what it should be, denunciating, in this way, the imbalance between equality and liberty, the greater the imbalance as poor are the public virtues. We intend to enroll in a debate involving ethics and politics, by considering vices and virtues inherent to democracy, analyzing Tocqueville´s ideas. We start examining the causes of vice and the possibility of virtue, as Tocqueville sees them, in order to, next, attack the relationship of ethics and politics.A democracia pode ser compreendida, segundo Aléxis de Tocqueville, a partir de duas idéias complementares: a condição social de igualdade e a condição política de liberdade. Entretanto, observa, a democracia não é a priori o que deveria ser, denunciando, deste modo, a existência de um descompasso entre a igualdade e a liberdade que cresce na mesma medida em que esmorecem as virtudes públicas. Visando contribuir com a discussão acerca das relações entre ética e política, pretendo examinar virtudes e vícios inerentes ao Estado democrático, a partir da análise das idéias de Tocqueville. Meu interesse será, em primeiro lugar, compreender
    as causas dos vícios e a possibilidade das virtudes nas democracias, para, então, discutir a relação entre a ética e a política.

  16. Playing with a "Full DECK": A Creative Application of the Integrative Decision-Making Framework of Ethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jan C.; Plaisance, Pamela M.; Renfrow, Jennifer J.; Olivier, Brandi N.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation practitioners are faced with a variety of complex ethical decisions in a dynamic, changing world. Attention to principle ethics, virtue ethics, critical thinking, and creativity are essential for best practice. This article presents one tool (DECK--Decision-Making that Enhances Counselor Know-How) to facilitate such ethical…

  17. Sexualidad y prácticas sexuales contemporáneas en la genealogía del sujeto ético de Michel Foucault.Sexuality and contemporary sexual practices in the genealogy of the ethical subject of Michel Foucault.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality and contemporary sexual practices in the genealogy of the ethical subject of Michel Foucault. Resumen  La obra de Michel Foucault en sus tres momentos; la arqueología del saber, la genealogía del poder y la genealogía del sujeto ético, permiten pensar la sexualidad ya no como naturaleza humana sino como invento y construcción moderna que parte de discursos sociales, religiosos, políticos y científicos consolidándose en un dispositivo dinámico en el que está implicado el juego de los...

  18. Interactive Contemporary Art : Participation in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Audience participation has polarized the critical debate surrounding contemporary art's social, moral and aesthetic potential. This incisive collection of essays sheds new light on the political, ethical and artistic capacity of participatory works and tests the most recent theoretical approaches to

  19. Interactive Contemporary Art : Participation in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Audience participation has polarized the critical debate surrounding contemporary art's social, moral and aesthetic potential. This incisive collection of essays sheds new light on the political, ethical and artistic capacity of participatory works and tests the most recent theoretical approaches to

  20. Recent Works Published: Contemporary World Literature and British Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Madelena

    2015-01-01

    Angelaki, Vicky (ed), Contemporary British Theatre: Breaking New Ground, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013 (224 pages), ISBN-13: 978-1137010124. Aragay, Mireia and Enric Monforte (eds), Ethical Speculations in Contemporary British Theatre, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 (232 pages), ISBN-13: 978-1137297563. Beaumont, Alexander, Contemporary British Fiction and the Cultural Politics of Disenfranchisement: Freedom and the City, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (248 pages), ISBN-13:...

  1. Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    "Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal" is a transdisciplinary faculty handbook to enhance the quality of learning and teaching. The author applies six multicultural virtues and 24 character strengths from Positive Psychology research to the tasks of course design, managing critical incidents, and…

  2. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  3. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations.

  4. Artificial persons against nature: environmental governmentality, economic corporations, and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the 194 nation-state signatories to the global Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation effort is failing to halt an ongoing spiral of decline in most habitats and ecological communities on land and ocean. Environmental ethicists argue that the failure to halt the unsustainable predation on the ecosystems that sustain industrial civilization is indicative of a moral as well as a scientific crisis. Principal ethical interventions in ecology include the ascription of value to species and ecosystems, wilderness ethics, and ecological virtue. Ecological virtue ethics identifies agency, character, institutions, and practices as crucial to moral formation and outcomes. However, the dominant role of the economic corporation in ecological destruction subverts a virtues approach. Corporations as fictive persons will not learn ecological virtue absent of legal and regulatory reform and the ecological education of business leaders and owners.

  5. Critical Naturalism : A Quantum Mechanical Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolphijn, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rereading Derrida, both Donna Haraway and Karen Barad are in search for an ethics that is not based on critique but that offers an affirmative alternative to the dualist construction of naturalism today. Whereas Haraway practices this ethics mainly by reading contemporary biology into the

  6. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  7. Conversing on Ethics, Morality and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    In philosophical use, "ethics" and "moral philosophy" are more closely synonymous--one deriving from Greek, "ethike" and the other from Latin "moralis." In typical social science paradigms, there generally prevails a consensual sense of contemporary everyday use of "ethics," except where earlier…

  8. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  9. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit. In contrast to its medical use, the recreational use of marijuana cannot be justified for at least three reasons. First, as scientists have amply documented, it harms the organic functioning of the human body. Second, it impedes our ability to reason and in so doing does harm to us. Finally, it has lasting detrimental effects on the user and his neighbor, even when it occurs in a casual setting. Intoxication is always contrary to the integral good of the person. Thus, the use of marijuana is never warranted even for good, non-medical reasons.

  10. 从体用关系角度理解儒家的道德论述——兼论当代儒学的核心价值观%An Understanding of the Confucian Ethics from the Perspective of the Relationship of Ti and Yong and the Core Value of the Contemporary Confucianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光

    2011-01-01

    -operating;whereas,the "Tao" in Confucianism is an ontological concept which has political,ethical and moral functions all in one.Among the many meanings of "Tao" in Confucianism,the most important and fundamental is the morality which is based on "Tao",and is the basic principle of life,and is the ideal in politics and the policy to run a country and provide stability to its people.The "De"(morality) described in Confucianism is the understanding and the practice,as well as the reflection of "Tao".In the logic of Confucianism,the relationship of "Tao" and "De" in essence is the relationship of "Ti"(foundation or base) and "Yong"(practice),which means "Tao" is the fundamental moral that serves as "Ti",and "De" is the reflection of "Dao",which is the practice.The most important core value in Confucianism,among many other values,is "Ren"(goodness),which is also the fundamental "Tao" in Confucianism.The relationships of "Ren" and other virtues(such as "Yi","Li","Zhi","Xin","He" and "Jing" etc) are not parallel;rather,it is the relationship of "Ti" and "Yong".The "Ren" is the entity of the "Tao",and the other virtues are the practice of the "Tao".The general understanding of the fundamental core value in Confucianism refers to "Ren",however,there are different interpretations of the virtues to reflect the "Ren",such as "si wei"(four virtues: Li,Yi,Lian,Chi),"wu xing"(five practices: Ren,Yi,Li,Zhi,Xin),"liu de"(six virtues: Zhi,Ren,Sheng,Yi,Zhong) and "ba de"(eight virtues: Xiao,Ti,Zhong,Xin,Li,Yi,Lian,Chi) etc.This article believes the core value of Confucianism as "one goodness(Ren Tao) and five virtues(Yi,Li,Xin,He,Jing)",which is the understanding based on the spiritual needs of contemporary society and a universal perspective on values.The spiritual crisis in the society and the lost of morality are

  11. Core ethical issues of clinical nursing supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Ingela; Barbosa da Silva, António; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    Clinical nursing supervision enables supervisees to reflect on ethically difficult caring situations, thereby strengthening their professional identity, integrating nursing theory and practice, and leading to the development of ethical competence. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the core ethical issues of clinical nursing supervision, using previous research as well as philosophical analysis of the theories of three moral philosophers: Harald Ofstad, Richard Hare and Carol Gilligan. The ultimate aim of this study was to develop a general model for ethical decision-making and to establish its relevance for clinical nursing supervision. The findings highlight four important values for the development of a basis for ethical decision-making. These values are caring, dignity, responsibility and virtue.

  12. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.

  13. An inquiry into the explanatory virtues of transaction cost economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Hardt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we offer a methodological reflection on how the explanatory virtues of economic theories can be assessed in a systematic way. Second, we use that theoretical apparatus to study the explanatory virtues of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE, henceforth.Precisely, we are primarily interested in assessing the progress within TCE with respect to its explanatory power rather than directly comparing TCE’s explanatory virtues to alternative theories. The paper offers also some general insights into the way we compare economic theories.

