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Sample records for contaminated poultry vaccines

  1. Newcastle disease virus-attenuated vaccine co-contaminated with fowl adenovirus and chicken infectious anemia virus results in inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (IBH-HPS) induced by fowl adenovirus type 4 (FAdV-4) has caused huge economic losses to the poultry industry of China, but the source of infection for different flocks, especially flocks with high biological safety conditions, has remained unclear. This study tested the pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-attenuated vaccine from a large-scale poultry farm in China where IBH-HPS had appeared with high mortality. Analysis revealed that the NDV-attenuated vaccine in use from the abovementioned poultry farm was simultaneously contaminated with FAdV-4 and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV). The FAdV and CIAV isolated from the vaccine were purified for the artificial preparation of an NDV-attenuated vaccine singly contaminated with FAdV or CIAV, or simultaneously contaminated with both of them. Seven-day-old specific pathogen-free chicks were inoculated with the artificially prepared contaminated vaccines and tested for corresponding indices. The experiments showed that no hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) and corresponding death occurred after administering the NDV-attenuated vaccine singly contaminated with FAdV or CIAV, but a mortality of 75% with IBH-HPS was commonly found in birds after administering the NDV-attenuated vaccine co-contaminated with FAdV and CIAV. In conclusion, this study found the co-contamination of FAdV-4 and CIAV in the same attenuated vaccine and confirmed that such a contaminated attenuated vaccine was a significant source of infection for outbreaks of IBH-HPS in some flocks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Similarity of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 isolates of low virulence for chickens obtained from contaminated poultry vaccines and from poultry flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, K. J.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    flocks. one of which had been vaccinated with two of the contaminated vaccines. The flocks belonged to the same hatchery organisation. A comparison of viral F0 gene sequences and typing of virus isolates with a panel of monoclonal antibodies showed that the vaccine and field isolates were identical....

  3. Full-length genome sequence analysis of an avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) as contaminant in live poultry vaccine: The commercial live vaccines might be a potential route for ALV-J transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Lin, L; Li, H; Shi, M; Gu, Z; Wei, P

    2018-02-25

    One avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) strain was isolated from 67 commercial live poultry vaccines produced by various manufacturers during 2013-2016 in China. The complete genomes of the isolate were sequenced and it was found that the genes gag and pol of the strain were relatively conservative, while the gp85 gene of the strain GX14YYA1 had the highest similarities with a field strain GX14ZS14, which was isolated from the chickens of a farm that had once used the same vaccine as the one found to be contaminated with the GX14YYA1. This is the first report of ALV-J contaminant in live poultry vaccine in China. Our finding demonstrates that vaccination of the commercial live vaccines might be a potential new route for ALV-J transmission in chickens and highlights the need for more extensive monitoring of the commercial live vaccines in China. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  5. Reducing Campylobacter jejuni colonization of poultry via vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Neal-McKinney

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization.

  6. Evaluation effective irradiated feed on immunity system (ho moral) of vaccinated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, G.; Vedadi, S.; Moghadampour, M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to survey the application of gamma radiation in removes fungal contamination of poultry grain and its effect on immunity titer relation to vaccinate SFF chickens. First the different kinds of contaminations, then different kinds of fungal contaminations and their amount in the samples of poultry grain were determined, they were calculated fungal colonies in the starter grain from 9x10 3 to non countable and in the finisher grain from 0 to 10 2 colonies, and the highest contaminations were Aspergillosis. Then biochemical analysis, determining the existence and the amount of Aflatoxin in the poultry grain before irradiation were done and except two samples, the rest were not found to be contaminated. After that doses of 1,2,3,4,5,5.1,5,3,5.3,5.5,5.7 and 6 kilo Grays was applied in order to decrease or removal fungal contamination in the samples. Finally 6 kilo Gray dose had removed the fungal contamination in the samples. After the removal of the fungal contamination, the samples were stoked in cellophane packaging for 4 to 5 months at different temperatures and moistures and no contamination was observed. Then biochemical analysis, determining the existence the amount of Aflatoxin (in the above mentioned two cases) in the poultry grain after was done. It was noted that 6 kilo Gray dose does not have any negative effect on the grain compound. In additional this dose had removed the Aflatoxin in the two mentioned cases. Then 72 of chickens were divided into three groups. Each group was kept for two months. Each group (24 of chickens) divided into two classes that first class (12 of chickens) was fed normal grain (non-irradiated) and the second group was fed irradiated grain. Meanwhile the chickens were weighed in the beginning and end of each period. That no difference on average weight between the chickens fed on irradiated and non-irradiated grains were noted. The chickens were vaccinated at 20 days old, in each of three periods of

  7. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  8. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  9. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhoseini, Gh. R.

    1998-01-01

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  10. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Routes of pathogenic staphylococcal contamination of slaughter poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, L; Zakhartsev, Ts; Baĭl'ozov, D

    1977-01-01

    The contamination of birds with pathogenic staphylococci was followed up during their slaughter handling and trimming at two poultry-dressing houses. It was found that water cooling and evisceration were mostly contributing to contamination. Taking part in the dissemination of Staphylococcus infection were also the female workers on the slaughter belt, especially those that had wounds on their hands. Studied were the properties of a total of 881 strains of staphylococci, 43.35 per cent of them being defined as Staph. aureus, and 56.64 per cent--as Staph. edidermidis.

  12. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  13. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  14. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  15. The role of vaccination in risk mitigation and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jo; Mansfield, Karen L; Brown, Ian H

    2017-10-20

    Newcastle disease is regarded as one of the most important avian diseases throughout the world and continues to be a threat and economic burden to the poultry industry. With no effective treatment, poultry producers rely primarily on stringent biosecurity and vaccination regimens to control the spread of this devastating disease. This concise review provides an historical perspective of Newcastle disease vaccination and how fundamental research has paved the way for the development of instrumental techniques which are still in use today. Although vaccination programmes have reduced the impact of clinical disease, they have historically been ineffective in controlling the spread of virulent viruses and therefore do not always offer an adequate solution to the world's food security problems. However, the continued development of novel vaccine technology and improved biosecurity measures through education may offer a solution to help reduce the global threat of Newcastle disease on the poultry industry. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mould and mycotoxin contamination of pig and poultry feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Radmila V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During ten-year period (1995-2004, a total of 756 analyses of pig and poultry feed was performed. Standard methods were used for microbiological determination. Qualitative and quantitative analyze of mycotoxins was performed by TLC technique. Feed for young categories contained from 100 to 3,400,000 CFU/g of feed. In 35.71% of all samples the detected amount was above acceptable levels. Feed for adult categories contained from 800 to 8,000,000 CFU/g of feed. In only 7.54% of samples this amount was over the tolerable level. Species determination revealed great heterogeneity, with the most common findings of Penicillium spp. (28.38%, Aspregillus spp. (26.37% Mucor spp. (24.67%, Fusarium spp. (11.33% and Rhizopus spp. (9.22%. The amount and type of mycotoxin varied depending on the feed category as well as on year of detection, implicating a strong influence of climatic factors and average humidity of the specified year. In a total of 320 analyzed feeds for pigs and poultry the characteristic finding was a combined contamination with two or three mycotoxins. In 161 samples of feed for young animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 36, 161 and 161 samples respectively, while in 33, 83 and 71 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels. In 159 samples of feed for adult animals the presence of AFB1, F-2 and OTA was detected in 32, 159 and 159 samples, respectively while in 31, 65 and 99 samples the detected amounts were above tolerable levels.

  17. A non-replicative adenovirus vaccine platform for poultry diseases ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-09

    Apr 9, 2018 ... During financial crises, poultry become critical to food security due to their ... Diversity in local food production combats obesity in the Caribbean ... region, the combination of increased imports of processed foods and limited ...

  18. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. David Chapman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry.

  19. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H. David; Jeffers, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  20. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  1. Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made from the poultry feed ingredients. Highest level of C. perfringens contamination was detected in fish meal followed by bone meal, meat and bone meal and dry fish. Antibiogram assay indicated that the organisms are highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, chlortetracycline (96.67%, gatifloxacin (93.33%, ciprofloxacin (86.67%, ofloxacin (86.67% and lincomycin (86.67%. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. Feed ingredients rich in animal proteins are the major source of C. perfringens contamination.

  3. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine,. 2Department of ... ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI) is an emerging ... required, including studies on knowledge and attitude ..... strongly know that oral vaccines were not as potent ... On whether parent stock farmers.

  4. Campylobacter genotypes from poultry transportation crates indicate a source of contamination and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R; Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Maiden, M C J; Sheppard, S K

    2011-01-01

    Crates used to transport live poultry can be contaminated with Campylobacter, despite periodic sanitization, and are potential vectors for transmission between flocks. We investigated the microbial contamination of standard and silver ion containing crates in normal use and the genetic structure of associated Campylobacter populations. Bacteria from crates were enumerated by appropriate culture techniques, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic structure of Campylobacters isolated from standard and silver ion containing crates. Compared to standard crates, counts of bacteria, including Campylobacter, were consistently lower on silver ion containing crates throughout the decontamination process. In total, 16 different sequence types were identified from 89 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from crates. These were attributed to putative source population (chicken, cattle, sheep, the environment, wild bird) using the population genetic model, structure. Most (89%) were attributed to chicken, with 22% attribution to live chicken and 78% to retail poultry meat. MLST revealed a progressive shift in allele frequencies through the crate decontamination process. Campylobacter on crates survived for at least 3 h after sanitization, a period of time equivalent to the journey from the processing plant to the majority of farms in the catchment, showing the potential for involvement of crates in transmission. Inclusion of a silver ion biocide in poultry transportation crates to levels demonstrating acceptable antibacterial activity in vitro reduces the level of bacterial contamination during normal crate use compared to standard crates. Molecular analysis of Campylobacter isolates indicated a change in genetic structure of the population with respect to the poultry-processing plant sanitization practice. The application of a sustainable antimicrobial to components of poultry processing may contribute to reducing the levels of Campylobacter

  5. Use of M2e ELISAs for longitudinal surveillance of commercial poultry in Indonesia vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Michael Haryadi; Tarigan, Simson; Sumarningsih; Artanto, Sidna; Indriani, Risa; Anggoro, Dito; Putra, Cahyaditya Pratama; Idris, Syafrison; Untari, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Tabbu, Charles Rangga; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2017-11-01

    In countries where highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is endemic and controlled by vaccination, post-vaccination serological monitoring is essential to differentiate vaccinated poultry from those that are infected. The objectives of this study were to validate two experimental ELISAs that detect antibodies raised against the M2e protein of avian influenza virus that can be used for DIVA purposes. Results from the sM2e and tM2e ELISAs were compared with other conventional tests for the detection of H5N1influenza virus (virus isolation and RT-PCR) using samples collected from 16 commercial flocks in Indonesia. These comprised vaccinated layers aged between 18 and 68 weeks old that were sampled at ten-weekly intervals. A small number of sera were positive in sM2e and tM2e ELISA, 14 (0.6%) and 17 (0.7%) respectively, with low OD 420 (0.1-0.3), but only 4 sera were positive in both tests. At the flock level, the incidence of M2e positive sera was low (4%), well below previously established minimum of 40% for an HPAIV H5N1-infected flock. Conventional M and H5 gene RT-PCRs indicated that none of 16 flocks were infected at any time during the study. No virus was isolated from any of the 480 pooled swab samples, except from one, for which the combined data analysis suggest to be the result of a laboratory cross-contamination. Clinical disease, mortalities or reduction in production performance, indicative of field H5N1 challenge, were not observed either in any of the flocks. Birds from two surveyed flocks, challenged in the laboratory with an Indonesian HPAIV H5N1 developed M2e antibodies in 50% and 55% of surviving birds with OD 420 in the range of 0.35-1.47 in tM2e ELISA, confirming the validity of the criteria established for use of M2e ELISA for DIVA purposes. Overall these results showed that the tM2e ELISA could be a useful monitoring tool to ascertain freedom from H5N1 infections in vaccinated commercial poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  6. THREATS/RISKS IN POULTRY FARMS: MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS, DUST, ODOURS AND BIOLOGICAL METHOD FOR ELIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Matusiak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination, odour and dust concentration in poultry farms. In addition, the effectiveness of biopreparation and Yucca schidigera plant extract in manure hygienisation and selected odorous compounds removal was determined. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry production premises averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction. High number of bacteria and fungi at 106-1010 CFU / g. was determined in both poultry manure and settled dust. Poultry farm’s air limits of the bacteria and fungi number have not been exceeded. Reported concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 18-20 times higher than acceptable for a 24-hour exposure determined by the World Health Organization. Volatile odorous compounds dominant in poultry farms were: ammonia, acrolein, methyl amine, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. The concentrations are variable depending on the farm type and stage of the cycle production. The permissible concentration/ exposure limits of ammonia in the air has been exceeded in the laying hens farms I and II, while the concentration of carbon dioxide exceeded the limit value in the third stage of the cycle production on broiler farm III and was close to the limit for laying hens farm I. The maximum cytotoxicity of odorous compounds mixture tested on chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH was 45.7%. It was confirmed by cells morphologic changes after the odorous compounds treatment (ammonia, di-, and trimethylamine. Mineral-microbial biopreparation with Yucca schidigera extract reduced the total number of microorganisms by 1 logarythmic unit in poultry manure and decreased concentration of odorous compounds by 37% - 70% depending on the compound. The use in sequence Y. schidigera extract, and then after 2 days biopreparation can be an effective way to reduce microbiological and odorous hazards on poultry farms.

