WorldWideScience

Sample records for contaminated soils application

  1. Microbial Fuel Cells for Organic-Contaminated Soil Remedial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Weng, Liping; Zhou, Qixing; Li, Yongtao

    2017-01-01

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for repairing organic-contaminated soils. Bioelectrochemical technology, especially microbial fuel cells (MFCs), has been widely used to promote a polluted environmental remediation approach, and applications include wastewater, sludge, sediment, and

  2. Application of autoradiographic methods for contaminant distribution studies in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povetko, O.G.; Higley, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine physical location of contaminants in soil, solidified soil 'thin' sections, which preserve the undisturbed structural characteristics of the original soil, were prepared. This paper describes an application of different autoradiographic methods to identify the distribution of selected nuclides along key structural features of sample soils and sizes of 'hot particles' of contaminant. These autoradiographic methods included contact autoradiography using CR-39 (Homalite Plastics) plastic alpha track detectors and neutron-induced autoradiography that produced fission fragment tracks in Lexan (Thrust Industries, Inc.) plastic detectors. Intact soil samples containing weapons-grade plutonium from Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site and control samples from outside the site location were used in thin soil section preparation. Distribution of particles of actinides was observed and analyzed through the soil section depth profile from the surface to the 15-cm depth. The combination of two autoradiographic methods allowed to distinguish alpha- emitting particles of natural U, 239+240 Pu and non-fissile alpha-emitters. Locations of 990 alpha 'stars' caused by 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were recorded, particles were sized, their size-frequency, depth and activity distributions were analyzed. Several large colloidal conglomerates of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am 'hot particles' were found in soil profile. Their alpha and fission fragment 'star' images were micro photographed. (author)

  3. Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, A.P.; Lebedev, N.M.; Savkin, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10 5 Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10 4 Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ∼200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ∼30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

  4. Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, A.P. [JRC ' NIKIET' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev, N.M. [LLC ' Aleksandra-Plus' , Vologda (Russian Federation); Savkin, A.E. [SUE SIA ' Radon' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10{sup 5} Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10{sup 4} Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ∼200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ∼30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

  5. Quantifying Diffuse Contamination: Method and Application to Pb in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-06-20

    A new method for detecting and quantifying diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale is based on the analysis of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). It uses cumulative probability (CP) plots for spatially representative data sets, preferably containing >1000 determinations. Simulations demonstrate how different types of contamination influence elemental CDFs of different sample media. It is found that diffuse contamination is characterized by a distinctive shift of the low-concentration end of the distribution of the studied element in its CP plot. Diffuse contamination can be detected and quantified via either (1) comparing the distribution of the contaminating element to that of an element with a geochemically comparable behavior but no contamination source (e.g., Pb vs Rb), or (2) comparing the top soil distribution of an element to the distribution of the same element in subsoil samples from the same area, taking soil forming processes into consideration. Both procedures are demonstrated for geochemical soil data sets from Europe, Australia, and the U.S.A. Several different data sets from Europe deliver comparable results at different scales. Diffuse Pb contamination in surface soil is estimated to be contamination sources and can be used to efficiently monitor diffuse contamination at the continental to regional scale.

  6. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  8. Remediation of contaminated soils by biotechnology with nanomaterials: bio-behavior, applications, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaomin; Huang, Danlian; Liu, Yunguo; Peng, Zhiwei; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Cheng, Min; Wang, Rongzhong; Wan, Jia

    2018-05-01

    Soil contamination caused by heavy metals and organic pollutants has drawn world-wide concern. Biotechnology has been applied for many years to the decontamination of soils polluted with organic and inorganic contaminants, and novel nanomaterials (NMs) has attracted much concern due to their high capacity for the removal/stabilization/degradation of pollutants. Recently, developing advanced biotechnology with NMs for the remediation of contaminated soils has become a hot research topic. Some researchers found that bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils was enhanced by the addition of NMs, while others demonstrated that the toxicity of NMs to the organism negatively influenced the repair capacity of polluted soils. This paper reviews the application of biotechnology and NMs in soil remediation, and further provides a critical view of the effects of NMs on the phytoremediation and micro-remediation of contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for the combined application of biotechnology and NMs in soil remediation.

  9. Application of Bioassays for the Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María D.; Babín, Mar; Tarazona, José V.

    The use of bioassays for soil characterization is receiving significant attention as a complementary tool to chemical analysis. Bioassays consist of direct toxicity assays of environmental samples that are transferred to the laboratory and analyzed for toxicity against selected organisms. Such soil samples contain the combination of the different pollutants present in situ and enable factors such as the bioavailability of contaminants or the interactions (synergic and antagonic) between them to be simultaneously studied.

  10. Improvement in soil and sorghum health following the application of polyacrylate polymers to a Cd-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiwei, Q.; Varennes, A. de; Martins, L.L.; Mourato, M.P.; Cardoso, A.I.; Mota, A.M.; Pinto, A.P.; Goncalves, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of soils with cadmium (Cd) is a serious global issue due to its high mobility and toxicity. We investigated the application of insoluble polyacrylate polymers to improve soil and plant health. Sorghum was grown in a Cd-contaminated sandy soil. Polyacrylate polymers at 0.2% (w/w) were added to half of the soil. Control soil without plants was also included in the experiment. Growth of sorghum was stimulated in the polymer-amended soil. The concentration of Cd in the shoots, and the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase decreased in plants from polymer-amended soil compared with unamended control. The amount of CaCl 2 -extractable Cd in the polymer-amended soil was 55% of that in the unamended soil. The Cd extracted in sorghum shoots was 0.19 mg per plant grown on soil without polymer and 0.41 mg per plant grown on polymer-amended soil. The total amount of Cd removed from each pot corresponded to 1.5 and more than 6% of soil CaCl 2 -extractable Cd in unamended and polymer-amended soil, respectively. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease, protease and cellulase were greatest in polymer-amended soil with sorghum. In conclusion, the application of polyacrylate polymers to reduce the bioavailable Cd pool seems a promising method to enhance productivity and health of plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils.

  11. Contaminant Gradients in Trees: Directional Tree Coring Reveals Boundaries of Soil and Soil-Gas Contamination with Potential Applications in Vapor Intrusion Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Samaranayake, V A; Limmer, Matthew A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-12-19

    Contaminated sites pose ecological and human-health risks through exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater. Whereas we can readily locate, monitor, and track contaminants in groundwater, it is harder to perform these tasks in the vadose zone. In this study, tree-core samples were collected at a Superfund site to determine if the sample-collection location around a particular tree could reveal the subsurface location, or direction, of soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes. Contaminant-centroid vectors were calculated from tree-core data to reveal contaminant distributions in directional tree samples at a higher resolution, and vectors were correlated with soil-gas characterization collected using conventional methods. Results clearly demonstrated that directional tree coring around tree trunks can indicate gradients in soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes, and the strength of the correlations were directly proportionate to the magnitude of tree-core concentration gradients (spearman's coefficient of -0.61 and -0.55 in soil and tree-core gradients, respectively). Linear regression indicates agreement between the concentration-centroid vectors is significantly affected by in planta and soil concentration gradients and when concentration centroids in soil are closer to trees. Given the existing link between soil-gas and vapor intrusion, this study also indicates that directional tree coring might be applicable in vapor intrusion assessment.

  12. Critical assessment of the available technologies for sanitation of contaminated soil and their limits of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, M.; Glaeser, E.

    1993-01-01

    Sanitation of polluted land comprises safety measures and soil purification measures. Soil purification can take place either in situ, or on-site or off-site after digging up the contaminated soil. In-situ processes are soil deaeration, groundwater purification and biological methods. Soil deaeration is suited for volatile pollutants in the unsaturated zone of loose soils, while groundwater purification is commonly applied for water-soluble pollutants in the saturated zone of soils with a high k f value. On-site or off-site purification of contaminated soils can take place by thermal processes, by soil washing, by microorganisms, or by physical processes. Thermal processes have the widest range of applications; they are suited for most soils polluted with mostly organic pollutants, and the residual contamination is lowest. Soil washing is limited to sandy and noncohesive soils and for emulsifiable or elutable pollutants. Biological on-site and off-line methods are limited to biodegradable pollutants which are not in phase. Loosening agents may be added in order to overcome geotechnical limitations. Physical purification of soils is limited to specific applications e.g. removal of volatile hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  13. Application of carbon nanotubes to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Martim P. S. R.; Correia, António Alberto S.; Rasteiro, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals is a growing concern in modern societies. To avoid the spread of contamination, soil stabilization techniques can be applied mixing materials with the soil in order to partially immobilize heavy metals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials known for its exceptional properties, like high surface area and adsorption capacity. Due to these unique properties, the potential use of CNTs in heavy metal contaminated water has been studied, with very satisfactory results; however, their application in contaminated soils is practically unexplored. This experimental work is focused on studying the potential of using CNTs in soil remediation, especially to immobilize the heavy metals ions: lead (Pb"2"+), copper (Cu"2"+), nickel (Ni"2"+), and zinc (Zn"2"+), commonly present in contaminated soils. In order to avoid CNT agglomeration, which originates the loss of their beneficial properties, an aqueous suspension of CNTs was prepared using a non-ionic surfactant combined with ultrasonic energy to promote CNTs dispersion. Then, the soil, with and without the addition of CNTs, was subjected to adsorption tests to evaluate the CNT capacity to improve heavy metal immobilization. To validate the adsorption test results, permeability tests were executed, simulating the conditions of a real-case scenario. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the addition of a small amount of dispersed CNTs can successfully increase the adsorption capacity of the soil and consequently improve the immobilization of heavy metals in the soil matrix. The immobilization percentage varies with the different heavy metals under study.

  14. Application of carbon nanotubes to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Martim P. S. R.; Correia, António Alberto S.; Rasteiro, Maria G.

    2017-04-01

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals is a growing concern in modern societies. To avoid the spread of contamination, soil stabilization techniques can be applied mixing materials with the soil in order to partially immobilize heavy metals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials known for its exceptional properties, like high surface area and adsorption capacity. Due to these unique properties, the potential use of CNTs in heavy metal contaminated water has been studied, with very satisfactory results; however, their application in contaminated soils is practically unexplored. This experimental work is focused on studying the potential of using CNTs in soil remediation, especially to immobilize the heavy metals ions: lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), nickel (Ni2+), and zinc (Zn2+), commonly present in contaminated soils. In order to avoid CNT agglomeration, which originates the loss of their beneficial properties, an aqueous suspension of CNTs was prepared using a non-ionic surfactant combined with ultrasonic energy to promote CNTs dispersion. Then, the soil, with and without the addition of CNTs, was subjected to adsorption tests to evaluate the CNT capacity to improve heavy metal immobilization. To validate the adsorption test results, permeability tests were executed, simulating the conditions of a real-case scenario. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the addition of a small amount of dispersed CNTs can successfully increase the adsorption capacity of the soil and consequently improve the immobilization of heavy metals in the soil matrix. The immobilization percentage varies with the different heavy metals under study.

  15. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  16. Remediation techniques for heavy metal-contaminated soils: Principles and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianwen; Li, Wei; Song, Weiping; Guo, Mingxin

    2018-08-15

    Globally there are over 20millionha of land contaminated by the heavy metal(loid)s As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Se, with the present soil concentrations higher than the geo-baseline or regulatory levels. In-situ and ex-situ remediation techniques have been developed to rectify the heavy metal-contaminated sites, including surface capping, encapsulation, landfilling, soil flushing, soil washing, electrokinetic extraction, stabilization, solidification, vitrification, phytoremediation, and bioremediation. These remediation techniques employ containment, extraction/removal, and immobilization mechanisms to reduce the contamination effects through physical, chemical, biological, electrical, and thermal remedy processes. These techniques demonstrate specific advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. In general, in-situ soil remediation is more cost-effective than ex-situ treatment, and contaminant removal/extraction is more favorable than immobilization and containment. Among the available soil remediation techniques, electrokinetic extraction, chemical stabilization, and phytoremediation are at the development stage, while the others have been practiced at full, field scales. Comprehensive assessment indicates that chemical stabilization serves as a temporary soil remediation technique, phytoremediation needs improvement in efficiency, surface capping and landfilling are applicable to small, serious-contamination sites, while solidification and vitrification are the last remediation option. The cost and duration of soil remediation are technique-dependent and site-specific, up to $500ton -1 soil (or $1500m -3 soil or $100m -2 land) and 15years. Treatability studies are crucial to selecting feasible techniques for a soil remediation project, with considerations of the type and degree of contamination, remediation goals, site characteristics, cost effectiveness, implementation time, and public acceptability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Development and application of techniques for monitoring the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, C.; Hawar, J.; Samson, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of tests was designed to examine bioremediation potential in soil and to monitor performance during the treatment operation. Physical and chemical characterization of the soil provides information on the types of organics, their concentrations, and whether interfering materials are present. Microbiological assessment involves culturing of bacterial populations in the soil and examination of the colonies to determine which have the genetic potential to degrade the soil contaminants. Catabolic gene probes are used to survey viable bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Such soils consistently demonstrate the presence of bacteria possessing the genetic capability to degrade simple straight-chain alkanes and aromatics. Mineralization and respirometric studies are indicators of the biological activity in the soil, and can be directed at microbial activity towards specific substrates. Gene probe monitoring of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil during biopile treatment demonstrated that hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial numbers and activity were temperature dependent. The results showed that the activity of the indigenous bacteria as measured by hexadecane mineralization also correlated with the disappearance of the oil and grease. The application of this protocol has provided a useful means to screen contaminated soils for bacteria with desirable catabolic properties and to monitor pollutant-degrading bacteria during biotreatment. 15 refs., 10 figs

  18. The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation has proven successful in numerous applications to petroleum contaminated soils. However, questions remain as to the efficiency of bioremediation in lowering long-term soil toxicity. In the present study, the bioassays Spirotox, Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit F, umu-test with S-9 activation, and plant assays were applied, and compared to evaluate bioremediation processes in heavily petroleum contaminated soils. Six higher plant species (Secale cereale L., Lactuca sativa L., Zea mays L., Lepidium sativum L., Triticum vulgare L., Brassica oleracea L.) were used for bioassay tests based on seed germination and root elongation. The ecotoxicological analyses were made in DMSO/H2O and DCM/DMSO soil extracts. Soils were tested from two biopiles at the Czechowice oil refinery, Poland, that have been subjected to different bioremediation applications. In biopile 1 the active or engineered bioremediation process lasted four years, while biopile 2 was treated passively or non-engineered for eight months. The test species demonstrated varying sensitivity to soils from both biopiles. The effects on test organisms exposed to biopile 2 soils were several times higher compared to those in biopile 1 soils, which correlated with the soil contaminants concentration. Soil hydrocarbon concentrations indeed decreased an average of 81% in biopile 1, whereas in biopile 2 TPH/TPOC concentrations only decreased by 30% after eight months of bioremediation. The bioassays were presented to be sensitive indicators of soil quality and can be used to evaluate the quality of bioremediated soil. The study encourages the need to combine the bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of the bioremediation effectiveness and assessing of the contaminated/remediated soils.

  19. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  20. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  1. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, K.A.; Leavitt, M.E.; Graves, D.A.; Stanish, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO 2 , and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO 2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  2. Application of carbon nanotubes to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Martim P. S. R.; Correia, António Alberto S., E-mail: aalberto@dec.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, Department of Civil Engineering, CIEPQPF—Chemical Process Engineering and Forest Products Research Centre (Portugal); Rasteiro, Maria G. [University of Coimbra, Department of Chemical Engineering, CIEPQPF (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    The contamination of soils with heavy metals is a growing concern in modern societies. To avoid the spread of contamination, soil stabilization techniques can be applied mixing materials with the soil in order to partially immobilize heavy metals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials known for its exceptional properties, like high surface area and adsorption capacity. Due to these unique properties, the potential use of CNTs in heavy metal contaminated water has been studied, with very satisfactory results; however, their application in contaminated soils is practically unexplored. This experimental work is focused on studying the potential of using CNTs in soil remediation, especially to immobilize the heavy metals ions: lead (Pb{sup 2+}), copper (Cu{sup 2+}), nickel (Ni{sup 2+}), and zinc (Zn{sup 2+}), commonly present in contaminated soils. In order to avoid CNT agglomeration, which originates the loss of their beneficial properties, an aqueous suspension of CNTs was prepared using a non-ionic surfactant combined with ultrasonic energy to promote CNTs dispersion. Then, the soil, with and without the addition of CNTs, was subjected to adsorption tests to evaluate the CNT capacity to improve heavy metal immobilization. To validate the adsorption test results, permeability tests were executed, simulating the conditions of a real-case scenario. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the addition of a small amount of dispersed CNTs can successfully increase the adsorption capacity of the soil and consequently improve the immobilization of heavy metals in the soil matrix. The immobilization percentage varies with the different heavy metals under study.

  3. Application of persulfate to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: feasibility and comparison with common oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Ku-Fan; Kao, Chih-Ming; Liang, Shu-Hao; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2011-02-28

    In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soil remediation using persulfate oxidation. Various controlling factors including different persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations, different oxidants (persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, and permanganate), and different contaminants (diesel and fuel oil) were considered. Results show that persulfate oxidation is capable of treating diesel and fuel oil contaminated soil. Higher persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations resulted in higher diesel degrading rates within the applied persulfate/ferrous ion molar ratios. A two-stage diesel degradation was observed in the batch experiments. In addition, treatment of diesel-contaminated soil using in situ metal mineral activation under ambient temperature (e.g., 25°C) may be a feasible option for site remediation. Results also reveal that persulfate anions could persist in the system for more than five months. Thus, sequential injections of ferrous ion to generate sulfate free radicals might be a feasible way to enhance contaminant oxidation. Diesel oxidation efficiency and rates by the three oxidants followed the sequence of hydrogen peroxide>permanganate>persulfate in the limited timeframes. Results of this study indicate that the application of persulfate oxidation is a feasible method to treat soil contaminated by diesel and fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of phytoextraction for uranium contaminated soil in korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.; Han, Y.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The soils having high concentration of uranium, sampled from Goesan Deokpyungri area in Korea, were identified with the uranium removal efficiency of phytoextraction by using several plants. According to the results of physicochemical properties, uranium concentration from soil was 28.85mg/kg, pH 5.43 and soil texture was "Sand". Results of SEP(Sequential Extraction Procedure) test, uranium concentrations ratio of soil in the status of exchangeable/carbonate was 13.4%. Five plants such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Sesame (Perilla frutescens var. japonica) were cultivated during 56 days in phytotron. All the cultivation processes were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 degrees celsius, 70% relative humidity, 4000 Lux illumination (16 hours/day) and CO2 concentration of 600 ppm. Four times at intervals of 2 weeks leaves and roots collected were analyzed for uranium concentration. Ranges of uranium concentration of the roots and leaves from the five plants were measured to 206.81-721.22μg/kg and 3.45-10.21μg/kg respectively. The majority of uranium was found to accumulate in the roots. Uranium concentration in the leaves, regardless of the type of plants were presented below standard of drinking water(30μg/l) by U.S EPA. Phytoextraction pot experiments with citric acid were conducted. Citric acid as chelating agent was applied to soil to enhance uranium accumulation in five crop plants. 6 days before harvest crops, Each citric acid 25mM and 50mM was injected into the soil by 300ml. After injecting citric acid 25mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.95. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 2-4times and 7-30times compared to control soil. Injected with citric acid 50mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.79. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 3-10times and 10

  5. Application of Microbial Products to Promote Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2006-01-01

    remediation (EDR) method for efficient treatment of Pb-contaminated soil by application of microbial products. Mobilization of Pb in soil by complexation with exopolymers and whole or disintegrated cells was investigated in column studies. Although exopolymers were previously shown to mobilize Pb in soil...... as potential methods for promotion of EDR of Pb contaminated soil. By these methods mobilization of Pb would occur due to complexation with much smaller substances than the previously examined and rejected exopolymers, why they were considered more efficient for mobilization of Pb in an electric current field...... also rejected, primarily due to the insufficient concentrations produced by microorganisms in general and the unrealistic high costs of industrially produced siderophores in relation to the low value of the product to be treated. Furthermore no detection of siderophore production was possible during...

  6. Impact of Saw Dust Application on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Metals in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awokunmi, Emmmanuel E

    2017-12-01

    The need to develop an approach for the reclamation of contaminated site using locally available agricultural waste has been considered. The present study investigated the application of sawdust as an effective amendment in the immobilization of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) by conducting a greenhouse experiment on soil collected from an automobile dumpsite. The amended and non-amended soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and sequential extraction of PTMs. The results revealed that application of amendment had positive impact on the physicochemical parameters as organic matter content and cation exchange capacity increased from 12.1% to 12.8% and 16.4 to 16.8 meq/100 g respectively. However, the mobility and bioavalability of these metals was reduced as they were found to be distributed mostly in the non-exchangeable phase of soil. Therefore, application of sawdust successfully immobilized PTMs and could be applied for future studies in agricultural soil reclamation.

  7. Applicability of portable spectrometer for activity measurement of contaminated water and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Narayani; Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute activity measurement is often necessary to assess the impact of radioactivity contamination due to various incidents. Commercially available portable spectrometer cum dose rate meter is used for the identification of radionuclides involved and associated dose rates. In this paper the authors discusses the study carried out on the applicability of portable spectrometer for absolute radioactivity measurements in water and soil matrices. The portable spectrometer and the methodology developed for activity estimation has been used in many insitu applications. (author)

  8. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing the hazards of Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Cheryl E; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose; Short, Stephen A; Beydoun, Donia; Low, Gary; Cattle, Julie

    2005-04-11

    Soil contamination is a major environmental problem due to the ecological threat it poses. In this work, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching studies were employed to explain the different leaching behaviors of non-stabilized and stabilized soils. The applicability of the leaching fluids used in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and Australian Standards, AS 4439.1-1997 for assessing the hazards of contaminated soils was investigated as was the leaching of lead from soil stabilized by cement and buffered phosphate techniques. The results showed Pb speciation in the soil highly influenced metal leaching. The synthetic leaching fluids were unable to provide a reliable estimation of Pb concentration in the municipal landfill leachate (ML) due to the absence of organic ligands capable of forming stable complexes with the lead. Water provided the closest representation of lead leaching from the non-stabilized and phosphate stabilized soils while sodium tetraborate buffer was found to be suitable for cement-stabilized soil in a non-putrescible landfill leachate system. A comparison of stabilization methods revealed that the buffered phosphate technique was more suitable for stabilizing the lead in the soil relative to cement stabilization.

  9. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing the hazards of Pb-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Cheryl E.; Scott, Jason A.; Amal, Rose; Short, Stephen A.; Beydoun, Donia; Low, Gary; Cattle, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Soil contamination is a major environmental problem due to the ecological threat it poses. In this work, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching studies were employed to explain the different leaching behaviors of non-stabilized and stabilized soils. The applicability of the leaching fluids used in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and Australian Standards, AS 4439.1-1997 for assessing the hazards of contaminated soils was investigated as was the leaching of lead from soil stabilized by cement and buffered phosphate techniques. The results showed Pb speciation in the soil highly influenced metal leaching. The synthetic leaching fluids were unable to provide a reliable estimation of Pb concentration in the municipal landfill leachate (ML) due to the absence of organic ligands capable of forming stable complexes with the lead. Water provided the closest representation of lead leaching from the non-stabilized and phosphate stabilized soils while sodium tetraborate buffer was found to be suitable for cement-stabilized soil in a non-putrescible landfill leachate system. A comparison of stabilization methods revealed that the buffered phosphate technique was more suitable for stabilizing the lead in the soil relative to cement stabilization

  10. Effect of Sulfur Application on Spinach Phytoremedaiton Process of Cadmium in Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kasraian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cadmium (Cd concentration has increased in croplands through sewage sludge and phosphorous fertilizers application. On the other hand, some special methods, like phytoremedation, were introduced in order to decrease soil contamination hazard. Calcium carbonate plays an important role in Cd solubility in highly calcareous soils. Sulfurs oxidation, by dissolving Cd carbonate fraction, may improve phytoremediation efficiency. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of S application (equivalent to 0, 2, 4 and 6 Mg S ha-1 on Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid  (DTPA extractable Cd and also on Cd uptake and extraction by spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. in calcareous soils which were contaminated by 40mg Cd kg-1. To ensure biological S oxidation, all S-treated samples were inoculated by Thiobacillus spp. and incubated for 50 days. The soil pH, EC and soluble sulfate were affected by S application and it clearly showed that S oxidation process was occurred in Cd treated soils. The most significant change for pH and sulfate were observed at 4 Mg S ha-1 and for electrical conductivity (EC of soil it occurred at 6Mg S ha-1. Application of S had no effect on DTPA extractable Cd in soils whereas; its concentration increased 73.55% in average in plant tissue. Plant dry matter decreased significantly (about 63 percent following Cd application. Although the highest rate of S oxidation was observed at 4 and 6 Mg S ha-1 tٰٰٰhe maximum Cd extraction (2.5µg Cd pot-1 was observed at 2 Mg S ha-1 . This may be due to adverse effect of Cd toxicity and increase of soluble salt resulted by S oxidation in higher level of S application.

  11. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  12. β-ray track imaging application in phytoremediation of radionuclide-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Junsheng; Xiao Yan; Pan Xiaobing; Tang Xiuhuan; Yang Yongqing; Wang Beisong; Zhao Xiangfeng; Li Hua; Miao Zhengqiang; Yang Jun

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation was widely studied in the field of treating technology of soil contamination with long-lived nuclides. Studies on the β-ray track imaging application in phytoremediation of radionuclide-contaminated soil were carried out in the present work. Experiments showed that this technology might be used for screening plants for phytoremediation and for the studies of phytoremediation mechanism, such as radioactivity concentration and distribution in plant organs. The influence of α- and γ-rays on the β-ray track imaging was studied. Theoretical studies showed that the influence of α-rays might be heavily reduced with proper thickness of PE-film. The image sensor was not so sensitive to γ-rays as β-rays, and the influence of surrounding γ-rays could be heavily reduced with a proper thickness of Pb-shielding

  13. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  15. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  16. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  17. Application of biodegradation screening protocol to contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Nakles, D.V.; Cushey, M.A.; Morgan, D.J.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Bioremediation (i.e., land treatment) has been demonstrated to be a viable option for treating a variety of soils contamianted with organics. Conventional treatability studies utilize soil microcosm experiments to evaluate the potential for bioremediation of specific contaminated soils. Unfortunately, soil microcosms take from 4- to 6-months to complete and do not fully exploit the current understanding of the bioremediation process. This paper describes a treatability protocol that investigates underlying mechanisms and can be completed in 2- to 3-months. It is believed that soil bioremediation is governed by the sequential processes of contanate desorption from the soil into the aqueous phase and subsequent oxidation by microorganisms. The relative importance of each process depends upon the contaminant and soil. Accordingly, the treatability protocol has three steps. In the first step, tests are performed to determine soil characteristics. In the second step, tests are performed to characterize the desorption of contaminants from the soil. In the third step, the potential for biological oxidaiton is evaluated with a soil-water slurry reactor that maximizes desorption and provides an optimum environment for microbial growth. This paper provides a thorough discussion of the laboratory protocol including the primary theoretical tenets which serve as its basis. Preliminary procedures and results are presented for soils contaminated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) wastes. Particular attention is focused on biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  18. APPLICATION OF ZEOLITE AND BENTONITE FOR STABILIZING LEAD IN A CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Andrzejewska

    2017-08-01

    The study evaluated the properties of zeolite and bentonite for stabilizing lead (Pb in a contaminated soil. Sorbents were applied at different rates 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0% to the contaminated soil and incubated for four months. Soil reaction (pH was measured as well as the electrical conductivity (EC. The total content of Pb was determined in the soil samples as did the reactive forms (extracted by 0.11 mol CH3HCOOH dm-3. The evaluation of the efficiency of the stabilization of Pb was performed on the basis of the fractions of the reactive lead. It was found, that the addition of both zeolite and bentonite resulted in a decrease in the concentrations of the active forms of lead in soils. Thus, the two sorbents exerted a good stability and can be used for efficiently immobilizing lead in soil contaminated anthropogenically.