  14. History and theory in "applied ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    2007-03-01

    Robert Baker and Laurence McCullough argue that the "applied ethics model" is deficient and in need of a replacement model. However, they supply no clear meaning to "applied ethics" and miss most of what is important in the literature on methodology that treats this question. The Baker-McCullough account of medical and applied ethics is a straw man that has had no influence in these fields or in philosophical ethics. The authors are also on shaky historical grounds in dealing with two problems: (1) the historical source of the notion of "practical ethics" and (2) the historical source of and the assimilation of the term "autonomy" into applied philosophy and professional ethics. They mistakenly hold (1) that the expression "practical ethics" was first used in a publication by Thomas Percival and (2) that Kant is the primary historical source of the notion of autonomy as that notion is used in contemporary applied ethics.

  15. Virtude e amor em Rousseau - Virtue and love in Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Hermann, Brasil.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rousseau rompe o vínculo considerado indissolúvel entre consciência moral e consciência cultural, para dar lugar à relação entre natureza e ética e revoluciona o modo de compreender o homem e sua relação com o mundo. Desconfiado da razão que não é educada pelos sentimentos o filósofo propõe, em Emílio, uma educação que defenda  o coração do homem do erro e do vício provenientes da sociedade. Em Júlia ou a Nova Heloísa, um romance por meio de cartas, o autor combina o discurso da paixão com o discurso moral para mostrar o conflito entre o amor e o dever e indicar que amor e virtude são inseparáveis. Dramatiza posições filosóficas e contribui com a criação de uma nova ética e uma nova estética, em que se reafirma a formação do homem virtuoso. O artigo conclui que as duas obras marcam a contribuição decisiva de Rousseau para a criação de uma nova mentalidade que aspira à interioridade e à espontaneidade provenientes da natureza e que desperta a sensibilidade romântica.Palavras-chave: Rousseau, virtude, amor, nova sensibilidade. VIRTUE AND LOVE IN ROUSSEAU AbstractRousseau breaks the tie considered  indissoluble between moral conscience and cultural conscience, replacing it by the relationship between nature and ethics. This revolutionizes the way man and his relationship with the world are understood. The philosopher, who is suspicious of reason which is not educated by feelings, in Emile proposes an education that will defend man’s heart from error and vice coming from society.  In Julia, or the New Heloise, a novel written in the form of letters, the author combines the discourse of passion with a moral discourse to show the conflict between love and duty, and to indicate that love and virtue are inseparable.  He dramatizes philosophical positions, contributing to create a new ethics and a new esthetics, in which the education of the virtuous man is reaffirmed. The article concludes that the two

  16. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  17. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical and fashionable while effacing underlying processes of rationalisation and commercialisation.

  18. Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

  19. Changes in the welfare state and the ethics of early childhood educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Ethical reflection is more relevant than ever before. As a reaction to both the trend of utilitarianism in early childhood education and the changes in the organisation of welfare sevices in the Nordic countries a professional ethics of virtue must be revitalized. However, it is not an easy path...

  20. Virtues in Iamblichus and the Shift of Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoulas, Ch.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out differences between the perception of virtues in Plato’s Protagoras and especially the Symposium and in Iamblichus. The argument is focused on the fact that, although both philosophers agree that virtues can be taught and they are therefore a social activity, in Plato there is a certain significance laid on the social role of virtues as well as on the cardinal importance of love as a sentiment that leads to temperance, in Iamblichus, what is more adequate for a philosopher to exercise is rather the hieratic values, while the temperance is the virtue that leads to the union with god. Based on that argument and in the fact that theurgy as a practice is more personal than social, we could possibly trace in representative philosophical thoughts of these eras the change of worldviews between classical and late antiquity, as, at any rate, the historical research shows.

  1. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory...

  2. From pain to virtue: dysphoric sensations and moral sensibilities in Yap (Waqab), Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, C Jason

    2008-06-01

    This article contributes to the development of a medical anthropology of sensation through providing a thick ethnographic description of pain's significance in the context of a particular community's - Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) - understandings of subjectivity, social action, and morality. After first proposing an attentional-synthetic model of the patterning of sensory experience, the article goes on to describe in some detail the linguistic, moral, and cultural frameworks that serve as the semiotic, existential, and practical resources providing the background against which individual sufferers tend to interpret their dysphoric sensory experiences. Central to the article is an exploration of a local illness category maath'keenil' that is implicated in two, at times competing, models of ethical subjectivity. It is argued that through configuring their subjective experiences in light of these virtues individual sufferers are at times able to transform their experiences of pain from excruciating dysphoric sensations to meaningful, morally valenced, lived experiences.

  3. EDUCATION IN VIRTUES AND VALUES FORMING THE CHARACTER AND BUILDING FULL AND FREE CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Education in virtues and values is the antidote in these times of decadence social, political and unfair distribution of economic wealth to rescue the concepts of dignity, responsibility and freedom in educational projects that Government should be implemented globally, in order to promote a series of tools for learners can pass through self-knowledge and self-confidence helping them build a personality that allows them to settle in their work, social and family environment and which also conducive to the development of ethical behavior that have social impact, and can contribute to change the reality of decline and corruption that we are living today, building to full and free citizens.

  4. Business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  5. Virtues Education in Medical School: The Foundation for Professional Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues-courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice-are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own well-being, and 90% said they would

  6. The Dilemma of Practical Ethics Education for Contemporary College Students and the Research for a Solution%当代大学生道德实践教育的困境及对策探寻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2016-01-01

    当前大学生道德实践教育遭遇严峻挑战,这与社会层面的功利主义、实用主义等思想的侵蚀和个人境界的层次、自律性不强等主客观方面原因都有内在关联。可通过道德教育目标的崇高定位、道德教育内容的德性培育和道德教育方式的体验养成等途径来加以完善。%The practical ethics education for college students is facing a severe challenge which shares a connection with objective and subjective factors such as,social utilitarianism,the influence of pragmatism,personal ideological level, lacking of self-discipline, etc. The dilemma can be enhanced by aiming at a higher target in ethical education, fostering the ethical characters of ethical education,and the acquirement of experiencing ethical teaching methods.

  7. 当前我国高校师德师风建设的思路探索%Exploration on the Ideas of Teachers' Ethics Construction in Contemporary China's Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明俊

    2015-01-01

    师德是一个教师所具备的灵魂,高校教师的师德师风是大学精神的承载,是高校得以生存与发展的根本。高校的师德师风建设是一个从未间断过的话题,我国的高校师德师风建设已经取得了一定的成就,但是依旧存在着一些问题。本文对我国高校师德师风建设的现状及问题进行了分析,提出了高校师德师风建设的思路与措施。%Teachers' ethics is the soul of a teacher, the ethics of college teachers is the carrier of college spirit, as well as the basis for the survival and development of colleges. Teachers' ethics construction in colleges is a topic that has never stopped. Teach-ers' ethics construction in China's colleges has achieved certain results, but there are still some problems. This paper analyzes the current situation and problems of teachers' ethics construction in China's colleges, and proposes corresponding ideas and mea-sures.

  8. Ethical issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Raul; Rubenfeld, Sheldon

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. These principles were gradually adopted after World War II, primarily in response to the unethical behavior of German physicians and scientists during the Third Reich. This review emphasizes the importance of historical milestones and the essential role that ethics has in contemporary medical research. Research protocols should achieve maximum benefits for the society, have clinical and scientific value, be subject to independent review, respect human dignity, and follow the principles of informed consent, and most importantly, subjects should have complete autonomy. However, current principles and regulations cannot cover every conceivable situation, particularly in view of the new advances in science and technology. New and evolving medical technology, genetic research, therapeutic interventions, and innovations challenge society to maintain the highest moral and ethical principles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Analyzing Trouble on Ethics of Choosing Occupation about Contemporary College graduates and Enlightenment of Marx'view of Choosing Occupation%当代大学生择业伦理的困境分析与马克思择业观的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂平荣