  7. Fungal Profile and Aflatoxin Contamination in Poultry Feeds Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin contamination of animal feeds is common and widely spread, especially in the tropics, due to the ubiquity of the producing fungi. The detection of aflatoxin in five samples of animal feed was carried out; using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were taken from five different areas in Abeokuta.

  8. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-04-29

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P poultry in Cameroon.

  9. [Viral contamination of polio vaccines in context of antivaccination mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.

  10. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  11. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Dawn; Thomas, Colleen; Spackman, Erica; Pritchard, Nikki; Rojo, Francisco; Bublot, Michel; Swayne, David E

    2010-06-23

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of 10 commercially available H5 vaccines against challenge with H5N2 LPAI viruses isolated from Latin America in 2003. The original 1994 vaccine seed virus in commercial inactivated vaccines did not significantly reduce challenge virus shed titers. However, two seed strains of inactivated vaccines, genetically more closely related to the challenge virus, did significantly reduce titers of challenge virus shed from respiratory tract. In addition, a live recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine containing a more distantly related Eurasian lineage H5 gene insert significantly reduced respiratory shedding as compared to sham vaccinates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying vaccine seed strains in commercial finished products for regulatory verification and the need for periodic challenge testing against current field strains in order to select efficacious vaccine seed strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A real options approach to biotechnology investment policy-the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine development in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages of the project - and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors'/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could be to issue put options for the vaccine candidate, enabling vaccine developers to hedge against the economic risk from market volatility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Perrier Gros-Claude, J D; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Salvat, G

    2005-08-25

    Our objective was to investigate the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes and to assess the association of some restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with the contamination of these meals. One hundred and forty-eight street-restaurants were studied from January 2003 to April 2004 in Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat poultry dishes were taken. Salmonella spp. was isolated in 20.1% of the 148 street-restaurants studied and in 10.1% samples of poultry dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella brancaster. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in only 3 restaurants and 3 poultry dishes. Not peeling and not cleaning vegetables and other ingredients during meal preparation (OR=3.58), dirty clothing for restaurant employees (OR=4.65), reheating previously cooked foods (OR=5.2), and no kitchen and utensils disinfection (OR=3.47) were associated with an increasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Adequate cooking procedures decreased the risk of Salmonella contamination (OR=0.15).

  14. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective......Various animal species, wild birds, rodents and pets are the main source of Campylobacter contamination in broiler farms. However, little is known about the ability of these bacteria to survive outside the host and their role in the colonisation of broilers. Therefore, in this study we aimed...... medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...

  15. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  16. Microflora and mycotoxin contamination in poultry feed mixtures from western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Szablewski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of feeds with pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins constitutes a serious threat both for animals and humans. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of risk of the occurrence of microscopic fungi, selected bacteria and mycotoxins from the trichothecene group in poultry feeds in western Poland. In feed mixtures, the concentration of ergosterol (ERG), being a specific quantitative biomarker for the content of microscopic fungi, was determined. Grower and finisher feeds were characterized by a higher count of bacteria and fungi in comparison to starter feeds. A considerable variation was found in the amount of ergosterol in analyzed feeds. Mean ergosterol content in feeds amounted to 19.34 mg/kg. The most common genera of fungi detected in the tested feeds included Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor. Irrespective of the type of feed, the proportion of trichothecenes group B was five times higher than that of trichothecenes group A in relation to the total content of these mycotoxins in samples. In terms of the analyzed mycotoxins, feeds contained the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). A statistically significant correlation was shown between DON and ERG and between total trichothecenes and ERG. Recorded results indicate that the level of microbiological contamination in feeds for broiler chickens produced in western Poland is within the requirements of the binding standards.

  17. Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-06-01

    Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (> 59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55 × 10(2) to 1.69 × 10(6) copies ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphaël Kana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1% was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%. Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%, broiler (93.3% and layer feeds (83.0% were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  19. Suboptimal protection against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Vietnam in ducks vaccinated with commercial poultry vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Shepherd, Eric; Davis, C Todd; Donis, Ruben; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Hoang Dang; Do, Hoa Thi; Inui, Ken; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2013-10-09

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries including Vietnam, and play a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) [FAO]. In this study, we examined the protective efficacy in ducks of two commercial H5N1 vaccines widely used in Vietnam; Re-1 containing A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 hemagglutinin (HA) clade 0 antigens, and Re-5 containing A/duck/Anhui/1/2006 HA clade 2.3.4 antigens. Ducks received two doses of either vaccine at 7 and at 14 or 21 days of age followed by challenge at 30 days of age with viruses belonging to the HA clades 1.1, 2.3.4.3, 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B isolated between 2008 and 2011 in Vietnam. Ducks vaccinated with the Re-1 vaccine were protected after infection with the two H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in 2008 (HA clades 1.1 and 2.3.4.3) showing no mortality and limited virus shedding. The Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines conferred 90-100% protection against mortality after challenge with the 2010 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A); but vaccinated ducks shed virus for more than 7 days after challenge. Similarly, the Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines only showed partial protection against the 2011 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2.1.A and 2.3.2.1.B), with a high proportion of vaccinated ducks shedding virus for more than 10 days. Furthermore, 50% mortality was observed in ducks vaccinated with Re-1 and challenged with the 2.3.2.1.B virus. The HA proteins of the 2011 challenge viruses had the greatest number of amino acid differences from the two vaccines as compared to the viruses from 2008 and 2009, which correlates with the lesser protection observed with these viruses. These studies demonstrate the suboptimal protection conferred by the Re-1 and Re-5 commercial vaccines in ducks against H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.2.1 viruses, and underscore the importance of monitoring vaccine efficacy in the control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  1. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immunization of backyard poultry in rural and peri-urban areas worldwide is critical for providing adequate nutrition and income for small farmers and for ensuring global food security. A vaccine presentation for flocks of 30 to 50 birds that is stable at ambient temperatures could make it affor...

  2. Utilization of a novel autologous killed tri-vaccine (serogroups B [Typhimurium], C [Mbandaka] and E [Orion]) for Salmonella control in commercial poultry breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, Anthony; Groves, Peter J; Cox, Julian M

    2010-02-01

    An autologous killed trivalent vaccine (3x10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]), based on three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium - serogroup B, Mbandaka - serogroup C, and Orion - serogroup E) prevalent in the flocks of Australian poultry companies, was developed using Salenvac techniques. At 20 weeks, hens vaccinated at 12 and 17 weeks as well as non-vaccinated hens were challenged (250 microl of 10(7) CFU) with autologous and heterologous serovars belonging to serogroup B (Typhimurium and Agona), serogroup C (Mbandaka and Infantis) and serogroup E (Orion and Zanzibar). Overall, vaccination resulted in a significant difference in carriage of Salmonella between non-vaccinated and vaccinated commercial Cobb hens (P 0.05) could be determined for serogroup E. All vaccinated flocks produced a significant antibody response (P<0.001) to the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain, measured using a S. Typhimurium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Guildhay), which peaked at 20 weeks of age, with 39% of the hens positive. Maternal antibodies were detected in 16% of the yolks from eggs produced by these flocks. There was a significant difference after challenge with Salmonella (P <0.05) among 1-day-old chicks from vaccinated versus non-vaccinated parents, when challenged using 10(4) CFU but not when challenged with 10(8) CFU. The success of this trial resulted in the incorporation of this vaccine into a Salmonella control system in commercial broiler breeder production.

  3. Strategies for vaccination of family poultry against Newcastle disease in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alders, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Criteria for the selection of vaccines against Newcastle disease (ND) appropriate for use in village chickens are discussed. Emphasis is given to the need to ensure that the selected vaccine is used successfully in the field. Those implementing ND control activities are encouraged to collaborate with all stakeholders and to develop comprehensive training and extension programs for field workers and farmers. Issues of cost-recovery and cost-minimisation are also discussed. (author)

  4. Current aspects of Salmonella contamination in the US poultry production chain and the potential application of risk strategies in understanding emerging hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Shi, Zhaohao; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources. Examination of each step of the process is necessary as well as an examination of the overall picture to create effective countermeasures against contamination and prevent disease. QMRA simulation models can use either point estimates or probability distributions to examine variables such as Salmonella concentrations at retail or at any given point of processing to gain insight on the chance of illness due to Salmonella ingestion. For modeling Salmonella risk in poultry, it is important to look at variables such as Salmonella transfer and cross contamination during processing. QMRA results may be useful for the identification and control of critical sources of Salmonella contamination.

  5. Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Latiful Bari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The estimated daily intake value, THQ, along with the aggregate hazard index value, indicated a potential risk to consumers through consumption of contaminated chicken. Therefore, the study results clearly demonstrate heavy metals accumulation in chicken due to feeding SCW-based feed. The contaminated chicken further transfers these heavy metals to humans through ingestion. Hence, there is a potential human health risk through consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide contamination in intradermal DNA vaccination : toxic impurity or adjuvant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.H. van den; Quaak, S.G.L.; Beijnen, J.H.; Hennink, W.E.; Storm, G.; Schumacher, T.N.; Haanen, J.B.A.G.; Nuijen, B.

    Purpose: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known both as potential adjuvants for vaccines and as toxic impurity in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LPS in intradermal DNA vaccination administered by DNA tattooing. Method: Micewere vaccinated with a model DNA

  7. A large outbreak of bovine botulism possibly linked to a massive contamination of grass silage by type D/C Clostridium botulinum spores on a farm with dairy and poultry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, A; Dorso, L; Douart, A; Chartier, C; Guatteo, R; Mazuet, C; Popoff, M R; Assié, S

    2017-12-01

    Type D bovine botulism outbreaks associated with poultry litter are increasingly reported in European countries, but the circumstances of exposure to Clostridium botulinum toxins remain unclear. In spring 2015, a large type D/C bovine botulism outbreak affected a farm with dairy and poultry operations. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations strongly suggest that the outbreak was caused by feeding cattle with insufficiently acidified grass silage that was contaminated by type D/C C. botulinum spores. The source of the spores remains unclear, but could have been a stack of poultry litter stored in the grass silage pasture before harvesting. The presence of putrefied poultry carcasses mixed in with the litter is relatively unlikely considering the careful daily removal of poultry carcasses. These findings reinforce the importance of proper ensiling of feed materials and highlight the need for safe disposal of poultry litter, even in the case of good management of poultry deadstock, in order to prevent bovine botulism.

  8. Microbial cross-contamination by airborne dispersion and contagion during defeathering of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V M; Hinton, M H; Tinker, D B; Gibson, C; Mead, G C; Wathes, C M

    2003-09-01

    1. A readily identifiable strain of Escherichia coli K12 was used as a 'marker' organism to determine the sources, routes and patterns of microbial cross-contamination during mechanical defeathering of broiler chicken carcases. 2. Inoculation of scald water with the marker organism led to a relatively even pattern of carcase contamination during subsequent defeathering. Microbial cross-contamination was greater by this route of inoculation than by either surface inoculation of a 'seeder' carcase or oral inoculation of a live bird one day before slaughter. 3. Dispersal of the marker organism was strongly influenced by the mechanical action of the defeathering machines. Forward transmission of the marker occurred by aerosol or large airborne droplets and particulates such as feathers. Moving carcases through the defeathering machines when these were non-operational clearly reduced backward transmission of the marker. 4. Although microbial dispersal was unaffected by increasing the spacing between individual carcases or installing a water curtain at the entry and exit of the defeathering machines, shielding of carcases with aluminium baffles reduced counts of the marker organism from contaminated carcases by > 90%. 5. The results imply that microbial cross-contamination of broiler chicken carcases during defeathering occurs mainly via the airborne route, which could be contained by physical means.

  9. Contamination of infectious RD-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sato, Eiji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    All domestic cats have a replication-competent endogenous retrovirus, termed RD-114 virus, in their genome and several feline cell lines produce RD-114 viruses. Recently, we found that a portion of live attenuated feline and canine vaccines produced using feline cell lines was contaminated with infectious RD-114 viruses. In this study, we expanded our survey and examined canine vaccines produced using 'non-feline' cell lines. Consequently, we found two vaccines containing RD-114 viral RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. We also confirmed the presence of infectious RD-114 virus in the vaccines by the LacZ marker rescue assay and PCR to detect proviral DNA in TE671 cells (human rhabdomyosarcoma cells) inoculated with the vaccines. It is impossible to investigate the definitive cause of contamination with RD-114 virus; however, we suspect that a seed canine parvovirus type 2 was contaminated with RD-114 virus, because many canine parvoviruses have been isolated and attenuated using feline cell lines. To exclude RD-114 virus from live attenuated vaccines, we must pay attention to the contamination of seed viruses with RD-114 virus in addition to avoiding feline cell lines producing RD-114 virus when manufacturing vaccines. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The virus and the vaccine: the true story of a cancer-causing monkey virus, contaminated polio vaccine, and the millions of Americans exposed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bookchin, Debbie; Schumacher, Jim

    2004-01-01

    .... But now SV40 in showing up in human cancers, and prominent researchers are demanding a serious public health response to this forgotten polio vaccine contaminant. A gripping medical detective story, The Virus and the Vaccine raises major questions about vaccine policy.