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  20. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  1. Application of biosurfactants, rhamnolipid, and surfactin, for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen G; Ma, Chih-Chung; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2008-02-28

    This study investigated potential application of two biosurfactants, surfactin (SF) and rhamnolipid (RL), for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil with a series of bench-scale experiments. The rhamnolipid used in this study, a commonly isolated glycolipid biosurfactant, was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4, while the surfactin, a lipoprotein type biosurfactant, was produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. Both biosurfactants were able to reduce surface tension to less than 30 dynes/cm from 72 dynes/cm with critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of 45 and 50 mg/L for surfactin and rhamnolipid, respectively. In addition, the results of diesel dissolution experiments also demonstrated their ability in increasing diesel solubility with increased biosurfactant addition. In diesel/water batch experiments, an addition of 40 mg/L of surfactin significantly enhanced biomass growth (2500 mg VSS/L) as well as increased diesel biodegradation percentage (94%), compared to batch experiments with no surfactin addition (1000 mg VSS/L and 40% biodegradation percentage). Addition of surfactin more than 40 mg/L, however, decreased both biomass growth and diesel biodegradation efficiency, with a worse diesel biodegradation percentage (0%) at 400 mg/L of SF addition. Similar trends were also observed for both specific rate constants of biomass growth and diesel degradation, as surfactin addition increased from 0 to 400 mg/L. Addition of rhamnolipid to diesel/water systems from 0 to 80 mg/L substantially increased biomass growth and diesel biodegradation percentage from 1000 to 2500 mg VSS/L and 40 to 100%, respectively. Rhamnolipid addition at a concentration of 160 mg/L provided similar results to those of an 80 mg/L addition. Finally, potential application of surfactin and rhamnolipid in stimulating indigenous microorganisms for enhanced bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil was also examined. The results confirmed their enhancing capability

  2. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  3. Application of humic compounds for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals: the benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, Galina; Barsova, Natalia; Stepanov, Andrey; Kiseleva, Violetta; Kolchanova, Ksenia; Starkova, Irina; Karpukhin, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of humic compound (HC) "Extra" (potassium humate produced from coal) was studied to remediate soils contaminated with copper in model experiments. Field experiments were carried out in 10-litter plastic containers. The upper layer was prepared as a mixture of loam (pH=5.3), sand (pH=7.4) and peat(pH=5.5). It was underlain consequently by loam and gravel. To study water migration we installed lysimeters. The experiment was conducted in 3 variants: 1) control, 2) control+Cu, 3) control+Cu+HC. Copper was applied in the form of dry powder (CuSO4*5H2O) over the upper layer of the soil column in a concentration of copper equaling to 1000 mg/kg. Total concentration of copper was determined by ICP AAS, its free ions was measured with the help of ion-selective electrode. Humic compound was sprayed on the surface in liquid form. The vessels stayed outdoors from July to October 2014 with additional watering in dry periods. Analysis of lysimetric waters obtained from this model field experiment revealed significant impact of pH. Application of the humic compound produces almost 5 times higher content of soluble organic substances than in the variant without it, and in the first portions of lysimetric waters the difference is 20-fold. Generation of extra organic content in soluble form was accompanied by the 2-6 times increase of the water soluble copper yield. However the content of the free copper ions in lysimetric waters in case of addition of the potassium humate was negligible, because almost all copper was bounded with water-soluble organic substances. The copper content in water extract from the top layer of soil in the variant with HC was about 1 mg/l, that was 2 times higher than without HC. The content of water-soluble organic carbon in HC variant was 100 mg/L, and without HC was 10 times lower (10 mg/l). The water extract from soils enriched in HC was passed through a column filled with weakly basic anion exchange resin DEAE (Cl-form), the eluate was

  4. Applications and mechanisms of laser ablation for elemental analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Survey methods for compositional analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils are under development to support characterization prior to treatment and continued monitoring during remediation. Laser ablation in conjunction with optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are attractive because of the safety and convenience of minimal sample handling and very small sampling volume. However, the signal intensities in analytic applications depend sensitively on the physical state of the sample (e.g., particle morphology, defect concentration, impurities, and presence of liquids). In this work, the authors examine how solid and condensed state properties of the sample affect the laser-substrate interaction, and the dynamic electronic, physical, and chemical processes which ultimately generate the signals that are detected for analytic purposes

  5. The effects of simultaneous application of plant growth regulators and bioaugmentation on improvement of phytoremediation of pyrene contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Saeid; Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Rostami, Majid; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a wide group of soil contaminants whose presence in the environment is a cause of concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the phytoremediation activities of sorghum bicolor and increase in pyrene removal efficiency in the soil. The initial concentration of pyrene was 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) in this experiment. The treatments included unplanted soil (T0), planted soil with sorghum (T1), planted soil with application of IAA (T2), planted soil with application of Pseudomonas sp. (T3), and planted soil with simultaneous application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. (T4). The pyrene removal rate in the soil was measured every 30 days. Moreover, plant biomass and soil bacteria were measured after 90 days. The results showed that pyrene removal rate significantly increased in the planted treatments compared to the unplanted ones. After 90 days, at the initial concentration of 150-300 mg kg(-1), pyrene removal efficiency was 52-92% in T1-T4 and 35-47% in the unplanted treatment (T0). Application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. significantly increased plant biomass, soil bacteria, and pyrene removal rate in T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1. Therefore, application of IAA in the planted treatments with sorghum could have a significant effect on increasing the removal efficiency of pyrene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jongshin; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-04-09

    Landfarming of oil-contaminated soil is ineffective at low temperatures, because the number and activity of micro-organisms declines. This study presents a simple and versatile technique for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil, which involves spraying foam on the soil surface without additional works such as tilling, or supply of water and air. Surfactant foam containing psychrophilic oil-degrading microbes and nutrients was sprayed twice daily over diesel-contaminated soil at 6 °C. Removal efficiencies in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) at 30 days were 46.3% for landfarming and 73.7% for foam-spraying. The first-order kinetic biodegradation rates for landfarming and foam-spraying were calculated as 0.019 d(-1) and 0.044 d(-1), respectively. Foam acted as an insulating medium, keeping the soil 2 °C warmer than ambient air. Sprayed foam was slowly converted to aqueous solution within 10-12h and infiltrated the soil, providing microbes, nutrients, water, and air for bioaugmentation. Furthermore, surfactant present in the aqueous solution accelerated the dissolution of oil from the soil, resulting in readily biodegradable aqueous form. Significant reductions in hydrocarbon concentration were simultaneously observed in both semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions. As the initial soil TPH concentration increased, the TPH removal rate of the foam-spraying method also increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application of these technol......Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...

  8. Ecotoxicological and analytical assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and application to ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saterbak, A.; Toy, R.J.; Wong, D.C.L.; McMain, B.J.; Williams, M.P.; Dorn, P.B.; Brzuzy, L.P.; Chai, E.Y.; Salanitro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated soil aim to understand the effect of introduced chemicals on the soil flora and fauna. Ecotoxicity test methods were developed and conducted on hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and on adjacent uncontaminated control soils from eight field locations. Tests included 7-d, 14-d, and chronic survival tests and reproduction assays for the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and seed germination, root length, and plant growth assays for corn, lettuce, mustard, and wheat. Species-specific responses were observed with no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from <1 to 100% contaminated soil. The 14-d earthworm survival NOEC was equal to or greater than the reproduction NOEC values for numbers of cocoons and juveniles, which were similar to one another. Cocoon and juvenile production varied among the control soils. Germination and root length NOECs for mustard and lettuce were less than NOECs for corn and wheat. Root length NOECs were similar to or less than seed germination NOECs. Statistically significant correlations for earthworm survival and seed germination as a function of hydrocarbon measurements were found. The 14-d earthworm survival and the seed germination tests are recommended for use in the context of a risk-based framework for the ecological assessment of contaminated sites.

  9. Remediation of contaminated soil by cement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript presents the most applicable remedial technologies for contaminated soil with focus on cement stabilisation/solidification treatment. These technologies are examined in the light of soil contamination with depleted uranium in the large area of south Serbia,after Nato bombing 1999. (author) [sr

  10. Soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  11. An analysis on remediation characteristics of soils contaminated with Co for in-situ application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kweun, H. S.; Shon, J. S.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent flushing apparatus for in-situ soil remediation was designed. After the soil around nuclear facilities was sampled and compulsorily contaminated by Co solution, the remediation characteristics by solvent flushing were analyzed. Meanwhile, the nonequilibrium sorption code was developed for modelling of the soil remediation by solvent flushing, and input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment. Experimental results are as follows: The soil around nuclear facilities belongs to Silt Loam including a lot of silt and sand. When water was used as a solvent, the higher was the hydraulic conductivity, the higher the efficiency of soil remediation was. The values calculated by the nonequilibrium sorption code agreed with experimental values more exactly than the values calculated by the equilibrium sorption code. When citric acid was used as a solvent, the soil remediation efficiency by citric acid showed 1.65 times that by water

  12. Experimental Research Regarding the Application of Electro-Flushing Method on Diesel Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streche Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, as a result of the inventory conducted at the national level, The Ministry Of Environment concluded that the largest number of contaminated sites with hydrocarbons are due to the petroleum products distribution (nearly 400 sites, followed by the hydrocarbons extraction (about 310 sites. So, soil contamination with liquid petroleum products resulting from many industrial activities became an important issue of environment protection. Unfortunately not all local governments have provided a list of contaminated sites, which means that there is a possibility to have a bigger problem at the national level. All these surfaces are in a continuous growth due to industrial and social development and that is why it is necessary to study and improve decontamination methods of contaminated sites in order to regain one of our most important resources - the soil. In this paper, the main results obtained during a research that aimed to study two different treatment methods of contaminated soil in a combined solution, are presented. The newly developed method is called electro-flushing. Results proved that combining the two nominated methods could be a viable solution for treating diesel polluted soil with better performances comparing with using them separately. Concerning the electrochemical treatment of diesel contaminated soils an efficiency of 35-40 % could be obtained after 28 days; while using the flushing method up to 15-20% efficiency could be reached. On the other hand, if we combine these two methods, we can reach remediation efficiency up to 50%. So, the main interesting results of the present research is given by the fact that combining two known remediation methods, better performances could be achieved.

  13. Application of persulfate-oxidation foam spraying as a bioremediation pretreatment for diesel oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajagain, Rishikesh; Lee, Sojin; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated a persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam spraying technique to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) present in diesel-contaminated unsaturated soil. Feeding of remedial agents by foam spraying increased the infiltration/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of reagents into the unsaturated soil. Persulfate mixed with a surfactant solution infiltrated the soil faster than peroxide, resulting in relatively even soil moisture content. Persulfate had a higher soil infiltration tendency, which would facilitate its distribution over a wide soil area, thereby enhancing subsequent biodegradation efficiency. Nearly 80% of soil-TPHs were degraded by combined persulfate-bioaugmentation foam spraying, while bioaugmentation foam spraying alone removed 52%. TPH fraction analysis revealed that the removal rate for the biodegradation recalcitrant fraction (C 18 to C 22 ) in deeper soil regions was higher for persulfate-bioaugmentation serial foam application than for peroxide-bioaugmentation foam application. Persulfate-foam spraying may be superior to peroxide for TPH removal even at a low concentration (50 mN) because persulfate-foam is more permeable, persistent, and does not change soil pH in the subsurface. Although the number of soil microbes declines by oxidation pretreatment, bioaugmentation-foam alters the microbial population exponentially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Application of Discriminant Analysis to Pattern Recognition of Selected Contaminated Soil Features in Thin Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1997-01-01

    qualitative microprobe results: present elements Al, Si, Cr, Fe, As (associated with others). Selected groups of calibrated images (same light conditions and magnification) submitted to discriminant analysis, in order to find a pattern of recognition in the soil features corresponding to contamination already...

  15. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  16. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    be much greater than previously demonstrated and they have numerous applications to environmental restoration. Twelve of the isolates were subsequently added to the bioreactor to enhance bioremediation. In this study we showed that a bioreactor could be bioaugmented with select bacteria to enhance bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils under radiological conditions.

  17. Review of soil contamination guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  18. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Sung, K.; Corapcioglu, M.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual Ryegrass) in the phytoremediation of the soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and to determine the main mechanisms of target contaminant dissipation. The preliminary tests and laboratory scale tests were conducted to identify the main mechanisms for phytoremediation of the target contaminants, and to apply the technique in green house application under field conditions. The results of microcosm and bioreactor experiments showed that volatilization can be the dominant pathway of the target contaminant mass losses in soils. Toxicity tests, conducted in nutrient solution in the growth room, and in the greenhouse, showed that both Eastern gamagrass and Annual ryegrass could grow without harmful effects at up to 400 ppm each of all three contaminants together. Preliminary greenhouse experimentw were conducted with the 1.5 m long and 0.3 m diameter PVC columns. Soil gas concentrations monitored and microbial biomass in bulk and rhizosphere soil, root properties, and contaminant concentration in soil after 100 days were analyzed. The results showed that the soil gas concentration of contaminants has rapidly decreased especially in the upper soil and the contaminant concentraitons in soil were also significantly decreased to 0.024, 0.228, and 0.002 of C/Co for TCE, PCE and TCA, respectively. Significant plant effects were not found however showed contaminant loss through volatilization and plant contamination by air.

  19. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range

  1. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  2. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  3. Proposal for Reference Soil Concentrations of Radiocesium Applicable to Accidentally Contaminated Rice and Soybean Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radionuclides in arable soil can be transferred to food plants via root uptake. If radionuclide concentrations in food plants to be grown in contaminated soil are estimated to be higher than the authorized food standards, their culture needs to be cancelled or ameliorating practices need to be taken. Therefore, it is necessary to establish soil concentration limits or reference soil concentrations of radiocesium standing with the food standards in preparation for potential severe NPP accidents in this and adjacent countries. In the present study, reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean, two of the most important food plants in Korea, were provisionally established using all relevant domestic data of soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). The reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean were calculated using available domestic TF data, and were proposed for provisional use at the time of a severe NPP accident. The present RSCs are based on limited numbers of {sup 137}Cs TF values. More amounts of relevant TF data should be produced to have more reliable RSCs. For other staple-food plants such as Chinese cabbage and radish, RSCs of radiocesium should also be established. However, only a couple of relevant domestic TF values are available for these vegetables.

  4. Proposal for Reference Soil Concentrations of Radiocesium Applicable to Accidentally Contaminated Rice and Soybean Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides in arable soil can be transferred to food plants via root uptake. If radionuclide concentrations in food plants to be grown in contaminated soil are estimated to be higher than the authorized food standards, their culture needs to be cancelled or ameliorating practices need to be taken. Therefore, it is necessary to establish soil concentration limits or reference soil concentrations of radiocesium standing with the food standards in preparation for potential severe NPP accidents in this and adjacent countries. In the present study, reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean, two of the most important food plants in Korea, were provisionally established using all relevant domestic data of soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). The reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean were calculated using available domestic TF data, and were proposed for provisional use at the time of a severe NPP accident. The present RSCs are based on limited numbers of 137 Cs TF values. More amounts of relevant TF data should be produced to have more reliable RSCs. For other staple-food plants such as Chinese cabbage and radish, RSCs of radiocesium should also be established. However, only a couple of relevant domestic TF values are available for these vegetables

  5. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  6. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a resuspension model for contaminated soils. Application to the Palomares area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1993-01-01

    A model is presented which has been used to simulate the wind resuspension and transport of contaminated soil in the area surrounding the Palomares village, in Southern Spain. The model uses site specific data and some generic parameters as resuspension rate and deposition velocity. The model is able to predict the order of magnitude of the observed air concentration of activity. Some lines of research are suggested which could improve the understanding of the phenomena involved. (Author) 20 refs

  8. Development of a resupension model for contaminated soils: Application to the Palomares area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1993-01-01

    A model is presented which has been used to simulate the wind resuspension and transport of contaminated soil in the area surrounding the Palomares village, in Southern Spain. The model uses site specific data and some generic parameters as resuspension rate and deposition velocity. The model is able to predict the order of magnitude of the observed air concentration of activity. Some lines of research are suggested which could improve the understanding of the phenomena involved. (author)

  9. Application of eggshell waste for the immobilization of cadmium and lead in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang Soo; Jeon, Weon-Tai; Oh, Sang-Eun; Usman, Adel R A; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Liming materials have been used to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, no studies have evaluated the use of eggshell waste as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) to immobilize both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of eggshell waste on the immobilization of Cd and Pb and to determine the metal availability following various single extraction techniques. Incubation experiments were conducted by mixing 0-5% powdered eggshell waste and curing the soil (1,246 mg Pb kg⁻¹ soil and 17 mg Cd kg⁻¹ soil) for 30 days. Five extractants, 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl₂), 1 M CaCl₂, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), 0.43 M acetic acid (CH₃COOH), and 0.05 M ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were used to determine the extractability of Cd and Pb following treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste. Generally, the extractability of Cd and Pb in the soils decreased in response to treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, regardless of extractant. Using CaCl₂ extraction, the lowest Cd concentration was achieved upon both CaCO₃ and eggshell waste treatments, while the lowest Pb concentration was observed using HCl extraction. The highest amount of immobilized Cd and Pb was extracted by CH₃COOH or EDTA in soils treated with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, indicating that remobilization of Cd and Pb may occur under acidic conditions. Based on the findings obtained, eggshell waste can be used as an alternative to CaCO₃ for the immobilization of heavy metals in soils.

  10. Zinc Speciation in Proximity to Phosphate Application Points in a Lead/Zinc Smelter-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of P to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils has been well documented. However, the influence of P on Zn speciation in soils has not been extensively examined, and these two metals often occur as co-contaminants. We hypothesized that additions of P to a Pb/Zn-contaminate...

  11. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  12. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  13. Effect of Soil Slope on the Appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Water Running off Grassland Soil after Application of Contaminated Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

  14. Application and validation of isotope dilution method (IDM) for predicting bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Taylor, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel; Gan, Jay

    2018-05-01

    Risk assessment of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) using the total chemical concentration following exhaustive extraction may overestimate the actual availability of HOCs to non-target organisms. Existing methods for estimating HOC bioavailability in soil have various operational limitations. In this study, we explored the application of isotope dilution method (IDM) to quantify the accessible fraction (E) of DDTs and PCBs in both historically-contaminated and freshly-spiked soils. After addition of 13 C or deuterated analogues to a soil sample, the phase distribution of isotope-labeled and native chemicals reached an apparent equilibrium within 48 h of mixing. The derived E values in the three soils ranged from 0.19 to 0.82, depending on the soil properties and also the contact time of HOCs (i.e., aging). The isotope dilution method consistently predicted greater accumulation into earthworm (Eisenia fetida) than that by polyethylene (PE) or solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampler, likely because desorption in the gut enhanced bioavailability of soil-borne HOCs. A highly significant linear regression (R 2  = 0.91) was found between IDM and 24-h Tenax desorption, with a slope statistically identical to 1. The IDM-derived accessible concentration (C e ) was further shown to accurately predict tissue residues in earthworm exposed in the same soils. Given the relatively short duration and simple steps, IDM has the potential to be readily adopted for measuring HOC bioaccessibility in soil and for improving risk assessment and evaluation of remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals worldwide are awaiting remediation activities; bioremediation is often considered as a cost-effective remediation approach. Potential bioapproaches are biostimulation, e.g. by addition of nutrients, fertiliser and organic substrates, and bioaugmentation by addition of compound-degrading microbes or of organic amendments containing active microorganisms, e.g. activated sludge or compost. In most contaminated soils, the abundance of the intrinsic metabolic potential is too low to be improved by biostimulation alone, since the physical and chemical conditions in these soils are not conducive to biodegradation. In the last few decades, compost or farmyard manure addition as well as composting with various organic supplements have been found to be very efficient for soil bioremediation. In the present minireview, we provide an overview of the composting and compost addition approaches as 'stimulants' of natural attenuation. Laboratory degradation experiments are often biased either by not considering the abiotic factors or by focusing solely on the elimination of the chemicals without taking the biotic factors and processes into account. Therefore, we first systemise the concepts of composting and compost addition, then summarise the relevant physical, chemical and biotic factors and mechanisms for improved contaminant degradation triggered by compost addition. These factors and mechanisms are of particular interest, since they are more relevant and easier to determine than the composition of the degrading community, which is also addressed in this review. Due to the mostly empirical knowledge and the nonstandardised biowaste or compost materials, the field use of these approaches is highly challenging, but also promising. Based on the huge metabolic diversity of microorganisms developing during the composting processes, a highly complex metabolic diversity is established as a 'metabolic memory' within developing and mature

  16. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  17. Characterization of the Rhodococcus sp. MK1 strain and its pilot application for bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Ágnes Erdeiné; Laczi, Krisztián; Zsíros, Szilvia; Kós, Péter; Tengölics, Roland; Bounedjoum, Naila; Kovács, Tamás; Rákhely, Gábor; Perei, Katalin

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and derivatives are widespread contaminants in both aquifers and soil, their elimination is in the primary focus of environmental studies. Microorganisms are key components in biological removal of pollutants. Strains capable to utilize hydrocarbons usually appear at the contaminated sites, but their metabolic activities are often restricted by the lack of nutrients and/or they can only utilize one or two components of a mixture. We isolated a novel Rhodococcus sp. MK1 strain capable to degrade the components of diesel oil simultaneously. The draft genome of the strain was determined and besides the chromosome, the presence of one plasmid could be revealed. Numerous routes for oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds were identified. The strain was tested in ex situ applications aiming to compare alternative solutions for microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. The results of bioaugmentation and biostimulation experiments clearly demonstrated that - in certain cases - the indigenous microbial community could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils. Biostimulation seems to be efficient for removal of aged contaminations at lower concentration range, whereas bioaugmentation is necessary for the treatment of freshly and highly polluted sites.

  18. Application of terpene-induced cell for enhancing biodegradation of TCE contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawan Luepromchai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, a chlorinated solvent, is a major water pollutant originating from spillage and inappropriate disposal of dry cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, and paint strippers. Due to its widespread contamination and potential health threat, remediation technology to clean-up TCE is necessary. Aerobic biodegradation of TCE is reported to occur via cometabolism, by which TCE degrading bacteria utilize other compounds such as toluene, phenol, and methane as growth substrate and enzyme inducer. Although toluene is reported to be the most effective inducer, it is regulated as a hazardous material and should not be applied to the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify an alternative enzyme inducer as well as to apply the induced bacteria for degradation of TCE in contaminated soil. We investigated the effect of terpenes, the main components in volatile essential oils of plants, on induction of TCE degradation in Rhodococcus gordoniae P3, a local Gram (+ bacterium. Selected terpenes including cumene, limonene, carvone and pinene at various concentrations were used in the study. Results from liquid culture showed that 25 mg l-1 cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3 cells resulted in 75% degradation of 10 ppm TCE within 24 hrs. Soil microcosms were later employed to investigate the ability of cumene to enhance TCE biodegradation in the environment. There were two bioremediation treatments studied, including bioaugmentation, the inoculation of cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3, and biostimulation, the addition of cumene to induce soil indigenous microorganisms to degrade TCE. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were shown to accelerate TCE reduction significantly more than control treatment at the beginning of study. The results suggest that cumene-induced R. gordoniae P3 and cumene can achieve rapid TCE biodegradation.

  19. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  20. Remediation of Lead contaminated Soil at Greenbury Point, Annapolis, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    .... Information includes data on lead, applicable regulatory requirements, soils types, contamination, site maps, field investigations, utility drawings, history, archeology, and natural resources...

  1. Flotation separation of uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.; Mehta, R.; Garcia, H.; Chai, C.D.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of low-level contaminated soil at the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapon Sites are in the order of several million tons. Most of the contaminants are uranium, plutonium, other heavy metals and organic compounds. Selected physical separation processes have shown demonstrated potential in concentrating the radionuclides in a small fraction of the soil. Depending upon the size, nature of bonding and distributions of radionuclides, more than 90% of the radionuclide activity can be concentrated in a small volume of fraction of the soil. The physico-chemical separation processes such as flotation in a mechanical and microbubble tall column cell have shown promising applications in cleaning up the high volume contaminated soil

  2. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  3. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil

  5. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  6. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  7. Natural attenuation in soils: an alternative to usual remedial methods: A case study of its application for diesel contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.; Desbiens, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various pollution abatement measures available to combat oil spills were reviewed with emphasis on biodegradation. Microorganisms naturally found in soils and groundwater can efficiently degrade a variety of organic contaminants. For certain sites, local temperature allows the microorganisms to reduce the contaminant concentrations without human intervention. In April 1994, a diesel fuel leak was found at a telecommunication station located in a park. The leak had already contaminated the surrounding soil. The first step of the clean-up procedure was to excavate the contaminated soil, followed by an evaluation to determine the extent of the remaining contamination. It was concluded that by using natural attenuation the deforestation of the remaining affected area could be prevented. In this instance, the natural attenuation process is expected to take five years for completion. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Non-destructive soil amendment application techniques on heavy metal-contaminated grassland: Success and long-term immobilising efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Platzer, Klaus; Riesing, Johann; Horak, Othmar; Waldner, Georg; Watzinger, Andrea; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2017-01-15

    Extensive contamination of grassland with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is a typical problem close to Pb/Zn smelter sites. The entry of Cd or Pb into the food chain is very likely, as are toxicity effects of Zn in plants. Previous promising results from pot and field experiments showed the high potential of using amendments for immobilisation to reduce metal input into the food chain via crops grown on smelter-contaminated soils at Arnoldstein (Austria) (Friesl et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to find a practical solution for large-scale contaminations in hilly regions that avoids erosion. Field application of amendments without destroying the vegetation cover (grassland) involved two approaches: (a) slurrying (Slu) the amendments into cut gaps in the vegetation cover and (b) injecting (Inj) the amendments through the vegetation cover. Here, we investigate the immobilising and long-term efficiency of treatments [gravel sludge (2.5%) + red mud (0.5%) (GS + RM)]. Risk assessment was based on soil, plant and water samples taken over a period of 10 years. Ammonium-nitrate-extractable Cd was reduced up to 50%, Pb up to 90%, and Zn over 90%. Plant uptake into the grass mixture and narrow leaf plantain was significantly reduced for Cd, Pb, and Zn. Harvesting early in vegetation period can further reduce uptake and meet the threshold for fodder crops. The reduction of these elements in the seepage water in 24 samplings within these 10 years reached 40%, 45% and 50%, respectively. Immobilisation increased microbial biomass and decreased human bioaccessibility for Pb. Our investigation of the long-term efficiency of GS + RM in all treatments shows that the Slu and Inj amendment application techniques have promising potential as a realistic and practical method for extensively contaminated hilly land. Slurrying performed best. We conclude that grassland remediation methods involving tillage are counterproductive from the viewpoint of bioaccessibility

  9. Grey relational analysis for evaluating the effects of different rates of wine lees-derived biochar application on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhu, Qihong; Wu, Jun; He, Yan; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong; Wang, Lilin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to investigate the effects of different application rates of wine lees-derived biochar on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination. A pot experiment was conducted to determine rice growth in multi-metal-contaminated soil amended with samples of wine lees-derived biochar, and 47 indicators (including soil properties, microbial activity, and plant physiology) were selected as evaluation indexes to assess the plant-soil system. The results indicated that higher wine lees-derived biochar application rates (2% W/W) were favorable for soil fertility, the bioconcentration factor (BF), and the mobility factor (MF, %) (with the exception of Cr, Zn, and Hg), but an application of 1% produced the highest plant growth, enzymatic activities, and bacterial diversity. The richness of the bacterial communities was reduced in the soil amended with the wine lees-derived biochar. According to the GRA assessment, the 1% application rate of wine lees-derived biochar was more suitable for restoring the holistic plant-soil system than were the application rates of 0, 0.5, and 2% (W/W). Furthermore, this study shows that GRA is a useful method for evaluating plant-soil systems.

  10. CONTENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN NI-CONTAMINATED SOIL FOLLOWING THE APPLICATION OF HALLOYSITE AND ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel has been listed as a priory control pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA. Compared with other methods, the combination of vegetation and the addition of mineral sorbents to heavy metal-contaminated soils can be readily applied on a large scale because of the simplicity of technology and low cost. Halloysite and zeolite, among others, can be used for this purpose. A greenhouse study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using natural zeolite, as well as raw and modified halloysite for the remediation of simulated Ni-contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with five doses of nickel, i.e. 0 (control, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mg Ni kg-1 soil. The average accumulation of heavy metals in nickel-contaminated soil was found to follow the decreasing order of Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb. The highest reduction of Pb content was observed in soil samples taken from pots containing 80 and 160 mg.kg-1 of Ni along with the addition of modified halloysite. The strongest effects were caused by natural zeolite, which significantly reduced the average content of chromium. Contamination at 320 mg Ni.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increases in the Ni, Pb and Cr contents of soil.

  11. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, William Jowett [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  12. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, W.J.