    2012-01-01

    Under the Sociology background of a difficult employment situation intensified, contemporary college students ' words and deeds in choosing occupation have shown trouble on ethics of choosing occupation such as serious utility tendency in employment expectation occupational value more self-centered perceptual career orientation secular employment idea Lack of employment integrity. To investigate their reason, the author thinks there are not any deep objective factors of the sociology and school, but also college students' personal subjective components. But Marx discussed detailed and insightfully employment attitude of youth, the main factors should be considered, main principles and basic principle of career theory in "the consideration on the choice of occupation for youth". From interpretation of those view on choosing occupations, some appropriate countermeasures can be mined and combed to resolve the above trouble on ethics of choosing occupation: namely, choosing occupations serious and carefully, got out of the utilitarian errors of choosing occupation ethics; understanding myself correctly, removing perceptual color of choosing occupation ethics; firming career beliefs, changing secular concept on choosing occupation ethics; establishing high occupation ideal, criticize malpractice of individualistic choosing occupation ethics.%在就业难愈演愈烈的社会背景下,当代大学生的择业言行已表现出择业期望功利倾向严重、择业价值以自我为中心、择业定位感性、择业观念世俗、择业诚信缺失等择业伦理困境。究其成因,既有社会与学校深层次的客观因素,也有大学生个人的主观成分。马克思在《青年在选择职业时的考虑》一文中详尽而精辟地论述了青年择业时的态度、应考虑的主要因素、主要原则与基本方针,可为化解上述择业伦理困境提供相应对策:严肃认真择业,走出择业伦理的功利误区;正确认识自我,清除

  10. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  11. Privileged and Undocumented: Toward a Borderland Love Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I seek to explore the tensions of what it means to be a "deserving" native researcher. I begin by experimenting with the meaning of a "borderland love ethic" as a theoretical framework that centers on: nurturing our strength to love in spaces of contention, tolerance of ambiguity as a revolutionary virtue, and…

  12. Privileged and Undocumented: Toward a Borderland Love Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I seek to explore the tensions of what it means to be a "deserving" native researcher. I begin by experimenting with the meaning of a "borderland love ethic" as a theoretical framework that centers on: nurturing our strength to love in spaces of contention, tolerance of ambiguity as a revolutionary virtue, and…

  13. Virtues, ecological momentary assessment/intervention and smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Jason D; Steinke, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    Virtues, broadly understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether studies showing that situations can strongly influence our responses provide evidence against the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition). In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that the prevailing methods for examining situational influences are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life-a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling). We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app) technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI). While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  14. Virtues, Ecological Momentary Assessment/Intervention and Smartphone Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Runyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtues, generally understood as stable and robust dispositions for certain responses across morally relevant situations, have been a growing topic of interest in psychology. A central topic of discussion has been whether the existence of virtues (as a kind of stable and robust disposition is called into question by studies showing that, to a significant degree, an individual’s situation can influence their responses. In this review, we examine reasons for thinking that these kinds of situational studies are limited in their ability to test dispositional stability and robustness; or, then, whether virtues exist. We make the case that these limitations can be addressed by aggregating repeated, cross-situational assessments of environmental, psychological and physiological variables within everyday life—a form of assessment often called ecological momentary assessment (EMA, or experience sampling. We, then, examine how advances in smartphone application (app technology, and their mass adoption, make these mobile devices an unprecedented vehicle for EMA and, thus, the psychological study of virtue. We, additionally, examine how smartphones might be used for virtue development by promoting changes in thought and behavior within daily life; a technique often called ecological momentary intervention (EMI. While EMA/I have become widely employed since the 1980s for the purposes of understanding and promoting change amongst clinical populations, few EMA/I studies have been devoted to understanding or promoting virtues within non-clinical populations. Further, most EMA/I studies have relied on journaling, PDAs, phone calls and/or text messaging systems. We explore how smartphone app technology provides a means of making EMA a more robust psychological method, EMI a more robust way of promoting positive change, and, as a result, opens up new possibilities for studying and promoting virtues.

  15. Two concepts of medical ethics and their implications for medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2002-08-01

    People who discuss medical ethics or bioethics come to very different conclusions about the levels of agreement in the field and the implications of consensus among health care professionals. In this paper I argue that these disagreements turn on a confusion of two distinct senses of medical ethics. I differentiate (1) medical ethics as a subject in applied ethics from (2) medical ethics as the professional moral commitments of health care professions. I then use the distinction to explain its significant implications for medical ethics education. Drawing on the recent work of John Rawls, I also show the centrality of philosophy in medical ethics by illustrating how contemporary philosophy can be used to construct an ethical framework for the medical professions.

  16. Research ethics in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Schmitt Rocha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective here is to point out ethics in Physical Education research against a backdrop of individual and collective human conduct. Since Plato, the question of ethics in the Western world has been an incessant search for the virtues to harmonize personal and social wellbeing and for the absolute principles of conduct: Autonomy, Beneficence and Justice. Physical Education cannot exempt itself from these and its countless areas of research. In addition to the moral education that develops and solidifies within social groups, the characteristic of which is action on an individual level, we must also consider ethical principles such as those defended by the Physical Education World Manifesto and those that regulate the professional activities of Physical Education professionals. Irrespective of the area investigated, Research in Physical Education will always clash with institutionalized ethical principles enforced by ethics committees, councils and the values accepted by the researchers. Committees strive to preserve the integrity and dignity of the people enrolled on research studies while the researchers challenge the limits of knowledge at an uncomfortable frontier between the acceptable and the unacceptable within a given context of academic vision and needs.

  17. Payment Discipline Depends on Management Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sirk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify if management ethics have a positive impact on payment discipline. Our sample includes 273 Slovene enterprises, which represent 9.1% of 2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees, selected from the database of the Slovenian rating agency I d.o.o. To determine management ethics, we used the Corporate Ethical Virtues measurement instrument questionnaire. The data concerning average late payments were also obtained from the database the Slovenian rating agency I d.o.o. We conducted a factor analysis using the enter method. We confirmed that the influence of management ethics have a positive impact on average payment delays expressed in days.

  18. Contemporary Bioethics: The Promethean Challenges of Reprogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Natacha Salomé; Cicovacki, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics presents to us major challenges in several fields of knowledge. The ever-increasing technological power to interfere with the nature of things (including human nature) demands our increasing ethical awareness and considerations. How are we going to respond to these demands? Our proposal is to address this complex issue by revisiting one of the founding myths of Western civilization, that of Prometheus. Among numerous variations of this myth, we will address in the first...

  19. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  20. Filial Piety (xiao 孝 for the Contemporary and Global World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta POŠKAITĖ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between children and parents seem to be one of the most urgent issues in the contemporary world, spanning from the United States and European countries to East Asian societies, as a consequence of the transformation of traditional family ethics, values and institutions brought about by the processes of modernization and globalization. The present paper aims to reveal the ways and problems of the application of xiao 孝 (filial piety ethics in the contemporary Western and Chinese societies, as reflected in the works by a number of famous Western Protestant missionaries, religious philosophers, sinologists and present-day Lithuanian Sinology students, and counterbalance their views with the insights of contemporary Chinese sociologists. The place of xiao in the contemporary inter-cultural dialogue will be discussed from the point of view of dialogue between religions, theory and practice, Western and Chinese culture, traditional and modern societies and values.

  1. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  2. Ethical Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  3. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  4. The practice setting: site of ethical conflict for some mothers and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Faye E

    2003-11-01

    Practitioners' ethical orientation and responses vary between practice settings. Yet, currently, the ethics for midwifery practice that is explicit in the literature and which provides the ideals of socialization into practice, is that of bio(medical)ethics. Traditional bioethics, developed because of World War II atrocities and increased scientific research, is based on moral philosophy, normative theory, abstract universal principles and objective problem solving, all of which focus on right and wrong 'action' for resolving dilemmas. They exclude context and relationship. Personal narratives of mothers and midwives contest the appropriateness of these accepted values and systems for childbirth because they induce conflict between workplace/service provider ethics and personal/professional midwifery ethics. In contrast to the disembedded and disembodied approach of biomedical ethics, an ethically adequate response in midwifery practice resonates more with the ethics of intimates, such as feminist virtue ethics.

  5. 当代西方德性法理学及其中国意义%Research on Rule by Law from Perspective of Virtue Jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童建军

    2016-01-01

    得益于复兴中的德性伦理学的学术智慧,以索伦为代表的美国法理学家提出了德性法理学的学术命题,反思了以功利主义和道义论为主导的规范伦理学对法理学的影响,提出法理学必须回归亚里士多德。良善立法不能止于防止伤害他人的行为或者保护权利,而是要致力于促进人类繁荣,使人类能够过上卓越的生活;法律的基本概念不应限于福利、效率、自决或平等,而是必须纳入德性、卓越及人类繁荣。法官应当有德性,且应当做出有德的裁决;法官应当根据他们的司法德性而选任。%Benefiting from the academic wisdom of the revival of virtue ethics , the American theorists of jurisprudence , Lawrence B .Solum as an example , have put forward the conception of virtue jurisprudence . They have reflected the deficiency of affects from normative ethics , such as utilitarianism and deontology , on jurisprudence .They proposed that jurisprudence should return to Aristotle .From the aspects of virtue jurispru-dence , good law and excellent governance should not only avoid hurts or defend rights , but also promote the flourishing of human .So the basic concept of law may extend from efficiency , rights and autonomy to virtue and excellence .The judges should own virtue and make virtuous judge .