  11. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Banat, I.M.; Thahira, J.; Thayumanavan, T.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. (author)

  12. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  13. A Bayesian approach to quantifying the effects of mass poultry vaccination upon the spatial and temporal dynamics of H5N1 in Northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G T Walker

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Vietnam continue to threaten the livelihoods of those reliant on poultry production whilst simultaneously posing a severe public health risk given the high mortality associated with human infection. Authorities have invested significant resources in order to control these outbreaks. Of particular interest is the decision, following a second wave of outbreaks, to move from a "stamping out" approach to the implementation of a nationwide mass vaccination campaign. Outbreaks which occurred around this shift in policy provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these approaches and to help other countries make informed judgements when developing control strategies. Here we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC data augmentation techniques to derive the first quantitative estimates of the impact of the vaccination campaign on the spread of outbreaks of H5N1 in northern Vietnam. We find a substantial decrease in the transmissibility of infection between communes following vaccination. This was coupled with a significant increase in the time from infection to detection of the outbreak. Using a cladistic approach we estimated that, according to the posterior mean effect of pruning the reconstructed epidemic tree, two thirds of the outbreaks in 2007 could be attributed to this decrease in the rate of reporting. The net impact of these two effects was a less intense but longer-lasting wave and, whilst not sufficient to prevent the sustained spread of outbreaks, an overall reduction in the likelihood of the transmission of infection between communes. These findings highlight the need for more effectively targeted surveillance in order to help ensure that the effective coverage achieved by mass vaccination is converted into a reduction in the likelihood of outbreaks occurring which is sufficient to control the spread of H5N1 in Vietnam.

  14. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  15. A real options approach to biotechnology Investment policy - the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine developme...

  16. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    ’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision...... about vaccination needs to be made usually before Campylobacter is introduced in the flock. In fact, there is uncertainty regarding the introduction of Campylobacter into the flock that needs to be taken into account in the decision making process. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) integrate......, epidemiological and economic factors (cost-reward functions) have been included in the models. The final outcome of the models is presented in probabilities of expected level of Campylobacter and financial terms influenced by the decision on vaccination. For example, if the best decision seems to be to vaccinate...

  17. Contamination and Critical Control Points (CCPs along the processing line of sale of frozen poultry foods in retail outlets of a typical market in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Over the years, there have been considerable increases in the consumption of frozen poultry foods across Nigeria. Little attention has been paid to the microbial quality of these foods and hence constitutes a threat to public health. The contamination levels (Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria counts and the presence of pathogenic E. coli, Salmonella and Listeria along the processing line of sale of frozen poultry foods were assayed in retail outlets. Methodology and results: Bacteriological counts and bacterial isolation were carried out using standard plate methods, while the direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. Bacteriological assay revealed extremely high counts (Listeria count (LC: 7.784±1.109 - 9.586±0.016 log cfu/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae count (EC: 7.151±0.213 - 9.318±0.161 log cfu/cm2, higher than stipulated by International Food Standard Agencies. The highest count for EC (9.318±0.161 log cfu/cm2 and LC 9.586±0.016 log cfu/cm2 was from the weighing scale and processing table. Averagely, LC (8.598±0.733 log cfu/cm2 was higher than EC (8.145±0.936 log cfu/cm2. Weighing scale had counts significantly different (p < 0.05 from all others for EC. But there were no significant differences in LC. Weighing scale and meat tables were critical control points (CCPs in the processing line for sale of frozen poultry meats in the retail outlets. E. coli spp., E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated along the processing line. Conclusion, significance and impact of the study: Results of this study indicated that poultry meat are easily contaminated along the processing line of sale and may act as a potential risk to public health if counteractive measures are not applied to reduce microbial contamination during storage, sale and distribution to consumers.

  18. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Steven L.; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization. PMID:21571882

  19. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  20. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  2. Structure, Function and Evolution of Clostridium botulinum C2 and C3 Toxins: Insight to Poultry and Veterinary Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi, Paulchamy; Prisilla, Arokiyasamy

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced by this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines. C2 toxin is a binary toxin that consists of a catalytic subunit (C2I) and a translocation subunit (C2II). C2I component is structurally and functionally similar to the VIP2 and iota A toxin whereas C2II component shows a significant homology with the protective antigen from anthrax toxin and iota B. Unlike C2 toxin, C3 toxin is devoid of translocation/binding subunit. Extensive studies on their sequence-structure-function link spawn additional efforts to understand the catalytic mechanisms and target recognition. Structural and functional relationships with them are often determined by using evolutionary constraints as valuable biological measures. Enzyme-deficient mutants derived from these toxins have been used as drug/protein delivery systems in eukaryotic cells. Thus, current knowledge on their molecular diversity is a well-known perspective to design immunotoxin or subunit vaccine for C. botulinum infection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Radiation processing of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Hauser, G.A.M.; Clarke, I.R.; Thomas, A.C.

    1977-06-01

    Gamma irradiation, through its ability to inactivate microorganisms, has been shown to effectively extend the shelf life of commercially slaughtered chickens from 2-4 d to 14-21 d under normal refrigeration temperatures. Although a high percentage of carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella, the level of contamination was relatively low; the doses applied for shelf-life extention thus also served to eliminate this pathogen. Even when carcasses were artificially inoculated with Salmonella of levels several orders of magnitude higher than normal, the recommended radiation doses (3 or 5 kGy) were still capable of rendering the product 'pathogen free'. Irradiated poultry could not be distinguished organoleptically from control samples, even when twice the maximum recommended dose was applied. In conclusion, the irradiation of commercially produced poultry in South Africa with relatively low doses can be of significant benefit by (1) markedly extending the acceptable shelf life and (2) eliminating pathogenic bacteria present on the commercially available product [af

  4. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Poultry Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  6. Control of poultry coccidiosis: changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, A K; Maharana, B R

    2011-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important protozoan disease affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Control of poultry coccidiosis is presently based on managerial skills and the use of prophylactic coccidiostatic drugs. With the emergence of drug resistant Eimeria strains, emphasis has been laid on development and use of safer vaccines; some of them have been commercialized successfully. The present review deals with the various factors responsible for the development of clinical coccidiosis in poultry as well as an overview of the currently available inducers and boosters of immunity against coccidiosis. There are three groups of vaccines currently available against coccidiosis which can be distinguished on the basis of characteristics of the Eimeria species included in the respective products, viz. vaccines based on live virulent strains, vaccines based on live attenuated strains, and vaccines based on live strains that are relatively tolerant to the ionophore compounds. The latter vaccine combines the early chemotherapeutic effect of ionophores with the late prophylactic effect of vaccination. Although in the near future more varieties of oocyst based live vaccines are expected, identification of selective coccidian-specific immunoprotective molecules is likely to get more attention to facilitate the sustainable control of poultry coccidiosis.

  7. Degree of mycotoxicological contamination of feed and complete feed mixtures for pigs and poultry during the period 2007-2012. on the territory of the republic of serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Stamen S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common producers of mycotoxins are fungi of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Toxins are of extreme importance because it can be transmitted from animals to humans through milk and animal products, some of which are carcinogenic and teratogenic. Mycotoxins cause a health disturbance of all animals, but the effects are more noticeable in highly productive animals in the farm way of keeping considering the much greater consumption of concentrate feeds, although forages also can be contaminated with mycotoxins in a significant manner. Mycotoxicoses are the most com­mon seasonal illnesses, and are an important diagnostic problem in veterinary practice, because its characteristics often resemble diseases caused by pathogens or nutritional deficiency or imbalance. The degree of health disturbances depends on the amount of toxins in feed and the length of intaking as on types and categories of animals. The presence of mycotoxins in animal feed is inevitable and therefore testing of raw materials and products is necessary so that feed for humans and animals can be safe for use. Damages arising as consequences of mycotoxicosis in poultry and swine production, due to the direct loss because of animals lossor, more commonly, indirectly due to the fall productive and reproductive performances of animals, imposed the need for continuous monitoring of the hygienic quality of feed mixtures for feeding these animals. During a five year period (2007-2012 were analyzed a total of 104 samples from the territory of Republic of Serbia intended for nutrition of all categories of poultry and mixtures for the initial and final fattening broilers (50 samples and laying hens (54. The analysis included 57 samples of feed mixtures intended for all categories of swine - feed mixture for young (20 samples and the old categories (37 samples and 196 of the samples, which are commonly used in formulating rations for listed species (maize, soybean and

  8. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  9. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...

  10. Antimicrobials usage assessments in commercial poultry and local birds in North-central Nigeria: Associated pathways and factors for resistance emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Haruna, A E; Muhammad, B; Lawan, M K; Isola, T O

    2018-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recommended monitoring of antimicrobial use (AMU) through surveillance and research to help mitigate AMR. This survey was aimed at assessing poultry owners' knowledge/awareness and practices regarding AMU, identified pathways for AMR emergence and spread in small-scale commercial poultry farms and free-range local bird flocks in North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on commercial poultry farmers and local bird flock keepers in 2017. Also, a Traffic Light system model was used assess risk status of AMU in farms and flocks. All the 384 recruited poultry farmers/keepers participated in the survey. Female respondents were the majority (67.2%). Low proportion of poultry farmers (46.4%, 89/192) and very low proportion of bird keepers (6.8%, 13/192) knew antimicrobials misuse to be when administered under dose. About 48% (93/192) of farmers and 93% (179/192) of keepers arbitrary determined antimicrobial dosage before administration. Respondents used antimicrobials for therapeutic, prophylactic, and growth promotion in birds. Also, participants significantly identified contaminated poultry products, infected poultry or contaminated formites, and discharged contaminated faeces into environment as pathways for transmission of antimicrobial resistant pathogens to humans. Traffic Light system model revealed 88.5% of small-scale commercial poultry farms to frequently used antimicrobials without veterinarians' consultations thereby attaining Class 1 (Red risk) status. The model showed that 92.1% of free-range local bird flocks rarely used antimicrobials thereby attaining Class 3 (Green risk) status. Improper antimicrobial dosage in poultry (OR: 7.23; 95% CI: 2.74, 19.21), non-enforcement of AMU regulating laws in poultry (OR: 4.12; 95% CI: 2.39, 7.10), weak financial status of poultry owners (OR: 3.00; 95% CI: 2.39, 7.10), and management

  11. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  12. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  13. Adaption of wild-bird origin H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus Clade 2.3.4.4 in vaccinated poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014-2015 incursion of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused the largest animal health emergency in U.S. history and renewed interest in developing vaccines against these newly emergent viruses. Our previous research demonstrated several H5 vaccines with varyi...

  14. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  15. Development and evaluation of an avian influenza, neuraminidase subtype 1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for poultry using the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Mundt, E; Mundt, A; Sylte, M; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; García, M

    2010-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from North American and Eurasian lineages. Sensitivity of the N1-ELISA to detect N1 antibodies in turkey sera, collected 3 wk after H1N1 vaccination, was comparable to detection of avian influenza antibodies by the commercial, indirect ELISAs ProFLOK AIV Plus ELISA Kit (Synbiotics, Kansas City, MO) and Avian Influenza Virus Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). However, 6 wk after vaccination, the Synbiotics ELISA kit performed better than the N1-ELISA and the IDEXX ELISA kit. An evaluation was made of the ability of the N1-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated chickens from subsequently challenged chickens. Two experiments were conducted, chickens were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and challenged with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, and chickens were vaccinated with recombinant poxvirus vaccine encoding H7 and challenged with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. Serum samples were collected at 14 days postchallenge and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), quantitative neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and N1-ELISA. At 2 days postchallenge, oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus isolation (VI) to confirm infection. The N1-ELISA was in fair agreement with VI and HI results. Although the N1-ELISA showed a lower sensitivity than the NI assay, it was demonstrated that detection of N1 antibodies by ELISA was an effective and rapid assay to identify exposure to the challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. Therefore, N1-ELISA can facilitate a vaccination strategy with differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals using a neuraminidase heterologous approach.

  16. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  17. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.; Živanov Nenad M.; Živković Jasmina Z.; Milojević Miloš J.; Teodosin Jovan M.; Pećanac Savka L.; Milić Dragan V.; Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Đekić Jovo P.

    2005-01-01

    Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with m...