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind's interactions with a building's superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport

  13. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  14. Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and application of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rila, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Soil risk assessment based on generic approaches is accompanied by a large number of uncertainties. In site-specific risk assessment aimed at identifying the actual effects on the ecosystem by using e.g. bioassays in soil elutriates and taking into account land-use these uncertainties can be largely

  16. Plant uptake of radiocesium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Lesny, J.; Hornik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoextraction field experiments were conducted on soil contaminated with radiocesium to determine the capacity of autochthonous grasses and weeds to accumulate 137 Cs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of spontaneously growing vegetation as a tool for decontamination of non-agricultural contaminated land. As a test field, the closed monitored area of the radioactive wastewater treatment plant of the Nuclear Power Plant in Jaslovskie Bohunice, Slovakia was used. contamination was irregularly distributed from the level of background to spots with maximal activity up to 900 Bq/g soil. Sequential extraction analysis of soil samples showed the following extractability of radiocesium (as percent of total): water 2 = 0.3-1.1%; 1M CH 3 COONa = 0.3-0.9%; 0.04 M NH 4 Cl (in 25% CH 3 COOH) = 0.9-1.4% and 30% H 2 O 2 - 0.02 M HNO 3 = 4.5-9.0%.Specific radioactivity of the most efficiently bioaccumulating plant species did not exceed 4.0 BqKg -1 (dry weight biomass). These correspond to the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) values up to 44.4x10 -4 BqKg -1 crop, d.w.)/(BqKg -1 soil d.w). Aggregated transfer factor (T ag ) of the average sample of the whole crop harvested from defined area was 0.5x10 -5 (Bqkg -1 d.w. crop)/(Bqm -2 soil). It can be concluded that low mobility of radiocesium in analysed soil type, confirmed by sequential extraction analyses, is the main hindrance for practical application for autochthonous plants as a phytoremediation tool for aged contaminated area of non-cultivated sites. Plant cover can efficiently serve only as a soil surface-stabilising layer, mitigating the migration of radiocesium into the surrounding environment. (author)

  17. Phyto-remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can be selected for their capacity to extract radionuclides from the soil, on the contrary other plants can be chosen for being able to produce food grade products in a contaminated environment. Modern genetic methods can be used to enhance these abilities and turn some plants into an efficient means in the managing of contaminated areas. The DEMETERRES project that gathers different research organisations like CEA, IRSN and INRA and industrial partners like AREVA and VEOLIA aims at developing innovative bio-technologies like phyto-extraction and environment friendly physico-chemical technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils. This project was launched in 2013 on a 5-year scheme and is expected to lead to industrial applications. (A.C.)

  18. Application of manure and compost to contaminated soils and its effect on zinc accumulation by Solanum nigrum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Zn accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in naturally contaminated soil in the presence of different types of organic amendments was assessed. Under the same conditions, the response of the plant to inoculation with two different isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices) was also evaluated. S. nigrum grown in the non-amended soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, with the addition of amendments inducing reductions of up to 80 and 40%, for manure and compost, respectively, and enhancing plant biomass yields. The establishment of S. nigrum in the Zn contaminated soil combined with the application of amendments led to a 70-80% reduction in the amount of Zn leached through the soil. The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for reducing the effects of soil contamination, diminishing Zn transfer to other environmental compartments via percolation. - The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for the stabilisation of a metal contaminated soil

  19. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.

  20. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  1. Summary of the Special Research Area 188 of the DFG - Cleaning Contaminated Soils. 2nd phase of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.; Foerstner, U.; Hupe, K.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Special Research Area (SFB) 'Cleaning Contaminated Soils' was set up by the German Research Association (DFG). In the context of this SFB the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg (Sprecher College) and the University of Hamburg researched the basis of processes for cleaning up contaminated soils in 17 part-projects. The SFB was supported in the first phase during the period 01.01.1989 to 31.12.1991. The second period of support will end on 31.12.1994. (orig.) [de

  2. [Effects of Phosphate Rock and Decomposed Rice Straw Application on Lead Immobilization in a Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Hu, Hong-qing; Su, Xiao-juan; Fu, Qing-ling; Zhu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The soils treated with phosphate rock (PR) and oxalic acid activated phosphate rock (APR) mixed with decomposed rice straw were incubated in different moisture conditions for 60 days to study the effect on the basic property of the soil and on the speciation variation of Pb. The results showed that all these three types of immobilizing materials increased the pH, the Olsen-P, the exchangeable Ca and the soil cation exchange capacity, and APR showed more obvious effect; the pH and the exchangeable Ca of soil in the flooding treatment were higher than those in normal water treatment (70%), but the Olsen-P of soil in normal water treatment was a little bit more. These materials reduced exchangeable Ph fraction, and converted it into unavailable fraction. But the APR was better than raw PR in immobilizing lead, and the exchangeable Pb fraction was reduced by 40.3% and 24.2%, compared with the control, respectively, and the immobilization effect was positively correlated with the dosage. Decomposed rice straw could transform the exchangeable Ph fraction in soil into organic-bound fraction, while the flooding treatment changed it into the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and residue fractions.

  3. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  4. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  5. Improving the clean-up efficiency of field soil contaminated with diesel oil by the application of stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon-Young; Roh, Hoon; Yang, Jae-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Fenton-like oxidation in the presence of stabilizers has been applied in batch and column reactors to treat field soils contaminated with diesel oil. Citrates, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and phosphates were assessed as stabilizers. The stability of hydrogen peroxide in the soil was evaluated by varying the concentration of each stabilizer and hydrogen peroxide. In a batch test, the residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide was shown to be directly related to the concentration of these stabilizers. Citrate showed the greatest stabilizing effect of the four stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide and 0.05 M was selected as the optimum dosage. In order to investigate the effect of stabilizer on the efficiency of removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a column reactor, 30 mL of each stabilizer solution at pH 3 and containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was injected. The batch result confirmed that the greatest TPH removal took place in the presence of citrate in a column reactor. The order of TPH removal in the presence of stabilizers was: citrate > H3PO4 > EDDS > EDTA. TPH removal was affected by the concentration of stabilizer and the initial concentration of TPH. When 0.05 M citrate solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide was applied to four field soils and an artificially contaminated soil, similar or better TPH removal was observed in the field soils compared to the artificially contaminated soil. This result suggests that Fenton-like oxidation with stabilizer can be effective in restoring field soils contaminated with diesel oil.

  6. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  8. Progress of research and utilization of soil amendments in phytoremediation of radioactive contamination soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yangrui; Song Gang; Chen Yongheng

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of soil pollution and degradation, it becomes more important to research and apply soil amendments in agriculture. This paper reviewed different kinds of soil amendments and their impacts on phytostabilization and phytoextraction techniques, and summarized the application of soil amendments in the radio-contaminated soils as well as their effects on the phytoremediation. The main repair mechanisms of the soil amendments are involved in adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, and complexation. The potential applications in the phytoremediation on radio-contaminated soils, as well as the main repair mechanisms and the existing problems were discussed. (authors)

  9. Application of an in-situ soil sampler for assessing subsurface biogeochemical dynamics in a diesel-contaminated coastal site during soil flushing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Ham, Baknoon; Hwang, Yunho; Shim, Moojoon; Lee, Soonjae

    2018-01-15

    Subsurface biogeochemistry and contaminant dynamics during the remediation of diesel-contamination by in-situ soil flushing were investigated at a site located in a coastal region. An in-situ sampler containing diesel-contaminated soils separated into two size fractions (fraction were much higher than those in the fraction. Increases in soil TPH in DH1 were consistent with the expected outcomes following well pumping and surfactant injection used to enhance TPH extraction. However, the number of diesel-degrading microorganisms decreased after surfactant injection. 16S-rRNA gene-based analysis also showed that the community composition and diversity depended on both particle size and diesel contamination. The multidisciplinary approach to the contaminated site assessments showed that soil flushing with surfactant enhanced diesel extraction, but negatively impacted in-situ diesel biodegradation as well as groundwater quality. The results also suggest that the in-situ sampler can be an effective monitoring tool for subsurface biogeochemistry as well as contaminant dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance...... of these pathways are described in this chapter. A variety of models have been developed, specific for crop types and with steady-state or dynamic solutions. Model simulations can identify sensitive properties and relevant processes. Persistent, polar (log KOW contaminants have...... the highest potential for accumulation from soil, and concentrations in leaves may be several hundred times higher than in soil. However, for most contaminants the accumulation in vegetables or fruits is much lower. Lipophilic (log KOW > 3) contaminants are mainly transported to leaves by attached soil...

  11. Application of sheep manure and potassium fertilizer to contaminated soil and its effect on zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation by alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouheir Elouear

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Jebel Ressas mining area (Southern of Tunisia, the dispersion of particles that contain Pb, Zn and Cd results in the contamination of the surrounding agricultural soils. These soils have high concentrations of Pb (970 mg kg−1, Zn (9641 mg kg−1 and Cd (53 mg kg−1. This glasshouse study examined the effect of application of fertilizers, i.e., organic fertilizer as local sheep manure and inorganic fertilizer as potassium chloride (KCl, on the growth, uptake and translocation of Cd, Pb, and Zn of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. grown on a contaminated soil. Obtained results showed that alfalfa could tolerate high Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in soil and had very good growth performance. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, that plant growth is not affected in the treated soil compared with blanks sown in an untreated control soil; improvement ranged from 80% for the KCl to 97% for sheep manure. Application of sheep manure increased electrical conductivity and reduced DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the soils. But KCl fertilizer favored their accumulation in plants. So, KCl could be a useful amendment for phytoextraction of metals by accumulator species, while sheep manure can be very useful for phytostabilisation.

  12. Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J

    2000-02-01

    Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.

  13. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  14. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  15. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability. Highlights: •Biochar and GAC reduced PCB uptake into plants and earthworms. •Biochar offered additional benefits, including increased plant and earthworm biomass. •BSAF reductions are greater when amendments are mechanically vs. manually mixed. •Mechanically mixing carbon amendments may over-estimate their remediation potential. -- In situ AC and biochar soil amendments perform equally well at reducing PCB uptake, however, laboratory-based mixing methods may exaggerate the sorptive capacities of both amendments

  16. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  17. Application of BGPR tomography investigate the Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated Hydrocarbon:Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. C.; Lin, C. P.; Dong, T. H.; Yang, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The success of an environmental contaminated project is often determined by the extent to which it is able to ascertain and control subsurface conditions. At present, site managers have limited tools to gain detailed information on the distribution of possible underground barriers or anomalous bodies. The technology employed in Taiwan to evaluate or confirm subsurface anomalies relies primarily on surface geophysical surveys, borehole drillings, or past records. Surface ground-penetrating radar GPR survey is among the most popular of these methods. Surface GPR technique can be used in many ways, but this method is not always the best suited to Taiwan's conditions. Surface GPR surveys are adversely affected by the conductivity of silty/clayey sediment and cultural noises. As a result, when surface GPR surveys are used, both detection and resolution of subsurface anomalies will decrease with depth. In order to overcome these obstacles, the use of borehole GPR BGPR with a few boreholes may provide a more direct and effective way to detect an underground target. Recent improvement in the quality of BGPR contributes to the suitability of this type of survey work when implemented on construction sites. This paper ues the BGPR geophysical technology has been developed to overcome above limitations. The information of multi-wells logging could be used to interpret the permeability of subsurface, the dominate flow path and the hot-spot for evaluating the distribution of pollution and the efficiency of remediation in different time sequences.

  18. Mobility and toxicity of heavy metal(loid)s arising from contaminated wood ash application to a pasture grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, L C; Norton, G J; Trakal, L; Moreno-Jimenez, E; Elouali, F Z; Hough, R L; Beesley, L

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal(loid) rich ash (≤10,000 mg kg -1 total As, Cr, Cu and Zn) originating from the combustion of contaminated wood was subjected to several experimental procedures involving its incorporation into an upland pasture soil. Ash was added to soil that had been prior amended with local cattle manure, replicating practices employed at the farm scale. Metal(loid) concentrations were measured in soil pore water and ryegrass grown on soil/manure plus ash mixtures (0.1-3.0% vol. ash) in a pot experiment; toxicity evaluation was performed on the same pore water samples by means of a bacterial luminescence biosensor assay. Thereafter a sequential extraction procedure was carried out on selected soil, manure and ash mixtures to elucidate the geochemical association of ash derived metal(loid)s with soil constituents. Predictive modelling was applied to selected data from the pot experiment to determine the risk of transfer of As to meat and milk products in cattle grazing pasture amended with ash. The inclusion of manure to soils receiving ash reduced phyto-toxicity and increased ryegrass biomass yields, compared to soil with ash, but without manure. Elevated As and Cu concentrations in pore water and ryegrass tissue resulting from ash additions were reduced furthest by the inclusion of manure due to an increase in their geochemical association with organic matter. Zinc was the only measured metal(loid) to remain uniformly soluble and bioavailable regardless of the addition of ash and manure. Risk modelling on pot experimental data highlighted that an ash addition of >1% (vol.) to this pasture soil could result in As concentrations in milk and meat products exceeding acceptable limits. The results of this study therefore suggest that even singular low doses of ash applied to soil increase the risk of leaching of metal(loid)s and intensify the risk of As transfer in the food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decontamination of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This technical summary will provide decontamination personnel rapid access to information on which decontamination approaches are most effective for soils contaminated with B anthracis.

  20. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  1. Soil contamination with cadmium, consequences and remediation using organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Anwarzeb; Alam, Mehboob

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops. The stabilization of Cd in contaminated soil using organic amendments is an environmentally friendly and cost effective technique used for remediation of moderate to high contaminated soil. Globally, substantial amounts of organic waste are generated every day that can be used as a source of nutrients, and also as conditioners to improve soil quality. This review paper focuses on the sources, generation, and use of different organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil, discusses their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Cd bioavailability, plant uptake, and human health risk. Moreover, it also provides an update of the most relevant findings about the application of organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil and associated mechanisms. Finally, future research needs and directions for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil using organic amendments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytoextraction of contaminated urban soils by Panicum virgatum L. enhanced with application of a plant growth regulator (BAP) and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens on the soil chemical and microbiological properties under the contamination of zinc and cadmium from sewage sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Feng-Jiao; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Wu-Xing; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Taking the vegetable soil with zinc- and cadmium contamination from a long-term sewage sludge application as the object, a pot experiment was conducted to study the remediation effect of Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens under continuous monoculture and intercropping. With the remediation time increased, both S. plumbizincicola and A. graceolens under monoculture grew poorly, but S. plumbizincicola under intercropping grew well. Under intercropping, the soil organic matter, total N, extractable N, and total P contents decreased significantly while the soil extractable K content had a significant increase, the counts of soil bacteria and fungi increased by 7.9 and 18.4 times and 3.7 and 4.3 times, respectively, but the soil urease and catalase activities remained unchanged, as compared with those under A. graceolens and S. plumbizincicola monoculture. The BIOLOG ECO micro-plates also showed that the carbon sources utilization level and the functional diversity index of soil microbial communities were higher under intercropping than under monoculture, and the concentrations of soil zinc and cadmium under intercropping decreased by 5.8% and 50.0%, respectively, with the decrements being significantly higher than those under monoculture. It was suggested that soil microbial effect could be one of the important factors affecting plant growth.

  4. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  6. Recent developments for in situ treatment of metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Metals contamination is a common problem at hazardous waste sites. This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification/stabilization. Electrokinetic remediation separates contaminants from soil through selective migration upon application of an electric current. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to isolate or stabilize contaminants. Soil flushing techniques promote mobility and migration of metals by solubilizing contaminants so that they can be recovered. Two types of in situ solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques are discussed, one based on addition of reagents and the other based on the use of energy. The report discusses different techniques currently in practice or under development, identifies vendors and summarizes performance data, and discusses technology attributes that should be considered during early screening of potential remedies. 8 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs., 2 apps.

  7. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil ...

  8. Evaluation and determination of soil remediation schemes using a modified AHP model and its application in a contaminated coking plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingang; Li, Jia; Sui, Hong; He, Lin; Cao, Xingtao; Li, Yonghong

    2018-07-05

    Soil remediation has been considered as one of the most difficult pollution treatment tasks due to its high complexity in contaminants, geological conditions, usage, urgency, etc. The diversity in remediation technologies further makes quick selection of suitable remediation schemes much tougher even the site investigation has been done. Herein, a sustainable decision support hierarchical model has been developed to select, evaluate and determine preferred soil remediation schemes comprehensively based on modified analytic hierarchy process (MAHP). This MAHP method combines competence model and the Grubbs criteria with the conventional AHP. It not only considers the competence differences among experts in group decision, but also adjusts the big deviation caused by different experts' preference through sample analysis. This conversion allows the final remediation decision more reasonable. In this model, different evaluation criteria, including economic effect, environmental effect and technological effect, are employed to evaluate the integrated performance of remediation schemes followed by a strict computation using above MAHP. To confirm the feasibility of this developed model, it has been tested by a benzene workshop contaminated site in Beijing coking plant. Beyond soil remediation, this MAHP model would also be applied in other fields referring to multi-criteria group decision making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  10. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H 2 O 2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  12. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  13. Remediation of a contaminated soil by Ni+2 after application of biochar prepared from de-inking paper sludge: Influence on enzyme activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascó, G.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Araujo, F.; Guerrero, F.; Méndez, A.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing proportion of recycled fibres are used in paper industries due to their important environmental and economical benefits. A ton of pulp produced from recycled paper requires 60% less energy to manufacture than a ton of bleached virgin kraft pulp [1]. However, removing the ink, clay, coatings and contaminants from waste paper in order to produce recycled paper creates large amounts of de-inking paper sludge (DPS). Nowadays, more than 200000 t of DPS were produced in Spain. DPS can be used as amendment due to their high organic matter [2] but the high C/N ratio and the heavy metal content can limit its use. For this reason, the preparation of biochar obtained from pyrolysis process for water remediation [3] and soil contaminated by heavy metal can be an valorisation alternative. The main objective of this work is to study the influence of the biochar application prepared from de-inking sewage sludge in the soil enzyme activities of a contaminated soil by Ni+2 at two different concentrations. For this reason, an incubation experiment was performed and several enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, b-glucosidase, phosphomoesterase and arylsulphatase) were monitored. The study was completed studying the influence of the biochar application in plant-available metals from soil. [1] Thompson C.G. 1992. Recycled Papers. The Essential Guide, MIT Press, Cambridge. [2] Barriga S., Méndez A., Cámara J., Guerrero F., Gascó G. 2010. Agricultural valorisation of de-inking paper sludge as organic amendment in different soils: Thermal study. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 99: 981-986 [3] Méndez A., Barriga S., Fidalgo J.M., Gascó G. 2009. Adsorbent materials from paper industry waste materials and their use in Cu(II) removal from water. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165: 736-743.

  14. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  15. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, C. M

    2004-01-01

    ... can be used in other situations dealing with surface soil contamination. This project included field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POLs...

  16. Transformers as a potential for soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of PCBs and heavy metals in the surrounding soil and also in the soil of the receiving pit located below the PCB contaminated transformer. Concentrations of PCBs in our samples are ranged from 0,308 to 0,872 mg/kg of absolutely dry soil.

  17. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Manuela; Vila, Maria Cristina; Matos, Cristina Delerue; Teles, Maria Teresa Oliva; Fiúza, António

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremedia...

  18. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  19. Uranium-contaminated soil pilot treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Michelotti, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot treatment study is proving to be effective for the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil from a site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by use of a two-step, zero-discharge, 100% recycle system. Candidate uranium-contaminated soils were characterized for uranium content, uranium speciation, organic content, size fractionization, and pH. Geochemical computer codes were used to forecast possible uranium leach scenarios. Uranium contamination was not homogenous throughout the soil. In the first step, following excavation, the soil was sorted by use of the ThemoNuclean Services segmented gate system. Following the sorting, uranium-contaminated soil was remediated in a containerized vat leach process by use of sodium-bicarbonate leach solution. Leach solution containing uranium-carbonate complexes is to be treated by use of ion-exchange media and then recycled. Following the treatment process the ion exchange media will be disposed of in an approved low-level radioactive landfill. It is anticipated that treated soils will meet Department of Energy site closure guidelines, and will be given open-quotes no further actionclose quotes status. Treated soils are to be returned to the excavation site. A volume reduction of contaminated soils will successfully be achieved by the treatment process. Cost of the treatment (per cubic meter) is comparable or less than other current popular methods of uranium-contamination remediation

  20. Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Chadi H.; Courchesne, Francois; Hendershot, William H.; McGrath, Steve P.; Chaudri, Amar M.; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Sauve, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The chemical speciation of zinc in soil solutions is critical to the understanding of its bioavailability and potential toxic effects. We studied the speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils representative of a wide range of field conditions in both North America and Europe. Within this dataset, we evaluated the links among the dissolved concentrations of zinc and the speciation of Zn 2+ , soil solution pH, total soil Zn, dissolved organic matter (DOM), soil organic matter (SOM) and the concentrations of different inorganic anions. The solid-liquid partitioning coefficient (K d ) for Zn ranged from 17 to 13,100 L kg -1 soil. The fraction of dissolved Zn bound to DOM varied from 60% to 98% and the soil solution free Zn 2+ varied from 40% to 60% of the labile Zn. Multiple regression equations to predict free Zn 2+ , dissolved Zn and the solid-liquid partitioning of Zn are given for potential use in environmental fate modeling and risk assessment. The multiple regressions also highlight some of the most important soil properties controlling the solubility and chemical speciation of zinc in contaminated soils. - We studied the relationships among the chemical speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils and various physicochemical properties of the soils

  1. Remediation of uranium contaminated water and soil by PIMS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J.; Smiciklas, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soil by uranium (U) represents a permanent threat for food and water resources. For this reason, remediation is a very important measure for protection of the health of the population living in the vicinity of these contaminated sites. Phosphate- Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS) represents one of the powerful methods for remediation of soil and water contaminated by U, including depleted uranium (DU). By this approach it is possible to stabilize metals in the form of phosphate phases and other low soluble phases that are stable over geological time. PIMS is based on application of a special form of apatite of biological origin, Apatite II, to clean up metal and radionuclide contamination, in situ or ex situ. This biogenic apatite can be emplaced as a down-gradient permeable reactive barrier, mixed into contaminated soil or waste or used as a disposal liner. Here we will briefly describe the PIMS remediation protocol. (author)

  2. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Uptake by Plants of Radiostrontium from Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    In a recent report from this department it was shown that the extractability of radiostrontium from contaminated soil samples was effectively reduced by heat treatment and by the addition of phosphate to the soil. It was pointed out that, under emergency conditions, heat-treatment of the contamin......In a recent report from this department it was shown that the extractability of radiostrontium from contaminated soil samples was effectively reduced by heat treatment and by the addition of phosphate to the soil. It was pointed out that, under emergency conditions, heat......-treatment of the contaminated soil surface and heavy phosphate application might thus reduce the uptake by plants of radiostrontium more efficiently than liming, which is only effective in soils of low calcium status. In the investigation reviewed here the influence of heat treatment and superphosphate application on the plant...... uptake of radiostrontium was examined in pot experiments. For comparison the effect of applying calcium carbonate to the contaminated soil surface was also determined....

  4. Effective dielectric mixture model for characterization of diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mattarneh, H.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Human exposure to contaminated soil by diesel isomers can have serious health consequences like neurological diseases or cancer. The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for electromagnetic characterization of contaminated soils was investigated in this paper. The purpose of the research was to develop an empirical dielectric mixture model for soil hydrocarbon contamination application. The paper described the basic theory and elaborated in dielectric mixture theory. The analytical and empirical models were explained in simple algebraic formulas. The experimental study was then described with reference to materials, properties and experimental results. The results of the analytical models were also mathematically explained. The proposed semi-empirical model was also presented. According to the result of the electromagnetic properties of dry soil contaminated with diesel, the diesel presence had no significant effect on the electromagnetic properties of dry soil. It was concluded that diesel had no contribution to the soil electrical conductivity, which confirmed the nonconductive character of diesel. The results of diesel-contaminated soil at saturation condition indicated that both dielectric constant and loss factors of soil were decreased with increasing diesel content. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Treatment of chromium contaminated soil using bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Ipung Fitri; Putri, Tesya Paramita; Kurniawan, Setyo Budi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium contamination in soil occurs due to the disposal of chromium industrial wastewater or sludge that excess the quality standard. Chromium concentration in soil is ranged between 1 to 300 mg/kg while the maximum health standard is 2.5 mg/kg. Bioremediation is one of technology that could be used for remediating heavy metal contamination in soil. Bacteria have an ability to remove heavy metal from soil. One bacteria species that capable to remove chromium from soil is Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this research was to know the chromium removal percentage in contaminated soil by Bacillus subtilis. Artificial chromium contaminated soil was used by mixing 425gram sand and chromium trichloride solution. Concentration of chromium added into the spiked soil were 50, 75, and 100 mg/L. During 14 days, pH, soil temperature and soil moisture were tested. Initial and final number of bacterial colony and chromium concentration analysed. The result showed that the highest percentage of chromium removal was 11% at a chromium concentration of 75 mg/L

  6. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  7. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation

  8. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  10. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  11. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.H.; Herson, D.S.; Vercellon-Smith, P.; Cronce, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A utility company discovered soils in their plant contaminated with diesel fuel and related fuel oils (300-450 ppm). The soils were excavated and removed to a concrete pad for treatment. The authors conducted laboratory studies to determine if biostimulation or bioaugmentation would be appropriate for treating the soils. Microbial numbers and soil respiration were monitored in microcosms supplemented with: (1) organic nutrients, (2) inorganic nutrients, and (3) inorganic nutrients plus additional adapted microorganisms. Their studies indicated that biostimulation via the addition of inorganic nutrients would be appropriate at this site. Treatment cells for the contaminated soils were constructed. Initial data indicates that a 35% reduction in the concentration of contaminants has occurred within the first month of operation

  12. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  13. Application of the differential neural network observer to the kinetic parameters identification of the anthracene degradation in contaminated model soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poznyak, Tatyana [Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN), Edif. 7, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tpoznyak@ipn.mx; Garcia, Alejandro [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chairez, Isaac [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, Miriam [Superior School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (ESIQIE-IPN), Edif. 7, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Poznyak, Alexander [Department of Automatic Control, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: apoznyak@ctrl.cinvestav.mx

    2007-07-31

    In this work a new technique dealing with differential neural network observer (DNNO), which is related with differential neural networks (DNN) approach, is applied to estimate the anthracene dynamics decomposition and to identify the kinetic parameters in a contaminated model soil treatment by simple ozonation. To obtain the experimental data set, the model soil (sand) is combined with an initial anthracene concentration of 3.24 mg/g and treated by ozone (with the ozone initial concentration 16 mg/L) during 90 min in a reactor by the 'fluid bed' principle. The anthracene degradation degree was controlled by UV-vis spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques. Based on the HPLC data, the obtained results confirm that anthracene may be decomposed completely in the solid phase by simple ozonation during 20 min and by-products of ozonation are started to be destroyed after 30 min of treatment. In the ozonation process the ozone concentration in the gas phase at the reactor outlet is registered by an ozone detector. The variation of this parameter is used to obtain the summary characteristic curve of the anthracene ozonation (ozonogram). Then, using the experimental decomposition dynamics of anthracene and the ozonogram, the proposed DNNO is trained to reconstruct the anthracene decomposition and to estimate the anthracene ozonation constant using the DNN technique and a modified Least Square method.

  14. Application of sewage sludge and intermittent aeration strategy to the bioremediation of DDT- and HCH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin; Yang, Jun; Wan, Xiaoming; Yang, Sucai

    2014-08-01

    Adding organic amendments to stimulate the biodegradation of pesticides is a subject of ongoing interest. The effect of sewage sludge on the bioremediation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil was investigated in bench scale experiments, and intermittent aeration strategy was also used in this study to form an anaerobic-aerobic cycle. Bioremediation of DDT and HCH was enhanced with the addition of sewage sludge and the intermittent aeration. The removal rates of HCH and DDT were raised by 16.8%-80.8% in 10 days. Sewage sludge increased the organic carbon content from 6.2 to 218 g/kg, and it could also introduce efficient degradation microbes to soil, including Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Sphingomonas sp. The unaerated phase enhanced the anaerobic dechlorination of DDT and HCH, and anaerobic removal rates of β-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT accounted for more than 50% of the total removal rates, but the content of α-HCH declined more in the aerobic phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Application of the differential neural network observer to the kinetic parameters identification of the anthracene degradation in contaminated model soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, Tatyana; Garcia, Alejandro; Chairez, Isaac; Gomez, Miriam; Poznyak, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this work a new technique dealing with differential neural network observer (DNNO), which is related with differential neural networks (DNN) approach, is applied to estimate the anthracene dynamics decomposition and to identify the kinetic parameters in a contaminated model soil treatment by simple ozonation. To obtain the experimental data set, the model soil (sand) is combined with an initial anthracene concentration of 3.24 mg/g and treated by ozone (with the ozone initial concentration 16 mg/L) during 90 min in a reactor by the 'fluid bed' principle. The anthracene degradation degree was controlled by UV-vis spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques. Based on the HPLC data, the obtained results confirm that anthracene may be decomposed completely in the solid phase by simple ozonation during 20 min and by-products of ozonation are started to be destroyed after 30 min of treatment. In the ozonation process the ozone concentration in the gas phase at the reactor outlet is registered by an ozone detector. The variation of this parameter is used to obtain the summary characteristic curve of the anthracene ozonation (ozonogram). Then, using the experimental decomposition dynamics of anthracene and the ozonogram, the proposed DNNO is trained to reconstruct the anthracene decomposition and to estimate the anthracene ozonation constant using the DNN technique and a modified Least Square method

  16. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance of these path......Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance...... of these pathways are described in this chapter. A variety of models have been developed, specific for crop types and with steady-state or dynamic solutions. Model simulations can identify sensitive properties and relevant processes. Persistent, polar (log KOW ... particles, or from air. Volatile contaminants have a low potential for accumulation because they quickly escape to air. Experimental data are listed that support these model predictions, but underline also the high variability of accumulation under field conditions. Plant uptake predictions are uncertain...