  6. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  7. Virtues and values in medicine revisited: individual and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon; Upshur, Ross

    2014-10-01

    In response to the call from an international panel for 'much needed rethinking' about the goals and purposes of the education of healthcare professionals, we suggest that there must be an explicit account of the virtues and values that will inform healthcare practice in the 21st century. We propose that a renewed emphasis is needed on reviving the well-honed clinical skills and humanistic attributes in medicine as crucial for optimum affordable (and sustainable) care of individual patients. Analogous virtues should be linked to the quest for improving the health of whole populations, nationally and globally.

  8. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  9. A critical consideration of ethical foundations for the accounting profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Buys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When considering some of the key reasons for the desperate state of the current global economic environment, it is difficult to deny accounting’s role therein. Although accounting institutes require adherence to codes of conduct, the question remains as to what happened to the stewardship function of the accounting profession. This article has critically reflected on the question, ‘What constitutes an ethical accounting profession’? The key principles within many institutes’ codes of conduct, such as competency, integrity, objectivity and confidentiality, have been considered against the background of utilitarianism, formalism and virtue ethics as foundational ethical theories. This article has concluded that although these principles aim to provide a framework for ethical accounting conduct, individual subjectivity on the part of the accountant will play a role in how these ethical principles become ethical practices.

  10. Ethical Impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  11. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a behav

  12. The moral foundation of medical leadership: the professional virtues of the physician as fiduciary of the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    2001-04-01

    Leadership in medicine, as in other settings, should be based on values that provide appropriate direction for the use of institutional power and authority. Leadership also requires managerial competence. Managerial knowledge and skills can be used for worthy and unworthy goals and therefore require a moral foundation. Using the methods of ethics, we argue that the concept of the physician as the moral fiduciary of the patient should be the moral foundation of management decisions by physician-leaders. We take this concept from the history of eighteenth century medical ethics and develop it in terms of four professional virtues--self-effacement, self-sacrifice, compassion, and integrity. We apply these four virtues to show how physician-leaders should create a moral culture of professionalism in health care organizations. We then identify four vices--unwarranted bias, primacy of self-interest, hard-heartedness, and corruption--that undermine this moral culture of professionalism. Because health care organizations now play a central role in patient care, their moral culture and therefore physician-leaders have become vital elements in physicians being able to maintain their professionalism. Physician-leaders bear major responsibility to shape organizational cultures that support the fiduciary professionalism of physicians.

  13. Need for ethics support in healthcare institutions: views of Dutch board members and ethics support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwerse, Linda; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions in order to understand why ethics support is often not used in practice and which factors are relevant in this context. This study had a mixed methods design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Two survey questionnaires, two focus groups and 17 interviews were conducted among board members and ethics support staff in Dutch healthcare institutions. Most respondents see a need for ethics support. This need is related to the complexity of contemporary healthcare, the contribution of ethics support to the core business of the organisation and to the surplus value of paying structural attention to ethical issues. The need for ethics support is, however, not unconditional. Reasons for a lacking need include: aversion of innovations, negative associations with the notion of ethics support service, and organisational factors like resources and setting. There is a conditioned need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions. The promotion of ethics support in healthcare can be fostered by focusing on formats which fit the needs of (practitioners in) healthcare institutions. The emphasis should be on creating a (culture of) dialogue about the complex situations which emerge daily in contemporary healthcare practice.

  14. Brave New Worlds? The Once and Future Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2010-01-01

    in both Western and Eastern countries, and correlative shifts from the communication technologies of literacy and print to a “secondary orality.” These consequences in turn imply that current and future information ethics should focus on developing a global but pluralistic virtue ethics - one that may......I highlight several aspects of current and future developments of the internet, in order to draw from these in turn specific consequences of particular significance for the ongoing development and expansion of information ethics. These consequences include changing conceptions of self and privacy...

  15. Brave New Worlds? The Once and Future Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2010-01-01

    I highlight several aspects of current and future developments of the internet, in order to draw from these in turn specific consequences of particular significance for the ongoing development and expansion of information ethics. These consequences include changing conceptions of self and privacy...... in both Western and Eastern countries, and correlative shifts from the communication technologies of literacy and print to a “secondary orality.” These consequences in turn imply that current and future information ethics should focus on developing a global but pluralistic virtue ethics - one that may...

  16. Rethinking research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-10-01

    Contemporary research ethics policies started with reflection on the atrocities perpetrated upon concentration camp inmates by Nazi doctors. Apparently, as a consequence of that experience, the policies that now guide human subject research focus on the protection of human subjects by making informed consent the centerpiece of regulatory attention. I take the choice of context for policy design, the initial prioritization of informed consent, and several associated conceptual missteps, to have set research ethics off in the wrong direction. The aim of this paper is to sort out these confusions and their implications and to offer instead a straightforward framework for considering the ethical conduct of human subject research. In the course of this discussion I clarify different senses of autonomy that have been confounded and present more intelligible justifications for informed consent. I also take issue with several of the now accepted dogmas that govern research ethics. These include: the primacy of informed consent, the protection of the vulnerable, the substitution of beneficence for research's social purpose, and the introduction of an untenable distinction between innovation and research.

  17. Contemporary Adaption of Beowulf from the Perspective of Literary Ethics%文学伦理学视域下的《贝奥武甫》当代改编

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玮

    2014-01-01

    with the arrival of picture era,many literary works have been adapted into movies or games on the screen and the computer.This paper makes a study of the film and video game adaption of the old English epic Beowulf from the perspective of literary ethics to find the characters displayed in the new forms and the profound causes behind them.Then,it analyzes the differences in the ethics value between the epic and the adaption to explore the new media subversion of the traditional ethical values.%随着读图时代的到来,大量的文学作品被改编成电影或是游戏搬上荧幕和电脑。本文将古英语史诗《贝奥武甫》的改编放在文学伦理学的视阈下来研究,考察当今电影和电子游戏在改编史诗时表现出的新特点,探寻导致这些新特点背后的深刻原因。在此基础上,分析史诗《贝奥武甫》与据此改编的电影、游戏在伦理价值方面的差异,探讨新媒介对传统伦理价值的颠覆。

  18. Clinical ethics and nursing: "yes" to caring, but "no" to a female ethics of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhse, Helga

    1995-07-01

    According to a contemporary school of thought there is a specific female approach to ethics which is based not on abstract "male" ethical principles or rules, but on "care". Nurses have taken a keen interest in these female approaches to ethics. Drawing on the views expounded by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings, nurses claim that a female "ethics of care" better captures their moral experiences than a traditional male "ethics of justice". This paper argues that "care" is best understood in a dispositional sense, that is, as sensitivity and responsiveness to the particularities of a situation and the needs of "concrete" others. While "care", in this sense, is necessary for ethics, it is not sufficient. Ethics needs "justice" as well as "care". If women and nurses excessively devalue principles and norms, they will be left without the theoretical tools to condemn some actions or practices, and to defend others. They will, like generations of nurses before them, be condemned to silence.

  19. Thoughts on Racial Democratic Education and Moral Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The taking of Black life by state authorities is a long-standing tragic tradition in America. However, in recent years, instances of Black death have gained wider media attention. This is a potentially important teaching moment, especially as it regards moral virtue and racism. In this article, I argue that Blacks have been put through a kind of…

  20. Hypothetical Markets: Educational Application of Ronald Dworkin's "Sovereign Virtue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider, in principle and at the most general level, a particular possible approach to educational policy-making. This approach involves an education-specific application of the notion of hypothetical markets first developed in Ronald Dworkin's book "Sovereign Virtue: The theory and practice of equality" (2000).…

  1. Interpretation of Contrasts Employed in The Virtues of Growing Older

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-hui; QU Ying-jie

    2013-01-01

    People make comparison and contrasts everyday, though they may not be aware of it. Comparison and contrast are ma-jor methods to develop a piece of exposition. This paper mainly interprets the effective use of contrasts in The Virtues of Growing Older and explores the language art of an exposition.