  18. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Built-up-Litter and Commercial Antimicrobials on Salmonella and Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Carcasses Processed at a Pilot Mobile Poultry-Processing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KaWang; Lemonakis, Lacey; Glover, Brian; Moritz, Joseph; Shen, Cangliang

    2017-01-01

    The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU) produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147) were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75) or built-up-litter (BUL, 72) and processed at an MPPU. Aerobic plate counts (APCs), coliforms, Escherichia coli , and yeast/molds (Y/M) of carcasses were analyzed on petrifilms. Ceca and carcass samples underwent microbial analyses for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. using the modified USDA method and confirmed by API-20e test ( Salmonella ), latex agglutination immunoassay ( Campylobacter ), and Gram staining ( Campylobacter ). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (CadF gene) identified the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in ceca and on carcasses. In study II, fresh chilled broiler carcasses were spot inoculated with C. jejuni (4.5 log 10  CFU/mL) and then undipped, or dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA) (1,000 ppm), lactic acid (5%), lactic and citric acid blend (2.5%), sodium hypochlorite (69 ppm), or a H 2 O 2 -PAA mix (SaniDate ® 5.0, 0.25%) for 30 s. Surviving C. jejuni was recovered onto Brucella agar. APCs, coliforms, and E. coli populations were similar ( P  > 0.05) on CS and BUL carcasses. Carcasses of broilers raised on BUL contained a greater ( P   0.05) in CS-treated ceca than BUL samples. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni , and C. coli was not different ( P  > 0.05) on CS- and BUL-treated carcasses. All antimicrobials reduced C. jejuni by 1.2-2.0 log CFU/mL on carcasses compared with controls. Hence, raising broilers on CS

  20. EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (poultry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    be risk categorisation of flocks based on FCI and classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce carcass faecal contamination. It is proposed that post-mortem visual inspection is replaced by setting targets for the main hazards on the carcass, and by verification of the food business......A qualitative risk assessment identified Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and ESBL/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of poultry. As none of these are detected by traditional visual meat inspection, establishing an integrated...... food safety assurance system, achievable through improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based interventions, was proposed. This includes setting targets at carcass level and, when appropriate, flock level indicating what should be achieved for a given hazard. Elements of the system would...

  1. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  2. Impact of Built-up-Litter and Commercial Antimicrobials on Salmonella and Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Carcasses Processed at a Pilot Mobile Poultry-Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaWang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147 were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75 or built-up-litter (BUL, 72 and processed at an MPPU. Aerobic plate counts (APCs, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and yeast/molds (Y/M of carcasses were analyzed on petrifilms. Ceca and carcass samples underwent microbial analyses for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. using the modified USDA method and confirmed by API-20e test (Salmonella, latex agglutination immunoassay (Campylobacter, and Gram staining (Campylobacter. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (CadF gene identified the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in ceca and on carcasses. In study II, fresh chilled broiler carcasses were spot inoculated with C. jejuni (4.5 log10 CFU/mL and then undipped, or dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA (1,000 ppm, lactic acid (5%, lactic and citric acid blend (2.5%, sodium hypochlorite (69 ppm, or a H2O2–PAA mix (SaniDate® 5.0, 0.25% for 30 s. Surviving C. jejuni was recovered onto Brucella agar. APCs, coliforms, and E. coli populations were similar (P > 0.05 on CS and BUL carcasses. Carcasses of broilers raised on BUL contained a greater (P < 0.05 Y/M population (2.2 log10 CFU/mL than those reared on CS (1.8 log10 CFU/mL. Salmonella was not detected in any ceca samples, whereas 2.8% of the carcasses from BUL were present with Salmonella. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni was lower (P < 0.05, and C. coli was similar (P > 0

  3. The significance of Campylobacter jejuni infection in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S M

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter is a significant cause of enterocolitis in consumers of undercooked poultry meat. Campylobacter jejuni is the most significant of the three thermophilic Campylobacter species, and is responsible for intestinal colonization in poultry and food-borne enteritis in humans. Generally, C. jejuni is apathogenic in poultry, although newly hatched chicks and turkeys may develop a transient diarrhoea following infection. Modern intensive poultry production favours the introduction of infection into commercial growing units, resulting in intestinal colonization during the second to fourth weeks inclusive. Routes of infection include contaminated fomites, infected water supply, rodents, insects, and free-living birds. Vertical transmission is considered unlikely. Contamination of poultry meat is enhanced by deficiencies in transport and processing of broilers and turkeys. Scalding, defeathering and evisceration represent the significant points of cross-contamination during processing. Epidemiological correlation has been established between consumption of contaminated chicken and outbreaks of human campylobacteriosis. Amelioration of infection by application of improved standards of hygiene and decontamination is possible in the context of commercial poultry production. Improvement in washing of carcasses, and the application of chemical disinfectants and gamma irradiation have the potential to reduce the prevalence of C. jejuni contamination in poultry meat. These innovations, together with improved storage and handling of meat products, will reduce the risk of campylobacteriosis to consumers.

  4. The Microbial Burden Load of Eggshells from Different Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    In this study, the microbial load of egg shell from different poultry system in .... eggshell surface and also decrease bacterial and fungal invasion ... measures of central tendency (mean ± standard .... Salmonella Contamination and Disinfection.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  6. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  7. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  8. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  9. Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn's disease and Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugham, Vinu

    2017-01-01

    Cancer research has demonstrated that immunization with homologous xenogeneic proteins (such as vaccines contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins) results in autoimmunity. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrates that animal proteins have occasional amino acids differences compared to equivalent human proteins. So mutated human protein epitopes can be identical to animal protein derived epitopes. Low affinity self reactive T cells suited for detection of mutated human epitop...

  10. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  11. The control of H5 or H7 mildly pathogenic avian influenza: a role for inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, David A

    2002-02-01

    Biosecurity is the first line of defence in the prevention and control of mildly pathogenic avian influenza (MPAI). Its use has been highly successful in keeping avian influenza (AI) out of commercial poultry worldwide. However, sometimes AI becomes introduced into poultry populations and, when that occurs, biosecurity again is the primary means of controlling the disease. There is agreement that routine serological monitoring, disease reporting, isolation or quarantine of affected flocks, application of strict measures to prevent the contamination of and movement of people and equipment, and changing flock schedules are necessities for controlling AI. There is disagreement as to the disposition of MPAI-infected flocks: some advocate their destruction and others advocate controlled marketing. Sometimes biosecurity is not enough to stop the spread of MPAI. In general, influenza virus requires a dense population of susceptible hosts to maintain itself. When there is a large population of susceptible poultry in an area, use of an inactivated AI vaccine can contribute to AI control by reducing the susceptibility of the population. Does use of inactivated vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists MPAI control (which may reduce the risk of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI)) but, unless steps are taken to prevent it, vaccination may interfere with sero-epidemiology in the case of an HPAI outbreak. Does lack of vaccine assist, complicate or interfere with AI control and eradication? Yes, it assists in identification of sero-positive (convalescent) flocks in a HPAI eradication program, but it interferes with MPAI control (which in turn may increase the risk of emergence of HPAI).A number of hypothetical concerns have been raised about the use of inactivated AI vaccines. Infection of vaccinated flocks, serology complications and spreading of virus by vaccine crews are some of the hypothetical concerns. The discussion of these concerns

  12. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  14. A retrospective PCR investigation of avian Orthoreovirus, chicken infectious anemia and fowl Aviadenovirus genomes contamination in commercial poultry vaccines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Barrios

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vacinas avícolas vivas comerciais produzidas entre 1991 e 2005 foram examinadas para a presença de genomas dos vírus da anemia infecciosa das galinhas (Gyrovirus CAV, da hepatite por corpúsculo de inclusão (Aviadenovirus FAdV e da artrite viral/síndrome da má absorção (Orthoreovirus aviário ARV. Vinte e seis partidas de vacinas vivas liofilizadas de oito fabricantes com lacre original foram examinadas. As extrações de DNA e PCR de CAV e FAdV, e de RNA e RT-PCR para ARV, foram descritas previamente. Contaminações triplas de ARV, CAV e FAdV foram detectadas em vacinas de mesmo fabricante, produzidas em 1991 e 1992 contra a doença de Newcastle (DN, e para a encefalomielite aviária, produzida em 1994. ARV e CAV em co-infecção foram encontrados em vacinas contra a doença de Marek liofilizadas produzidas em 1996 por dois fabricantes diferentes. Genoma de ARV foi detectado em vacinas contra a bronquite infecciosa de setembro e dezembro de 1998, doença infecciosa bursal, de dezembro de 1998 e DN de janeiro de 1998. Três dos oito fabricantes apresentaram vacinas com contaminação e cinco nunca apresentaram vacinas contaminadas. Nenhuma vacina produzida a partir de 2001 apresentou contaminação. Cogita-se um papel epidemiológico para vacinas vivas, como fonte de infecção para ARV, CAV e FAdV e, potencialmente determinante da atual alta disseminação destes.

  15. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  16. Vector vaccines for control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccines play a critical role in the poultry industries efforts at disease control and prevention. However, providing safe, efficacious, and cost-effective vaccines remains a constant issue to the industry. In addition, many viruses undergo mutation in the field requiring vaccine adjustments. Recent...

  17. Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... with 100% adoption however, were provision of adequate ventilation, removal of dead birds, offering of good quality feed and water, vaccination and provision of ...

  18. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on myc...

  19. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. PMID:29161444

  20. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  1. Quantification of the effect of vaccination on transmission of avian influenza (H7N7) in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der A.J.; Koch, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Boven, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry and their threatening zoonotic consequences emphasize the need for effective control measures. Although vaccination of poultry against avian influenza provides a potentially attractive control measure, little is known

  2. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  3. Salmonella expression of the avian influenza HA and M2e genes for protection of poultry from lethal challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is viral disease of poultry and detection in commercial flocks can result in trade embargos causing serious economic impact to the poultry industry. Vaccination is currently used to increase protection of birds against AI and limit transmission to susceptible cohorts. Because ...

  4. Listeria Occurrence in Poultry Flocks: Detection and Potential Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rothrock

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Listeria are a major concern within the food industry due to their pathogenic potential to cause infection. Of these, Listeria monocytogenes, possesses a high mortality rate (approximately 20% and is considered one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens. Although the usual reservoirs for Listeria transmission have been extensively studied, little is known about the relationship between Listeria and live poultry production. Sporadic and isolated cases of listeriosis have been attributed to poultry production and Listeria spp. have been isolated from all stages of poultry production and processing. Farm studies suggest that live birds may be an important vector and contributor to contamination of the processing environment and transmission of Listeria to consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the occurrence, incidence, and potential systemic interactions of Listeria spp. with poultry.

  5. Listeria Occurrence in Poultry Flocks: Detection and Potential Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Davis, Morgan L; Locatelli, Aude; Bodie, Aaron; McIntosh, Tori G; Donaldson, Janet R; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli , and Listeria are a major concern within the food industry due to their pathogenic potential to cause infection. Of these, Listeria monocytogenes , possesses a high mortality rate (approximately 20%) and is considered one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens. Although the usual reservoirs for Listeria transmission have been extensively studied, little is known about the relationship between Listeria and live poultry production. Sporadic and isolated cases of listeriosis have been attributed to poultry production and Listeria spp. have been isolated from all stages of poultry production and processing. Farm studies suggest that live birds may be an important vector and contributor to contamination of the processing environment and transmission of Listeria to consumers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the occurrence, incidence, and potential systemic interactions of Listeria spp. with poultry.

  6. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  7. Stunning systems for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  8. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  9. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  10. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  11. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  12. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation

  14. Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer Sumbal, Gul; Hussain Shar, Zahid; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail; Sirajuddin; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad; Mahesar, Safaraz Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Mycotoxin-contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultra-violet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultra-violet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1 mW cm(-2) at 254 nm UV-C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminated with OTA was evaluated. The same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analysed for OTA by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg(-1) were 100% decontaminated in 180 min with UV radiation while OTA was decreased to 70-95 µg kg(-1) using the same poultry feed samples after 8 h sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only 1 h of UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring the OTA level to the maximum regulatory limit suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg(-1) ), while 8 h were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. The proposed approach is a viable option to reduce the level of OTA in contaminated poultry feeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Direction of the Rational Use of Water at the Facilities for Growing Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.; Porotkova, A. K.; Volovikova, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article notes the effect of water use in the technological process of automatic drinking agricultural poultry on the quality and the quantity of outputs. At the same time, the requirements to the quality of the used water, the regimes of its consumption by the poultry and the role of mechanization of the process of automatic drinking in the rational use of the water resource, the processing and the reuse of contaminated wastes are disclosed. Within the framework of this concept, we propose constructively technological solutions of systems and means of automatic drinking agricultural poultry, providing the rational use of water as one of the important products of vital activity of agricultural poultry.

  16. T-2 toxin Analysis in Poultry and Cattle Feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour Azizi, Issa; Azarmi, Masumeh; Danesh Pouya, Naser; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2014-05-01

    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by the Fusarium fungi. Consumption of food and feed contaminated with T-2 toxin causes diseases in humans and animals. In this study T-2 toxin was analyzed in poultry and cattle feedstuff in cities of Mazandaran province (Babol, Sari, Chalus), Northern Iran. In this study, 90 samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin contamination by the ELISA method. Out of 60 concentrate and bagasse samples collected from various cities of Mazandaran province, 11.7% and 3.3% were contaminated with T-2 toxin at concentrations > 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. For mixed poultry diets, while 10% of the 30 analyzed samples were contaminated with > 25 µg/kg, none of the tested samples contained T-2 toxin at levels > 50 µg/kg. The results obtained from this study show that poultry and cattle feedstuff can be contaminated with different amounts of T-2 toxin in different conditions and locations. Feedstuff that are contaminated by this toxin cause different diseases in animals; thus, potential transfer of mycotoxins to edible by-products from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feeds drives the need to routinely monitor mycotoxins in animal feeds and their components. This is the basis on which effective management of mycotoxins and their effects can be implemented.