  17. Waste management of actinide contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.; Kochen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Waste management processes have been developed to reduce the volume of Rocky Flats soil contaminated with plutonium and americium and to prepare the contaminated fraction for terminal storage. The primary process consists of wet-screening. The secondary process uses attrition scrubbing and wet screening with additives. The tertiary process involves volume reduction of the contaminated fraction by calcination, or fixation by conversion to glass. The results of laboratory scale testing of the processes are described

  18. Biological detoxification of a hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, F.; Lucchese, G.; Nardella, A.

    2005-01-01

    The soil quality of an industrial site chronically contaminated by 39000 mg/kg of oil was detrimentally affected. Soil treatments by bio-pile and land-farming resulted in a reduction of the level of contamination exceeding 90% of the original values, but without reaching regulatory limits. However, the bio-remediation treatments dramatically reduced the mobility of the contaminants and, accordingly, microbial tests clearly indicate that the soil quality improved to acceptable levels, similar to those typically observed in unaltered soils. Hydrocarbon mobility was estimated by the use of water and mild extractants (methanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate) to leach the contaminants from the soil; soil quality was evaluated by comparing the values of selected microbial and enzymatic parameters of the treated soil samples to reference values determined for natural soils. Microbial assessments included: measurement of the nitrification potential, dehydrogenase activity, measures of respiration and lipase activity, microbial counts (MPN on rich media) and Microtox TM assays of the water elutriate. Dermal absorption potential was evaluated using absorption on C 18 disks

  19. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.-A.

    1992-01-01

    At one installation in California, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, resulting in contamination at depths from 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. This paper summarizes a surfactant screening/surfactant flooding research program in which 22 surfactants were screened for their effectiveness in mobilizing the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  20. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  1. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniati, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Petroleum is the major source of energy for various industries and daily life. Releasing petroleum into the environment whether accidentally or due to human activities is a main cause of soil pollution. Soil contaminated with petroleum has a serious hazard to human health and causes environmental problems as well. Petroleum pollutants, mainly hydrocarbon, are classified as priority pollutants. The application of microorganisms or microbial processes to remove or degrade contaminants from soil is called bioremediation. This microbiological decontamination is claimed to be an efficient, economic and versatile alternative to physicochemical treatment. This article presents an overview about bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. It also includes an explanation about the types of bioremediation technologies as well as the processes.

  3. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delwiche, M.E.; Wey, J.E.; Torma, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils

  4. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.; Montemagno, C.D.; Lewis, B.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which 21 surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  7. Resistive heating enhanced soil vapor extraction of chlorinated solvents from trichloroethylene contaminated silty, low permeable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Heron, G.; Enfield, C.G.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A 2D-laboratory box experiment (12 x 56 x 116 cm) was conducted to simulate the enhancement of soil vapor extraction by the application of low frequency electrical heating Uoule heating) for the remediation of a low permeable, silty soil contaminated with trichloroethylene. Joule heating enlarged

  8. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  9. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  10. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils by composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodyaev, G. P.; Kostenkov, N. M.; Oznobikhin, V. I.

    2009-08-01

    Composting oil-contaminated soils under field conditions with the simultaneous optimization of their physicochemical and agrochemical parameters revealed the high efficiency of the soil purification, including that from benz[a]pyrene. The application of fertilizers and lime favored the intense development of indigenous microcenoses and the effective destruction of the oil. During the 95-day experimental period, the average daily rate of the oil decomposition was 157 mg/kg of soil. After the completion of the process, the soil became ecologically pure.

  11. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  12. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  14. Bioventing of gasoline-contaminated soil under varied laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Shewfelt, K.; Lee, H.; Zytner, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Bioventing is becoming a popular in situ soil remediation technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioventing relies on enhancing the growth of indigenous microorganisms, which can mineralize the contaminant in the presence of sufficient nutrients. Although bioventing is currently being used as a remediation technology, there are some important questions that remain to be answered in order to optimize the process. These questions include the optimum soil moisture content, type and amount of nutrients necessary, and the best means of producing these conditions in the field. To address these questions, two distinct phases of experiments were conducted. The first experimental phase was designed to determine the optimum moisture content, C:N ratio and form of nitrogen supply for this soil. Using approximately 200g of contaminated soil in each of a series of sealed respirometers, microbial degradation of gasoline under bioventing conditions was quantified for C:N ratios of 5, 10 and 20:1, using varying mixtures of NH 4 + - and NO 3 - -N. The results of the studies indicated that the optimum soil moisture content was 15 wt%, with a C:N ratio of 10:1, using a 100% ammonium application. Using the results of the first phase, a second phase of laboratory research was initiated. Five mesoscale reactors have been developed to simulate the bioventing process that takes place in the field. These reactors are filled with approximately 4kg of gasoline-contaminated soil. The initial results are favourable. (author)

  15. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  16. Processing plutonium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, K.; Moroney, J. III; Turney, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a cleanup project to process plutonium- and americium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll for volume reduction. Thermo Analytical's (TMA's) segmented gate system (SGS) for this remedial operation has been in successful on-site operation since 1992. Topics covered include the basis for development, a description of the Johnston Atoll; the significance of results; the benefits of the technology; applicability to other radiologically contaminated sites. 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watai, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Mizoguchi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a technique to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Advantages of this method are that (1) This technique is suitable to cleanup soils slightly contaminated with heavy metals in relatively wide area. (2) The expense for clean up is lower than civil engineering techniques. (3) This method can remove heavy metals fundamentally from contaminated. (4) The heavy metals are able to recycle by ashing of plants. Many researches have been done on the phytoremediation up to now, but almost all these researches were devoted to clarify the phytoremediation from the view point of plants themselves. However, few efforts have been devoted to analyze the migrations of heavy metals in soils during the phytoremediation process. The objective of this study is to clarify the features of Cd migration when plant roots are absorbing Cd from the ambient soils. Especially, we focused on finding the Cd migration pattern by changing the soil condition such as plant growing periods, planting densities, and the initial Cd concentration in soils. We planted sunflowers in columns filled with Cd contaminated soils because sunflower is a well-known hyperaccumulator of Cd from soils. By cutting the shoots of plants at the soil surface, and by keeping the plant roots in the soils without disturbance, the Cd concentrations, moisture contents, pH distributions, EC distributions, and dry weight of residual roots in the soils were carefully analyzed. The experimental results showed that (1)The growth of the planted sunflowers were suffered by applying of Cd. (2)The decrease of suction was affected by water uptake by roots at the depth from 0 to 5 cm. Water contents with plants in soils decrease more than without plants. (3)Cd adsorption by roots was predominant within 5cm from soil surface. In addition, it was also shown that there was an optimal Cd concentration where Cd is most effectively adsorbed by the plant. In this experiment we found that 40 to 60 mg kg-1 was the

  18. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  19. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Daniel P.; Srivastava, Vipul J.; Dombrowski, Frank J.; Lingle, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks

  20. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils; Aplicacion de la normativa espanola sobre suelos contaminados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-07-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  1. Organic contaminants in soil : desorption kinetics and microbial degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of organic contaminants in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g.) soil washing or soil venting) depends on the desorption kinetics of these contaminants from the soil matrix. When the organic contaminants desorb very slow from the

  2. Application of organic matter to enhance phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soils using local plant species: a case study on small-scale gold mining locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muddarisna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste containing mercury, and its influence on the growth of maize. Six treatments (three plant species, and two levels of organic matter application were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Maize was grown on soil after phytoremediation for 8 weeks. The results showed that among the three plant species tested, Cyperus kyllingia was the potential candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailing containing mercury because of its ability to accumulate mercury from 32.06 to 73.90 mg / kg of soil in 60 days. Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soil using Cyperus kyllingia using increased maize yield by 126% compared to that the biomass yield of maize grown on soil without phytoremediation. Induce phytoremediation needs to be carried out to accelerate the process of remediation of mercury contaminated soils

  3. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Biological technologies for the remediation of co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujing; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Dai, Juan; Liang, Jie; Yu, Jiangfang; Ren, Xiaoya; Yi, Huan; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil. Biological remediation technologies, as the eco-friendly methods, have received widespread concern due to soil improvement besides remediation. This review summarizes the application of biological technologies, which contains microbial technologies (function microbial remediation and composting or compost addition), biochar, phytoremediation technologies, genetic engineering technologies and biochemical technologies, for the remediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Mechanisms of these technologies and their remediation efficiencies are also reviewed. Based on this study, this review also identifies the future research required in this field.

  5. Regional hydrocarbon contaminated soil recycling facility standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to protect the environment from uncontrolled releases of petroleum products, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute member companies have initiated environmental upgrading programs for their underground fuel storage systems in British Columbia. These programs have been restricted in recent years as a result of environmental regulations targeting contaminated soil, which is generated when underground storage tanks are upgraded to current standards. The soil requiring treatment is typically sand backfill containing a nominal value of petroleum product. These soils can be treated in an engineered basin using bioremediation technology to reduce the level of contamination. Depending on the degree of treatment, the soil can be recycled as backfill or reused as landfill cover. An overview is presented of the basin treatment process and design. Natural bioremediation is enhanced with nutrients, water and oxygen addition. 4 figs

  6. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers

  7. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-04-16

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

  8. Application of Aspergillus niger-treated agrowaste residue and Glomus mosseae for improving growth and nutrition of Trifolium repens in a Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Vassilev, N; Barea, J M; Azcón, R

    2005-04-06

    The microbial transformation of sugar beet (SB) agrowaste with or without rock-phosphate (RP) has utility for the improvement of plant growth in a Cd (5 microg g-1) artificially contaminated soil, particularly when the soil is co-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae isolated from a Cd-polluted area. Under such Cd-polluted conditions, the limited growth, mineral nutrition, symbiotic developments (nodulation and AM-colonization) and soil enzymatic activities were stimulated using SB or SB+RP as soil amendments and G. mosseae as inoculant. G. mosseae enhanced plant establishment in a higher extent in amended soil; it is probably due to the interactive effect increasing the potential fertility of such compounds and its ability for decreasing Cd transfer from soil to plant. The amount of Cd transferred from soil solution to biomass of AM-colonized plants ranged from 0.09 microg Cd g-1 (in SB+RP-amended soil) to 0.6 microg Cd g-1 (in non-amended soil). Nodule formation was more sensitive to Cd than AM-colonization, and both symbioses were stimulated in amended soils. Not only AM-colonization but also amendments were critical for plant growth and nutrition in Cd-polluted soil. The high effectiveness of AM inoculum increasing nutrients and decreasing Cd in amended soil indicated the positive interaction of these treatments in increasing plant tolerance to Cd contamination.

  9. Bioremediation of oil%contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko1, M.; Shuktueva, M.; Vinokurov, V.; Krasnopolskaya, L.

    2011-01-01

    Stocks of crude oil remains at a high level, does not stop the construction of new pipelines, increasing the output and at the same time the transportation of oil. At the same time, it gives rise to accidents resulting in oil and oil products fall in different ecosystems: the atmosphere, soil, waters. This paper provides an overview of the mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological methods for the elimination of oil-contaminated soils. Create optimal conditions for growth and development ...

  10. Electrokinetic Amendment in Phytoremediation of Mixed Contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirakkara, Reshma A.; Reddy, Krishna R.; Cameselle, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of electrokinetic amendments for phytoremediation of mixed contaminated soil where typical silty clay soil was spiked with organic contaminants (naphthalene and phenanthrene) and heavy metal (lead, cadmium and chromium). The contaminated soil was treated with compost and placed in electrokinetic cells, which were seeded with oat plant or sunflower. Thirty days after germination, 25 V alternating current was applied to selected cells using graphite electrodes for 3 h per day. The plants were harvested after a growth period of 61 days. One cell remained unplanted to evaluate the effect of the electric current on the soil, alone. The results confirm a significant reduction of heavy metals and organic contaminants in soil. However, there was no noticeable improvement of heavy metal phytoextraction or PAH degradation due to the application of electric field despite the increase in biomass production by the plants subjected to the electric current. The electric potential application time and frequency are suggested to be increased to have noticeable effects in heavy metal uptake and PAHs degradation.

  11. Methods of contaminated soil rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharovarov, G.A.; Minyuk, Z.P.

    2007-01-01

    The results of the investigations of rehabilitation soil polluted with radioactive nuclides carried out in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny (Minsk, Belarus) are represented in the report. Methods of soil rehabilitation are analysed. It has been made a conclusion that bioremediation is the only possible method for the cleaning of the large territories. The opportunity of usage a principle of the biopump for cleaning of the large territories polluted with radioactive nuclides and other harmful substances is proved in the report. (authors)

  12. Sustainable remediation of mercury contaminated soils by thermal desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María J; Millán, Rocio; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; Cañadas, Inmaculada

    2016-03-01

    Mercury soil contamination is an important environmental problem that needs the development of sustainable and efficient decontamination strategies. This work is focused on the application of a remediation technique that maintains soil ecological and environmental services to the extent possible as well as search for alternative sustainable land uses. Controlled thermal desorption using a solar furnace at pilot scale was applied to different types of soils, stablishing the temperature necessary to assure the functionality of these soils and avoid the Hg exchange to the other environmental compartments. Soil mercury content evolution (total, soluble, and exchangeable) as temperature increases and induced changes in selected soil quality indicators are studied and assessed. On total Hg, the temperature at which it is reduced until acceptable levels depends on the intended soil use and on how restrictive are the regulations. For commercial, residential, or industrial uses, soil samples should be heated to temperatures higher than 280 °C, at which more than 80 % of the total Hg is released, reaching the established legal total Hg level and avoiding eventual risks derived from high available Hg concentrations. For agricultural use or soil natural preservation, conversely, maintenance of acceptable levels of soil quality limit heating temperatures, and additional treatments must be considered to reduce available Hg. Besides total Hg concentration in soils, available Hg should be considered to make final decisions on remediation treatments and potential future uses. Graphical Abstract Solar energy use for remediation of soils affected by mercury.

  13. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  15. Levels of concern for radioactive contaminations in soil according to soil protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.; Barkowski, D.; Machtolf, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the question is examined whether the established soil protection standards for carcinogenic substances are also applicable to the assessment of radioactive soil contamination. Referring to the methods applied in soil protection for evaluation of dose-effectrelations and estimations of carcinogenic risks as well as the calculation methods for test values in soil protection ''levels of concern'' for soil contamination by artificial radionuclides are derived. The values obtained are significantly larger than the values for unrestricted clearance of ground according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV). The thesis that soil is protected according to environmental standards provided that radiation protection requirements are met needs further checks but can be probably confirmed if the radiation protection requirements are clearly defined.

  16. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  17. Stabilization of contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is an emerging technology developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for potential in-place immobilization of radioactive wastes. The contaminated soil is stabilized and converted to an inert glass form. This conversion is accomplished by inserting electrodes in the soil and establishing an electric current between the electrodes. The electrical energy causes a joule heating effect that melts the soil during processing. Any contaminants released from the melt are collected and routed to an off-gas treatment system. A stable and durable glass block is produced which chemically and physically encapsulates any residual waste components. In situ vitrification has been developed for the potential application to radioactive wastes, specifically, contaminated soil sites; however, it could possibly be applied to hazardous chemical and buried munitions waste sites. The technology has been developed and demonstrated to date through a series of 21 engineering-scale tests [producing 50 to 1000 kg (100 to 2000 lb) blocks] and seven pilot-scale tests [producing 9000 kg (20,000 lb) blocks], the most recent of which illustrated treatment of actual radioactively contaminated soil. Testing with some organic materials has shown relatively complete thermal destruction and incineration. Further experiments have documented the insensitivity of in situ vitrification to soil characteristics such as fusion temperature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and moisture content. Soil inclusions such as metals, cements, ceramics, and combustibles normally present only minor process limitations. Costs for hazardous waste applications are estimated to be less than $175/m 3 ($5.00/ft 3 ) of material vitrified. For many applications, in situ vitrification can provide a cost-effective alternative to other disposal options. 13 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  18. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction 2 O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils

  19. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  20. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Enhanced ex-situ bioremediation of soil contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminated soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using electrical biostimulation processes to enhance ex-situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants. The effect of ...

  2. Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Heavy metal, contamination, mining, soil, sediment. INTRODUCTION ... drinking water and inhaling air or soil contaminated by mining activities and the ..... indicates that copper waste discharged into the upper reaches of the Kafue ...

  3. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  4. Soil washing and post-wash biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Alok

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soils by soil washing and subsequent biological treatment of the different soil fractions. In addition to soils obtained from contaminated sites, studies were also performed on soils contaminated in the laboratory. Soil washing was performed using a bench-scale soil washing system. Washing was carried out with simultaneous fractionation of the bulk soil into sand, silt and clay fractions. Cl...

  5. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremediation (bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation. In this study the assisted bioremediation capacity on the rehabilitation of three natural sub-soils (granite, limestone and schist contaminated with benzene was evaluated. Two different types of assisted bioremediation were used: without and with ventilation (bioventing. The bioaugmentation was held by inoculating the soil with a consortium of microorganisms collected from the protection area of crude oil storage tanks in a refinery. In unventilated trials, biostimulation was accomplished by the addition of a nutrient mineral media, while in bioventing oxygen was also added. The tests were carried out at controlled temperature of 25 ºC in stainless steel columns where the moist soil contaminated with benzene (200 mg per kg of soil occupied about 40% of the column’s volume. The processes were daily monitored in discontinued mode. Benzene concentration in the gas phase was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-FID, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored by respirometry. The results revealed that the three contaminated soils were remediated using both technologies, nevertheless, the bioventing showed faster rates. With this work it was proved that respirometric analysis is an appropriate instrument for monitoring the biological activity.

  6. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H 3 PO 4 , NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H 3 PO 4 , 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H 3 PO 4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H 3 PO 4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of plants, including trees, to remediate oil-contaminated soils: a review and empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    Soil contamination can result in soil degradation, bring great loss to agricultural production and pose threat to human health. Many of the soil contaminants are petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) derived from crude oil or refined petroleum products. Phytoremediation which relies on plants and their associated microorganisms to remove contaminants is cost-effective and applicable to treat a wide variety of soil contaminants. Besides trees, herbaceous plants are widely and effectively used in the r...

  9. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.A.; Jerger, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation techniques were successfully employed in the cost-effective cleanup of approximately 8400 gallons of diesel fuel which had been accidentally discharged at a warehouse in New Jersey. Surrounding soils were contaminated with the diesel fuel at concentrations exceeding 1,470 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons as measured by infrared spectroscopy (TPH-IR, EPA method 418.1, modified for soils). This paper reports on treatment of the contaminated soils through enhanced biological land treatment which was chosen for the soil remediation pursuant to a New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System - Discharge to Ground Water (NJPDES-DGW) permit. Biological land treatment of diesel fuel focuses on the breakdown of the hydrocarbon fractions by indigenous aerobic microorganisms in the layers of soil where oxygen is made available. Metabolism by these microorganisms can ultimately reduce the hydrocarbons to innocuous end products. The purpose of biological land treatment was to reduce the concentration of the petroleum hydrocarbon constituents of the diesel fuel in the soil to 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)

  10. Application of bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida to evaluate the toxicity of a metal-contaminated soil, before and after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Simon, Mariano [Univ. de Almeria (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola; Dietz-Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2011-10-15

    A contaminated soil was amended to reduce bioavailability of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and to modify its potential environmental impacts. Reproduction toxicity tests using two different soil invertebrates, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, were used to evaluate efficiency of soil amendments to reduce metal availability. This study has been carried out on a very contaminated soil from El Arteal mining district (SE Spain). The amendments used were marble sludge from the cutting and polishing of marble, compost from greenhouse wastes, and synthetic iron oxides. Soils were analyzed for cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and calcium carbonate content, particle size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity, and total metal content. Porewater and 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations were measured in unamended and amended soils. Soil organisms were exposed to all treatments and to untreated soil. The parameters evaluated in both bioassays were survival and reproduction. All treatments decreased the porewater and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. The amendments increased survival and reproduction of E. crypticus, reducing toxicity. Survival of F. candida was also increased by the treatments; its reproduction did, however, not improve. These differences may be due to other factors that may affect collembolan reproduction. The different sensitivity of each test organism to some soil properties such as pH and electrical conductivity, which can affect reproduction, should be considered before interpreting results from bioassays focussed on toxicity due to pollutants. Reproduction toxicity bioassays with soil invertebrates are a good complement of chemical analysis to properly assess the ecological risk of remediation processes. Organisms with different exposure routes and different sensitivities to soil properties should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal-contaminated sites and to evaluate

  11. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  12. Effects of microcystins contamination on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in two typical lakeside soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Steinman, Alan D; Su, Xiaomei; Xie, Liqiang

    2017-12-01

    A 30-day indoor incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of microcystin (1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg eq. MC-LR L -1 ) on soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, physiological profiles, potential nitrification, and microbial abundance (total bacteria, total fungi, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea) in two lakeside soils in China (Soil A from the lakeside of Lake Poyanghu at Jiujiang; Soil B from the lakeside of Lake Taihu at Suzhou). Of the enzymes tested, only phenol oxidase activity was negatively affected by microcystin application. In contrast, dehydrogenase activity was stimulated in the 1000 μg treatment, and a stimulatory effect also occurred with soil respiration in contaminated soil. The metabolic profiles of the microbial communities indicated that overall carbon metabolic activity in the soils treated with high microcystin concentrations was inhibited, and high concentrations of microcystin also led to different patterns of potential carbon utilization. High microcystin concentrations (100, 1000 μg eq. MC-LR L -1 in Soil A; 10, 100 1000 μg eq. MC-LR L -1 in Soil B) significantly decreased soil potential nitrification rate. Furthermore, the decrease in soil potential nitrification rate was positively correlated with the decrease of the amoA gene abundance, which corresponds to the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community. We conclude that application of microcystin-enriched irrigation water can significantly impact soil microbial community structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, S.; Biswas, A.K.; Singh, A.B.; Ajay; Ahirwar, N.K.; Behera, S.K.; Subba Rao, A.; Naveen Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg -1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg -1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g -1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  15. Rapid bioassay for oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Oosterbroek, L. [HydroQual, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a study conducted to develop a rapid bioassay for soils contaminated with oil. The bioassay method was designed for a weight of evidence (WoE) approach and eco-contact guideline derivation protocol. Microtox bioassays were conducted on cyclodextrin extracts of soil quantified by solvent extraction and gas chromatography. The method was demonstrated using straight {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts and activated {beta}-cyclodextrin soil extracts. An analysis of the methods showed that the activation step weakens or breaks the cyclodextrin and polycyclic hydrocarbon (PHC) inclusion complex. The released PHC became toxic to the microtox organism. Results from the bioassays were then correlated with earthworm reproduction bioassay results. tabs., figs.

  16. Thermal remediation of tar-contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, E.J.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    High temperature treatments are commonly considered for the decontamination of soil as they have the advantages of reliability, high capacity, and effective destruction of hazardous materials with reduced long-term liability. This paper examined the remediation of soil contaminated by coal tar as well as gravel contaminated by oil. Pilot plant studies were conducted using 2 representative incineration technologies: rotary kiln and fluidized bed. The coal tar contaminated soil had accumulated over a few decades at a calcination plant in western Canada. The soil was sticky and could not be handled by conventional feeding and combustion systems. Crushed lignite was mixed with the soil as an auxiliary fuel and to reduce stickiness. A pilot plant furnace was used to evaluate the potential of decontamination in a rotary calciner. An analysis of both a modelling study and the test results showed that complete decontamination could be achieved in the targeted calciner. The results suggested that energy recovery was also possible, which could in turn make the remediation process more cost-effective. Decontamination of oil-contaminated gravel was conducted with a pilot plant fluidized bed combustor to study the feasibility of using incineration technology in the remediation of gravel and debris contaminated by oil spills. Results indicated that the gravel was decontaminated with acceptable emission performance. It was concluded that the study will be valuable to the application of commercial incineration processes for the remediation of polluted soils. It was observed that the weathering of the oiled gravel lowered the rate of decontamination. A small amount of salt water resulted in lowered decontamination rates, which may be an important factor for situations involving the remediation of shoreline gravel contaminated by oil. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  17. In-situ vitrification of radioactively contaminated soils: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology that has been developed from its conceptual phase through selected field-scale application tests during the last six years. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soils and waste inclusions into a durable glass and crystalline waste form by in-place melting. Electrodes are inserted into the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to melt it. After cooling, the process fixes (TRU) and fission product radionuclides making them relatively nonleachable, resistant to intrusion, and nondispersible when intentionally disturbed. Another application considered for isolation of radioactively contaminated soils, but not yet developed, is the generation of impermeable barrier walls to prevent ground water seepage into a site. The barrier technique could also be used over the surface of an existing disposal site to deter plant and animal intrusion. The development units have been extensively tested with many types of soils and waste inclusions such as concrete, buried metals, sealed containers, organic chemicals with high boiling points such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and inorganic chemicals, including toxic heavy metals, nitrates, and sulfates. Nitrates and organics are destroyed, while heavy metals and fluorides are retained to a high percentage within the molten soil during processing. At $200 to $300/m 3 for radioactive waste, the process is economically competitive with many alternative remediation processes. The ISV process has been developed to the point where it is ready for large-scale field testing at an actual TRU-contaminated soil site. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Surfactant flooding of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of this research program after initial surfactant screening of 21 surfactants. Three of the surfactants were used for the surfactant flooding studies; the results from that phase of the research program are described

  19. Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.; Henson, T.J.; Harris, L.A.; Melton, R.E.; Stevenson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and effect of mercury at the site and in assessing human health and ecological risk. Application of 3 different sequential extraction speciation schemes indicated the Hg at the site was predominantly relatively insoluble mercuric sulfide or metallic Hg, though the relative proportions of each did not agree well between procedures. Application of x-ray and electron beam studies to site soils confirmed the presence of metacinnabar, a form of mercuric sulfide, the first known evidence of authigenic mercuric sulfide formation in soils

  20. Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  1. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  2. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  3. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  4. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Long; Zhou Dongmei; Wang Quanying; Wu Danya

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm -1 of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  5. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Quanying; Wu Danya [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm{sup -1} of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  6. Application of ground bone and sheep manure on soils from two contaminated sites and influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Pacheco, A.; Santos, E.; Magalhães, M. C. F.

    2012-04-01

    Past radium and uranium exploitation and processing in Urgeiriça mine and radium processing in Barracão (centre-north of Portugal) led to soils and waters contamination. Most of the soils, located in rural areas, are cultivated for vegetables, fruit trees, and/or pasturage, and the waters used for soils irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of organic amendments and hydroxiapatite to reduce the soil available fraction of Utotal and 226Ra in soils of two areas after four months of incubation. Influence on oat growth, uranium and radium uptake and translocation was also studied. Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during four months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Urgeiriça (Urg) and Barracão (Brc) soils containing large concentrations of Utotal (635 and 189 mg/kg, respectively), and 226Ra (2310 and 1770 Bq/kg, respectively) were used. The available fraction of these elements, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to: 90 and 20% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Urgeiriça soil, and 19 and 43% of total concentration of uranium and radium, respectively, for Barracão soil. Fine ground bone (FB), sheep manure (OM), and vermicompost (V) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Control (soil) and treatments were made in triplicate: (T1) soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T2) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil; (T3) soil+168 g OM/kg of soil+96 g FB/kg of soil; (T4) soil+168 g V/kg of soil. After incubation, soil subsamples were analysed for pH, electric conductivity (EC), and available fractions of Utotal and 226Ra. The remaining soils were used for oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivation. Soils had pH 5.15 (Urg) and 6.04 (Brc), and EC 57.3 µS/cm (Urg) and 36.3 µS/cm (Brc). After incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.82 (Urg) and 7.10 (Brc) in amended samples, and EC showed a large increase (15-19 times) when compared to the control. A decrease of the available

  7. Aided Phytostabilization of Copper Contaminated Soils with L. Perenne and Mineral Sorbents as Soil Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziemska, Maja

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess phytostabilization strategies for the treatment of soil co-contaminated by increasing levels of copper with the application mineral amendments (chalcedonite, zeolite, dolomite). From the results it will be possible to further elucidate the benefits or potential risks derived from the application of different types of mineral amendments in the remediation of a copper contaminated soil. A glasshouse pot experiment was designed to evaluate the potential use of different amendments as immobilizing agents in the aided phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The content of trace elements in plants and total in soil, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested parts of L. perenne were significantly different in the case of applying mineral amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of copper. The greatest average above-ground biomass was observed for soil amended with chalcedonite. In this experiment, all analyzed metals accumulated predominantly in the roots of the tested plant. In general, applying mineral amendments to soil contributed to decreased levels of copper concentrations.