  2. Virtue: right reason in a scientist who experiments with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Garcés Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtue according to Aristotle’s thought is a medium term with regard to us regulated by right reason, as a prudent man. would act. It is that mode of being by which man becomes good and through which he performs his function very well. Virtue is directly related to how people act; these steps or actions should lead to a good, and that good must be a generator of happiness in man. It depends just on man himself that the actions he performs are done well and according to virtue. Thus, it is expected that the scientist who experiments with animals to act according to virtue, to have a permanent disposition to work according to right reason, and to discuss what is good, particularly what does good especially to other forms of life which share with us the mystery of life. The Aristotelian virtuous man must search that his actions are mediated by reason to choose what is good , not for himself but for the common good.

  3. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  4. Comenius’ ethics: from the heart to the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misseri Lucas E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ethical views of the 17th century Czech thinker Jan Amos Komenský, also known as Johann Amos Comenius. Comeniologic studies are focused on different aspects of his contribution to education, theology and philosophy but surprisingly there are only a few studies on his ethical standpoints. Jan Patočka classified Comenius’s work in three periods: prepansophic, pansophic and panorthotic. Here the focus is on the panorthotic works in order to trace the different conceptions of ethics, virtue and other ethical concepts specially the virtue of prudence (prudentia/phronesis. Furthermore, to have a broader perspective, a short analysis of his prepansophic period book The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart is also included in order to contrast the evolution of the concept of prudence and the ethical sphere in his world-view. The methodology is based on conceptual analysis, the contrast of different references to ethics in his late period books. At the same time, this work is an attempt to extract secular elements for understanding his ethics, although the organic link between philosophy, theology and politics is recognized in his thought.

  5. Social and ethical challenges for metallurgical companies

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gajdzik

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this article is an analysis of one of the most crucial aspects of the contemporary business, which is corporate social responsibility and ethical business. The notion of a socially responsible business signifies the business obligation to contribute to the sustainable economical development by way of working with employees and their families, local communities and the society as a whole in order to improve the quality of their lives. Ethical business means following the princip...

  6. 论作为德性的正义%On Justice as a Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王润稼; 陈杰

    2012-01-01

    在亚里士多德所构建的伦理学体系中,正义有着极高的地位,正义是德行之首,"比星辰更让人崇拜"。亚里士多德不仅给予正义以详细的阐释,而且运用中道原则对其进行规训,以达到个人与城邦的幸福和至善。他着重论述了正义的道德特性,将其与个体德性区分开来,并在此基础上将正义分为总体正义与部分正义。最后亚里士多德运用中道原则,对正义的获得提供了行之有效的方法,使得正义得以成为现实。由此,我们可以充分的理解正义在亚里士多德哲学那里所蕴含的德性意义。%In the system of ethics which was built by Aristotle, justice has a very high position, justice is the pri- mary virtue," People worship it more than the stars" . Aristotle not only gave justice the detailed explanation, but also used the middle principle to disciplined it, in order to achieved happiness and perfection of the individual and the city -state. He focused on the moral characteristics of justice, separated it with the individual virtue, and divided justice into overall justice and some justice on this basis. At last, Aristotle used middle principle, which is an effective way to get justice, to made the justice become a reality. As a result, We can fully understand the moral meaning of justice in Aristotle philosophy.

  7. The unrealised ethical potential of the Methodist theology of prevenient grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Field

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the unrealised ethical potential of the theology of prevenient grace. It begins with a brief analysis of John Wesley’s rejection of slavery as rooted in his theology of prevenient grace. This is demonstrated in the next section which analyses Wesley’s notion of prevenient grace. This is followed by a constructive proposal for a contemporary theology of prevenient grace and some ethical implications of this theology, for contemporary social and political ethics, are developed.

  8. More education, less administration: reflections of neuroimagers' attitudes to ethics through the qualitative looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, A A; Tairyan, K; Federico, C; Glover, G H; Illes, J

    2012-12-01

    In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and virtue were key motivators for incorporating ethics into neuroimaging research. Managing incidental findings emerged as a predominant daily challenge for faculty, while student reports focused on the malleability of neuroimaging data and scientific integrity. The most frequently cited barrier was time and administrative burden associated with the ethics review process. Lack of scholarly training in ethics also emerged as a major barrier. Participants constructively offered remedies to these challenges: development and dissemination of best practices and standardized ethics review for minimally invasive neuroimaging protocols. Students in particular, urged changes to curricula to include early, focused training in ethics.

  9. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  10. Critical Literacy and the Ethical Responsibilities of Student Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jessica K.

    2013-01-01

    Today's complex literate environments require contemporary authors to focus on the ethical responsibilities of media creation. This study highlights 12th graders in California who produced a documentary on Latino immigration and chronicles the complex interactions between student-generated media, critical literacy, and ethics. Findings highlight…

  11. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's Rhetorical and Ethical Perspective: A Novel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Robert Allen

    In order to discover whether Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's rhetorical perspective has provided a unique ethical perspective of communication, a review of the literature on existing ethical perspectives of communication would be in order. Ronald C. Arnett and Richard L. Johannesen, two contemporary researchers, have provided thorough reviews of…

  12. Utilitarianism and the evolution of ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Gary

    2008-12-01

    R.M. Hare's two-level utilitarianism provides a useful framework for understanding the evolution of codes of professional ethics. From a Harean perspective, the codes reflect both the fact that members of various professions face special kinds of ethically charged situations in the normal course of their work, and the need for people in special roles to acquire various habits of thought and action. This highlights the role of virtue in professional ethics and provides guidance to professional societies when considering modifications to their codes. From a Harean perspective, a professional society should ask both "Are there kinds of situations that members of this profession will normally encounter which members of other professions and/or the general public will not?" and "What habits of thought and action would it be good for individuals encountering such situations to have?"

  13. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps no other field of medicine illustrates the ethical dilemmas occasioned by the explosion of technology more than neurology. Many dilemmas which at first appear to be ethical, however, are actually biotechnical, informational, or interpersonal in nature. For those which are, indeed, ethical, a review of existing information and acquisition of additional data can often serve to identify the proper response. When the optimal course of action remains unclear, the comprehensive, structured approach described in this chapter is both philosophically rigorous and clinically relevant. It takes into account a variety of critical considerations - including rights, duties, consequences, virtues, and similar cases - while utilizing both inductive and deductive methods. The end result is the "least bad" of available options, or, at the very least, a practical response which preserves future options and avoids crucial mistakes.

  14. Social, Professional, Professorial and Scientific Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Amaro Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of ethics and morals, virtues and flaws of human beings and the societies they build in different places and historical periods as well as the construction of values as a result of their own material and spiritual needs and the dialectical interrelationship between the material base and social consciousness. It also includes the main ethical paradigms, traditions, customs and habits as important elements in the process of value formation. It underlines the role of the educator, family, school -from primary to university level- and society itself, emphasizing the ethics of health professionals and scientists. Finally, it calls for strengthening positive attitudes and fighting negative ones to be better human beings, loving and respecting our country, constructing an even more dignified, just and caring society that meets Marti's dream “the cult of the full dignity of man”.

  15. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension.

  16. What healthcare teams find ethically difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoal, Dara; Kihlgren, Annica; James, Inger; Svantesson, Mia

    2016-12-01

    Ethically difficult situations are frequently encountered by healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support, which has the goal to support staff to manage ethical difficulties. However, little is known which difficult situations healthcare teams need to discuss. To explore which kinds of ethically difficult situations interprofessional healthcare teams raise during moral case deliberation. A series of 70 moral case deliberation sessions were audio-recorded in 10 Swedish workplaces. A descriptive, qualitative approach was applied, using thematic content analysis. Ethical considerations: An advisory statement specifying no objections to the study was provided from an Ethical Review Board, and consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation in the moral case deliberation. Three themes emerged: powerlessness over managing difficult interactions with patients and next-of-kin, unease over unsafe and unequal care, and uncertainty over who should have power over care decisions. The powerlessness comprised feelings of insufficiency, difficulties to respond or manage patient's/next-of-kin's emotional needs or emotional outbursts and discouragement over motivating patients not taking responsibility for themselves. They could be uncertain over the patient's autonomy, who should have power over life and death, disclosing the truth or how much power next-of-kin should have. The findings suggest that the nature of the ethically difficult situations brought to moral case deliberations contained more relational-oriented ethics than principle-based ethics, were permeated by emotions and the uncertainties were pervaded by power aspects between stakeholders. MCD can be useful in understanding the connection between ethical issues and emotions from a team perspective.

  17. Maritime logistics: contemporary issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, D.W; Panayides, P.M

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary practice and scientific innovation consider the logistics aspects of shipping and seaport operations as one of the most important areas for future development of competitive advantages...