  17. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or..., Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... governing the importation of live birds and poultry and poultry meat and products from the APHIS-defined EU...

  18. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Franchi, María Luisa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recove...

  19. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  20. Garbage Management: An Important Risk Factor for HPAI-Virus Infection in Commercial Poultry Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Emily; Linskens, Eric; Umber, Jamie; Culhane, Marie Rene; Halvorson, David; Contadini, Francesca; Cardona, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises. On-farm garbage management practices, along with trash hauling and disposal practices are thus key components that must be considered to evaluate the risk of commercial poultry becoming infected with HPAI virus.

  1. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 in poultry and fish feed by various chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study various poultry and fish feed samples were initially analyzed for presence of aflatoxin. All the samples were found contaminated with aflatoxin B I only. Contaminated samples were treated with different organic and inorganic chemicals to detoxify aflatoxin B 1 in poultry and fish feed samples. The maximum reduction in the aflatoxin Bl concentration was observed with 0.5% HCI as 14.20 ppb to 2.09 ppb (86.50%) in the poultry and 69.26 ppb to 10.46 ppb (84.89%) in fish feed samples.

  2. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  3. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  4. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such as...

  5. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  6. Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez M. Hafez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry.

  7. Profile of selected bacterial counts and Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in a poultry slaughter establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W O; Williams, W O; Prucha, J C; Johnston, R; Christensen, W

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service determined populations of bacteria on poultry during processing at a slaughter plant in Puerto Rico in November and December 1987. The plant was selected because of its management's willingness to support important changes in equipment and processing procedures. The plant was representative of modern slaughter facilities. Eight-hundred samples were collected over 20 consecutive 8-hour days of operation from 5 sites in the processing plant. Results indicated that slaughter, dressing, and chilling practices significantly decreased the bacterial contamination on poultry carcasses, as determined by counts of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli. Salmonella was not enumerated; rather, it was determined to be present or absent by culturing almost the entire rinse. The prevalence of Salmonella in the study decreased during evisceration, then increased during immersion chilling.

  8. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  9. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-12-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other intermediate factors for virus transmission between wild birds and poultry. This review describes current evidence of the potential role of rodents in AIV transmission from wild birds to poultry and between poultry houses. Rodents can be abundant around poultry houses, share their habitat with waterfowl and can readily enter poultry houses. Survival of AIV from waterfowl in poultry house surroundings and on the coat of rodents suggests that rodents are likely to act as mechanical vector. AIVs can replicate in rodents without adaptation, resulting in high viral titres in lungs and nasal turbinates, virus presence in nasal washes and saliva, and transmission to naïve contact animals. Therefore, active AIV shedding by infected rodents may play a role in transmission to poultry. Further field and experimental studies are needed to provide evidence for a role of rodents in AIV epidemiology. Making poultry houses rodent-proof and the immediate surroundings unattractive for rodents are recommended as preventive measures against possible AIV introduction.

  10. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rеsаnоvić Rаdmilа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity is ability to stop an infection. Immunosupression is a status where the immunity is reduced. Humoral (antibodies and/or cell immunity may be depressed. Immunosupression can be caused by infectious agents, improper feeding balance (deficiencies, lack of biosecurity, management failures, stress or by a combination of these factors. Each of these possible causes must be seriously worked out to prevent the consequences of immunosupression on profitability. Environmental factors and numerous infectious pathogens have been identified as a multi-factorial cause of various degrees of immunosupression. Mainly subclinical character and coinfections make the diagnosis of the primary immunosuppressive agents difficult. On the other hand, early diagnosis and identification of contributing factors are important to develop strategies to fight immunosupression in birds successfully. A combination of biosecurity measures, optimized housing condition and stress reduction together with appropriate vaccination strategies is necessary for the successful control of immunosupression in commercial poultry.

  11. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. The...

  12. Ingredients of Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing preservative that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. For children with a prior history of allergic reactions to any of these substances ...

  13. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., 94, 95, and 104 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094] RIN 0579-AD45 Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and adding it to the list of regions we...

  14. Neighbourhood Acceptability of Poultry Farms Located in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... due to poultry production in their neighbourhood. It was recommended that farmers should be encouraged to adopt technologies that can keep poultry litters dry and odourless. In addition, poultry farm locations should be sited far away from residential areas. Keywords: Poultry Farms, Acceptability, Waste management, ...

  15. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni survival in a poultry processing plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Lourdes; Melero, Beatriz; Jaime, Isabel; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rossi, Mirko; Rovira, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of poultry, especially chicken's meat is considered the most common route for human infection. The aim of this study was to determine if Campylobacter spp. might persist in the poultry plant environment before and after cleaning and disinfection procedures and the distribution and their genetic relatedness. During one month from a poultry plant were analyzed a total of 494 samples -defeathering machine, evisceration machine, floor, sink, conveyor belt, shackles and broiler meat- in order to isolate C. jejuni and C. coli. Results showed that C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence was 94.5% and 5.5% respectively. Different typing techniques as PFGE, MLST established seven C. jejuni genotypes. Whole genome MLST strongly suggest that highly clonal populations of C. jejuni can survive in adverse environmental conditions, even after cleaning and disinfection, and persist for longer periods than previous thought (at least 21 days) in the poultry plant environment. Even so, it might act as a source of contamination independently of the contamination level of the flock entering the slaughter line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  18. Analysis of the effect of diluent for rehydration of PoulVac MycoF on vaccination seroconversion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct eye drop vaccination of poultry using live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines provides the most efficient route of vaccination. The research reported in this study examines the effect of diluent used to rehydrate lyophilized M. gallisepticum vaccines on its ability to induce a measurable humo...

  19. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  20. American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Perspective of Alternative Poultry Production Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) is a nonprofit educational and networking organization dedicated to encouraging the production, processing, and marketing of poultry raised on pasture, and is the largest industry group focused on pastured poultry. APPPA passionately embr...

  1. Use of adenoviral vectors as veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T

    2005-10-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.

  2. THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DETERMINATION POULTRY GRADE AND POULTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Makhonina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There was proposed the system of classification of poultry by grades, taking into account the rate of individual bone-in and boneless pieces, and minced meat according to objective quality indexes, namely the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein in terms of protein quality (ratio of tryptophan to hydroxyproline, the ratio of the energy value and other indicators established for land and water-floating bird and is comparable to similar measures for beef and pork. Was given the quantitative criteria for rating the quality of poultry meat for content of muscle, connective and fatty tissues (skin with fat in gutted carcass and its parts, installed there output and factors consumer value (FCV. Also was given the comparative rate of biological value of raw meat of slaughter animals and poultry, poultry meat mechanically deboning and nutritional supplements of animal and vegetable origin. It is established, that poultry meat mechanically separated on the functional-technological properties and bioavailability significantly superior to animal and vegetable proteins. The biological value of the lump meat of chickens-broilers and hens egg directions 1 grade has values 73.12 and 72.92%, the same time the biological value of goose meat from deboning carcasses of 2 and 1 grades has high values and varies from 79.77 to 81.14%. The new approach of the definition types of meat poultry and poultry products increases the range of foods allowed by the introduction in the recipe of sausage stuffing alternative sources of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin, adequate and balanced protein composition that is a definite contribution to the solution of the problem of providing the population with goods of high quality and enhance production efficiency.

  3. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  4. The vaccination programme in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri Siregar, E; Darminto; Weaver, J; Bouma, A

    2007-01-01

    The Indonesian response to the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is being strengthened by increased intersectoral commitment and greater availability of staff and resources. Vaccination against avian influenza has been used widely in large commercial sectors but less so in other sectors. Generally, there has been a reduction in outbreaks and in the impact of HPAI on the commercial industry. Afield trial is described that might provide insight into the efficacy of vaccination on farms in sector 3. Preliminary data suggest that vaccination of layers induces high titres, whereas vaccination of native chickens might be difficult owing to a low response in these breeds. A much greater commitment of management, staff and resources is required before vaccination can become part of a successful sustainable campaign to eradicate HPAI. For success, the commercial poultry industry must become an integral part of the control programme, providing information and having the opportunity to identify or modify the priorities of the control programme.

  5. Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which, in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the aetiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that lead to over-proliferation of C. perfringens and the subsequent progression to disease are poorly understood. Any factor that causes stress in broiler chicks could suppress the immune system and disturb the balance of the intestinal ecosystem, in such a way that the risk of a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak increases. Poultry management could significantly affect the pathogenesis of NE. In particular, feed restriction and coccidiosis vaccination can protect against NE, while extreme house temperature, feed mycotoxins and high stocking density predispose to NE. It becomes really important to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to clarify the interactions between husbandry, nutritional and infectious factors and the outbreak of necrotic enteritis. This is necessary and extremely important in order to develop managerial strategies at the farm level to control the incidence and severity of the disease in the post-antibiotic era.

  6. Is syndromic data from rural poultry farmers a viable poultry disease reporting tool and means of identifying likely farmer responses to poultry disease incursion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2018-05-01

    Syndromic surveillance is a well described tool used in developed countries for alerting authorities to livestock disease incursions. However, little work has been done to evaluate whether this could be a viable tool in countries where disease reporting infrastructure and resources is poor. Consequently, a syndrome-based questionnaire study in Eastern Zambia was designed to gather data on previous encounters farmers had with poultry diseases, as well as control measures they use to mitigate them. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Farmers reported an overall annual disease incidence in rural poultry for eastern Zambia of 31% (90% CI 29-32%). Occurrence of poultry disease in the last 12 months was associated with use of middlemen to purchase poultry products (p = 0.05, OR = 7.87), poultry products sold or given away from the farm (p = 0.01, OR = 1.92), farmers experiencing a period with more trade of poultry and its products (p = 0.04, OR = 1.70), presence of wild birds near the farm or village (p = 0.00, OR = 2.47) and poultry diseases being reported from neighbouring farms or villages (p = 0.00, OR = 3.12). The study also tentatively identified three poultry diseases (Newcastle Disease, Gumboro Disease and Fowl Pox) from the thirty-four disease syndromes provided by farmers. Farmers reported an incidence of 27% for Newcastle Disease in 2014. When compared with the state veterinary services data which reported Newcastle Disease incidence at 9% in 2014, it seems syndromic data obtained from farmers may be more sensitive in identifying disease incursion. Thirty-six remedies and strategies farmers use to treat and control these diseases were revealed. The main control strategy for identified diseases was vaccination and the main treatment was unspecified herbs, which warrants further investigation and presents an opportunity for further research in ethno-veterinary medicine. More still

  7. Simulations at Czech poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the possible scenarios of the development of the poultry market in the Czech Republic, in view of the trends in production, consumption and foreign trade. The individual scenarios are based upon the forecasts of selected factors that have a substantial impact on the poultry market and whose changes can be expected in the subsequent years with great likelihood. The article sets out and addresses various scenarios for the period of 2012–2014. The scenarios are based upon the partial equilibrium model of the poultry market, which has been derived on the basis of time series and panel data within the years 1995–2009. The conducted analysis clearly shows that changes in the prices of agricultural producers will have an effect on changes in the production of poultry meat, an increase in VAT through consumer prices will impact the rate of domestic consumption, as well as changes in disposable income. Similarly, a change in the exchange rate will have an effect on the amount of poultry imported into the Czech Republic.

  8. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielink, van R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce

  10. Biosecurity on Poultry Farms from On-Farm Fluidized Bed Combustion and Energy Recovery from Poultry Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McDonnell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of poultry litter in recent years has led to a serious increase in levels of eutrophication, nitrate leaching, high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, ammonia toxicity, high chlorine concentrations and pathogen contamination. The review presented here details the optimum standards that should be met when storing litter for On-Farm Fluidized Bed Combustion. Storage conditions are paramount to a fuel combusting to its highest possible potential. Safety measures such as the prevention of leaching and spontaneous combustion must be adhered to, so too should the prevention and containment of possible diseases and pathogens to minimize the effects of contamination.

  11. Ionizing energy treatment of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an ionizing energy treatment to poultry carcasses results in a decrease of the number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Salmonellae. At the same time the refrigerated shelf life of treated poultry products is considerably increased. To achieve these beneficial effects doses ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 kGy are needed, but in poultry doses over 5.00 kGy may cause undesirable side-effects. To asses the microbiological quality of ionizing radiation treated end-products adequate isolation methods should be used to include all sublethally injured microorganisms in the colony counts. The assessment of the required lethality of an ionizing energy treatment is difficult as D 10 (decimal reduction) - values depend greatly on several parameters

  12. Analysis of hyperspectral fluorescence images for poultry skin tumor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong G.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Kim, Intaek; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-02-01

    We present a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system with a fuzzy inference scheme for detecting skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Hyperspectral images reveal spatial and spectral information useful for finding pathological lesions or contaminants on agricultural products. Skin tumors are not obvious because the visual signature appears as a shape distortion rather than a discoloration. Fluorescence imaging allows the visualization of poultry skin tumors more easily than reflectance. The hyperspectral image samples obtained for this poultry tumor inspection contain 65 spectral bands of fluorescence in the visible region of the spectrum at wavelengths ranging from 425 to 711 nm. The large amount of hyperspectral image data is compressed by use of a discrete wavelet transform in the spatial domain. Principal-component analysis provides an effective compressed representation of the spectral signal of each pixel in the spectral domain. A small number of significant features are extracted from two major spectral peaks of relative fluorescence intensity that have been identified as meaningful spectral bands for detecting tumors. A fuzzy inference scheme that uses a small number of fuzzy rules and Gaussian membership functions successfully detects skin tumors on poultry carcasses. Spatial-filtering techniques are used to significantly reduce false positives.