  8. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  9. Superfund risk assessment in soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddinott, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 30-31, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on risk assessment associated with soil contamination. The conference included presentations in the following categories: site characterization; fate and transport; toxicity, exposures, and receptors; risk characterization/case studies; and establishing cleanup levels. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombach, G.; Pierra, A.; Klemm, W.

    1994-01-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As 3+ , As 5+ ) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of chromium contaminated soil has been demonstrated for unsaturated 50-100 mesh sand with 10% moisture by weight. The initial region of sand contaminated with 100 ppm w chromate ions was completely cleansed of contamination. After 22 hours of treatment, chromate was found near the anode and apparently migrated at a rate of at least 0.40 cm/hr with a pore water current density of 2.26mA/cm 2 . An analogous run was made using the same sand and FD and C Red No. 40 as the contaminant at a molar concentration equivalent to the 100 ppm w Cr run. The position of the migrating dye was monitored photographically. After similar treatment conditions, the visual dye concentration profile exhibited characteristics similar to the chromate. The migration rate of the dye was slower than the chromate but the qualitative similarity of behavior in an electric field suggests the dye is an analog for chromate ions. The slower migration rate of the dye is not unexpected because the dye molecule is larger than chromate. The use of dye as an analog for chromate greatly accelerates the experimentation process in unsaturated soil because destructive sampling is not required to monitor the contaminant location. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effect of soil heterogeneities on the electrokinetic processes. Unsaturated sands in size fractions of 50-100 mesh (medium) and 100-200 mesh (fine) were studied both individually and in layers. The dye migration rate was accelerated in the tine sand and slowed in the medium sand of the layered experiment when compared with the corresponding individual experiments. This discrepancy was explained by estimating the current density in each layer which was proportionally higher in the fine layer and lower in the medium layer. These preliminary experiments illustrate the significant dependence of electromigration rates on current density. (author)

  12. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  13. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs

  14. Strategies for sustainable woodland on contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, N M

    2000-07-01

    Extensive in situ reclamation treatment technologies are appropriate for a large proportion of contaminated land in place of total removal or complete containment of soil. In this paper, initial results are presented of site descriptions, tree survival and metal uptake patterns from two field planting trials on a highly industrially contaminated site adjacent to a metal refinery and on old sanitary landfill sites. Survival rate was high in both trials but factors besides heavy metals were particularly significant. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and woody tissues were variable, with substantial uptake in some species and clones supporting the findings of earlier pot experiments. It is argued that there is sufficient evidence to consider the use of trees in reclamation as part of a realistic, integrated, low-cost, ecologically-sound and sustainable reclamation strategy for contaminated land. This is an opportunity to bring a large number of brownfield sites into productive use, which otherwise would be prohibitively expensive to restore.

  15. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    oxidation of contaminants and by integrating the process to biological treatment, in which the formed degradation products can be biodegraded. Phytoremediation was used to remove fresh and aged petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, and modified FentonAEs reaction combined with biodegradation was used to remove aged creosote oil from soil. The effects of hydrocarbon aging, different plant species and soil amendments on the removal efficiency were studied in phytoremediation experiments. Lab-scale experiments were made with fresh diesel fuel, and a field study was made with aged hydrocarbons deriving from diesel fuel and lubricants. The used plant species were pine, poplar, a grass mixture and a legume mixture. The experiments with modified Fenton's treatment were carried out in soil columns, to which concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added simulating in situ injection. Iron was not added since the soil was rich in iron. After FentonAEs treatment, the soil was incubated in serum bottles to determine the effects on bioavailability of PAHs by modified FentonAEs oxidation and to simulate the potential of intrinsic remediation. In addition to hydrocarbon analyses, the effects of both methods on soil microbial activities and toxicity were determined. In the presence of white clover and green pea, pine or poplar, 89 to 98 % of diesel fuel was removed, whereas the presence of grasses did not increase diesel fuel removal compared to treatment without plants, where up to 86 % of diesel fuel was removed. When diesel was applied to the trees for a second time, reduction in one month was 9 to 25 % higher than what was achieved after first month of first application. During the four growing season study with soil contaminated with aged hydrocarbon contaminants, the presence of vegetation did not increase hydrocarbon removal in unfertilised soil. Vegetation cover was denser in amended soil than in unfertilised soil. The addition of compost or NPK fertiliser enhanced hydrocarbon removal

  16. Surface soil contamination standards for Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 200 Areas of the Hanford site contain soils contaminated with levels of radioactivity ranging from fallout concentrations to levels requiring radiological controls. Some contamination is more or less uniformly distributed, and some occurs as discrete specks or spots of activity. Because of the acute need for standards, the Rockwell Environmental Protection (EP) Group proceeded to develop standards; these were approved by Rockwell in October 1979. It must be emphasized that these standards are only applicable to the 200 Areas of the Hanford site or other areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. It is assumed that access to these areas will always be restricted and that land-use restrictions will be maintained. Contamination limits for areas used by the general public would normally be lower than the limits derived in this case. It appears that the Rockwell standards divided by a factor of 5 to 10 may be reasonable contamination guidelines for the general environment

  17. Development of Decontamination Process for Soil Contaminated Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Uk-Rang; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Various experiments with full-scaled electrokinetic equipment, soil washing equipment, and gravel washing equipment were performed to remove 238 U from contaminated soils of below 0.4 Bq/g. The repetition number and the removal efficiencies of the soil and gravel washing equipment were evaluated. The decontamination periods by the soil and gravel electrokinetic equipment were evaluated. Finally, a work process of full-scaled decontamination equipment was developed. Contaminated soils were classified into soils and gravels using a 8.0 cm sieve. Soils were sent to the soil washing equipment, while gravels were sent to the gravel washing equipment. Soils sent to the soil washing equipment were sent to the soil electrokinetic equipment after soil washing. A repetition number of soil washing was two times. The washed gravels were sent to the gravel electrokinetic equipment. Gravel contaminated with a high concentration requires crushing after gravel washing

  18. Development of Decontamination Process for Soil Contaminated Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Uk-Rang; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Various experiments with full-scaled electrokinetic equipment, soil washing equipment, and gravel washing equipment were performed to remove {sup 238}U from contaminated soils of below 0.4 Bq/g. The repetition number and the removal efficiencies of the soil and gravel washing equipment were evaluated. The decontamination periods by the soil and gravel electrokinetic equipment were evaluated. Finally, a work process of full-scaled decontamination equipment was developed. Contaminated soils were classified into soils and gravels using a 8.0 cm sieve. Soils were sent to the soil washing equipment, while gravels were sent to the gravel washing equipment. Soils sent to the soil washing equipment were sent to the soil electrokinetic equipment after soil washing. A repetition number of soil washing was two times. The washed gravels were sent to the gravel electrokinetic equipment. Gravel contaminated with a high concentration requires crushing after gravel washing.

  19. Removal of radiocesium from contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Ayumi; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011, led to emission of a great amount of radionuclides, and caused serious issues of contamination of our living environment. Two major radionuclides found to be widely deposited are Cs-134 and Cs-137. Because the half-lives of Cs-134 and Cs-137 are 2 years and 30 years, respectively, the decontamination of Cs is the crucial issue. Therefore, in the present work, the decontamination of Cs from the agricultural soil was attempted. For this purpose, we performed extractive test with 17 wt.% and 33 wt.% potassium iodide solution for agricultural soil collected on March 2012. The extraction rate was less than 2%, whereas the value of 20% was reported last year. This results might indicate that the cesium with soluble from have flowed or that cesium more strongly tied to soil. (author)

  20. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  1. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  2. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  3. Leaching of metals from soil contaminated by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselen, M A; Alpaslan, B

    2001-10-12

    Stabilization/solidification (s/s) is one of the most effective methods of dealing with heavy metal contaminated sites. The ability of lime and cement stabilization to immobilize Pb, Cu and Fe contained in a contaminated soil originating from an old mining and smelting area located along the Mediterranean Sea shore in northern Cyprus was investigated. The stabilization was evaluated by applying leaching tests. A series of tests were conducted to optimize the additive soil ratio for the best immobilization process. Additive/soil=1/15 (m/m) ratio was found to be the optimum for both lime and cement. Application of the US EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) on the soil samples treated with lime at additive/soil=1/15 (m/m) mixing ratios showed that Cu and Fe solubility was reduced at 94 and 90%, respectively. The results of cement treatment using the same ratio, reduced the solubility 48 and 71% for Cu and Fe, respectively. The Pb solubility was found to be below the regulatory limit of 5mg/l so no additive treatment was needed. The optimum additive/soil amount (1/15) was selected for more detailed column studies, that were carried out in the acidic pH range. According to the results of column leaching tests, it was found that, the degree of heavy metal leaching is highly dependent on pH.

  4. Remediation of soil contaminated with the heavy metal (Cd2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Lin, H.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is increasing. The biosorption process for removal of the heavy metal Cd 2+ from contaminated soil is chosen for this study due to its economy, commercial applications, and because it acts without destroying soil structure. The study is divided into four parts (1) soil leaching: the relationships between the soil leaching effect and agitation rates, solvent concentrations, ratios of soil to solvent, leaching time and pH were studied to identify their optimum conditions; (2) adsorption Cd 2+ tests of immobilized Saccharomycetes pombe beads: different weight percentages of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) were added to alginate (10 wt.%) and then blended or cross-linked by epichlorohydrin (ECH) to increase their mechanical strength. Next, before blending or cross-linking, different weight percentages of S. pombe 806 or S. pombe ATCC 2476 were added to increase Cd 2+ adsorption. Thus, the optimum beads (blending or cross-linking, the percentages of chitosan, PVAL and S. pombe 806 or S. pombe ATCC 2476) and the optimum adsorption conditions (agitation rate, equilibrium adsorption time, and pH in the aqueous solution) were ascertained; (3) regeneration tests of the optimum beads: the optimum beads adsorbing Cd 2+ were regenerated by various concentrations of aqueous HCl solutions. The results indicate that the reuse of immobilized pombe beads was feasible; and (4) adsorption model/kinetic model/thermodynamic property: the equilibrium adsorption, kinetics, change in Gibbs free energy of adsorption of Cd 2+ on optimum beads were also investigated

  5. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  6. Soil contamination adjacent to waste tank 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odum, J.V.

    1976-11-01

    In March and April 1961, miscalibrated liquid level instrumentation resulted in an overfilling of tank 8 to about 5 in. above the fill-line entrance. The resultant liquid head caused waste to seep through an asbestos-packed sleeve to the fill-line encasement and from there into the main encasement. Most of this waste returned to primary containment (i.e., the catch tank) through a separately encased drain line. However, approximately 1500 gal of high heat waste leaked from the fill-line encasement into the ground, probably through the joint at the juncture of the fill-line encasement and the concrete encasement of the waste tank. The contamination is contained in a 1000- to 1500-ft 3 zone of soil 12 to 26 ft below grade, 18 ft above the maximum elevation of the water table, and distributed roughly symmetrically around the fill-line encasement. Estimates from a continuing monitoring program indicate that less than 5000 Ci of 137 Cs, less than 0.005 Ci of 238 239 Pu, and less than 0.5 Ci of 89 90 Sr are in the soil. Analysis indicates that the contamination presents no current or future hazard to the environment; consequently, there is no technical reason for excavation of this soil. The high cost of excavation and exposure of personnel make excavation undesirable. The contaminated soil will remain under surveillance and undisturbed at tank 8 until the tank is removed from service, at which time its disposition will be re-evaluated

  7. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  8. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cr- B[a]P-co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the environment are a concern, and their removal to acceptable level is required. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to treat contaminated soils, could be an interesting alternative to conventional remediation processes. This work evaluates the role of single and combined applications of chelates to single or mixed Cr + benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-contaminated soil. Medicago sativa was grown in contaminated soil and was amended with 0.3 g citric acid, 0.146 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), or their combination for 60 days. The result shows that in Cr-contaminated soil, the application of EDTA + citric acid significantly (psoil. The soluble Cr concentration in single Cr or Cr + B[a]P-contaminated soil was enhanced with the amendment of all chelates; however, only the application of citric acid in Cr-contaminated soil (44 %) or EDTA and EDTA + citric acid in co-contaminated soil increased the removal of Cr from the soil (34 and 54 %, respectively). The dissipation of B[a]P in single B[a]P-contaminated soil was effective even without planting and amendment with chelates, while in co-contaminated soil, it was related to the application of either EDTA or EDTA + citric acid. This suggests that M. sativa with the help of chelates in single or co-contaminated soil can be effective in phytoextraction of Cr and promoting the biodegradation of B[a]P.

  9. Mercury species in formerly contaminated soils and released soil gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Drtinová, B.; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Kameník, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, APR (2017), s. 1032-1039 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mercury contaminated soils * total mercury * elemental mercury * methylmercury * phynelmercury * gaseous elemental mercury Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  10. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  11. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  12. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  13. Studies on the applicability of biomarkers in estimating the systematic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured gas plant tar-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganti, A.; Spina, D.A.; Rozett, K.; Ma, B.-L.; Weyand, E.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The systematic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from ingested soils containing manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar was evaluated in mice. Soil and organic extract of each soil were incorporated into a diet and fed to mice for two weeks. 1-Hydroxypyrene levels in urine and chemical:DNA adduct levels in lungs were used as biomarkers of PAH systematic bioavailability. Estimates of PAH relative bioavailability were determined by comparing the bioavailability observed between each soil and corresponding organic extract. In all but one case, bioavailiablity estimates based on 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine indicate that the presence of MGP tar on soil results in a considerable decrease in PAH systemic bioavailablity (9-75%). Similarly, PAH bioavailability estimates based on chemical:DNA adduct formation ranged from nondetectable to 76%. These results clearly indicate that the bioavailiablity of PAH is less than 100% when soil contaminated with MGP tar is ingested by nice. In addition, the experimental methods employed in this study appear suitable for evaluating the effects of soil on the gastrointestinal absorption and systemic bioavailability of PAH from soil containing complex organic mixtures. 44 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Advanced remediation of uranium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Han, G S; Kim, G N; Koo, D S; Kim, I G; Choi, J W

    2016-11-01

    The existing decontamination method using electrokinetic equipment after acidic washing for uranium-contaminated soil requires a long decontamination time and a significant amount of electric power. However, after soil washing, with a sulfuric acid solution and an oxidant at 65 °C, the removal of the muddy solution using a 100 mesh sieve can decrease the radioactivity of the remaining coarse soil to the clearance level. Therefore, only a small amount of fine soil collected from the muddy solution requires the electrokinetic process for its decontamination. Furthermore, it is found that the selective removal of uranium from the sulfuric washing solution is not obtained using an anion exchanger but rather using a cation exchanger, unexpectedly. More than 90% of the uranium in the soil washing solutions is adsorbed on the S-950 resin, and 87% of the uranium adsorbed on S-950 is desorbed by washing with a 0.5 M Na 2 CO 3 solution at 60 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium

  16. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  17. Biomimetic Hydrogel Composites for Soil Stabilization and Contaminant Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Hamdan, Nasser; Shen, Li; Nan, Hanqing; Almajed, Abdullah; Kavazanjian, Edward; He, Ximin

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a novel method to synthesize a hyper-branched biomimetic hydrogel network across a soil matrix to improve the mechanical strength of the loose soil and simultaneously mitigate potential contamination due to excessive ammonium. This method successfully yielded a hierarchical structure that possesses the water retention, ion absorption, and soil aggregation capabilities of plant root systems in a chemically controllable manner. Inspired by the robust organic-inorganic composites found in many living organisms, we have combined this hydrogel network with a calcite biomineralization process to stabilize soil. Our experiments demonstrate that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) can work synergistically with enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) to render a versatile, high-performance soil stabilization method. PAA-enhanced EICP provides multiple benefits including lengthening of water supply time, localization of cementation reactions, reduction of harmful byproduct ammonium, and achievement of ultrahigh soil strength. Soil crusts we have obtained can sustain up to 4.8 × 10 3 kPa pressure, a level comparable to cementitious materials. An ammonium removal rate of 96% has also been achieved. These results demonstrate the potential for hydrogel-assisted EICP to provide effective soil improvement and ammonium mitigation for wind erosion control and other applications.

  18. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  19. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  20. Stabilization and solidification of a heavy metal contaminated site soil using a hydroxyapatite based binder

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Wei-Yi; Feng, Ya-Song; Jin, Fei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Du, Yan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) is an efficient and environment-friendly material for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, the application of conventional HA powder in stabilizing contaminated soils is limited, due to high cost of final products, difficulties in synthesizing purified HA crystals. A new binder named SPC, which composes of single superphosphate (SSP) and calcium oxide (CaO), is presented as an alternative in this study. HA can form in the soil matrix by an ...

  1. Organoclays reduce arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Binoy; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Xi, Yunfei [South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, SA (AU). Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR); South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, SA (AU). Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Naturally occurring layer silicate clay minerals can be value added by modifying their surface properties to enhance their efficacy in the remediation of environmental contaminants. Silicate clay minerals modified by the introduction of organic molecules into the mineral structure are known as organoclays and show much promise for environmental remediation applications. The present study assesses the extent of decrease in bioavailable and bioaccessible arsenic (As) via enhanced adsorption by soil treated with organoclays. Materials and methods: Organoclays were prepared from hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Arquad {sup registered} 2HT-75 (Arquad) at surfactant loadings equivalent to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of an Australian bentonite and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption of arsenate onto the organoclays from aqueous solutions. Encouraged by these results, the organoclays were applied to As-spiked soils, at 10% and 20% (w/w) rates, to assess their capacity to stabilise soil As. After 1 month of incubation in the laboratory, bioavailable (1 mM Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extractable) and bioaccessible (1 M glycine extractable) As from the spiked soils were assessed. Results and discussion: Both the organobentonites effectively removed As from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent prepared with Arquad adsorbed 23% more As from aqueous phase than adsorbent prepared with HDTMA. Adsorption of As was controlled by anion exchange and electrostatic attraction. When applied to As-contaminated soils, the organoclays reduced the bioavailable As by as much as 81%. The extent of reduction of bioaccessible As was only up to 58%. The adsorbents were not as efficient in reducing bioaccessible As in contaminated soils as compared with bioavailable As. It could be attributed to the extreme pH condition (pH = 3) of the extractant used in the physiologically based extraction test method for

  2. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiwati, Arie; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, N.; Komai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Total concentration of Cd, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, As, Pb, Sb, Cu and Ba was determined in 20 soil samples by the bulk analysis. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to observe the classification of trace elements and contamination sources. The results suggest that contamination loading is contributed by Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use. Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area.

  3. Production of non-constructive concrete blocks using contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a heavily contaminated humus-rich peat soil and a lightly contaminated humus-poor sand soil, extracted from a field location in the Netherlands, are immobilized. These two types of soil are very common in the Netherlands. The purpose is to develop financial feasible, good quality

  4. Construction and applications of DNA probes for detection of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading genotypes in toxic organic-contaminated soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, S.; Khan, A.; Rosenthal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Several DNA probes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading genotypes were constructed from PCB-degrading bacteria. These laboratory-engineered DNA probes were used for the detection, enumeration, and isolation of specific bacteria degrading PCBs. Dot blot analysis of purified DNA from toxic organic chemical-contaminated soil bacterial communities showed positive DNA-DNA hybridization with a 32P-labeled DNA probe (pAW6194, cbpABCD). Less than 1% of bacterial colonies isolated from garden topsoil and greater than 80% of bacteria isolated from PCB-contaminated soils showed DNA homologies with 32P-labeled DNA probes. Some of the PCB-degrading bacterial isolates detected by the DNA probe method did not show biphenyl clearance. The DNA probe method was found to detect additional organisms with greater genetic potential to degrade PCBs than the biphenyl clearance method did. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of DNA probes in detecting specific PCB-degrading bacteria, abundance of PCB-degrading genotypes, and genotypic diversity among PCB-degrading bacteria in toxic chemical-polluted soil environments. We suggest that the DNA probe should be used with caution for accurate assessment of PCB-degradative capacity within soils and further recommend that a combination of DNA probe and biodegradation assay be used to determine the abundance of PCB-degrading bacteria in the soil bacterial community

  5. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  6. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  7. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  8. Calculating the movement speed of a contaminated material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, D.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the project which consisted in the development of an application to facilitate and display a graphic where the displacement and behavior of radioactive contaminants in soil could be observed. Once the data are introduced to the system, this makes the necessary calculations to display a graphic where the displacement of the substance is displayed in a given time. Through the graphs resulting from the program, we can quickly see the behavior and movement of a contaminant substance, but by numerical simulation, it can determine the possible impact caused by a supposition spills of a radioactive substance in soil and thus able to take the appropriate measures to control or avoid an impact resulting highly harmful to health and the environment, so as to determine the distance and time in which the substance already change or transform into another. (Author)

  9. Modeling dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masakazu, E-mail: ohta.masakazu@jaea.go.jp; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A process-based model for {sup 137}Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived {sup 137}Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3 year migration of {sup 137}Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of {sup 137}Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited {sup 137}Cs would remain within the top 5 cm of the soil for up to 30 years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of {sup 137}Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of {sup 137}Cs in the soil–plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of {sup 137}Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of {sup 137}Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved {sup 137}Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of {sup 137}Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed {sup 137}Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) {sup 137}Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%–60%) of {sup 137}Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5 cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of {sup 137}Cs in forests over a prolonged

  10. Modeling electrokinetic transport in phenol contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, R.; Haus, R.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Numerical simulations are compared to laboratory experiments of electroremediation in soils contaminated by phenolic pollutants. The developing pH affects the electrokinetic transport behaviour of phenol. It is found that a water chemistry model must be included in an electrokinetic mass transport model to describe the process of electroremediation more accurately, if no buffering system is used at the electrodes. In the case of controlling the pH at the electrode compartments only a simplified chemical reaction model must be included in the numerical code to match the experimental phenolic transport. (orig.)

  11. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fabelo Falcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soils, by different substances and / or products is becoming more extensive throughout the world, its determination, minimization and treatment to reach the recovery of them is a necessity, even though it is not granted the level of importance required by the countries concerned. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the recovery of soils with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness in the selection of procedures, regardless of the types of pollutants and land use once recovered. The methodological proposal involves the stages of diagnosis, characterization, selection of the technology and its technical and economic validation at the laboratory and pilot plant level. Subsequently, the technology of the treatment is designed, along with the elaboration of an objective study of each particular case and an essential economic and technical feasibility analysis for the different scales of the development of the technological process.

  12. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: mitomay@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Simion, Cristian [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Bucharest 060042 (Romania); Lee, Byeong Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: A possible pathway for immobilization with the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] treatment (a) {sup 133}Cs is adsorbed onto the soil particles, (b) Cs encapsulation through the formation of immobile salts, and (c) solid (small/finer or larger/aggregate) soil fraction separation. - Highlights: • Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] composite for Cs immobilization in soil was developed. • Enhanced cesium separation and immobilization was done in dry condition. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ({sup 133}Cs) and radioactive cesium species ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant {sup 133}Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO{sub 4}] treated soil were characterized using SEM–EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil

  13. Development of a resuspension model for contaminated soils. Application to the Palomares area; Desarrollo de un modelo de resuspension de suelos contaminados. Aplicacion al area de Palomares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A

    1993-07-01

    A model is presented which has been used to simulate the wind resuspension and transport of contaminated soil in the area surrounding the Palomares village, in Southern Spain. The model uses site specific data and some generic parameters as resuspension rate and deposition velocity. The model is able to predict the order of magnitude of the observed air concentration of activity. Some lines of research are suggested which could improve the understanding of the phenomena involved. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Alterations of lead speciation by sulfate from addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), ceru...

  15. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J.; Moody, M.; Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L.; Moore, B.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  16. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Moody, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L. [WorleyParsons Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, B. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  17. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Ramadan Bimastyaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism growth. This study was conducted using a combination of electrokinetic and bioremediation processes. Result shows that the application of electrokinetic and bioremediation in low permeability soils can provide hydrocarbon removal efficiency up to 46,3% in 7 days operation. The highest amount of microorganism can be found in 3-days operation, which is 2x108 CFU/ml using surfactant as flushing fluid for solubilizing hydrocarbon molecules. Enhancing bioremediation using electrokinetic process is very potential to recover oil contaminated low permeability soil in the future.

  18. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Bimastyaji Surya; Effendi, Agus Jatnika; Helmy, Qomarudin

    2018-02-01

    Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation) through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism growth. This study was conducted using a combination of electrokinetic and bioremediation processes. Result shows that the application of electrokinetic and bioremediation in low permeability soils can provide hydrocarbon removal efficiency up to 46,3% in 7 days operation. The highest amount of microorganism can be found in 3-days operation, which is 2x108 CFU/ml using surfactant as flushing fluid for solubilizing hydrocarbon molecules. Enhancing bioremediation using electrokinetic process is very potential to recover oil contaminated low permeability soil in the future.

  19. Mouse Assay for Determination of Arsenic Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Accurate assessment of human exposure estimates from arsenic-contaminated soils depends upon estimating arsenic (As) soil bioavailability. Development of bioavailability assays provides data needed for human health risk assessments and supports development and valida...

  20. Mitigation of Ricin Contamination in Soils: Sorption and Degradation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zartman, R; Green, C; San Francisco, M; Zak, J; James, W; Boroda, E

    2003-01-01

    .... Soils contain a variety of inorganic minerals, organic matter and microorganisms. Soil inorganic minerals and organic matter are known to effectively sorb a wide variety of compounds, such as pesticides and other potential contaminants...

  1. Approaches to bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soil: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approaches to bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soil: An overview. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... neither generates waste nor pollutes the soil environment, the final products either through accidental or deliberate spillage can ...

  2. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by co-cropping with chelator application and assessment of associated leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z B; Guo, X F; Wu, Q T; Long, X X; Penn, C J

    2011-08-01

    Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulating plants is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. We coupled chelators and a co-cropping system to enhance phytoextraction rates, while allowing for agricultural production. An experiment on I m3 lysimeter beds was conducted with a co-cropping system consisting of the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and low-accumulating corn (Zea Mays, cv. Huidan-4), with addition ofa mixture of chelators (MC), to assess the efficiency of chelator enhanced co-crop phytoextraction and the leaching risk caused by the chelator. The results showed that the addition of MC promoted the growth of S. alfredii in the first crop (spring-summer season) and significantly increased the metal phytoextraction. The DTPA-extractable and total metal concentrations in the topsoil were also reduced more significantly with the addition of MC compared with the control treatments. However, mono-cropped S. alfredii without MC was more suitable for maximizing S. alfredii growth and therefore phytoextraction of Zn and Cd during the autumn-winter seasons. No adverse impact to groundwater due to MC application was observed during the experiments with three crops and three MC applications. But elevated total Cd and Pb concentrations among subsoils compared to the initial subsoil concentrations were found for the co-crop + MC treatment after the third crop.

  3. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  4. Calculation of dose distribution above contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Junya; Tenzou, Hideki; Manabe, Seiya; Iwakura, Yukiko

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between altitude and the distribution of the ambient dose rate in the air over soil decontamination area by using PHITS simulation code. The geometry configuration was 1000 m ×1000 m area and 1m in soil depth and 100m in altitude from the ground to simulate the area of residences or a school grounds. The contaminated region is supposed to be uniformly contaminated by Cs-137 γ radiation sources. The air dose distribution and space resolution was evaluated for flux of the gamma rays at each altitude, 1, 5, 10, and 20m. The effect of decontamination was calculated by defining sharpness S. S was the ratio of an average flux and a flux at the center of denomination area in each altitude. The suitable flight altitude of the drone is found to be less than 15m above a residence and 31m above a school grounds to confirm the decontamination effect. The calculation results can be a help to determine a flight planning of a drone to minimize the clash risk.

  5. Radiolytic treatment of dioxin contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.A.; Hilarides, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that γ-radiolysis is a feasible method by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be converted to products of negligible toxicity. In the presence of 25% water, 2.5% non-ionic surfactant and at a dose of 800 kGy greater than 98% destruction was achieved in a standard soil artificially contaminated with 100 ppb TCDD. By-product analysis has illustrated that the destruction occurs via step-wise reductive dechlorination producing a suite of lesser chlorinated dioxins. These results in combination with scavenger studies, target theory calculations and yields indicate that direct radiation effects account for the major route of destruction. Radiolysis has also been conducted on a real soil contaminated with TCDD and other chlorinated aromatic compounds verifying the results of model studies. Based on the data of these experiments some designs of batch gamma systems are considered and a discussion of estimated capital and operating costs associated with γ-radiolysis is presented. Given the high costs of the alternatives (i.e. incineration), radiolysis appears to be not only technically feasible, but it may also be economically competitive. (author)

  6. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  7. Workshop ''actual data processing supported applications in the area of soil protection and contaminated sites''; Workshop ''Aktuelle DV-gestuetzte Anwendungen im Bodenschutz- und Altlastenbereich''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Jeannette; Frauenstein, Joerg; Mahrle, Sabine (comps.)