  18. A Spectrum Pedagogy for Christian Ethics: Respecting Difference without Resorting to Relativism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Joel J.; Scovill, Nelia Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a newly developed spectrum pedagogy of Christian ethics that emerged from the authors' experience of teaching a contemporary Christian ethics course for seven years. A spectrum pedagogy is a comprehensive approach to teaching Christian ethics that combines the modeling of key dispositions using specific tools…

  19. Should Professional Ethics Education Incorporate Single-Professional or Interprofessional Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V.; Braun, Eli A.

    2011-01-01

    Since ethical issues in the contemporary delivery of health care involve doctors, nurses, technicians, and members of other health professions, the authors consider whether members of diverse health care occupations might benefit from studying ethics in a single classroom. While interprofessional courses may be better at teaching the ethics of the…

  20. Bioethics and conflicting ethical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major problematic issues in contemporary ethical discourse are highlighted in the field of bioethics. The need to incorporate new understandings and foundational shifts in essential criteria because of technological advances in the areas of medicine and human sciences increasingly challenges traditional and accepted notions of ethics. As the possibilities of technical progress increase, more and more pressure is put on traditional understandings of the human person, identity, and value. In the face of ethical relativism and emotivism, which are already widespread in social and political discourse, the immediacy of bioethics as a response to technology and its impact on human lives reinforces the need for ethics to become interdisciplinary, while attempting to provide some coherence to both the questions and the responses that contemporary life generates. In this paper, the author intends to sketch the outlines of some of these problems, and suggest one approach which might allow a certain methodical intelligibility to emerge which takes into account shifts in consciousness and the dependence on historically grounded perspective.

  1. 亚里士多德伦理学对医德培养的启示%Inspirations from Aristotelian Ethics for Medical Ethics Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于莲

    2015-01-01

    探讨了亚里士多德对德性的论述,结合医务人员心理过程的变化分析,对如何处理德性与医学伦理的关系、德性与医学德性的关系以及德性与医学伦理教育的关系进行了讨论,认为当代仍然需要培养医德,而医德的内容、形成过程和培养方式都符合亚里士多德德性伦理学的论述。因此,医德培养并非提出过高的道德要求,而是现实中从规范到行为必然的过程;不能停留在知识传授和了解规范上,而应当引入更多的实践教学、案例教学以及终身教育,在课程安排、课程内容、授课方式和考核方式上都需要进行变革。%The article firstly introduced Aristotelian virtue ethics theory . Secondly , through psychological analysis of medical staffs ,the author discussed on the relation between virtue and medical ethics ,the relation between virtue and medical virtue ,as well as the relation between virtue and medical ethics education .The author argued that medical virtue was still necessary in modern times since its content ,development progress and medical ethics education were accordance with Aristotelian ethics .Therefore ,medical virtue cultivation is not an unachievable moral principle but a process of shifting from principle to activities .The medical ethics education should not be limited to pass on knowledge .In addition , more practice education ,case study and life‐time education should be included in medical virtue cultivation with the reform of curriculum ,course content ,teaching method and examination .

  2. 对当代幸福问题的反思--以《尼各马可伦理学》为视角%A Reflection on Contemporary Happiness Problem---From the Perspective of Nicomachean Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海伦

    2015-01-01

    “幸福”是《尼各马可伦理学》通篇阐述的最重要的问题。它是普通人、有教养的人和哲人都追求的目标,而最终归结到哲人的沉思幸福。哲人可以用伦理学教化人们走向幸福,但其听众必须是事先有良好品格的人,也即在习俗和习惯中有所教养。政治学的目的之一就在于这种教化。当代的幸福观不过是一种“享乐”生活和欲望的满足,缺乏的正是良好的教化以及更高的哲学沉思。%Happiness becomes a hot topic recently in China.In fact, Aristotle had talked about this problem about two thousands years ago.Eudaimonia is the final principle in Nicomachean Ethics, it is the target for ordinary people, gentleman and philosopher.Actual-ly, philosophers can educate people to achieve eudaimonia by ethics, but they must have good character in their custom first.One of the targets in political science is this kind of education.The view of happiness in our age is what Aristotle called the lives of gratifica-tion.We are lacking the education of human being and the pursuance of philosophy.

  3. 敬畏生命:当代生态伦理学的重要思想资源——阿尔贝特·施韦泽及其敬畏生命伦理思想评介%Reverence for Life: A Significant Idea of Contemporary Ecological Ethics--A Review of Albert Schweitzer and His Ethics Thought of "Reverence for Life"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包庆德; 冯玲玲

    2012-01-01

    著名生态思想家施韦泽是"敬畏生命"伦理思想公认的创始人和虔诚的实践者。敬畏生命伦理融东西方生态哲学智慧于一体,将生态整体主义作为逻辑起点,指出人类的生存并非是孤立的,而是极大地依赖于生命系统和整个世界的和谐发展,将伦理关怀从人扩展至所有生物。施韦泽不仅在理论上积极倡导敬畏生命伦理原则,并在实践中自觉遵循敬畏生命伦理准则,深入非洲丛林行医服务半个多世纪,呼吁停止核试验甚至销毁核武器,由此荣获1952年诺贝尔和平奖,被誉为20世纪构建珍重生命整体性和个体性之间跨界桥梁的杰出先驱。敬畏生命伦理是当代生态伦理发展的极为重要的思想资源,对于人类文明的生态转向具有重大的时代意义。%The famous ecological ideologist Schweitzer is acknowledged as the founder and practitioner of ethics thought of "reverence for life". The thought, showing ethics care from human being to all creatures, inte- grates eastern and western eco-philosophy wisdom, which takes the ecological holism as its logic start and points out human being's existence is not isolated, but tremendously relies on life system and harmonious development of the whole world. Schweitzer not only positively initiates "reverence for life" in theory, but also follows the prin- ciples in practice, who goes deep into African jungle to do medical service more than half a century and calls for an end to nuclear test and nuclear weapons, thus, he was awarded the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize and he was hon- ored as an outstanding foregoer to construct a cross-border bridge of integrated life and individuality. The ethics of "reverence for life" becomes a significant part of contemporary ecological ethics and it is of great epoch signifi- cance for the ecological turning of human civilization.

  4. The business of ethics. Hospitals need to focus on managerial ethics as much as clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L J

    1990-01-01

    Business ethics begins with the recognition of the various values and "goods" involved in judgements of what to do. Four key values are individual rights, individual self-interest, the company's best interest, and the public good. Often a company has to choose which of these goals or values should be subordinated to another. Business ethics, then, must clarify priorities among these values and establish priority principles to resolve conflicts. One approach to contemporary business ethics emphasizes personal integrity, focusing on conflicts of interest; another approach stresses social responsibility, focusing on the effect of company policy on groups and individuals in society. In business, most of the attention to conflicts of interest focuses on the conflict between employee self-interest and the firm's interest. Healthcare organizations may need to focus on potential conflicts between the patient's interest and the institution's or physician's interest. Physician referrals and pharmaceutical companies' marketing practices are two areas with potential conflicts. Not-for-profit organizations have been quicker than the business world to acknowledge social responsibility. In many ways, however, the social impact of healthcare policies and decisions has not been as carefully considered as it should be. Institutionalizing deliberation about clinical ethical issues has helped to raise awareness about the ethical dimensions of medical care. It would also be useful to institutionalize attention to business ethics in healthcare.

  5. Currents in Contemporary Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Ruby

    Several of the important themes of post-World War II English, French, and German drama are analyzed in this book. The first chapter briefly examines the major contemporary playwrights in each national literature. Subsequent chapters discuss contemporary drama as an expression of Artaud's "theatre of cruelty," its relationship to the changing…

  6. Contemporary Art from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Danish contemporary art is currently expanding bot quantitatively and qualitatively to such a degree that we can speak of a new Danish Golden Age. The article introduces some of the most interesting, Danish contemporary artists which are being exposed at the exhibition in the European Central Bank...