  13. Patterns of contact within the New Zealand poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G; Gerber, N; French, N P

    2010-07-01

    Members of the Poultry Industry Association and the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (n=420) were sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the type and frequency of on- and off-enterprise movements relating to feed, live birds and hatching eggs, table eggs and poultry product, and manure and waste litter. Social network analyses were used to describe patterns of contact among poultry enterprises and their associates for these four movement types. The response rate to the survey was 58% (244 out of 420). Network structures for enterprise-to-enterprise movements of feed, live birds and hatching eggs, and table egg and poultry product were characterised by 'hub and spoke' type structures with small-world characteristics. Small worlds were created by network hubs (e.g. feed suppliers and hatcheries) providing goods and services to larger numbers of client farms. In addition to hubs acting as the predominant source of material moving onto farms we identified enterprises acting as bridges between identified small worlds. The presence of these bridges is a concern, since their presence has the potential to facilitate the spread of hazards (e.g. feed contaminants, infectious agents carried within feed) more readily throughout the population. An ability to predict enterprises with these network characteristics on the basis of factors such as shed capacity, enterprise type, geographic location would be useful for developing risk-based approaches to disease prevention, surveillance, detection, response and control activities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chilling tanks effectiveness on the reduction of bacterial contamination of poultry carcasses/ Eficácia dos tanques de pré-resfriamento na redução de contaminação bacteriana em carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Eckehardt Müller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the chilling tanks effectiveness on the reduction of microbial contamination of poultry carcasses from an abattoir, from March to September 2005. Poultry samples were taken in three times, in the beginning, middle and in the end of morning turn, in a total of 60 samples, 20 in each sampling time before the entrance in the chilling tank and other 60 samples, 20 in each sampling time after the exit of the chilling tank. Poultry samples were tested to total coliforms (CT, thermotolerant coliforms (CTT, mesophilic aerobes (AM and psychrotrophic microorganisms (MP. For CT and CTT research were used the multiple tube fermentation technique, for AM were usedPetrifilm™C system and for MP Plate Count Agar. The higher mean of the Most Probable Number of CT and CTT (3,83 log MPN/g and 3,78 log MPN/g and AM and MP counts (6,61 log UFC/g and 4,58 log UFC/g on poultry carcasses occurred in the first time of sampling, before the entrance in the pre-chiller tank.There was a significant (pO objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar eficácia dos tanques de pré-resfriamento na redução da contaminação microbiana de carcaças de frango. As amostras foram coletadas de um abatedouro no período de março a setembro de 2005, totalizando 20 coletas. Foram coletadas amostras de carcaças em três horários representando o início, meio e final do turno matutino de abate sendo 60 amostras (20 em cada horário antes da entrada no pré-chiller e 60 amostras (20 em cada horário após a saída do chiller. As amostras de frango foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes totais (CT, coliformes termotolerantes (CTT, aeróbios mesófilos (AM e psicrotróficos (MP. A enumeração de CT e CTT foi realizada através da técnica dos tubos múltiplos, a de AM através do sistema Petrifilm™C e a contagem de MP em Agar Padrão para Contagem. As médias mais elevadas do número mais provável de CT e CTT (3,83 log NMP/g e 3,78 log NMP

  15. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Epizootiology of aegyptianellosis in poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Ts S

    1983-01-01

    Epizootiologic studies were carried out on avian aegyptianellosis, especially with birds raised at poultry dressing combines and industrial poultry farms within the country. It was found that the mechanism of infection transmission was mediated not only by the role of Argas persicus ticks but also by bed bug insects of the Cimex genus, belonging to the Hemiptera order. Carriers of aegyptianellosis might also be migratory birds coming from tropical countries, such as swallows. It is concluded that avian aegyptianellosis can be referred to the group of the natural focal transmissive infections.

  17. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  18. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  19. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b...

  20. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for some poultry classes, while extensive cross breeding has produced poultry with higher meat yields... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) for consultation to ensure that there is no inconsistency... classifications, proposed changes to the game hen classes, and other proposed editorial changes. Response: FSIS...

  1. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  2. Consumer Poultry Handling Behavior in the Grocery Store and In-Home Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Amy K; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria L; Cates, Sheryl C

    2016-04-01

    Considerable work on consumers' food safety habits has highlighted issues associated with home food preparation. However, consumer handling of foods, such as poultry, during shopping and storage has not been noted. The objective of this study was to determine consumer behaviors during purchasing and initial storage of raw poultry to determine potential cross-contamination issues. A shop-along observational study was conducted to determine actual shopping, transportation, and storage behavior of consumers who purchase raw poultry products. Neither hand sanitizer nor wipes were observed in 71% of grocery store meat sections of stores visited. Plastic bags could be found in the meat section 85% of the time, but only 25% of shoppers used the bag for their raw poultry purchases. During checkout, the poultry was bagged separately from other products 71% of the time. A majority of shoppers stored raw poultry in the original package without an additional container or overwrap. Overall, there needs to be an increase in food safety education on the handling of poultry during purchasing, transportation, and storage.

  3. Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Bandyopadhyay, R; Sulyok, M; Warth, B; Krska, R

    2012-08-01

    Metabolites of toxigenic fungi and bacteria occur as natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins) in feedstuffs making them unsafe to animals. The multi-toxin profiles in 58 commercial poultry feed samples collected from 19 districts in 17 states of Nigeria were determined by LC/ESI-MS/MS with a single extraction step and no clean-up. Sixty-three (56 fungal and seven bacterial) metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging up to 10,200 µg kg⁻¹ in the case of aurofusarin. Fusarium toxins were the most prevalent group of fungal metabolites, whereas valinomycin occurred in more than 50% of the samples. Twelve non-regulatory fungal and seven bacterial metabolites detected and quantified in this study have never been reported previously in naturally contaminated stored grains or finished feed. Among the regulatory toxins in poultry feed, aflatoxin concentrations in 62% of samples were above 20 µg kg⁻¹, demonstrating high prevalence of unsafe levels of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Deoxynivalenol concentrations exceeded 1000 µg kg⁻¹ in 10.3% of samples. Actions are required to reduce the consequences from regulatory mycotoxins and understand the risks of the single or co-occurrence of non-regulatory metabolites for the benefit of the poultry industry.

  4. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in poultry feeds and feed ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, S T H; Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Tan, Eddie T; Bhanger, M I; Kara, Huseyin; Nizamani, S M

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in complete poultry feeds (n=80) and poultry feed ingredients (n=286) from Pakistan. All samples were first analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples with OTA concentrations above the European Union maximum regulatory limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) were further confirmed by HPLC-FLD. Contamination frequency and mean OTA levels were 31% and 51 μg/kg in feed ingredients, and the corresponding values for complete feeds were 38% and 75 μg/kg. Ten samples of complete poultry feed and 19 samples of feed ingredients contained OTA at levels higher than the MRL. The results of the present study indicate that there is a strong need for a more intense monitoring programs for OTA in poultry feed.

  5. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  6. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Frederic J

    2010-03-01

    Chickens, turkeys, and other poultry in a production environment can be exposed to stressors and infectious diseases that impair innate and acquired immunity, erode general health and welfare, and diminish genetic and nutritional potential for efficient production. Innate immunity can be affected by stressful physiologic events related to hatching and to environmental factors during the first week of life. Exposure to environmental ammonia, foodborne mycotoxins, and suboptimal nutrition can diminish innate immunity. Infectious bursal disease (IBD), chicken infectious anemia (CIA), and Marek's disease (MD) are major infectious diseases that increase susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases and interfere with acquired vaccinal immunity. A shared feature is lymphocytolytic infection capable of suppressing both humoral and cell-mediated immune functions. Enteric viral infections can be accompanied by atrophic and depleted lymphoid organs, but the immunosuppressive features are modestly characterized. Some reoviruses cause atrophy of lymphoid organs and replicate in blood monocytes. Enteric parvoviruses of chickens and turkeys merit further study for immunosuppression. Hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys has immunosuppressive features similar to IBD. Other virulent fowl adenoviruses have immunosuppressive capabilities. Newcastle disease can damage lymphoid tissues and macrophages. Avian pneumovirus infections impair the mucociliary functions of the upper respiratory tract and augment deeper bacterial infections. Recognition of immunosuppression involves detection of specific diseases using diagnostic tests such as serology, etiologic agent detection, and pathology. Broader measurements of immunosuppression by combined noninfectious and infectious causes have not found general application. Microarray technology to detect genetic expression of immunologic mediators and receptors offers potential advances but is currently at the developmental state. Control

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  8. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  9. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Donald L; Engel, Ronald E

    1986-07-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  10. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  11. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, Donald L.; Engel, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  12. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  13. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  14. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers.

  15. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  16. Zoonotic species of the genus Arcobacter in poultry from different regions of Costa Rica: frequency of isolation and comparison of two types of sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Bogantes, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the zoonotic species of Arcobacter are evaluated in laying hens, broilers, ducks and geese of Costa Rica. The frequency of isolation of the genus Arcobacter is determined in samples of poultry using culture methods and molecular techniques. The performance of cloacal swab sampling and fecal collection is compared from poultry for isolation of Arcobacter. The isolation frequencies of Arcobacter species in poultry have indicated a potential public health problem in Costa Rica. Poultry are determined as sources of contamination and dispersion of the bacteria [es

  17. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, V.; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Guardabassi, L.

    2016-01-01

    health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles......-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. Clinical......Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human...

  18. Detection of Avian Antigen-Specific T Cells Induced by Viral Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen. There is ......Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen...

  19. Resistance to antimicrobials drugs and control measures of Salmonella spp in the poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of multiple resistant Salmonella spp is described. Clonally distributed Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are among the most pathogenic strains for humans. Recently there have been reports on the prevalence of ST “like” monophasic 4(5,12:i strains in some countries. Vaccination strategy and antimicorbial agent therapy is also briefly discussed. Products of animal origin must be safe and without the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Subsequently, the good management practice at farm level and HACCP in feed factories are required to cope with salmonella infections. Poultry producers in developed countries have been motivated to participate in salmonella control programs, because of public awareness on safe food and risks in the food chain. Export of poultry and poultry products is more successful in the regions where Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium have been eradicated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  20. Tetracycline Resistance in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm: Influence of Poultry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ball, W. P.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using the electromagnetic induction (EMI) method of geophysical characterization, we measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) at a CAFO site in order to assess the movement of pollutants associated with animal waste. The map of ECa and other available data suggest that (1) soil surrounding a poultry litter storage shed is contaminated by poultry waste, (2) a contamination plume in the subsurface emanates from that shed, and (3) the development of that plume is due to groundwater flow. We focused on understanding the spread of tetracycline resistance (Tc\\tiny R), because tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore probably used at our field site. Microbiological experiments show the presence of Tc\\tiny R bacteria in the subsurface and indicate higher concentrations in the top soil than in the aquifer. Environmental DNA was extracted to identify CAFO- associated Tc\\tiny R genes and to explore a link between the presence of Tc\\tiny R and CAFO practices. A "shot-gun" cloning approach is under development to target the most prevalent Tc\\tiny R gene. This gene will be monitored in future experiments, in which we will study the transmission of Tc\\tiny R to naive E.~coli under selective pressure of Tc. Experimental results will be used to develop a mathematical/numerical model in order to describe the transmission process and to subsequently make estimates regarding the large-scale spread of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  2. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdar, S.N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile ( 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to o C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  3. EVALUATION OF A “DRY” SYSTEM FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY: MICROBIAL PROFILE OF CARCASSES - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soncini; S. Milesi; L. Valnegri; L. Vercellotti; M. Franzoni

    2008-01-01

    The “dry” system for the slaughter of poultry provides mechanical defeathering followed by waxing, without scalding. The microbical contamination of n. 60 poultry carcasses was evaluated in different phases of a “dry” slaughter process. Samples from the neck region after stun and from breast after defeathering and waxing were carried out by non-destructive methods, by swabbing (n. 30 carcasses) and by sponging (n. 30 carcasses). The collected samples were examined for ...

  4. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other

  5. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  6. Distribution, Numbers, and Diversity of ESBL-Producing E. coli in the Poultry Farm Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, Hetty; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Kerkhof-de Heer, Lianne; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discern the contribution of poultry farms to the contamination of the environment with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and therewith, potentially to the spread of these bacteria to humans and other animals. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected at all investigated laying hen farms

  7. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account.