    2011-05-15

    Within the 5th workshop at the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) from 28th to 29th September, 2010, the following lectures were held: (1) Information systems for the contaminated site management in Baden-Wuerttemberg (I. Blankenhorn); (2) SALKA 7 - A web based solution for a central data handling of the Saxonian register of contaminated sites (S. Gruhne); (3) Information system (ABuDIS) for contaminated sites, soil conservation and disposal sites in the Free State of Bavaria - Experiences from the project 'Data quality' (O. Klammer); (4) Environmental specimen bank - Web interface (M. Ruether); (5) Biocides in the Web - A portal for the publicity (G. Minx); (6) INSPIRE - Thematic work group (TWG) Appendix III Soil (S. Marahrens); (6) INSPIRE - State of the art, requirements (R. Baritz); (7) Requirements for the interoperability of soil data from the view of the Federal Environment Agency (F. Hilliges); (8) Implementation of the PortalU-Software in the European context - The project GS Soil (K. Feiden); (9) What is offered by PRTR - Pollutant Release and Transfer Register? (E. Six); (10) GSBL - Application for web recherche (B. Liebscher); (11) New Web Map Service for ground water background values (B. Wagner); (12) Visualized information on contaminated sites - A status (J. Frauenstein); (13) Utilization of industrial wastelands - An idea makes soil good. A project of BAFU for revitalization of industrial wastelands (K. Schenk); (14) Information on the status of ground water for the governmental real estates (H.-O. Zintz); (15) Application of data processing procedures of the artificial intelligence on an area-based representation of pollutant contents in settlement areas (T. Hertwig).

  8. Fixation of soil surface contamination using natural polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Natural polysaccharides were evaluated as alternatives to commercially available dust-control agents for application in buried-waste and contaminated-soil remediation situations. Materials were identified and evaluated with specific criteria in mind: the materials must be environmentally benign and must not introduce any additional hazardous materials; they must be effective for at least 2 or 3 days, but they do not necessarily have to be effective for more than 2 to 3 weeks; they should be relatively resistant to light traffic; they must not interfere with subsequent soil treatment techniques, especially soil washing; and they must be relatively inexpensive. Two products, a pregelled potato starch and a mixture of carbohydrates derived from sugar beets, were selected for evaluation. Testing included small- and large-scale field demonstrations, laboratory physical property analyses, and wind-tunnel evaluations

  9. Evaluation of a biodegradation screening protocol for contaminated soil from manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.J.; Battaglia, A.; Smith, J.R.; Middleton, A.C.; Nakles, D.V.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative for treating soils contaminated with PAHs. however, given the variability encountered in soils characteristics and contamination level, their susceptibility to biological treatment must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. This paper discusses a new treatability protocol, the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol. The mainstay of the protocol, which is designed to quickly provide treatability data for a given contaminated soil is a bioslurry experiment, in which the contaminated soil is continuously stirred and provided with abundant oxygen, nutrients and water, to maximize biological activity and thus contaminant removal. The results of using such protocol on four soils, widely differing in physical characteristics and contamination levels, are compared to the results of traditional pan studies, and an empirical equation, describing the observed soil concentrations as a function of time in both slurry and pans, is presented. Similarities and differences between achievable endpoints and biodegradation rates are discussed, and the applicability of the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol to full-scale engineered systems is addressed. Results to date indicate that, for soils with less than 10% fines slurry and pan experiments yield approximately the same endpoint, so that for those soils the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol can be used to assess the viability of an unsaturated bioremediation system. For soils with more than 10% fines, the slurry treatment endpoints are better than the pans. For those soils a traditional pan study experiment should be performed to evaluate the potential capabilities of unsaturated bioremediation

  10. SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION BY THE USE OF PESTICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the world population and the need to elevate food production improved the agriculture used techniques. One of the most important change that happened in the form and in the mean of agricultural production was pesticides. These products are used to control of insects, diseases and weeds that damage the cultures development. However, the intense application of these in the agricultural areas has been causing the contamination and pollution of the soil, water and air. These resources are indispensable for the human and animal survival in the Planet. In the last decades an increase of the world concern was verified regarding the impact that certain practices cause to the environment among abusive use of pesticides. When applied in the cultures, the pesticides usually reach the soil and, depending on the edaphic and product characteristics and of the environmental conditions, these products could do the ecosystem contamination. In this review are approached to the contamination of the soil and superficial and underground waters for the current pesticides use in the agricultural systems, as well as practices and handling forms that help the environment preservation.

  11. Effect of soil texture on phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallud, C. E.; Matzen, S. L.; Olson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil arsenic (As) contamination is a global problem, resulting in part from anthropogenic activities, including the use of arsenical pesticides and treated wood, mining, and irrigated agriculture. Phytoextraction using the hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata is a promising new technology to remediate soils with shallow arsenic contamination with minimal site disturbance. However, many challenges still lie ahead for a global application of phytoremediation. For example, remediation times using P. vittata are on the order of decades. In addition, most research on As phytoextraction with P. vittata has examined As removal from sandy soils, where As is more available, with little research focusing on As removal from clayey soils, where As is less available. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of soil texture and soil fertilization on As extraction by P. vittata, to optimize remediation efficiency and decrease remediation time under complex field conditions. A field study was established 2.5 years ago in an abandoned railroad grade contaminated with As (average 85.5 mg kg-1) with texture varying from sandy loam to silty clay loam. Organic N, inorganic N, organic P, inorganic P, and compost were applied to separate sub-plots; control ferns were grown in untreated soil. In a parallel greenhouse experiment, ferns were grown in sandy loam soil extracted from the field (180 mg As kg-1), with similar treatments as those used at the field site, plus a high phosphate treatment and treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the field study, fern mortality was 24% higher in clayey soil than in sandy soil due to waterlogging, while As was primarily associated with sandy soil. Results from the sandy loam soil indicate that soil treatments did not significantly increase As phytoextraction, which was lower in phosphate-treated ferns than in control ferns, both in the field and greenhouse study. Under greenhouse conditions, ferns treated with organic N were

  12. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestan, Domen [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-05-15

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades.

  13. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestan, Domen; Luo Chunling; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades

  14. Impact of electrokinetic remediation on microbial communities within PCP contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.; Harbottle, M.J.; Sills, G.; Knowles, C.J.; Semple, K.T.; Thompson, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have been used to stimulate the removal of organic pollutants within soil, by directing contaminant migration to where remediation may be more easily achieved. The effect of this and other physical remediation techniques on the health of soil microbial communities has been poorly studied and indeed, largely ignored. This study reports the impact on soil microbial communities during the application of an electric field within ex situ laboratory soil microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP; 100 mg kg -1 oven dry soil). Electrokinetics reduced counts of culturable bacteria and fungi, soil microbial respiration and carbon substrate utilisation, especially close to the acidic anode where PCP accumulated (36 d), perhaps exacerbated by the greater toxicity of PCP at lower soil pH. There is little doubt that a better awareness of the interactions between soil electrokinetic processes and microbial communities is key to improving the efficacy and sustainability of this remediation strategy. - Electrokinetics negatively impacted soil

  15. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejon, Engracia; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Felipe, Efrain; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl 2 -soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. - Soil amendments affect soil chemistry and allow revegetation of soils contaminated by trace elements

  16. Collaborative, Nondestructive Analysis of Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parsons-Davis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turin, H. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zidi, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Belamri, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bounatiro, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benbouzid, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fellouh, A. S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Idir, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Larbah, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moulay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noureddine, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rahal, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-12-14

    This report summarizes a joint nondestructive analysis exercise that LLNL, LANL, and COMENA discussed through a collaborative meeting in July 2017. This work was performed as one part of a collaboration with Algeria under Action Sheet 7: “Technical Cooperation and Assistance in Nuclear Forensics”. The primary intent of this exercise was for US and Algerian participants to jointly share results of nondestructive analyses (NDA) of a contaminated soil sample provided by the Algerians and to discuss key observations and analytical approaches. While the two samples were analyzed blind at LLNL and LANL, the soil samples were revealed after the exercise to have a common origin, and to have originated as an IAEA soil sample (IAEA-326, Bojanowski et al., 2001) provided to COMENA as part of a previous exercise. Comparative analysis revealed common findings between the laboratories, and also emphasized the need for standardized operating procedures to improve inter-comparability and confidence in conclusions. Recommended handling practices in the presence of sample heterogeneities were also discussed. This exercise provided an opportunity to demonstrate nuclear forensics analytical capabilities at COMENA, LANL, and LLNL, and identified areas that could benefit from future technical exchanges. Plans were made for a follow-on joint exercise in 2018, involving destructive analyses of the CUP-2 uranium ore concentrate standard.

  17. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  18. Bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Huguenot, David; Jézéquel, Karine; Lollier, Marc; Lebeau, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it can be toxic at low concentrations. Its beneficial effects are therefore only observed for a narrow range of concentrations. Anthropogenic activities such as fungicide spraying and mining have resulted in the Cu contamination of environmental compartments (soil, water and sediment) at levels sometimes exceeding the toxicity threshold. This review focuses on the bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils. The mechanisms by which microorganisms, and in particular bacteria, can mobilize or immobilize Cu in soils are described and the corresponding bioremediation strategies-of varying levels of maturity-are addressed: (i) bioleaching as a process for the ex situ recovery of Cu from Cu-bearing solids, (ii) bioimmobilization to limit the in situ leaching of Cu into groundwater and (iii) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction as an innovative process for in situ enhancement of Cu removal from soil. For each application, the specific conditions required to achieve the desired effect and the practical methods for control of the microbial processes were specified.

  19. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the

  20. Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Schwing, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Morris, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs

  1. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  2. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be met before reuse of lightly contaminated soil is allowed. Firstly, the quality of the soil has to be characterised on a soil quality map. Secondly, the soil that will be reused has to be of the same...

  3. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  4. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Jorfi; Rezaee; Jaafarzadeh; Esrafili; Akbari; Moheb Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated ...

  5. Evaluation of copper and lead immobilization in contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of natural clay, calcium phosphate, poultry manure and rice husks as cheap and ecologically non-invasive amendments for immobilizing Cu and Pb in contaminated soil was assessed. A moderately contaminated soil was sampled from a cultivated field in the vicinity of an active waste dump, characterized ...

  6. Reducing the bioavailability of cadmium in contaminated soil by dithiocarbamate chitosan as a new remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Qiu, Dong

    2015-07-01

    Dithiocarbamate chitosan (DTC-CTS) was used as a new amendment for remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils to reduce the Cd bioavailability. Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as a model plant to evaluate its efficiency. It was found that DTC-CTS could effectively improve the growth of A. thaliana. The amount of Cd up-taken by A. thaliana could be decreased by as much as 50% compared with that grown in untreated Cd-contaminated soil samples. The chlorophyll content and the aerial biomass of Arabidopsis also increased substantially and eventually returned to a level comparable to plants grown in non-contaminated soils, with the addition of DTC-CTS. These findings suggested that DTC-CTS amendment could be effective in immobilizing Cd and mitigating its accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils, with potential application as an in situ remediation of Cd-polluted soils.

  7. Bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms and their biodegradative capacity to remove pollutants. The byproducts of effective bioremediation, such as water and carbon dioxide, are nontoxic and can be accommodated without harm to the environment and living organisms. This paper reports that using bioremediation to remove pollutants has many advantages. This method is cheap, whereas physical methods for decontaminating the environment are extraordinarily expensive. Neither government nor private industry can afford the cost to clean up physically the nation's known toxic waste sites. Therefore, a renewed interest in bioremediation has developed. Whereas current technologies call for moving large quantities of toxic waste and its associated contaminated soil to incinerators, bioremediation can be done on site and requires simple equipment that is readily available. Bioremediation, though, is not the solution for all environmental pollution problems. Like other technologies, bioremediation has limitations

  8. Evaluation of hydrophobicity in PAH-contaminated soils during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofield, Naressa; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of recalcitrant organic compounds on soil hydrophobicity was evaluated in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site following 12 months of phytoremediation. Significant reduction in soil wetting and water retention was observed in contaminated soil compared to an uncontaminated control. Phytoremediation was effective at reducing total PAHs by 69% with corresponding changes in soil classification from extremely hydrophobic (initial sample) to moderately-strongly hydrophobic (planted) and hydrophilic-very hydrophilic (unplanted) after 12 months. The greatest reduction in soil hydrophobicity was observed in the unplanted, unfertilized treatments that had the lowest removal rate of PAHs. The presence of plants may contribute to hydrophobicity in contaminated soil. - The presence of recalcitrant hydrophobic organic pollutants may enhance soil hydrophobicity

  9. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions

  11. Contamination of freezing soils: Australia's Antarctic opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.

    2002-01-01

    Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere

  12. Soil contamination issues at U.S. ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.W.; Hagner, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that seven large and medium size west coast ports were surveyed during August 1990 to determine their involvement with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and activities associated with the characterization and remediation of these soils. All ports surveyed indicated that hey have hydrocarbon contaminated soil problems. Although other west coast ports do not have the scale of petroleum transfer and storage facilities that the Prot of Los Angeles has, all ports had tenants with bulk oil or fuel storage in aboveground tanks and were undertaking characterization and remediation work. Hydrocarbon contaminated soil problems were associated with these facilities or with decommissioned facilities of this type

  13. Phytoremediation of radioactive contaminated soil research and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Han Baohua; Ma Binghui; Wang Huijuan; Liang Yong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging environmental control technology with economic, environmental friendliness, etc., but also constrained by a variety of factors, such as difficulties of Hyperaccumulator screening, poor adaptability of plants, longer growing season and low biomass, which greatly limited the development and application of phytoremediation technology. This paper decribed the principles of phytoremediation for U, Sr and Cs contaminated soil, introduced research status involved, briefly nanlyzed the feasibility of phytoremediation techniques combined with the nuclear environmental remediation standards, and proposed suggestions for further researches. (authors)

  14. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  15. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent and fresh cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination of soil with industrial cutting fluids containing heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons has detrimental effects on ecosystems. As such contaminants constitute risk to human health; they can enter the food chain through agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. This growing concern about ...

  16. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were ...

  17. Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Traina, Samuel J.; Laperche, Valérie

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous concentrations of heavy metals in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments frequently are controlled by the dissolution and precipitation of discrete mineral phases. Contaminant uptake by organisms as well as contaminant transport in natural systems typically occurs through the solution phase. Thus, the thermodynamic solubility of contaminant-containing minerals in these environments can directly influence the chemical reactivity, transport, and ecotoxici...

  18. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Contaminated Soil Using Bacillus pumilus MVSV3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra Sheeba; Lakshmi, Mahalingam Brinda; Rajagopal, Perumalsam; Velan, Manickam

    2017-01-01

     A study on bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum sludge was performed using Bacillus pumilus/MVSV3 (Accession number JN089707). In this study, 5 kg of agricultural soil was mixed well with 5% oil sludge and fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N:P:K). The treatment resulted in 97% removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 122 d in bacteria mixed contaminated soil when compared to 12% removal of TPH in uninoculated contaminated soil. The population of the microorganism remained stable after introduced into the oil environment. The physical and chemical parameters of the soil mixed with sludge showed variation indicating improvement and the pH level decreased during the experiment period. Elemental analysis and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed the bacterial ability to degrade oil sludge components. Growth experiments with Trigonellafoenumgraecum (Fenugreek) showed the applicability of bioremediated soil for the production.

  19. Phytoextraction of low level U-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.A.; Hees, M. van

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle may be a source of environmental contamination. Uranium exploitation produces large quantities of wastes but also accidental spills at nuclear fuel production, reprocessing or waste treatment plants have led to soil contamination with uranium. U-contaminated soil is generally excavated, packaged and removed which is a costly enterprise. Soil washing has also shown promising in removing U from contaminated soil, but results in the generation of liquid wastes and the deterioration of soil properties. In contrast, phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove contaminants from polluted soil, allows for in situ treatment and does not generate liquid wastes. Furthermore, the contaminated site is covered by plants during phytoextraction and wind and water erosion will be reduced. The phytoextraction potential depends on the amount of radionuclides extracted and the biomass produced. Hyper-accumulating plants often have a low biomass production. Moreover, uranium soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF: ratio of U concentration in dry plant tissue to concentration in soil) rarely exceed a value of 0.1 gg -1 . With a TF of 0.1 gg -1 and a biomass yield of 15t dry weigh ha -1 only 0.1% of the soil uranium will be annually immobilised in the plant biomass. These figures clearly show that the phytoextraction option is not a feasible remediation option, unless the uranium bioavailability could be drastically increased. It was shown that citric acid addition to highly contaminated U contaminated soil increased the U-accumulation of Brassica juncea 1000-fold. The objective of the present paper is to find out if low level U contaminated soil can be phytoextracted in order to achieve proposed release limits

  20. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  1. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  2. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  3. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  4. Radionuclide contaminated micromycetes in the soil the thirty kilometer zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.N.; Vasilevskaya, A.I.; Redchits, T.I.; Gavrilov, V.I.; Lashko, T.N.; Luchkov, P.N.; Shcherbachenko, A.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1992-01-01

    From 1986 year the ecological monitoring of the soil microscopic fungi exist under conditions of the radioactive contamination in the thirty kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' NPP is conducted. As mycological isotope soil analysis the limiting factor in the ecological situation need consider the radionuclide contamination of the soils. It is shown, that the amount of fungus germs decreased by 200 times in 1986 year and increased sharp to 1989-90 years. During the first years after the accident, in the most contaminated soils dark-pigmented fungi predominated. It is due to a deep reorganization of the soil micromycete associations. Correlations is revealed in the interrelations among various species of fungi, isolated from the soils, differed in the radioactivity. Among 12 species of fungi (from 6 genuses of micromycetes) isotope accumulation is noted. There are Sr-90 and Cs-137, most widespread in the soil after the accident. 18 refs.; 8 figs

  5. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  6. Potential applications of Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) to ameliorate Cr6+ stress and phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika; Kumar, Vipin

    2018-03-20

    Contamination of agricultural soil with heavy metals has become a serious concern worldwide. In the present study, Cr 6+ resistant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. (strain CPSB21) was isolated from the tannery effluent contaminated agricultural soils and evaluated for the plant growth promoting activities, oxidative stress tolerance, and Cr 6+ bioremediation. Assessment of different plant growth promotion traits, such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide production, revealed that the strain CPSB21 served as an efficient plant growth promoter under laboratory conditions. A pot experiment was performed using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a test crop. Cr 6+ toxicity reduced plant growth, pigment content, N and P uptake, and Fe accumulation. However, inoculation of strain CPSB21 alleviated the Cr 6+ toxicity and enhanced the plant growth parameters and nutrient uptake. Moreover, Cr toxicity had varied response on oxidative stress tolerance at graded Cr 6+ concentration on both plants. An increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and reduction in malonialdehyde (MDA) was observed on inoculation of strain CPSB21. Additionally, inoculation of CPSB21 enhanced the uptake of Cr 6+ in sunflower plant, while no substantial enhancement was observed on inoculation in tomato plant.

  7. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be

  8. Decontamination of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using The Electrochemical Technique: Remediation Degree and Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streche, Constantin; Cocârţă, Diana Mariana; Istrate, Irina-Aura; Badea, Adrian Alexandru

    2018-02-19

    Currently, there are different remediation technologies for contaminated soils, but the selection of the best technology must be not only the treatment efficiency but also the energy consumption (costs) during its application. This paper is focused on assessing energy consumption related to the electrochemical treatment of polluted soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. In the framework of a research project, two types of experiments were conducted using soil that was artificially contaminated with diesel fuel at the same level of contamination. The experimental conditions considered for each experiment were: different amounts of contaminated soils (6 kg and 18 kg, respectively), the same current intensity level (0.25A and 0.5A), three different contamination degrees (1%, 2.5% and 5%) and the same time for application of the electrochemical treatment. The remediation degree concerning the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil increased over time by approximately 20% over 7 days. With regard to energy consumption, the results revealed that with an increase in the quantity of treated soil of approximately three times, the specific energy consumption decreased from 2.94 kWh/kg treated soil to 1.64 kWh/kg treated soil.

  9. Amendment of crude oil contaminated soil with sawdust and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... Akonye LA, Onwudiwe IO (2004). Potential for Sawdust and. Chromolaena leaves as soil amendments for plants growth in an oil polluted soil. Niger Delta Biologia 4: 50-60. Chen ZS Lee DY (1997). Evaluation of remediation technique on two. Cadmiun polluted soil contaminated with metals. North word.

  10. Arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, N.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant and soil samples were collected from one uncontaminated and four contaminated sites (in the Dashkasan mining area western Iran). Total and water-soluble arsenic in the soil ranged from 7 to 795 and from 0.007 to 2.32 mg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic concentration in soil was found at

  11. Mechanisms of hydrologic transport of soil contaminants in Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    The initial focus of this research will be on the selective sorting and transport of soil particles as they relate to altering the distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments. Several field experiments employing radionuclide-labeled soil particle size fractions are planned to accomplish research objectives

  12. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  13. Algal tests with soil suspensions and elutriates: A comparative evaluation for PAH contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Justesen, Kasper Bo; Nyholm, Niels

    2002-01-01

    An algal growth inhibition test procedure with soil suspensions is proposed and evaluated for PAH-contaminated soil. The growth rate reduction of the standard freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) was used as the toxicity endpoint......, and was quantified by measuring the fluorescence of solvent-extracted algal pigments. No growth rate reduction was detected for soil contents up to 20 g/l testing five non-contaminated Danish soils. Comparative testing with PAH-contaminated soil elutriates and soil suspensions showed that the suspensions had...

  14. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A; Black, Colin R; McGrath, Steve P; Young, Scott D

    2009-05-01

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with (73)As(V). Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms.

  15. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  16. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  17. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180th day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180th day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180th day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

  18. Guidelines for Posting Soil Contamination Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Eisele, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    All soil guidelines were determined using RESRAD, version 6.1. All offsite guidelines are based on 15 mrem/year. This dose rate is sufficiently low to protect human health and is in accordance with DOE guidance and the proposed EPA 40-CFR-196 regulations for members of the public (never promulgated). For those onsite areas where general employees (non-radiological workers) could have routine access, soil concentrations should be based on a dose rate of 30 mrem/year (approximately one-third of the onsite LANL non-radiological worker dose of 100 mrem/year). In this case, soil concentration guidelines may be obtained by doubling the 15 mrem/year guidelines. Several scenarios were developed to provide maximum flexibility for application of the guidelines. The offsite guidelines were developed using: residential scenarios for both adults and children; a construction worker scenario; a resource user (e.g., a hunter) scenario; a child playing within canyon reaches scenario, a trail using jogger within canyon reaches scenario, and a trail using hiker within canyon reaches scenario. The residential guidelines represent the lowest values from both the adult residential scenario and the child residential scenario.

  19. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  20. Pleasure Boatyard Soils are Often Highly Contaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta; Eklund, David

    2014-05-01

    The contamination in pleasure boatyards has been investigated. Measured concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), the 16 most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑16 PAHs), and the seven most common polychlorinated biphenyls (∑7 PCBs) from investigations at 34 boatyards along the Swedish coast have been compiled. The maximum concentrations were 7,700 for Cu, 10,200, for Zn, 40,100 for Pb, 188 for Hg, 18 for Cd, 107 for TBT, 630 for carcinogenic PAHs, 1,480 for ∑16 PAHs, and 3.8 mg/kg DW for ∑7 PCB; all 10-2,000 higher than the Swedish environmental qualitative guidelines. In addition, the mean of the median values found at the 34 places shows that the lower guidance value for sensitive use of land was exceeded for the ∑7 PCBs, carcinogenic PAHs, TBT, Pb, Hg, and Cu by a factor of 380, 6.8, 3.6, 2.9, 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. The even higher guideline value for industrial use was exceeded for the ∑7 PCBs and TBT by a factor of 15 and 1.8, respectively. TBT, PAHs, Pb, Cd, and Hg are prioritized substances in the European Water Framework Directive and should be phased out as quickly as possible. Because of the risk of leakage from boatyards, precautions should be taken. The high concentrations measured are considered to be dangerous for the environment and human health and highlight the urgent need for developing and enforcing pleasure boat maintenance guidelines to minimize further soil and nearby water contamination.

  1. Selective flotation for the removal of radionuclides from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, Y.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive contaminated soils (10--500 pci/gm) created by defense-related activities at certain Superfund sites, such as Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a current environmental concern. Many of these contaminated sites may require appropriate cleanup and restoration, which could cost billions of dollars and put tremendous pressure on limited financial resources. Therefore, the development of a selective flotation process to separate such radionuclides from contaminated soils should be considered. In this study, both a pure depleted UO 2 sample and three synthetic UO 2 /soil mixtures were used to evaluate surface chemistry features and to examine the possibility for the flotation of fine UO 2 particles from selected soils. It was intended that this model system would be a reasonable representation of contaminated soils such as those found the Nevada Test Site which are reported to be contaminated by PuO 2 fallout. The effect of reagent schedule, particle size distribution, and surface charge are discussed with respect to the flotation separation of the UO 2 /soil mixtures. It was found that both commercial fatty acids and reagent grade sodium oleate are effective collectors for UO 2 flotation provided the pH is adjusted to the range of pH 8--9. The bench-scale flotation results successfully demonstrated that froth flotation technology can be used to remove UO 2 from such model contaminated soils with appropriate flotation chemistry conditions which depend on the soil characteristics and other pretreatment procedures

  2. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  3. Soil management planning for military installations: Strategy for identifying contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Baskin, D.A.; Downey, D.; Taffinder, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous federal and state regulations mandate the proper handling and disposal and/or treatment of contaminated soils. The Land Disposal Ban and the increasing lack of new or proximal land disposal facilities, coupled with the increasing liability of off-site disposal, have created a need for altering the traditional methods of managing contaminated sods. To delineate soil management decisions, a Soil Management Plan (SMP) was developed which incorporates the substantive requirements of CERCLA/SARA and RCRA into the ongoing base activities (i.e., construction projects, utility repairs and maintenance) and other environmental projects (i.e., underground storage tank removals) that may involve contaminated soils. The decision-making process is developed to guide base personnel in recognizing contamination, following proper sampling and temporary storage procedures, preventing unnecessary human exposure and isolating soils for removal off-site or treatment on-site. The SMP also contains a comprehensive review of soil remediation technologies, such as biological treatment, soil vapor extraction, soil washing, biofiltering, thermal desorption, soil stabilization/solidification, chemical/physical treatment and incineration. Contaminant types expected at the federal military facility are cross-referenced to the appropriate remediation technologies to determine the specific base needs for a soil treatment unit. An example of a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment unit is presented for a base where underground fuel tanks are the principal source of soil contamination

  4. Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Uranium using a Biological Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Un Soo; Moon, Jai Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method to cleanup contaminants in soil or ground water with microorganisms. The biological method can reduce the volume of waste solution and the construction cost and operation cost of soil remediation equipment. Bioremediation can be divided into natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation. Biostimulation is technology to improve natural purification by adding nutritional substances, supplying oxygen and controlling pH. In this study, penatron, that is a nutritional substances, was mixed with soil. Optimum conditions for mixing ratios of penatron and soil, and the pH of soil was determined through several bioremediation experiments with soil contaminated with uranium. Also, under optimum experiment conditions, the removal efficiencies of soil and concrete according to reaction time were measured for feasibility analysis of soil and concrete bioremediations

  5. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs

  6. Rock-Eval 6 Applications in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production, and Soil Contamination Studies Les applications de Rock-Eval 6 dans l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures, et dans les études de contamination des sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafargue E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful petroleum exploration relies on detailed analysis of the petroleum system in a given area. Identification of potential source rocks, their maturity and kinetic parameters, and their regional distribution are best accomplished by rapid screening of rock samples (cores and/or cuttings using the Rock-Eval apparatus. The technique has been routinely used for about fifteen years and has become a standard tool for hydrocarbon exploration. This paper describes how the new functions of the latest version of Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 have expanded applications of the method in petroleum geoscience. Examples of new applications are illustrated for source rock characterization, reservoir geochemistry, and environmental studies, including quantification. Le succès d'une exploration pétrolière repose sur l'analyse détaillée du système pétrolier dans une zone donnée. L'identification des roches mères potentielles, la détermination de leur maturité, de leurs paramètres cinétiques et de leur répartition sont réalisées au mieux à partir d'examens rapides d'échantillons de roches (carottes ou déblais au moyen de la pyrolyse Rock-Eval. Cette technique a été utilisée en routine pendant une quinzaine d'années et elle est devenue un outil standard pour l'exploration des hydrocarbures. Cet article décrit comment les nouvelles fonctionnalités de la dernière version de l'appareil Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 ont permis une expansion des applications de la méthode en géosciences pétrolières. Des exemples d'applications nouvelles sont illustrés dans les domaines de la caractérisation des roches mères, de la géochimie de réservoir et des études environnementales incluant la quantification et la description des hydrocarbures dans des sols contaminés.