  7. Returning friendship to ethics: a Nierzschean perspectiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its prominence in Greek ethical theory, friendship has generally been ignored by modern ethicists; and since most of the recent attempts  to revive it have been Aristotelian in inspiration, the impression of a straight choice between ancient and modern perspectives has actually been re-enforced by contemporary efforts at rehabilitation. In this paper I aim to complicate the debate by adding a third –Nietzschean – perspective, which cannot be subsumed within the ancient/modern dichotomy and which offers a way of connecting friendship and ethics very different from Aristotle’s. For whereas Aristotelianism sees ethics as a search for the good life and character friendship as contributing to thecreation of a shared understanding of the good, Nietzsche sees ethics as an arena of contest between different ways of valuing and “self-overcoming”, and character friendship as a process of challenge by which we push each other further along our own very different paths. The paper compares a Nietzschean way of linking ethics and friendship with the approaches of contemporary neo-Aristotelians, especiallyMacIntyre, and argues that Nietzsche’s pluralism  allows him to escape modern ethical theory’s powerful objections to (neo-Aristotelianism. A Nietzschean approach therefore offers, I conclude, a far more credible way of reconnecting ethics and friendship in our sceptical modern worl

  8. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  9. Ethical aspects of hunting tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentović Risto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary moral controversies about hunting tourism in Serbia in the context of defined value orientations and norms of ethics of hunting tourism, as a branch of applied ethics. On the one hand, this paper summarizes conceptual definitions and specificities of hunting tourism, as a special form of tourism, and the crucial value postulates derived from the assumptions of the concept of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation, and philosophical, theological and legal settings of man’s attitude towards animals and their welfare, as well as the standard code of hunting ethics and issues of business ethics in hunting tourism, on the other. The paper also cites some examples of ethically problematic phenomena in modern hunting tourism in Serbia and offers possible solutions to overcome them.

  10. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Ramadhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  11. Teaching Communication with Ethics-Based Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Argues the importance of presenting ethics and communication as twin concepts in the management communication class. Presents two cases useful in the classroom that address two contemporary issues (harassment in the workplace and the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women) that have implications for business professionals and allow students to…

  12. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  13. Communication, Ethics, and Relativism: An Interpersonal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    This paper proposes that there is available in contemporary philosophy a foundation for an ethic of communication that avoids the naive belief in absolutes and yet provides a coherent, defensible, and practical set of standards to guide communication choices. The philosophers and philosophies identified are Hans-Georg Gadamer and his discussion of…

  14. Consistencies and Inconsistencies in Nurses' Ethical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Helm, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examines inconsistencies in individual nurses' decisions about ethical situations and their justifications in the light of changes due to contemporary feminism and professionalization of the nursing role. Suggests empirical identification of ambiguities identified by practitioners be added as a component of professional education. (Author/DH)

  15. Teaching Communication with Ethics-Based Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Argues the importance of presenting ethics and communication as twin concepts in the management communication class. Presents two cases useful in the classroom that address two contemporary issues (harassment in the workplace and the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women) that have implications for business professionals and allow students to…

  16. Michel Foucault's Conception of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuran Gödelek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s conception of ethics is closely related to the political and intellectual structure, dominant in France in his youth. Foucault’s work can be regarded in general as a history of thought. Foucault aims at investigating our position today in the face of the historical foundations of contemporary culture. Hence, Foucault criticizes modern philosophy as well as the intellectual economical and political history of European culture. In the essence of Foucault’s criticism lies the denial of the idea of the constitutive subject, which has dominated the philosophy since Descartes. Foucault’s work is based on Nietzsche’s work which stands simply as a denial of Enlightment’s belief in the reason and in universal principles of humanistic values and rights. Foucault also, regards himself as a follower of Nietzsche and accepts his genealogical method, his conception of power and his views that ethical life is related with the aesthetics of self. We found, in Nietzsche, the foundations of Foucault’s subjectivity and its relation with language. Foucault, instead of developing a normative ethics, which could be true for anyone, is after developing a specific style which stems from individual freedom and intellectual development. For Foucault, ethics is investigating the relationship of the self with itself. Foucault regards ethics as a part of morality, which has the relationship of the self with itself as a subject matter. Foucault, in his conception of ethics does not deny the law of morality, that is, philosophy of morality, nor he denies the importance of the actual behavior of individuals. What Foucault particularly emphasizes is the style of self constituting of the individual as an ethical subject of his/her own actions, that is the style of developing his/her self. In this context, Foucault’s conception of ethics is based on the analysis of the relationship between self technologies and power forces.

  17. Critical Reflection on Authentic Leadership and School Leader Development from a Virtue Ethical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Authentic leadership has attracted recent empirical research from a wide range of social science disciplines interested largely in its relationship to human resource management and organisational effectiveness. In contrast, the focus of this study is specifically on the philosophical foundations of authentic leadership and their implications for…

  18. Critical Reflection on Authentic Leadership and School Leader Development from a Virtue Ethical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Authentic leadership has attracted recent empirical research from a wide range of social science disciplines interested largely in its relationship to human resource management and organisational effectiveness. In contrast, the focus of this study is specifically on the philosophical foundations of authentic leadership and their implications for…

  19. Developing an Australian code of construction ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Francis McCarthy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the increasing need to consider the role of ethics in construction. The industry, historically, has been challenged by allegations of a serious shortfall in ethical standards. Only limited attempts to date in Australia have been made to address that concern. Any ethical analysis should consider the definition of ethics and its historical development. This paper considers major historical developments in ethical thinking as well as contemporary thinking on ethics for professional sub-sets. A code could be developed specific to construction. Current methods of addressing ethics in construction and in other industries are also reviewed. This paper argues that developing a code of ethics, supported by other measures is the way forward. The author’s aim is to promote further discussion and promote the drafting of a code. This paper includes a summary of other ethical codes that may provide a starting point. The time for reform is upon us, and there is an urgent need for an independent body to take the lead, for fear of floundering and having only found ‘another debating topic’ (Uff 2006.

  20. Analysis of Contemporary Chinese Professional Football Ethical Issues from Sociological Perspective%社会学视域下当代中国职业足球伦理问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云龙; 方新普

    2011-01-01

    With the discussion of the ethical problems of Chinese prd'essional soccer on the basis of connotation of professional football, it tries to analyze Chi- nese professional football phenomenon from sociological aspects in "system bottleneck", "complex human relationship" and "interests groups' improper demand"etc, and also puts forward the corresponding countertneasures such as"Innovation system", "Moral and legal common supervision" study can provide some practical suggestions on the sustainable development of the Chinese professional football.%通过对职业足球伦理内涵的论述,以及中国职业足球伦理问题的具体描述,尝试从社会学角度对中国职业足球现象进行分析,并提出了完善道德评价机制、加强人文教育、创新管理机制等建议,以期对中国职业足球的可持续发展提供可借鉴的实际意义。

  1. Many Worlds, Many Theories, Many Rules: Formulating an Ethical System for the World to Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Onuf

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many ways to speak about the modern world, and many theories setting it apart. I focus on a world facing economic decline and a return to the status-ordering of traditional societies. With republican theory as a backdrop, I show that an updated virtue ethics constitutes an ethical system uniquely suiting any society that is significantly status-ordered.

  2. the Army Ethic-Educating and Equipping the Army Mid-Level Leaders in the CGSOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Dynamics” category, there are two annual and two semiannual training requirements. Army values training and combating human trafficking program are...expectation of soldiers to both “kill enemies and cultivate stable, effective, and humane polities.”57 Regardless of the focus area, ethics education...traits without principles are blind.”66 The virtue ethics ultimately holds that to separate good soldiers from good human being is “logically defective

  3. Promoting Virtue or Punishing Fraud: Mapping Contrasts in the Language of 'Scientific Integrity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbach, S P J M; Halffman, W

    2016-12-19

    Even though integrity is widely considered to be an essential aspect of research, there is an ongoing debate on what actually constitutes research integrity. The understanding of integrity ranges from the minimal, only considering falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to the maximum, blending into science ethics. Underneath these obvious contrasts, there are more subtle differences that are not as immediately evident. The debate about integrity is usually presented as a single, universal discussion, with shared concerns for researchers, policymakers and 'the public'. In this article, we show that it is not. There are substantial differences between the language of research integrity in the scientific arena and in the public domain. Notably, scientists and policymakers adopt different approaches to research integrity. Scientists tend to present integrity as a virtue that must be kindled, while policy documents and newspapers stress norm enforcement. Rather than performing a conceptual analysis through philosophical reasoning and discussion, we aimed to clarify the discourse of 'scientific integrity' by studying its usage in written documents. To this end, large numbers of scientific publications, policy documents and newspaper articles were analysed by means of scientometric and content analysis techniques. The texts were analysed on their usage of the term 'integrity' and of frequently co-occurring terms and concepts. A comparison was made between the usage in the various media, as well as between different periods in which they were published through co-word analysis, mapping co-occurrence networks of significant terms and themes.

  4. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Panter-Brick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.