  8. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  9. Cooccurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize and Poultry Feeds from Brazil by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mendes de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74, poultry feed (36, and feed factory residue (9. Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840 μg/kg, 239 μg/kg, and 23,676 μg/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  10. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins in maize and poultry feeds from Brazil by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lourdes Mendes de Souza, Maria; Sulyok, Michael; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Costa, Sônia Soares; Brabet, Catherine; Machinski Junior, Miguel; Sekiyama, Beatriz Leiko; Vargas, Eugenia Azevedo; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate mycotoxins in samples of maize and poultry feed produced in Brazil. A multimycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS was applied to investigate the occurrence of toxical fungal metabolites in 119 samples collected from poultry feed factory integrated poultry farms: maize grain (74), poultry feed (36), and feed factory residue (9). Twenty of 101 fungal metabolites investigated were detected and quantified in the samples: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1, zearalenone, agroclavine, chanoclavine, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol, and enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, kojic acid, and moniliformin. Most samples were contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. All samples were contaminated with fumonisins, with medians values of 1,840  μ g/kg, 239  μ g/kg, and 23,676  μ g/kg for maize, feed, and factory residue samples, respectively. Surprisingly, beauvericin was detected in more than 90% of samples. The median contaminations of aflatoxin and trichothecenes were low, near LOD values. The factory residue presented highest contamination levels for all mycotoxins. This is the first study dealing with agroclavine, chanoclavine, enniatin A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin, and kojic acid contamination of maize and poultry feeds from Brazil.

  11. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadi, A. Ue Bari, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha -1 at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha -1 poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha -1 poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production

  12. Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A; Hiono, T; Fukuhara, H; Sumiyoshi, R; Ohkawara, A; Matsuno, K; Okamatsu, M; Osaka, H; Sakoda, Y

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing. In this study, we isolated avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from raw poultry products illegally imported to Japan by international passengers. Highly (H5N1 and H5N6) and low (H9N2 and H1N2) pathogenic AIVs were isolated from raw chicken and duck products carried by flight passengers. H5 and H9 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to viruses isolated from poultry in China, and haemagglutinin genes of H5N1 and H5N6 isolates belonged to clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.4.4, respectively. Experimental infections of H5 and H9 isolates in chickens and ducks demonstrated pathogenicity and tissue tropism to skeletal muscles. To prevent virus incursion by poultry products, it is important to encourage the phased cleaning based on the disease control and eradication and promote the reduction in contamination risk in animal products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  14. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  15. ECONOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY POULTRY TO WOMEN’S INCOME IN NIGER-DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that family poultry husbandry, business activities and paid employment contribute 35%, 30% and 18% respectively to the household income of women in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The average income from family poultry is N16, 784.53 ($124.33, which is about 25% and 50% of national minimum wage and per capita income in Nigeria respectively. The major constraints to the family poultry in the study area are disease and pest, pilfering and lack of capital. The econometric analysis indicates that wage, business and family poultry income are significant determinants of income of women in the study area. The estimated regression coefficients are, 0.35, 0.32 and 0.19 for wage, business and family poultry income respectively. This suggests that if wage income, business income and family poultry income increase by 100%, total income of the women will increase by 35%, 32% and 19% respectively. This indicates that family poultry husbandry has third rating in potentially influencing women income in the study area. It is recommended from the study that the contribution of family poultry to total income of the women can be improved through proper medication and vaccination of their birds with vaccines that are stable under tropical environment. It is also imperative that semi intensive, if not intensive, rearing technology should be considered as a reasonable option if the problem of pilfering is to be addressed. Improving the capital base of the women through formation of cooperating and micro-credit schemes should also be a welcome development in addressing the problem of lack of capital.

  16. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Moreki; S.C. Chiripasi

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Giv...

  17. An alternative for antibiotic se in poultry: probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FW Edens

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, there has been increasing amounts of antibiotics used prophylactically and as growth promoters. Today, there is a consumer and governmental outcry to eliminate that practice from poultry and livestock production. Evidence has been accumulated to show that there is a link between risk of zoonotic disease and growth promoting antibiotic usage in livestock and poultry. Therefore, alternatives to the use of growth promoting antibiotics must be found to promote growth or production at or near the genetic potential of the modern day broiler, turkey, and egg producer. The use of probiotics has many potential benefits and include modified host metabolism, immuno-stimulation, anti-inflammatory reactions, exclusion and killing of pathogens in the intestinal tract, reduced bacterial contamination on processed broiler carcasses, enhanced nutrient absorption and performance, and ultimately decreased human health risk. The development of these factors generally can be ascribed to the ability of most probiotic products to balance and maintain the intestinal microflora in poultry species.

  18. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y.; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H.; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains...

  20. Global restriction of using antibiotic growth promoters and alternative strategies in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Hossan Md; Huque, Khan Shahidul; Kamaruddin, Kazi M; Beg, M D Anwarul Haque

    2018-03-01

    A growing global concern of antibiotic use in poultry diets due to its potential adverse effects on birds and human health, food safety and the environment has led to a complete ban or restricted use in some countries, and, at the same time, expanding options for the use of alternative feed additives. Multiple, rather than a single additive may replace antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry. Blending of feeding additives and hygienic farm management, vaccination and biosecurity may help achieve good intestinal health, stabilise enteric ecosystems and result in sustainable and cost effective production performance of birds. Moreover, controlling unsolicited ingredients at the production level must have the support of different markets responsible for the supply of safe and quality poultry products for consumers. This requires the further increase and diversification of value added poultry products and the expansion of their markets through strategic planning and gradual limitation of live bird markets. More research is warranted in order to explore suitable, reliable and cost effective alternatives to AGPs for commercial use, and strategic poultry value chain development.

  1. Risk assessment and management of Chlamydia psittaci in poultry processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschuyffeleer, Thomas P G; Tyberghien, Laurens F V; Dickx, Veerle L C; Geens, Tom; Saelen, Jacques M M M; Vanrompay, Daisy C G; Braeckman, Lutgard A C M

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia psittaci causes respiratory disease in poultry and can be transmitted to humans. Historical outbreaks of psittacosis in poultry workers indicated the need for higher awareness and an efficient risk assessment and management. This group reviewed relevant previous research, practical guidelines, and European directives. Subsequently, basic suggestions were made on how to assess and manage the risk of psittacosis in poultry processing plants based on a classical four-step approach. Collective and personal protective measures as well as the role of occupational medicine are described. Despite the finding that exposure is found in every branch, abattoir workstations seem to be associated with the highest prevalence of psittacosis. Complete eradication is difficult to achieve. Ventilation, cleaning, hand hygiene, and personal protective equipment are the most important protective measures to limit and control exposure to C. psittaci. Adequate information, communication, and health surveillance belong to the responsibilities of the occupational physician. Future challenges lay in the rigorous reporting of infections in both poultry and poultry workers and in the development of an avian and human vaccine.

  2. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  3. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.

  4. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  5. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  6. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  7. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On Productivity ... unbalanced feeding of poultry and low level of education of poultry farmers. ... were suggested by the study as a means of consolidating the gains of the impact.

  8. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  9. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  10. Survey of Aspergillus and Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in raw materials and poultry feeds from Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Carina Elizabeth; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the present work were: (1) to determine both mycobiota in raw materials and finisher poultry feed, as well as the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus strains, and (2) to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in poultry feed by LC-MS/MS. Nineteen percent of raw materials and 79% of finisher poultry feed samples exceeded the maximum allowed total fungal count (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) to ensure hygienic quality. Aspergillus flavus was the only species belonging to section Flavi which was isolated while Fusarium verticilliodes was the prevalent species. Forty-seven percent of A. flavus strains were aflatoxin B1 producers and the highest frequency of aflatoxigenic strains was isolated from finisher poultry feeds. Principal component analysis showed that corn grains are closely related with total fungal and Fusarium counts. This positive relationship suggests that total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts in poultry feed might come mainly from corn grains. Regarding poultry feeds, in ground finisher type, Aspergillus spp. counts increased as water activity (aw) diminished. A positive relationship among aw, total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts was observed in both ground finisher and ground starter feed. Several mycotoxins were monitored in feeds by applying the LC MS/MS technique. One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with FB1, and the highest levels were detected in pelleted finisher poultry. AFB1, gliotoxin, DAS, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin were not detected in any poultry feed. The scarcity of available mycotoxicological studies from Argentinean poultry feed using a multitoxin analysis technique enhances the contribution of the findings of this report.

  11. Application of radiation technology in vaccines development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Seong

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest methods used in the manufacture of stable and safe vaccines is the use of chemical and physical treatments to produce inactivated forms of pathogens. Although these types of vaccines have been successful in eliciting specific humoral immune responses to pathogen-associated immunogens, there is a large demand for the development of fast, safe, and effective vaccine manufacturing strategies. Radiation sterilization has been used to develop a variety of vaccine types, because it can eradicate chemical contaminants and penetrate pathogens to destroy nucleic acids without damaging the pathogen surface antigens. Nevertheless, irradiated vaccines have not widely been used at an industrial level because of difficulties obtaining the necessary equipment. Recent successful clinical trials of irradiated vaccines against pathogens and tumors have led to a reevaluation of radiation technology as an alternative method to produce vaccines. In the present article, we review the challenges associated with creating irradiated vaccines and discuss potential strategies for developing vaccines using radiation technology.

  12. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  13. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  14. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  15. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  16. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  17. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  18. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  19. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp . jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp . doylei ). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon . Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter . The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  20. Antiviral activity of viro care gz-08 against newcastle disease virus in poultry and its in-vitro cytotoxicity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, M.H.; Afzal, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most important disease of poultry throughout the World is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). It is causing huge economic losses in poultry industry of Pakistan. Regardless of vaccination, other prevention and control measures are necessary to prevent ND outbreaks. Natural resources have been exploited to obtain antiviral compounds in several latest studies. In this study, the antiviral activity of Viro Care GZ-081 was checked up in-vitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the trials revealed that the stock solution and 1:2 dilution of GZ-08 had some antiviral activity as well as were cytotoxic. As the concentration decreased, cytotoxicity as well as antiviral activities were lost. Based on these findings, it was concluded that GZ-08 sanitizer or spray can be used as antiviral agent to clean or disinfect some non-living surfaces against different viruses in general and NDV in particular. However, in-vivo use of GZ-08 in poultry against NDV is recommended only as pre-treatment with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08 for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against NDV in poultry. (author)

  1. Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, T; Lampron, R; Hauck, R; Pitesky, M; Gallardo, R A

    2018-03-01

    Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). All visited flock owners answered a biosecurity questionnaire that assessed biosecurity measures. The questionnaire revealed that backyard poultry owners lack simple biosecurity measures such as use of dedicated shoes, their chicken sources are unreliable, and few of them benefit from veterinary oversight. Only one flock had a clear vaccination history against ND and IB. ORT, ND, IB, MS, MG, and ILT were the most seroprevalent in backyard poultry flocks with 97% (41/42), 77.5% (31/40), 75% (30/40), 73% (31/42), 69% (29/42), and 45% (19/42), respectively. The vaccinated flock was not considered in these calculations. When examining the distance between backyard flocks and the nearest commercial poultry facility, ND and MG were significantly more likely to be found in backyard flocks close to (4 miles) commercial poultry. Birds purchased directly from National Poultry Improvement Plan hatcheries showed a reduced ND, MG, and MS antibody prevalence. Wearing dedicated shoes decreased MS antibody-positive birds. Finally, history of wild bird contact had a clear effect on an increased seroprevalence of NDV and MG. Serological results suggest that backyard poultry flocks have the potential to serve as a reservoir or amplifier for poultry respiratory diseases. The information generated in this project should direct extension efforts toward emphasizing the importance of small flock biosecurity and chick acquisition sources.

  2. The value of anticoccidials for sustainable global poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadykalo, Stefanie; Roberts, Tara; Thompson, Michelle; Wilson, Jeff; Lang, Marcelo; Espeisse, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and the potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the benefits, risks, and alternatives to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted. Several live vaccines are available, which, when used in combination with anticoccidials, have been shown to help restore sensitivity of infective parasites. However, their use has been limited because of increased cost; increased susceptibility to bacterial enteritis; challenges with consistent application; and slow development of immunity. Various alternative feed products are available, but do not have a direct anticoccidial effect, and few studies have demonstrated consistent field efficacy of these products. Consumer and environmental safety of anticoccidials is monitored and assessed by governing bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of current evidence to indicate that bacterial resistance poses a public health concern. The findings from this review indicate that in the absence of alternatives, poultry production is optimized by using anticoccidials, benefiting all three pillars of sustainability, including social (bird health, welfare, and food safety), economic (production efficiency), and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  4. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Tomiyama, T

    1994-01-01

    We examined live virus vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella for the presence of pestivirus RNA or of pestiviruses by reverse transcription PCR. Pestivirus RNA was detected in two measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccines and in two monovalent vaccines against mumps and rubella. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated that a modified live vaccine strain used for immunization of cattle against bovine viral diarrhea is not responsible for the contamination of the vaccines. Images PMID:8077414

  5. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  6. Role of Natural Antioxidants for the Control of Coccidiosis in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiqaa Masood, Rao Zahid Abbas*, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu, Muhammad Anjum Zia2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is thought to be the one of the most expensive infectious diseases of poultry. Thus far, chemoprophylaxis and anticoccidial feed additives have controlled the disease but situation has been complicated by the emergence of drug resistant strains against commonly used drugs. Immunization by using vaccines has been another effective approach, but, in poorly managed poultry production systems particularly in case of broiler birds, vaccines may result in the onset of severe reactions. The other drawback of using vaccines is diversity of Eimeria strains in different geographical distributions. Therefore, vaccine strain, effective in one geographical area may not be effective in other area. A solution to these problems could be the use of antioxidant rich plant products that function by mechanisms other than those of chemotherapeutics, with the additional advantage of a natural origin. Antioxidant compounds could hold promise for the control of Eimeria infections due to the association of coccidial infection with lipid peroxidation of the intestinal mucosa. This paper reviews the research on naturally occurring antioxidants including botanical antioxidants effective against avian coccidiosis. Information regarding antioxidant activity, doses and mechanism of action of vitamin A, vitamin E, Zinc, Selenium and herbal complexes such as saponins, flavonoids, tannins, aromatic plants and their essential oils is provided in this paper, which may serve as new beneficial anticoccidial compounds and an essential component of alternative strategies for control of resistant Eimeria strains.