  7. Biosensors for detection of mercury in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontidean, Ibolya; Mortari, Alessia; Leth, Suzanne; Brown, Nigel L.; Karlson, Ulrich; Larsen, Martin M.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Corbisier, Philippe; Csoeregi, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Biosensors based on whole bacterial cells and on bacterial heavy metal binding protein were used to determine the mercury concentration in soil. The soil samples were collected in a vegetable garden accidentally contaminated with elemental mercury 25 years earlier. Bioavailable mercury was measured using different sensors: a protein-based biosensor, a whole bacterial cell based biosensor, and a plant sensor, i.e. morphological and biochemical responses in primary leaves and roots of bean seedlings grown in the mercury-contaminated soil. For comparison the total mercury concentration of the soil samples was determined by AAS. Whole bacterial cell and protein-based biosensors gave accurate responses proportional to the total amount of mercury in the soil samples. On the contrary, plant sensors were found to be less useful indicators of soil mercury contamination, as determined by plant biomass, mercury content of primary leaves and enzyme activities

  8. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-products or industrial by-products (e.g., biochar, red mud, and steel slag). Among different amendments, iron-rich compounds and biochars show high efficiency to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils. Thereupon, immobilization technique can be considered a preferable option as it is inexpensive and easily applicable to large quantities of contaminants derived from various sources.

  9. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequenci...

  10. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  11. Use of Maize (Zea mays L.) for phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Hannan, Fakhir

    2017-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its high biomass production and Cd accumulation capacity. This paper reviewed the toxic effects of Cd and its management by maize plants. Maize could tolerate a certain level of Cd in soil while higher Cd stress can decrease seed germination, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis and growth/yields. Toxicity response of maize to Cd varies with cultivar/varieties, growth medium and stress duration/extent. Exogenous application of organic and inorganic amendments has been used for enhancing Cd tolerance of maize. The selection of Cd-tolerant maize cultivar, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes is a representative agronomic practice to enhance Cd tolerance in maize. Proper selection of cultivar and agronomic practices combined with amendments might be successful for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils with maize. However, there might be the risk of food chain contamination by maize grains obtained from the Cd-contaminated soils. Thus, maize cultivation could be an option for the management of low- and medium-grade Cd-contaminated soils if grain yield is required. On the other hand, maize can be grown on Cd-polluted soils only if biomass is required for energy production purposes. Long-term field trials are required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies aiming Cd phytomanagement with maize.

  12. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  13. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  14. CLOPYRALID DISSIPATION IN THE SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kucharski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to determine the influence of copper and zinc contamination on clopyralid dissipation in soil. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions (plant growth chamber. Clopyralid was applied to three different soils [similar textures, pH, organic carbon content and contrasting copper and zinc content: soil natural contaminated with Cu and Zn (S1, soil with natural low Cu and Zn concentration (S2 and soil S21 prepared in the laboratory (S2 soil additionally contaminated with Cu and Zn salts in the amounts equivalent to contamination level of S1 soil]. Soil samples were taken for analyses for 1 hour (initial concentration and 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 96 days after treatment. Clopyralid residue was analysed using GC/ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Good linearity was found between logarithmic concentration of clopyralid residues and time. The differences in Cu and Zn content influenced the clopyralid decay in soil. The values of DT50 obtained in the experiment ranged from 21 to 27 days. A high concentration of Cu and Zn in soil slowed down clopyralid degradation (the DT50 value was higher – 25–27 days.

  15. Column leaching of chromium and nickel from a contaminated soil using EDTA and citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Soro, Liliane; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the column leaching of a soil contaminated mainly with Cr and Ni by using two chelants: citric acid (biodegradable) and EDTA (non-biodegradable) followed with water rinse. The chelants lead to Cr and Ni leaching, in addition to major elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn and Zn) showing the dissolution of soil mineral constituents. EDTA leaches more major elements and Ni than citric acid related to the respective stability of metal–chelant complexes; citric acid leaches more Cr than EDTA, certainly because of a substitution reaction with Cr(VI). In the case of alternating chelant/water applications, leaching occurs during the chelant applications, but also during water applications. In the case of chelant/water applications followed by continuous water application, both Cr and Ni leach over time. This increased mobility could be due to the residual chelant present in soil as well as to the dissolution/mobilization of mineral or organic soil fractions. - Highlights: ► Column leaching of an industrial soil contaminated with chromium and nickel. ► Citric acid or EDTA were used alternatively or followed with water rinse. ► Chelants lead to Cr and Ni leaching and the dissolution of soil mineral constituents. ► Leaching of these two metals proceeds continuously during water rinse. ► Chelants deeply impacted Cr and Ni mobility. - Citric acid or EDTA application deeply impact Cr and Ni mobility during column leaching of a contaminated soil.

  16. Bioremediation of lead contaminated soil with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Peng, Weihua; Jia, Yingying; Lu, Lin; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation with microorganisms is a promising technique for heavy metal contaminated soil. Rhodobacter sphaeroides was previously isolated from oil field injection water and used for bioremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil in the present study. Based on the investigation of the optimum culturing conditions and the tolerance to Pb, we employed the microorganism for the remediation of Pb contaminated soil simulated at different contamination levels. It was found that the optimum temperature, pH, and inoculum size for R. sphaeroides is 30-35 °C, 7, and 2 × 10(8) mL(-1), respectively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides did not remove the Pb from soil but did change its speciation. During the bioremediation process, more available fractions were transformed to less accessible and inert fractions; in particular, the exchangeable phase was dramatically decreased while the residual phase was substantially increased. A wheat seedling growing experiment showed that Pb phytoavailability was reduced in amended soils. Results inferred that the main mechanism by which R. sphaeroides treats Pb contaminated soil is the precipitation formation of inert compounds, including lead sulfate and lead sulfide. Although the Pb bioremediation efficiency on wheat was not very high (14.78% root and 24.01% in leaf), R. sphaeroides remains a promising alternative for Pb remediation in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  18. Engineering-scale tests of in situ vitrification to PCB and radioactive contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology applicable to the remediation of hazardous chemical and radioactive contaminated soil and sludge sites. The ISV process utilizes electricity, through joule heating, to melt contaminated soil and form an inert glass and microcrystalline residual product. Applications of ISV to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclides have been demonstrated at engineering-scale in numerous tests (1,2,3). An updated evaluation of ISV applicability to treatment of PCBs and radionuclides, and recent test results are presented herein

  19. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  20. Assessment of radioactive contaminations of the ground in Hanover-List with scales and methods of the German Federal Ordinance on Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites (BBodSchV). Pt. 2. Application of test thresholds and determination of need for actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Guenther, Petra; Evers, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper test thresholds for radionuclides in soil have been derived on the basis of methods and scales of the German Ordinance on Soil Protection (BBodSchV). In this paper, these test thresholds are checked with regard to their plausibility. Materials, methods, results are described in Part 1 of this paper. This contribution demonstrates that the test thresholds derived in Part 1 are plausible and feasible according to the requirements of the established methods. The epidemiological basis for the treatment of ionizing radiation is well founded. Risks can be quantified via the knowledge of cancer risks due to radiation. As a reference value the overall fatal risk coefficient of 5 % per Sv recommended by ICRP is used. The test thresholds obtained are sufficiently far from background levels in soils of northern Germany. Consequently, the test thresholds are applicable without any background corrections. Exposures by external radiation outdoors and exposures by inhalation of radon in cellar rooms result in calculated test thresholds in the order of background levels. Nevertheless, feasible results are obtained because in the case of toxic substances without threshold levels the additional exposures are considered for determination of test thresholds. The approach of test thresholds for radioactive soil contamination presented in Part 1 of this paper complies with the criteria of the German methods for calculation of test thresholds in soil protection regarding plausibility and feasibility. It enables the soil protection authorities to assess radioactive contaminations of the ground according to the established rules in the field of soil protection and to make decisions according to Articles 9 and 10 of the German Soil Protection Act. Part 3 of this paper discusses the application of the test thresholds and the possibilities of determining the need for remediation actions. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, G F; Römkens, P F A M; Fokkema, M J; Song, J; Luo, Y M; Japenga, J; Zhao, F J

    2008-12-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha(-1) yr(-1) yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.

  2. Natural attenuation of diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Antonio; Gallego, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A diesel fuel spill at a concentration of 1 L m -2 soil was simulated on a 12 m 2 plot of agricultural land, and natural attenuation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was monitored over a period of 400 days following the spill after which the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be below the legal contamination threshold for soil. The main fraction of these compounds (95%) remained at the surface layer (0-10 cm). Shortly after the spill (viz. between days 0 and 18), evaporation was the main origin of the dramatic decrease in pollutant concentrations in the soil. Thereafter, soil microorganisms used aliphatic hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy, as confirmed by the degradation ratios found. Soil quality indicators, soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity, regained their original levels about 200 days after the spill. - The effect of aliphatic hydrocarbons contamination on soil quality was monitored over a period of 400 days after a Diesel fuel spill

  3. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  4. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used...... as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two...

  5. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-03-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites.

  6. Vermiremediation of Soils Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia ... hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using gas chromatography. ... adverse effects. The need to ...

  7. Deciphering heavy metal contamination zones in soils of a granitic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ., Ba, Cr, Cu,. Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr ... metal contamination in soils of different regions. The study ... in the Hyderabad city. ... A network of first and second order streams ... In this case, redun- ...... strategy for developing countries; In: Lead, mercury, cad-.

  8. ligninolytic enzymes of the fungus isolated from soil contaminated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUTE

    aimed at isolating lignin degrading fungi from soil contaminated with cow dung ... strain was screened for production of ligninolytic enzymes using Rhemazol Brilliant blue R ... put in airtight plastic bag and carried out to ..... Enzyme Microbial.

  9. assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic .... and this was done all through the sample preparation. ... shaking was done by a mechanical sieve shaker and.

  10. Partitioning of heavy metals in a soil contaminated by slag: A redistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Trautmannsheimer, M.; Schramel, P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to interpret reasonably the partitioning of heavy metals in a contaminated soil as observed from applying a sequential extraction procedure, information on possible redistribution processes of the metals during the various extraction steps is essential. For this purpose, sequential extraction was used to study the chemical partitioning of Ag, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in a soil contaminated wither by a slag from coal firing or by a slag from pyrite roasting. Through additional application of sequential extraction to the pure slags as well as to the uncontaminated soil, it was shown that during the various extraction steps applied to the soil/slag mixtures, substantial redistribution processes of the metals between the slag- and soil particles can occur. In many cases, metals ions released during the extraction with acid hydroxylamine or acid hydrogen peroxide are partially readsorbed by solid constituents of the mixture and will therefore be found in the subsequent fractions extracted. As a result, one has to realize that (1) it will be difficult to predict the chemical partitioning of these metals in contaminated soils by investigating pure slags only, and (2) information on the partitioning of a metal in a slag contaminated soil will not necessarily give any relevant information on the form of this metal in the slag or in the slag/soil mixture, because the redistribution processes during sequential extraction will not be the same as those occurring in the soil solution under natural conditions

  11. In situ vadose zone remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, J.R.; Finkel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a pilot-scale system treating vadose zone soils contaminated with petroleum products constructed and operated at a former petroleum bulk storage terminal in New England. A site investigation following decommissioning activities identified more than 100,000 yds of soil at the site contaminated by both No. 2 fuel oil and gasoline. Soil cleanup criteria of 50 ppm TPH and 0.25 ppm BTEX were established. A pilot-scale treatment unit with dimensions of 125 ft x 125 ft x 6 ft was constructed to evaluate the potential for in situ treatment of vadose zone soils. Contaminant levels in pilot cell soils ranged from 0 to 5,250 ppm TPH and 0.0 to 4.2 ppm BTEX. Two soil treatment methods n the pilot system were implemented; venting to treat the lighter petroleum fractions and bioremediation to treat the nonvolatile petroleum constituents. Seven soil gas probes were installed to monitor pressure and soil gas vapor concentrations in the subsurface. Changes in soil gas oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were used as an indirect measure of enhanced bioremediation of pilot cell soils. After operating the system for a period of 2.5 months, soil BTEX concentrations were reduced to concentrations below the remediation criteria for the site

  12. Review on utilization of biochar for metal-contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Yi; Cheng, Lirong; Andserson, Bruce; Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Dayang; Ding, Aizhong

    2018-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative material produced through thermal decomposition of plant- and animal-based biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the application of biochar as an adsorbent, soil ameliorant and climate mitigation approach in many types of applications. Metal-contaminated soil remediation using biochar has been intensively investigated in small-scale and pilot-scale trials with obtained beneficial results and multifaceted effects. But so far, the study and application of biochar in contaminated sediment management has been very limited, and this is also a worldwide problem. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that the same multiple benefits can also be realized with these sediments due to similar mechanisms for stabilizing contaminants. This paper provides a review on current biochar properties and its use as a sorbent/amendment for metal-contaminated soil/sediment remediation and its effect on plant growth, fauna habits as well as microorganism communities. In addition, the use of biochar as a potential strategy for contaminated sediment management is also discussed, especially as regards in-situ planning. Finally, we highlight the possibility of biochar application as an effective amendment and propose further research directions to ensure the safe and sustainable use of biochar as an amendment for remediation of contaminated soil and sediment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Degradation of tetraethyllead in leaded gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L.; Jing, W.; Thomas, J.; Mulroy, P.

    1995-01-01

    For over 50 years, since its introduction in 1923 by General Motors, tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major antiknock agent used in leaded gasoline. Since the middle of 1970, use of leaded gasoline in automobiles was gradually phased out. The main objective of this study is to determine the degradation rates and metabolites of TEL in gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils. TEL in uncontaminated soils disappeared rapidly. Ionic triethyllead (TREL) was the major organolead metabolite in these soils, with ionic diethyllead (DEL) being the minor product. Nonsterile soils, but not autoclaved soils, had limited capacity to mineralize 14 C-TEL to 14 CO 2 , H 2 0, and Pb 2+ . Unlike TEL in uncontaminated soils, petroleum hydrocarbons protected TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils from being degraded. Both disappearance and mineralization rates of TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils decreased with the increase in gasoline concentration. It appears that TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils is relatively stable until the level of petroleum hydrocarbons falls below a critical value. TEL is then rapidly degraded. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms may be involved, to some extent, in the degradation of TEL

  14. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Maubert, H.; Schulte, E.

    1992-01-01

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only 1 cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Soil microbial effects of smelter induced heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, A

    1986-01-01

    The soil concentrations of Cu and Zn at the secondary smelter were 20 00 mu g/g dry soil. Close to the primary smelter the soil was contaminated with more than ten elements including Pb, Zn, Cu and As at levels ranging between 6000 and 1000 mu g/g dry soil. The correlations between the concentrations of the metals were high at both smelters. Soil respiration rate decreased by about 75% close to both smelters. Total and fluorescein diacetate stained mycelial lengths decrease with increasing heavy metal pollution at the secondary but not at the primary smelter. The fungal community structure was strongly affected by the contamination. General common in coniferous forest soils such as Penicillium and Oidiodendron virtually vanished, while less frequent species like Paecilomyces farinosus and Geomyces pannorum dominated the site close to the smelter. Colony forming units of a number of functional groups of bacteria were found to be very sensitive to metal contamination. The urease activity of the soil was inhibited. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the metal contamination was the major environmental influence on the microbiotain the soils studied. A study of about 200 decomposition curves resulting from glutamic acid additions to the different soils produced four microbially related parameters: basal respiration rate, initial respiration rate after the addition of the glutamic acid, specific respiration rate during the exponential increase of the respiration rate and the lag time before the exponential phase. With 53 refs.

  16. Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated a remediation process for diesel-contaminated soil, in which water was used to remove the diesel from the soil and peat was used to absorb the diesel layer formed on the surface of the water. The percolation of water through the soil was uniform. The time required for water to percolate the soil and for the layers (soil, water, and diesel) to separate depended on the soil depth. Both the depth of soil and mixing affected the thickness of the diesel layer and thus diesel recovery from the contaminated soil. Higher diesel recovery was achieved with smaller soil depth and mixing. The initial moisture content and the lower heating value of the peat were 7.1% and 17.65 MJ/kg, respectively. The final moisture content and lower heating value of the diesel-contaminated peat obtained from the experiment with mixing were 8.65 - 10.80% and 32.57 - 35.81 MJ/kg, respectively. The energy content of the diesel-contaminated peat is much higher than that of coal, and the moisture content is within the range recommended for biomass gasification. (author)

  17. Testing of multistep soil washing for radiocesium-contaminated soil containing plant matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakawa, Masafumi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Okuda, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination work following radiocesium exposure requires a vast reduction in the amount of contaminated soil generated. The current study subjected 4 types of contaminated soil with different properties to multistep soil washing under the same conditions. This study also determined the effectiveness of radiocesium decontamination and the extent to which the amount of contaminated soil was reduced. In addition, the effectiveness of plant matter separation, adsorbent addition, and grinding as part of multistep soil washing was determined using the same contaminated soil. Results of testing indicated that the rate of radiocesium decontamination ranged from 73.6 to 89.2% and the recovery rate ranged from 51.5 to 84.2% for twice-treated soil, regardless of the soil properties or cesium level. Plant matter in soil had a high radiocesium level. However, there was little plant matter in our soil sample. Therefore, plant matter separation had little effect on the improvement in the percentage of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. Soil surface grinding improved the rate of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. However, radiocesium in soil tightly bound with minerals in the soil; thus, the addition of an adsorbent also failed to improve the rate of radiocesium decontamination. (author)

  18. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  19. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Kızılkaya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available nsecticides are used in modern agriculture in large quantities to control pests and increase crop yield. Their use, however, has resulted in the disruption of ecosystems because of the effects on non-target soil microorganisms, some environmental problems, and decreasing soil fertility. These negative effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment have led to the search for alternative means of pest control. One such alternative is use of natural plant products such as azadirachtin that have pesticidal activity. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of soil contamination by azadirachtin (C35H44O16 on dehydrogenase (DHA and catalase activity (CA of soil under field conditions in Perm, Russia. The tests were conducted on loamy soil (pHH2O 6.7, ECH2O 0.213 dSm-1, organic carbon 0.99%, to which the following quantities of azadirachtin were added: 0, 15, 30 and 60 mL da-1 of soil. Experimental design was randomized plot design with three replications. The DHA and CA analyses were performed 7, 14 and 21 days after the field experiment was established. The results of field experiment showed that azadirachtin had a positive influence on the DHA and CA at different soil sampling times. The increased doses of azadirachtin applied resulted in the higher level of DHA and CA in soil. The soil DHA and CA showed the highest activity on the 21th day after 60 mL azadirachtin da-1 application doses.

  1. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  3. Bioremediation of contaminated soil: Strategy and case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of micro-organisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental conditions. Two general reasons account for the failure of microbes to degrade pollutants in any environment: (1) inherent molecular recalcitrance of the contaminants and (2) environmental factors. The inherent molecular recalcitrance is usually associated with xenobiotic compounds where the chemical structure of the molecule is such that microbes and enzymes required for its catabolism have not evolved yet in nature. The environmental factors include a range of physicochemical conditions which influence microbial growth and activity. Biological remediation of contaminated sites can be accomplished using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. Only particular groups of microorganisms are capable of decomposing specific compounds. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: thorough site/soil/waste characterization; treatability studies; and design and implementation of the bioremediation plan. The results of in situ and ex situ treatment programs involving the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil will be discussed in detail. The paper will address key issues affecting the success of the bioremediation process such as nutrient transport, metal precipitation and potential soil clogging, microbial inoculation, etc

  4. Remediation of a radioactively contaminated soil using a mobile soil-washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Lahoda, E.J.; Dietrich, A.J.; Weigle, D.H.; Keegan, C.P.; Sachse, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In order to obtain free-release of a former uranium mining site in Texas, it was required that the surface soil meet specific radiological guidelines. The soil has been contaminated with uranium and radium as a result of the spillage of well-drilling material, process solutions, and ion exchange resins during mining. To meet the required guidelines, the contaminated soil had to be either removed and disposed of off-site or remediated. For economic and long-term liability reasons, remediation of the soil by soil washing was performed. The remediation of this site utilizing the Scientific Ecology Group's soil washing system is discussed in this paper

  5. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  6. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by spent diesel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with spent diesel oil at 5, 10 and 15% (v/w) level of contamination over a period of one and two months of incubation. Methodology and results: A pure culture of P. pulmonarius was obtained from the Plant physiology ...

  7. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert W.; Frank, James R.; Feng, Xiandong

    1998-01-01

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  8. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  9. Biochar as possible long-term soil amendment for phytostabilisation of TE-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Charlotte; Christl, Iso; Schulin, Rainer; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-09-01

    Soils contaminated by trace elements (TEs) pose a high risk to their surrounding areas as TEs can spread by wind and water erosion or leaching. A possible option to reduce TE transfer from these sites is phytostabilisation. It is a long-term and cost-effective rehabilitation strategy which aims at immobilising TEs within the soil by vegetation cover and amendment application. One possible amendment is biochar. It is charred organic matter which has been shown to immobilise metals due to its high surface area and alkaline pH. Doubts have been expressed about the longevity of this immobilising effect as it could dissipate once the carbonates in the biochar have dissolved. Therefore, in a pot experiment, we determined plant metal uptake by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) from three TE-contaminated soils treated with two biochars, which differed only in their pH (acidic, 2.80; alkaline, 9.33) and carbonate (0.17 and 7.3 %) content. Root biomass was increased by the application of the alkaline biochar due to the decrease in TE toxicity. Zinc and Cu bioavailability and plant uptake were equally reduced by both biochars, showing that surface area plays an important role in metal immobilisation. Biochar could serve as a long-term amendment for TE immobilisation even after its alkalinity effect has dissipated.

  10. Advancements in portable x-ray analyzer technology for real-time contaminant profiling in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorek, S.

    1992-01-01

    During the last 4 years since the first published application of portable X-ray analyzers for on-site chemical characterization of contaminated soil, a field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) established itself as the most promising technique for a broad range of environmental applications

  11. Combined Effects of Biochar and Fertilizer on Cadmium Contaminated Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Qi-kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was employed to study on the combined effects of biochar and chicken manure and N, P and K compound chemical fertilizer on cadmium contaminated soil remediation, and the immobilization mechanism was elucidated through fractionation of cadmium in the tested soil. Results showed that the addition of these ammendments could significantly reduce the edible Cd accumulation in Lactuca sativa L., decreased from 32.6% to 54.8% compared with the control. The application of these additives could also significantly decrease extractable Cd concentration by 7.04%~21.85%. Biochar could significantly improve soil pH value, promote the inactivation of Cd contaminated soil, while the application of chicken manure significantly decreased soil pH value, which showed the effect of activating Cd in soil. Soil pH value had significant positive correlation with root Cd concentration of tested cultivars, but did not reach the significant effect level with the shoot Cd concentration. The research can provide a theoretical basis for the application of biochar combined with chicken manure and N, P and K compound chemical fertilizer on remediation of sewage irrigated Cd contaminated soil.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  13. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  14. Soil contamination in south Backa region of Serbia with dangerous and harmful substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Livija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples in disturbed state were taken in order to control fertility and monitor contents of harmful and hazardous substances in Vojvodina soils and possibilities of soil degradation in general. Moderately contaminated soils were selected for examination. Microbial activity in contaminated soil and the impact of harmful and hazardous substances (pesticides on soil microorganisms were observed and most resistant microorganisms were isolated. Vegetation experiments were organized to study the effect of chelating agents EDTA and EDDS on copper adoption and translocation in rapeseed and sunflower. Importance of some ions in the complexation of copper chelators and their undesirable effects on copper uptake were established. Field trials were organized to study the effect of hydrogel on water uptakes by plants, increase in rate and the increase in rate of removal of hazardous and harmful substances from soil solution. At all phases of the project, we monitored the effectiveness of soil bioremediation soils by means of the application of chelating agents, stimulative preparations such as hydrogel and certain microorganisms. It effectiveness was measured in terms of plant growth rate and intensity in removal of hazardous and harmful substances from contaminated soil.

  15. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  16. Effects of past copper contamination and soil structure on copper leaching from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo, M; Møldrup, Per; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Copper contamination affects biological, chemical, and physical soil properties and associated ecological functions. Changes in soil pore organization as a result of Cu contamination can dramatically affect flow and contaminant transport in polluted soils. This study assessed the influence of soil...... structure on the movement of water and Cu in a long-term polluted soil. Undisturbed soil cores collected along a Cu gradient (from about 20 to about 3800 mg Cu kg−1 soil) were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Leaching experiments were performed to analyze tracer transport, colloid leaching......, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Cu losses. The 5% arrival time (t0.05) and apparent dispersivity (λapp) for tracer breakthrough were calculated by fitting the experimental data to a nonparametric, double-lognormal probability density function. Soil bulk density, which did not follow the Cu gradient...

  17. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  18. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  19. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction of lead from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.M.; Sims, J.T.; Cunningham, S.D.; Huang, J.W.; Berti, W.R.

    1999-12-01

    Phytoextraction, a remediation strategy for lead (Pb)-contaminated soils that removes soil Pb through plant uptake and harvest, may be enhanced by use of synthetic chelates. The authors evaluated Pb desorption from four contaminated soils by seven chelates (CDTA, DTPA, EDDHA, EFTA, HEDTA, HEIDA, and NTA) at three rates. The three most effective chelates (CDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA) were used in greenhouse studies with an uncontaminated soil and a Pb-contaminated soil to determine the effect of chelate type and rate on growth, Pb uptake, and plant elemental composition. Lead desorption varied with chelate and soil and increased with chelate rate, averaging 948 mg Pb kg{sup {minus}1} at the 20 mmol kg{sup {minus}1} rate vs. 28 mg Pb kg{sup {minus}1} by the control. The general ranking of chelate effectiveness, based on total Pb desorbed, was HEDTA > CDTA > DTPA > EGTA > HEIDA > EDDHA {approximately} NTA. Plant uptake of Pb from the contaminated soil was enhanced by CDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA, but with even the most effective treatment (corn, high CDTA rate), the amount of Pb extracted by plants was rather low. Lead extractable by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was increased from 9 mg L{sup {minus}1} in the control to from 47 to 174 mg L{sup {minus}1} in soils treated with 20 mmol kg{sup {minus}1} CDTA or DTPA and chelates generally caused a shift in Pb from resistant to more soluble chemical fractions.

  20. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  1. Bioremediation of soil contaminated crude oil by Agaricomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sichani, M Maryam; Assadi, M Mazaheri; Farazmand, A; Kianirad, M; Ahadi, A M; Ghahderijani, H Hadian

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems is the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soil, particularly in the oil-rich country. Bioremediation is the most effective way to remove these pollutants in the soil. Spent mushroom compost has great ability to decompose lignin-like pollution. The purpose of this study was the bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil by an Agaricomycetes . Soil sample amended with spent mushroom compost into 3%, 5% and 10% (w/w) with or without fertilizer. Ecotoxicity germination test was conducted with Lipidium sativa . The amplified fragment (18 s rDNA) sequence of this mushroom confirmed that the strain belonged to Pleurotus ostreatus species with complete homology (100% identity). All tests experiment sets were effective at supporting the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil after three months. Petroleum contaminated soil amended with Spent mushroom compost 10% and fertilizer removed 64.7% of total petroleum hydrocarbons compared control. The germination index (%) in ecotoxicity tests ranged from 60.4 to 93.8%. This showed that the petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil amended with 10% Spent mushroom compost had higher bioremediation ability and reduced soil toxicity in less than three months.

  2. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  3. Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the recent research conducted at the Arctic Technology Centre, where different solutions for remediation of excavated oil contaminated soil in Greenlandic towns were tested. In the first work, soil polluted by light oil was treated with two different nutrient sources (substrate...