  5. On the use of Internet in promoting social virtues. Case study: Civic Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción NAVAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizen participation is essential for democracies to be viable, sustainable and healthy. But it is necessary to establish the appropriate channels for exercising it; and we can not fail to consider the fact that people live in an increasingly interconnected society, where the mass media are a key social resource and can play an important role in fostering critical thinking and active citizenship (Livingstone, 2004; Buckingham, 2007. We understand that to achieve this, from the field of civic education, digital spaces should be considered as privileged spaces for participation. In this paper we show the initiatives undertaken by the «Civic Parliament» project to provide online teaching materials to the teachers so they can raise in their students certain social virtues. The challenges in this order are diverse, we could highlight two: to promote participatory awareness in students, and to combine the technical, pedagogical and ethical-civic aspects of media use (Gonzálvez, 2012. 

  6. Techno-Anthropological Ethics and Health Information Systems Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsen, Tom; Danborg, Pia Brandt

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important Techno-Anthropological intellectual virtues is the ability to make contextualized ethical judgments of new and emerging technologies. This Techno-Anthropological core competence is especially relevant in Health Information Systems Technologies, which is a field characterized by inherent ethical dilemmas such as the pros and cons of regulation of research databases with sensitive information, or storing and application of tissue and blood samples. In this paper we present a method to make 'proper and quick' ethical estimates in Health Information. The method guides its user to make ethical judgments by splitting the judgment process into four steps: (1) Identification of intended beneficial consequences, potential misuse, unintended side effects and long-term consequences for culture and society. (2) Linkage of intended consequences, misuse, side effects and cultural implications to appropriate ethical values. (3) Identification of ethical dilemmas related to a specific use of the Health Information Systems Technology under assessment. (4) Formulation of appropriate technological and institution design criteria that can transcend the identified ethical dilemmas. The methodology will be applied to a the discussions at a hearing on ethical challenges accompanying research involving health data organized by the Danish Council of Ethics and the case of risk reducing breast cancer surgery based on diagnosed genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  7. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  8. Moral Perplex and Ethic Appeal of Euthanasia in Contemporary Literature of China%中国当代文学中安乐死的道德困惑与伦理诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓寒梅

    2012-01-01

    巴金、史铁生、周国平、毕淑敏等作家怀着深切的人道主义精神,在文学作品中探讨了安乐死实施对传统生死观、医德和家庭伦理观等的冲击,阐述了安乐死蕴含着的伦理道德意义:实施安乐死是对病人生命权利和生命价值的尊重,是现代医学人道主义和利他原则的体现。作家们通过身体力行或者文学创作等方式,将人道主义的精神延伸到个体生命的临终舞台,折射出强烈的生命意识和社会责任感。%BA Jin, SHI Tie-sheng, ZHOU Guo-ping, BI Shu-min are all concerned about humanity, and probe into the operation of euthanasia on traditional views, medical ethics and family morals. They reveal the moral significance of euthanasia, that is, the respect for the rights of the patients and the value of lives. They believe that euthanasia is the representation of humanity and altruism of modern medicals. These writers prolong humanity to the end of personal lives by their ~ractice or literal creation, and their deeds reflect their awareness of life and social responsibility.

  9. Confucian Ethics in Vision of Bioethics and Its Contemporary Value%生命伦理学视域中的儒家伦理及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征宇

    2016-01-01

    The basic characteristic of Confucian Culture is focus on the issues about life. This paper deeply discusses the connotation of life ethics about the"harmony between men and nature" and the"self-cultivation gets moral". And this paper also points out that sacrifice justice can help us establish the correct ideals of life,optimistic life attitude can help us improve the compression ability, positive attitude can help us en ̄hanced the awareness of responsibility. This study strives to dig the modern value which can help us cope with the puzzles of life in today's society,enhance the bioethics awareness,in order to provide new ideas and inspirations for the study of Chinese Bioethics.%对于生命问题的关注一直是儒家传统文化的基本特色。本文探讨了“天人合一”整体观、“修身至德”养生观的生命伦理内涵,指出舍生取义的道德制约对树立正确人生理想的启示、乐天知命的人生态度对提高抗压能力的启示、积极入世的人生哲学对增强担当意识的启示,深入挖掘其中可以应对人生困惑、增强人们生命伦理意识、解决医疗体系中义利冲突等的现代价值,为中国当代生命伦理的研究提供新的思路及启示。

  10. Celebrity and contemporary context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guimarães Simões

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hermeneutic power of a celebrity (seen from the concept of event, seeking to understand what it reveals about the contemporary context. Based on this premise, we attempt to recognize some aspects of contemporary social life that emerge from the trajectory of a specific celebrity: the former soccer player Ronaldo Fenômeno. This analysis brings to light the hermeneutic power of Ronaldo, i.e., how his life story reveals characteristics of contemporary social life. Individualism, machismo, emphasis on a heteronormative ideal, shifts in the construction of romantic relationships, and the overlapping spheres of public and private life, are some important aspects of contemporary society revealed by this analysis.

  11. Sh Contemporary 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■ "The Asian continent shows us impressively that there is a globalization of art, but not of the art market...Asia is ready for its own international art fair." Pierre Huber,Art Director of ShContemporary.

  12. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  13. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  14. When Being Virtuous Makes Sense: Bourgeois Ethics in the Golden Age vs. Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Yalç intas

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHave you ever thought of virtues? Temperance, Courage, Justice, Hope, and Love, just to name a few. And, have you ever thought that they could have anything to do with economics? Economists have long ago separated the moral philosophy (ethics) and the science of choice (economics) from e

  15. The Egoistic Teacher: Educational Implications of Spinoza's Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbeck, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I suggest that Spinoza's understanding of virtue and collective flourishing, rooted in his psychological and ethical egoism, offers a fresh perspective on the question of egoism in education. To this end, I suggest an understanding of the teacher as egoist, where the self-seeking of the teacher is conditioned by--and runs parallel…

  16. Ethics, Justice and the Sale of Kidneys for Transplantation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slabbert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Living kidney donor transplantations are complex; add to that financial compensation to the donor and one enters an ethical maze. Debates on whether the buying and selling of kidneys should be allowed are mainly between utilitarians, deontologists and virtue ethicists as legal transplants are more common in the Western world. The pros and cons of each theory in relation to the sale of human organs are analysed, after which the foundational principles for all bio-ethical judgments; beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice are also scrutinised in seeking to justify the sale of human kidneys for transplantation purposes in a country with a human rights culture.

  17. Clinical sensitivity: the inseparability of ethical perceptiveness and clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, P

    2001-01-01

    This article argues that there is an important connection between ethical sensitivity and clinical competency in nursing. This is more than a defense for ethical attitudes and virtues in clinical practice, however. I will show in what way ethical sensitivity is important not only to moral judgment, but to professional clinical knowledge and judgment as well. Drawing on central insights from continental philosophy, Husserl, Heidegger, Levinas and Foucault, as well as classical virtue theory, the article elucidates the inseparability of ethical sensitivity and clinical knowledge in nursing. Ethical sensitivity has bearing upon clinical knowledge and awareness in two important ways. First, what we consider relevant clinical knowledge and therapeutic measures frequently encounter the realities of clinical conditions, realities which embody certain moral qualities and appeal to moral values. In clinical nursing, it is important to understand how this encounter between professional knowledge and moral values informs clinical action, making it morally as well as professionally proper. Second, sensitivity to vulnerability qualifies clinical knowledge in the way that it alerts clinical sensitivity altogether. Perception of morally salient features informs the nurse about significant changes in the patient's pathological condition. The ability to be touched morally by the patient's condition, his or her vulnerability or vitality and positive experience is epistemologically and prognostically significant.

  18. Natural Law and Discursive Ethics. Natural law in Thomas Aquinas as a grammar of moral discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Barzotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to make the Thomist ethics of the natural law intelligible to a supporter of Apel and Harbermas’s discourse ethics. In order to do so, it presents Aquinas’s theory of natural law as the moral discourse’s grammar. This ‘translation’ of Thomist ethics into contemporary terminology aims at establishing a dialogue with those who uphold discourse ethics by advancing the thesis that, Thomist ethics is superior to discourse ethics in performing the function of controlling the sense of propositions that belong to the moral discourse.

  19. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    ethically between these approaches, often relying on ambiguous concepts such as ‘naturalness’. We argue that a virtue-based approach can be used to explicate the assumptions behind such distinctions that are relevant for scientific and public discourse, and support a conclusion that there are ethical......The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... to the dominant scientific view, the main concerns are issues of biosafety that are dealt with through risk assessment. Thus, the techniques are ethically equivalent and only the resulting product is of interest. In parts of the societal and philosophical discourse, however, there are attempts to distinguish...

  20. Physicians’ Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power—the legitimation of physicians’ power—a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician’s power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians’ power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. PMID:26671961