  4. Functioning of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelusic, Masa; Grcman, Helena; Vodnik, Dominik; Suhadolc, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of remediation using three EDTA doses (10, 30, 60 mmol kg −1 ) on soil functioning was assessed using column experiment and Brassica rapa. Soil washing removed up to 77, 29 and 72% of metals from soil contaminated with 1378, 578 and 8.5 mg kg −1 of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Sequential extraction indicated removal from the carbonate soil fraction. Metal oral-accessibility from the stomach phase was reduced by up to 75 and from the small intestine by up to 79% (Pb). Part of metals (up to 0.8% Cd) was lost due to leaching from columns. Remediation reduced toxic metal soil-root transfer by up to 61% but did not prevent metal accumulation in leaves. The fitness of plants grown on EDTA washed soils (gas exchange, fluorescence) was not compromised. Remediation initially reduced the soil DNA content (up to 29%, 30 mmol kg −1 EDTA) and changed the structure of microbial population. -- Highlights: ► Toxic metals contaminated garden soil was remediated in a pilot-scale. ► EDTA washing reduced soil Pb, Zn and Cd content and bioavailability. ► Remediated soil preserved the function of plant and microbial substrate. ► Remediation didn't prevent the accumulation of toxic metals in the test plant. -- EDTA soil washing effectively removed toxic metals and reduced their transfer from the soil to plant roots but did not prevent their accumulation in leaves

  5. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  6. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of stress acclimated bacteria and nutrient supplements to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soil can be a cost effective and reliable treatment technology to reduce organic contaminant levels to below established by local, state, and federal regulatory clean-up criteria. This paper will summarize the results of a field study in which 12,000 yds 3 of petroleum contaminated soil was successfully treated via ex-situ bioremediation and through management of macro and micronutrient concentrations, as well as, other site specific environmental factors that are essential for optimizing microbial growth

  8. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  9. Reduction in bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated irrigated soil using zinc and organic manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, S.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to reduce the bioavailability of arsenic with application of organic and inorganic materials from contaminated soils irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. The results showed that the amount of extractable arsenic increased with submergence and decreased with application of organic material. However, amount of such decrease altered with inorganic material i.e. zinc and decrease was greater with As5Zn10 (0.17 to 0.0 mg/kg) where zinc was applied at the rate of 10 mg/kg. Among the different organic materials, arsenic content in soil remarkably decreased with application of farmyard manure. The decrease in arsenic content was less than upper toxic limit of arsenic in soil i.e.10mg/kg for paddy soils. Other manures also showed decrease in arsenic concentration but with desorption after half interval of treatment. Best remediating agents used for arsenic retention was zinc sulphate> organic compost >farmyard manure. (author)

  10. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  11. Management and re-use of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, V.K.; LeBlanc, M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume occupied by petroleum-contaminated soils in landfill facilities could be totally eliminated by treatment of these soils in separate facilities. Once treated, the soils could be recycled. In New Brunswick, one such treatment facility was opened in 1992 adjacent to the Fredericton regional landfill site; a second site was opened near Moncton in 1992. These facilities receive petroleum-contaminated soil from such users as gasoline stations, bulk plants, institutions, and transport companies, as well as from oil spill sites. The types of contaminants present range from gasoline to heavy fuel oils and greases, and the soils can vary from clays to gravels. Incoming soils are layered on treatment pads and treated by bioremediation. A bionutrient mixture containing fertilizers plus an amount of adapted, naturally-occurring petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is sprayed onto the pile layer by layer. Aeration tubing is also installed during this layering process. When the piles are complete, they are covered with black plastic and aerated. Bioremediation times vary from 10 to 24 weeks. The facility has successfully decontaminated over 20,000 tonnes of soil to date. The resulting soil can be used for such purposes as soil cover and backfill. The bioremediation process itself is portable and can be initiated at landfill sites themselves to reduce transport and handling costs. 16 refs., 4 figs

  12. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

  13. Effect of biodegradable amendments on uranium solubility in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Environment Health and Safety, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: lduquene@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Departement of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Environment Health and Safety, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2008-02-25

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction has been proposed as a potential tool for phytoremediation of U contaminated sites. In this context, the effects of five biodegradable amendments on U release in contaminated soils were evaluated. Three soils were involved in this study, one with a relatively high background level of U, and two which were contaminated with U from industrial effluents. Soils were treated with 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry weight of either citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid. Soil solution concentration of U was monitored during 2 weeks. All amendments increased U concentration in soil solution, but citric acid and NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid mixture were most effective, with up to 479-fold increase. For oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, the increase ranged from 10-to 100-fold. The highest concentrations were observed 1 to 7 days after treatment, after which U levels in soil solution gradually decreased. All amendments induced a temporary increase of soil solution pH and TOC that could not be correlated with the release of U in the soil solution. Thermodynamic stability constants (log K) of complexes did not predict the relative efficiency of the selected biodegradable amendments on U release in soil solution. Amendments efficiency was better predicted by the relative affinity of the chelate for Fe compared to U.

  14. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  15. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  16. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Sato, Chikashi

    1997-01-01

    'How clean is clean?' is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects

  17. Soil moisture effects during bioventing in fuel-contaminated arid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, T.C.; Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Hoeppel, R.E.; Bowling, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soil moisture addition on microbial activity during bioventing of dry, sandy soils at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California. Soils at the site have been contaminated to a depth of approximately 80 ft (24 m) with gasoline, JP-5 jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Based on the low soil moisture measured at the site (2 to 3% by weight), it was determined that soil moisture may be limiting biodegradation. To evaluate the effect that moisture addition had on microbial activity under field conditions, a subsurface drip irrigation system was installed above the fuel hydrocarbon plume. Irrigation water was obtained from two monitoring wells on the site, where groundwater was approximately 192 ft (59 m) below ground surface. Advancement of the wetting front was monitored. In situ respiration rates increased significantly after moisture addition. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential applicability of moisture addition in conjunction with bioventing for site remediation in arid environments. Further work is planned to investigate optimization of moisture addition

  18. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  19. Biochar amendment to lead-contaminated soil: Effects on fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity and phytotoxicity to rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xi; Guo, Yiming; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Zhichao

    2015-09-01

    The amendment effects of biochar on total microbial activity was measured by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, and phytotoxicity in Pb(II)-contaminated soils was examined by the application of 4 different biochars to soil, with rice as a test plant. The FDA hydrolytic activities of biochar-amended soils were much higher than that of the control. The survival rate of rice in lead-contaminated biochar-amended soils showed significant improvement over the control, especially for bamboo biochar-amended soil (93.3%). In addition, rice grown in lead-contaminated control sediment displayed lower biomass production than that in biochar-amended soil. The immobilization of Pb(II) and the positive effects of biochar amendment on soil microorganisms may account for these effects. The results suggest that biochar may have an excellent ability to mitigate the toxic effects of Pb(II) on soil microorganisms and rice. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Biocomplementation of SVE to achieve clean-up goals in soils contaminated with toluene and xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, António Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina; da Conceição Alvim-Ferraz, Maria; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioremediation (BR) are two of the most common soil remediation technologies. Their application is widespread; however, both present limitations, namely related to the efficiencies of SVE on organic soils and to the remediation times of some BR processes. This work aimed to study the combination of these two technologies in order to verify the achievement of the legal clean-up goals in soil remediation projects involving seven different simulated soils separately contaminated with toluene and xylene. The remediations consisted of the application of SVE followed by biostimulation. The results show that the combination of these two technologies is effective and manages to achieve the clean-up goals imposed by the Spanish Legislation. Under the experimental conditions used in this work, SVE is sufficient for the remediation of soils, contaminated separately with toluene and xylene, with organic matter contents (OMC) below 4 %. In soils with higher OMC, the use of BR, as a complementary technology, and when the concentration of contaminant in the gas phase of the soil reaches values near 1 mg/L, allows the achievement of the clean-up goals. The OMC was a key parameter because it hindered SVE due to adsorption phenomena but enhanced the BR process because it acted as a microorganism and nutrient source.

  1. Accelerated remediation of pesticide-contaminated soil with zerovalent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, P.J. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)]. E-mail: pshea@unl.edu; Machacek, T.A. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Comfort, S.D. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    High pesticide concentrations in soil from spills or discharges can result in point-source contamination of ground and surface waters. Cost-effective technologies are needed for on-site treatment that meet clean-up goals and restore soil function. Remediation is particularly challenging when a mixture of pesticides is present. Zerovalent iron (Fe{sup 0}) has been shown to promote reductive dechlorination and nitro group reduction of a wide range of contaminants in soil and water. We employed Fe{sup 0} for on-site treatment of soil containing >1000 mg metolachlor, >55 mg alachlor, >64 mg atrazine, >35 mg pendimethalin, and >10 mg chlorpyrifos kg{sup -1}. While concentrations were highly variable within the windrowed soil, treatment with 5% (w/w) Fe{sup 0} resulted in >60% destruction of the five pesticides within 90 d and increased to >90% when 2% (w/w) Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was added to the Fe{sup 0}. GC/MS analysis confirmed dechlorination of metolachlor and alachlor during treatment. Our observations support the use of Fe{sup 0} for ex situ treatment of pesticide-contaminated soil. - Capsule: Zerovalent iron promotes pesticide degradation in highly contaminated soil.

  2. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  3. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  4. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  5. Dynamic Effects of Biochar on the Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Min; Ni, Ni; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-08-16

    Amending soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit a quadratic model. Before week 12 of the incubation, the incubation time was the main factor contributing to the changes in the soil bacterial community structure. However, biochar greatly affected the bacterial community structure after 12 weeks of amendment, and the effects were dependent upon the biochar type. Amendment with biochar mainly facilitated the growth of rare bacterial genera (relative abundance of 0.01-1%) in the studied soil. Therefore, the application of wheat straw biochar into PAH-contaminated soil can reduce the environmental risks of PAHs and benefit the soil microbial ecology.

  6. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwei Qu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phytostabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these microenvironments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  7. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, G.; De Varennes, A.; Qu, G.

    2010-01-01

    To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phyto stabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions) but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these micro environments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  8. SoilCAM: soil contamination: advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Meju, M.

    2009-01-01

    The SoilCAM project is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. Currently proven methods, based on invasive sampling of soil, soil water and gaseous phase, are unable to provide sufficiently accurate data with high enough

  9. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  10. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J A; Vance, N C; Hamilton, M A; Zabowski, D; Watrud, L S; Adriano, D C [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils

    1996-03-01

    Ecsosytems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristics of nuclear fission, such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides that are released into the environment among soil, plants and wildlife. Numerous studies have shown that {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are not removed from the top 0.4 metres of soil even under high rainfall, and migration rate from the top few centimetres of soil is slow. The top 0.4 meters of the soil is where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Since plants are known to take up and accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, removal of these radionuclides from contaminated soils by plants could provide a reliable and economical method of remediation. One approach is to use fast growing plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi combined with soil organic amendments to maximize the plant accumulation and removal of radionuclides from contaminated soils, followed by harvest of above-ground portion of the plants. High temperature combustion would be used to oxidize plant material concentrating {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in ash for disposal. When areas of land have been contaminated with radionuclides are large, using energy intensive engineering solutions to mediate huge volumes of soil is not feasible or economical. Plants are proposed as a viable and cost effective method to remove radionuclides from the soils that have been contaminated by nuclear testing and nuclear reactor accidents. 40 refs.

  11. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site

  12. A fully continuous supercritical fluid extraction system for contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.; Stiver, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Brownfield sites are contaminated sites in an urban setting. There are hundreds of thousands of such sites, where contaminants migrate to the atmosphere, seep into groundwater, runoff into surface water and enter the food chain through plant uptake and soil ingestion. The Sydney Tar Ponds alone contain more than a million tonnes of contaminated soils and sediments. Soil vapour extraction, incineration, bioremediation, solvent extraction and land filling are among the remediation techniques that have been developed for brownfield sites over the years. However, no single technology is ideally suited to all cases because of the diversity of contaminants and diversity of site characterization. This paper focused on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) which is well suited to sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metal. A fully continuous laboratory-scale SFE process for a slurry-based system was designed and constructed to handle the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) and the soil slurry. The system continuously pumps carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions and soil slurry into a counter-current contacting column. The testing soil was Delhi loamy sand, spiked with 10 mg/g of naphthalene. The soil slurry ranged from 0.0028 g dry soil per g slurry to 0.072 g/g. The operating temperature was 43 degrees C and the operating pressure was 7.7 MPa. Near steady state, fully continuous flow was achieved with runs lasting up to 2 hours. The quantifiable recoveries of naphthalene from the soil slurry was demonstrated and the mass transfer coefficients for the system were quantified in order to provide the foundation to advance to a full-scale system and costing analysis. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. A fully continuous supercritical fluid extraction system for contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Stiver, W.H. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Brownfield sites are contaminated sites in an urban setting. There are hundreds of thousands of such sites, where contaminants migrate to the atmosphere, seep into groundwater, runoff into surface water and enter the food chain through plant uptake and soil ingestion. The Sydney Tar Ponds alone contain more than a million tonnes of contaminated soils and sediments. Soil vapour extraction, incineration, bioremediation, solvent extraction and land filling are among the remediation techniques that have been developed for brownfield sites over the years. However, no single technology is ideally suited to all cases because of the diversity of contaminants and diversity of site characterization. This paper focused on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) which is well suited to sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metal. A fully continuous laboratory-scale SFE process for a slurry-based system was designed and constructed to handle the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) and the soil slurry. The system continuously pumps carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions and soil slurry into a counter-current contacting column. The testing soil was Delhi loamy sand, spiked with 10 mg/g of naphthalene. The soil slurry ranged from 0.0028 g dry soil per g slurry to 0.072 g/g. The operating temperature was 43 degrees C and the operating pressure was 7.7 MPa. Near steady state, fully continuous flow was achieved with runs lasting up to 2 hours. The quantifiable recoveries of naphthalene from the soil slurry was demonstrated and the mass transfer coefficients for the system were quantified in order to provide the foundation to advance to a full-scale system and costing analysis. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A.; Black, Colin R.; McGrath, Steve P.; Young, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with 73 As V . Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms. - This paper presents a predictive model for phytoremediation of soils, historically contaminated with arsenic, by the hyperaccumulator P. vittata.

  15. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A.; Black, Colin R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); McGrath, Steve P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Young, Scott D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Biology Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with {sup 73}As{sup V}. Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms. - This paper presents a predictive model for phytoremediation of soils, historically contaminated with arsenic, by the hyperaccumulator P. vittata.

  16. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  17. Optimization of surfactant-aided remediation of industrially contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1996-01-01

    Soil matrices contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) abound at the sites of coke-oven gas plants, refineries, and many other major chemical industries. The removal of PAHs from soil using pure water, via soil washing (ex situ) or soil flushing (in situ), is quite ineffective due to their low solubility and hydrophobicity. However, addition of suitable surfactant(s) has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several fold. For the present work, the removal of PAHs occurring in industrially contaminated soil was studied. The objective was to use a nonionic surfactant solution for in situ soil flushing and to evaluate the optimal range of process parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were surfactant concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil and an optimal range was determined for each parameter under given washing conditions

  18. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg -1 . A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha -1 yr -1 yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production. - An experimental method is presented to be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a metal contaminated soil

  19. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, G.F. [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: gerwin.koopmans@wur.nl; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J. [Alterra, WUR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Song, J.; Luo, Y.M. [Soil and Environmental Bioremediation Research Centre, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Japenga, J. [Alterra, WUR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zhao, F.J. [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg{sup -1}. A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production. - An experimental method is presented to be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a metal contaminated soil.

  20. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  1. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan

    2017-04-01

    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  2. Arsenic uptake by lettuce from As-contaminated soil remediated with Pteris vittata and organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Suchismita, Das; Gress, Julia; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-06-01

    Leaching of inorganic arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil As levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding As accumulation in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of As-hyperaccumulator P. vittata and organic amendments in reducing As uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a soil contaminated from CCA-treated wood (63.9 mg kg -1 As). P. vittata was grown for 150 d in a CCA-contaminated soil amended with biochar, activated carbon or coffee grounds at 1%, followed by lettuce for another 55 d. After harvest, plant biomass and As concentrations in plant and soil were determined. The presence of P. vittata reduced As content in lettuce by 21% from 27.3 to 21.5 mg kg -1 while amendment further reduced As in lettuce by 5.6-18%, with activated C being most effective. Our data showed that both P. vittata and organic amendments were effective in reducing As concentration in lettuce. Though no health-based standard for As in vegetables exists in USA, care should be taken when growing lettuce in contaminated soils. Our data showed that application of organic amendments with P. vittata reduced As hazards in CCA-contaminated soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquin, J. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons. The presentation provided information on the background for the investigation such as: difficulty for biotreatment in soil to deal with heavy weathered hydrocarbons and fine grained soils; the involvement of the Montreal Centre of Excellence for Brownfield Remediation (MCEBR) to develop state of the art environmental solutions; and, the selection of Sanexen as the organization with the best price and best performance warranty to perform the required decontamination. The objectives of the study were to improve the performance of biotreatment of soil contaminated with heavy petroleum hydrocarbons; reduce soil biotreatment costs by 30 per cent; improve knowledge and understanding for this type of treatment; and, better identify constraints and optimal strategies in view of these constraints. Specific objectives that were discussed included: improving the microbial flora, attaining a favorable soil temperature at a low cost, identifying the best amendments for bulking of soil, increasing bio-availability of the contaminants, and identifying optimal mechanical handling of the soil. The presentation discussed soils treated; research and development carried out; standard method of biotreatment; alternative methods tested; initial investigation by the MCEBR; pilot test carried out by Sanexen; and, results of the pilot test. As part of the research program with MCEBR, soils that received different amendments were tested at the Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI) of the National Research Council for their ability to degrade added hexadecane and naphthalene. Soil at various stages of the treatment was also sampled and tested by the (BRI). It was concluded that the biotreatment of heavy hydrocarbons in fine grained soils is feasible and that the techniques used reduced biotreatment costs by approximately 25 per cent.

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  5. Release behavior of triazine residues in stabilised contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, G.G.; Kookana, R.S.; Mallavarpu, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the release behavior of two triazines (atrazine and simazine) in stabilised soils from a pesticide-contaminated site in South Australia. The soils were contaminated with a range of pesticides, especially with triazine herbicides. With multiple extractions of each soil sample with deionised water (eight in total), 15% of atrazine and 4% of simazine residues were recovered, resulting in very high concentrations of the two herbicides in leachate. The presence of small fractions of surfactants was found to further enhance the release of the residues. Methanol content up to 10% did not substantially influence the concentration of simazine and atrazine released. The study demonstrated that while the stabilisation of contaminated soil with particulate activated carbon (5%) and cement mix (15%) was effective in locking the residues of some pesticides, it failed to immobilise triazine herbicides residues completely. Given the higher water solubility of these herbicides than other compounds more effective strategies to immobilise their residues is needed. - Stabilisation of contaminated soil with a mix of activated carbon and cement may fail to immobilise some contaminants like triazines

  6. Utilization of plants for stabilization and cleaning up of metal contaminated soil and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Štofko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has been defined as the use of green plants and their associated rhizospheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain contaminants located in soisl, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and even the atmosphere. Categories of phytoremediation include - phytoextraction or phytoaccumulation, phytotransformation, phytostimulation or plant-assisted bioremediation, phytovolatilization, rhizofiltration, pump and tree, phytostabilization, and hydraulic control. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils basically includes phytostabilization, phytoextraction, rhizofiltration and phytovolatilization. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of metals depends on a particular application.

  7. Risks, media and the social amplification of soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouboter, S. [NOK, Networkorganisation for Environmental Quality, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Soil experts think of the risks of contaminated sites in terms of adverse effects of toxic substances on human health or environmental quality. In other words, the risk is attributed to the contamination. Social scientists define risk as a situation or event in which something of human value (including humans themselves) has been put at stake and where the outcome is uncertain. Since situations or events are constructions of the human mind, risks are also constructed. A relevant question for a psychologist is to learn how these constructions evolve in the mind of an individual and how this perceived risk influences the individuals' behaviour and well-being. A relevant question for a sociologist is how individuals with their own perceptions, feelings and behaviour interact. Many soil contamination experts experienced that one a site is seen as contaminated by a loathsome source, a chain of adverse reactions can easily put a stigma on that specific location and groups of people associated with that contaminated site. The case of Love Canal is worldwide known as an example of this phenomenon, but many countries have their own national symbol, like Lekkerkerk in the Netherlands. Modern media play an important role in this process. This process is often believed to be irrational and therefore uncontrollable. The question of this workshop is to what level technical soil experts can influence the psychological and social effects of soil contamination, using the social amplification metaphor. (orig.)

  8. Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Antón, Loreto; Granja, Jose Luis; Villarroya, Fermín; Montero, Esperanza; Rodríguez, Vanesa

    2016-04-01

    Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources (air deposition, agriculture, etc.) or local sources, these last being related to anthropogenic activities that are potentially soil contaminating activities. According to data from the EU, in Spain, and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds (including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs) and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community. The five aspects that will be applied in Caresoil Program (S2013/MAE-2739) in the analysis and remediation of a local soil contamination are: 1) the location of the source of contamination and characterization of soil and aquifer concerned, 2) evaluation of the dispersion of the plume, 3) application of effective remediation techniques, 4) monitoring the evolution of the contaminated soil and 5) risk analysis throughout this process. These aspects involve advanced technologies (hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry,...) that require new developing of knowledge, being necessary the contribution of several researching groups specialized in the fields previously cited, as they are those integrating CARESOIL Program. Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

  9. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  11. The removal of plutonium contaminants from Rocky Flats Plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if the TRUclean process could effectively remove radioactive elements from soils other than derived coral. This is an interim report prior to the project report and discusses the outcome of the tests of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) soil. The soil tested contained plutonium particulates in the micron and submicron range. Volume reduction and activity removal were accomplished with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%. The TRUclean process is a very practical and economical solution to soil contamination problems at the Rocky Flats Plant

  12. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  13. Electromigration of Contaminated Soil by Electro-Bioremediation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Azim, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals poses major environmental and human health problems. This problem needs an efficient method and affordable technological solution such as electro-bioremediation technique. The electro-bioremediation technique used in this study is the combination of bacteria and electrokinetic process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Pseudomonas putida bacteria as a biodegradation agent to remediate contaminated soil. 5 kg of kaolin soil was spiked with 5 g of zinc oxide. During this process, the anode reservoir was filled with Pseudomonas putida while the cathode was filled with distilled water for 5 days at 50 V of electrical gradient. The X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) test indicated that there was a significant reduction of zinc concentration for the soil near the anode with 89% percentage removal. The bacteria count is high near the anode which is 1.3x107 cfu/gww whereas the bacteria count at the middle and near the cathode was 5.0x106 cfu/gww and 8.0x106 cfu/gww respectively. The migration of ions to the opposite charge of electrodes during the electrokinetic process resulted from the reduction of zinc. The results obtained proved that the electro-bioremediation reduced the level of contaminants in the soil sample. Thus, the electro-bioremediation technique has the potential to be used in the treatment of contaminated soil.

  14. Changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Jaime Leal

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to verify the changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Microbial inoculants were produced from successive additions of gasoline to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC previously fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorous. To obtain Inoculant A, fertilized MSWC was amended with gasoline every 3 days during 18 days. Inoculant B received the same application, but at every 6 days. Inoculant C included MSWC fertilized with N–P, but no gasoline. The inoculants were applied to gasoline-contaminated soil at 10, 30, or 50 g/kg. Mineralization of gasoline hydrocarbons in soil was evaluated by respirometric analysis. The viability of the inoculants was evaluated after 103 days of storage under refrigeration or room temperature. The relative proportions of microbial groups in the inoculants and soil were evaluated by FAME. The dose of 50 g/kg of inoculants A and B led to the largest CO2 emission from soil. CO2 emissions in treatments with inoculant C were inversely proportional to the dose of inoculant. Heterotrophic bacterial counts were greater in soil treated with inoculants A and B. The application of inoculants decreased the proportion of actinobacteria and increased of Gram-negative bacteria. Decline in the density of heterotrophic bacteria in inoculants occurred after storage. This reduction was bigger in inoculants stored at room temperature. The application of stored inoculants in gasoline-contaminated soil resulted in a CO2 emission twice bigger than that observed in uninoculated soil. We concluded that MSWC is an effective material for the production of microbial inoculants for the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil.

  15. Changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Aline Jaime; Rodrigues, Edmo Montes; Leal, Patrícia Lopes; Júlio, Aline Daniela Lopes; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Rocha; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

    We aimed to verify the changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Microbial inoculants were produced from successive additions of gasoline to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) previously fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorous. To obtain Inoculant A, fertilized MSWC was amended with gasoline every 3 days during 18 days. Inoculant B received the same application, but at every 6 days. Inoculant C included MSWC fertilized with N-P, but no gasoline. The inoculants were applied to gasoline-contaminated soil at 10, 30, or 50g/kg. Mineralization of gasoline hydrocarbons in soil was evaluated by respirometric analysis. The viability of the inoculants was evaluated after 103 days of storage under refrigeration or room temperature. The relative proportions of microbial groups in the inoculants and soil were evaluated by FAME. The dose of 50g/kg of inoculants A and B led to the largest CO 2 emission from soil. CO 2 emissions in treatments with inoculant C were inversely proportional to the dose of inoculant. Heterotrophic bacterial counts were greater in soil treated with inoculants A and B. The application of inoculants decreased the proportion of actinobacteria and increased of Gram-negative bacteria. Decline in the density of heterotrophic bacteria in inoculants occurred after storage. This reduction was bigger in inoculants stored at room temperature. The application of stored inoculants in gasoline-contaminated soil resulted in a CO 2 emission twice bigger than that observed in uninoculated soil. We concluded that MSWC is an effective material for the production of microbial inoculants for the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  17. Combined Effects of Biochar and Fertilizer on Cadmium Contaminated Soil Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Qi-kai; GUO Wen-juan; SUN Guo-hong; LIN Da-song; XU Ying-ming; LIU Jing-ru; YU Shi-lei

    2015-01-01

    The field experiment was employed to study on the combined effects of biochar and chicken manure and N, P and K compound chemical fertilizer on cadmium contaminated soil remediation, and the immobilization mechanism was elucidated through fractionation of cadmium in the tested soil. Results showed that the addition of these ammendments could significantly reduce the edible Cd accumulation in Lactuca sativa L., decreased from 32.6% to 54.8% compared with the control. The application of these a...

  18. Determination of doramectin, an emergent veterinary contaminant, in soil and manure, using HPLC with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Diaz, M.; Martinez-Inigo, M. J.; Urquia, J. J.; Martin, M.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Doramectin is a macrolide endectocide belonging to avermectin group; it is widely used as anthelmintic because of their broad spectrum activity against ecto-and endo-parasites of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses as well as cats and dogs. All avermectins are excreted mainly through faeces as non-metabolised drugs. Consequently, the application of residues from cattle to soil could represent a source of diffuse pollution, being the veterinarian treatments emergent contaminants towards soil and water. (Author)

  19. Determination of doramectin, an emergent veterinary contaminant, in soil and manure, using HPLC with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Diaz, M.; Martinez-Inigo, M. J.; Urquia, J. J.; Martin, M.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Doramectin is a macrolide endectocide belonging to avermectin group; it is widely used as anthelmintic because of their broad spectrum activity against ecto-and endo-parasites of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses as well as cats and dogs. All avermectins are excreted mainly through faeces as non-metabolised drugs. Consequently, the application of residues from cattle to soil could represent a source of diffuse pollution, being the veterinarian treatments emergent contaminants towards soil and water. (Author)

  20. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination.

  1. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination. PMID:26368503

  2. Tannic acid for remediation of historically arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Klik, Barbara; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2017-12-22

    Soil washing effectively and permanently decreases soil pollution. Thus, it can be considered for the removal of the most toxic elements, for example arsenic (As). In this study, historically As-contaminated soils (2041-4294 mg/kg) were remediated with tannic acid (TA) as the washing agent. The scope of this study included optimization of the operational conditions of As removal, determination of As distribution in soil before and after double soil washing, and measurement of TA loss during washing. The optimum conditions for As removal were 4% TA, pH 4 and 24 h washing time. The average As removal after single and double washings was 38% and 63%, respectively. TA decreased As content in amorphous and poorly crystalline oxides by >90%. Although TA increased the amount of As in the easily mobilizable As fraction, the stability of As in washed soils increased, with reduced partition indexes of 0.52-0.66 after washing. The maximum capacity of the soils to adsorb TA (q max ) was 50.2-70.4 g C/kg. TA sorption was higher at alkaline than at acidic conditions. Only TA removes As from soils effectively if the proportion of As in amorphous and poorly crystalline oxides is high. Thus, it can be considered for remediation of historically contaminated soils.

  3. Distribution and Source Identification of Pb Contamination in industrial soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    INTRODUCTION Lead (Pb) is toxic element that induce neurotoxic effect to human, because competition of Pb and Ca in nerve system. Lead is classified as a chalophile element and galena (PbS) is the major mineral. Although the Pb is not an abundant element in nature, various anthropogenic source has been enhanced Pb enrichment in the environment after the Industrial Revolution. The representative anthropogenic sources are batteries, paint, mining, smelting, and combustion of fossil fuel. Isotope analysis widely used to identify the Pb contamination source. The Pb has four stable isotopes that are 208Pb, 207Pb, 206Pb, and 204Pb in natural. The Pb is stable isotope and the ratios maintain during physical and chemical fractionation. Therefore, variations of Pb isotope abundance and relative ratios could imply the certain Pb contamination source. In this study, distributions and isotope ratios of Pb in industrial soil were used to identify the Pb contamination source and dispersion pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil samples were collected at depth 0­-6 m from an industrial area in Korea. The collected soil samples were dried and sieved under 2 mm. Soil pH, aqua-regia digestion and TCLP carried out using sieved soil sample. The isotope analysis was carried out to determine the abundance of Pb isotope. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study area was developed land for promotion of industrial facilities. The study area was forest in 1980, and the satellite image show the alterations of land use with time. The variations of land use imply the possibilities of bringing in external contaminated soil. The Pb concentrations in core samples revealed higher in lower soil compare with top soil. Especially, 4 m soil sample show highest Pb concentrations that are approximately 1500 mg/kg. This result indicated that certain Pb source existed at 4 m depth. CONCLUSIONS This study investigated the distribution and source identification of Pb in industrial soil. The land use and Pb

  4. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  5. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  6. Preliminary Experimental Analysis of Soil Stabilizers for