  7. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  10. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  11. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  14. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  17. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  18. Perception of Farm Succession Planning by Poultry Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed poultry farm characteristics and poultry farmers' perception of farm succession planning in southwest Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting poultry farmers in Oyo and Osun states. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results reveal that poultry farmers ...

  19. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  20. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  3. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  4. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  5. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  6. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poultry production in China and the potential for using enzyme preparations .... The feed manufacturers produce about 310 × 106t of high-quality feed, saving about 30%, ...... Chickens and experimental designs used in the three experiments.

  7. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... and contribute to such systems and to the livelihood of households around the globe, with special emphasis on women. Furthermore, local production provides potential for production with minimum transport and, concomitantly, minimum usage of fossil fuels. Among the terrestrial animals, poultry has the best...

  8. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  9. Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines Against Newcastle Disease in Poultry Farms in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  10. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in al...

  11. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  12. Improving farmyard poultry production in Africa: Interventions and their economic assessment. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    A major objective of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to support research projects involving nuclear and related techniques leading to improved animal production in developing countries. Chicken produced on a relatively small scale, at the farmyard level, are an important source of animal protein for human consumption in developing countries. Limiting factors to maximize this resource include infectious diseases and overall production management. A Coordinated Research Project on Small Scale Poultry Production was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the impact and cost efficacy of inputs in management and veterinary care and provide guidelines to improve the livelihood of farmers. This publication contains the results of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project entitled Assessment of the Effectiveness of Vaccination Strategies against Newcastle Disease (ND) and Gumboro Disease (IBR) using Immunoassay-based Technologies for Increasing Farmyard Poultry Production in Africa. Thirteen research contract holders in Africa evaluated the major constraints to poultry production in different regions of their countries, analysed the disease situation, management and marketing practises and developed improved ND vaccination and husbandry strategies with the support of the four research agreement holders. This exercise highlighted the added benefit strategic vaccination had on the survival rate and the number of birds produced. A thermostable ND-vaccine seed strain (provided by CSIRO, Australia) reduced the cost of vaccination substantially, as it could be produced locally, with the added advantage of being thermo-resistant, thus reducing the need of a prolonged cool chain. This was further improved by the training of 'village vaccinators' performing vaccine inoculations without the need of veterinary staff on place, insuring vaccination frequency. The efficacy and the level of protection resulting from vaccination were evaluated based on

  13. Improving farmyard poultry production in Africa: Interventions and their economic assessment. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    A major objective of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to support research projects involving nuclear and related techniques leading to improved animal production in developing countries. Chicken produced on a relatively small scale, at the farmyard level, are an important source of animal protein for human consumption in developing countries. Limiting factors to maximize this resource include infectious diseases and overall production management. A Coordinated Research Project on Small Scale Poultry Production was initiated in 1998 to evaluate the impact and cost efficacy of inputs in management and veterinary care and provide guidelines to improve the livelihood of farmers. This publication contains the results of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project entitled Assessment of the Effectiveness of Vaccination Strategies against Newcastle Disease (ND) and Gumboro Disease (IBR) using Immunoassay-based Technologies for Increasing Farmyard Poultry Production in Africa. Thirteen research contract holders in Africa evaluated the major constraints to poultry production in different regions of their countries, analysed the disease situation, management and marketing practises and developed improved ND vaccination and husbandry strategies with the support of the four research agreement holders. This exercise highlighted the added benefit strategic vaccination had on the survival rate and the number of birds produced. A thermostable ND-vaccine seed strain (provided by CSIRO, Australia) reduced the cost of vaccination substantially, as it could be produced locally, with the added advantage of being thermo-resistant, thus reducing the need of a prolonged cool chain. This was further improved by the training of 'village vaccinators' performing vaccine inoculations without the need of veterinary staff on place, insuring vaccination frequency. The efficacy and the level of protection resulting from vaccination were evaluated based on

  14. Evaluation of respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallapura G

    2014-08-01

    system as essentially one large interconnected network that shares information distally, since understanding of this sort of communication between mucosal sites is fundamental to establish the next phase of disease characterization, and perhaps immunization and vaccine development. Further characterization of the respiratory tract with regard to transmission of Salmonella under field conditions may be of critical importance in developing interventional strategies to reduce transmission of this important zoonotic pathogen in poultry. Keywords: Salmonella, respiratory route, portal of entry, systemic dissemination

  15. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella...

  16. Wind-mediated spread of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus into the environment during outabreaks at commercial poultry farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, Marcel; Leuken, Van Jeroen; Wouters, Inge; Koch, Guus; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne

  17. Use of FTA Cards for the Transport of DNA Samples of Salmonella spp. from Poultry Products from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The contamination of products with Salmonella is a major threat to the poultry industry because the possible transmission to humans and animals can produce a huge negative impact. The diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes complicates the diagnostic systems and the transport of live ...

  18. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N.; Tate, J.E.; Parashar, U.D.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. PMID:27129416

  19. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N; Tate, J E; Parashar, U D

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Contamination of meat with Campylobacter jejuni in Saitama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K; Yamamoto, K

    1999-03-15

    To determine the source of food contamination with Campylobacter jejuni, we investigated retail meat, a chicken processing plant and a broiler farm. C. jejuni was found in domestic retailed poultry (45.8%) and imported poultry (3.7%), but not in beef or pork. In the poultry processing plant, there is significant contamination with C. jejuni in chicken carcasses, equipment and workers' hands. This contamination increases during the defeathering and evisceration processes. RAPD analysis shows that contamination with C. jejuni is of intestinal origin. In a broiler farm, C. jejuni was first isolated from a faecal sample of broiler chicken after the 20th day of age. Two weeks later, all birds in this farm became C. jejuni positive. RAPD analysis indicated that C. jejuni spread rapidly from one broiler flock to the other flocks on the farm.

  1. Evaluation of copper and lead immobilization in contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of natural clay, calcium phosphate, poultry manure and rice husks as cheap and ecologically non-invasive amendments for immobilizing Cu and Pb in contaminated soil was assessed. A moderately contaminated soil was sampled from a cultivated field in the vicinity of an active waste dump, characterized ...

  2. Overview of the most important mycotoxins for the pig and poultry husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi, which may be present on a variety of crops. They are considered a major issue worldwide because of their harmful effects on animals. These contaminants lead to great economic losses, especially in pig and poultry husbandry. Over 400 mycotoxins have been identifi ed. However, only few of them have a signifi cant toxic effect and are of major concern. In this paper, the most important mycotoxins are described, including deoxynivalenol (DON...

  3. Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondwasy, H.O.; Okitoi, L.O.; Obali, M.P.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM 1 ), Butula (LM 1 ) Malava (LM 2 ), and Uranga (LM 3 ). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain

  4. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  5. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  6. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry. A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs- producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  7. Effect of Vaccination on Transmission of HPAI H5N1: The Effect of a Single Vaccination Dose on Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influanza H5N1 in Peking Ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Boven, van R.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koch, G.

    2007-01-01

    The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus is widespread among domestic ducks throughout Southeast Asia. Many aspects of the poultry industry and social habits hinder the containment and eradication of AI. Vaccination is often put forward as a tool for the control of AI. However, vaccination

  8. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  9. Effects of Poultry Species and Housing Types on the Poultry Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate information on the characteristics of wastes generated from poultry production particularly in the tropical region is lacking. This study investigated and characterized the wastes of different poultry species which included broiler, cockerel and layer with each under battery cage and or deep litter housing systems.

  10. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive...

  11. effects of poultry species and housing types on the poultry wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    Physical components of wastes from deep litter are however, higher ... The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicate that poultry species and ... T. U. Nwakonobi, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, ... density, aggregate stability and aeration can be ... In area of intense poultry production,.

  12. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  13. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 o C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 o C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  14. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  15. Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de E.D.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Vervelde, L.

    2012-01-01

    The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV,

  16. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  17. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-06-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01). The detection of strains related to RT 001 known for its ability to cause disease in humans makes poultry a potential reservoir for pathogenic C. difficile. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  19. Organoarsenicals in poultry litter: detection, fate, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi; Adak, Asok; Blaney, Lee

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater has endangered the health and safety of millions of people around the world. One less studied mechanism for arsenic introduction into the environment is the use of organoarsenicals in animal feed. Four organoarsenicals are commonly employed as feed additives: arsanilic acid, carbarsone, nitarsone, and roxarsone. Organoarsenicals are composed of a phenylarsonic acid molecule with substituted functional groups. This review documents the use of organoarsenicals in the poultry industry, reports analytical methods available for quantifying organic arsenic, discusses the fate and transport of organoarsenicals in environmental systems, and identifies toxicological concerns associated with these chemicals. In reviewing the literature on organoarsenicals, several research needs were highlighted: advanced analytical instrumentation that allows for identification and quantification of organoarsenical degradation products; a greater research emphasis on arsanilic acid, carbarsone, and nitarsone; identification of degradation pathways, products, and kinetics; and testing/development of agricultural wastewater and solid treatment technologies for organoarsenical-laden waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endotoxin and dust at respirable and nonrespirable particle sizes are not consistent between cage- and floor-housed poultry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Reynolds, Stephen J; Koehncke, Niels K; Lawson, Joshua; Willson, Philip; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Marciniuk, Darcy; Classen, Henry L; Crowe, Trever; Just, Natasha; Schneberger, David; Dosman, James A

    2010-10-01

    Individuals engaged in work in intensive animal houses experience some of the highest rates of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Organic dust and in particular endotoxin has been most closely associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function changes in workers. It has previously been shown that for intensive poultry operations, type of poultry housing [cage-housed (CH) versus floor-housed (FH)] can influence the levels of environmental contaminants. The goal of the study was to determine the differences in endotoxin and dust levels at different size fractions between CH and FH poultry operations. Fifteen CH and 15 FH poultry operations were sampled for stationary measurements (area) of dust and associated endotoxin. Fractioned samples were collected utilizing Marple cascade impactors. Gravimetric and endotoxin analysis were conducted on each of the filters. When assessed by individual Marple stage, there was significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration (endotoxin units per cubic meter) in the size fraction >9.8 μm for the FH operations whereas at the size fraction 1.6-3.5 μm, the CH operations had significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration than the FH operations. Endotoxin concentration in the dust mass (endotoxin units per milligram) was significantly greater in the CH operations as compared to the FH operations for all size fractions >1.6 μm. As such, endotoxin in the respirable fraction accounted for 24% of the total endotoxin in the CH operations whereas it accounted for only 11% in the FH operations. There was significantly more dust in all size fractions in the FH operations as compared to the CH poultry operations. There is more endotoxin in the presence of significantly lower dust levels in the respirable particle size fractions in CH poultry operations as compared to the FH poultry operations. This difference in respirable endotoxin may be important in relation to the differential respiratory response experienced by

  2. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Naila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections have caused heavy economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan as well as numerous other regions worldwide. The first introduction of H7N3 AIV to Pakistan occurred during 1995, since then H7N3, H9N2 and H5N1 AIVs have each been sporadically isolated. This report evaluates the genetic origin of the H7N3 viruses from Pakistan collected 1995-2004 and how they disseminated within the country. To accomplish this we produced whole genome sequences for 6 H7N3 viruses and data for the HA and NA genes of an additional 7 isolates. All available sequence from H7N3 AIV from Pakistan was included in the analysis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were two introductions of H7 into Pakistan and one N3 introduction. Only one of the H7 introductions appears to have become established in poultry in Pakistan, while the other was isolated from two separate outbreaks 6 years apart. The data also shows that reassortment has occurred between H7N3 and H9N2 viruses in the field, likely during co-infection of poultry. Also, with the exception of these few reassortant isolates, all 8 genes in the predominant H7N3 virus lineage have evolved to be phylogenetically distinct. Conclusions Although rigorous control measures have been implemented in commercial poultry in Pakistan, AIV is sporadically transmitted to poultry and among the different poultry industry compartments (broilers, broiler breeders, table egg layers. Since there is one primary H7 lineage which persists and that has reassorted with the H9N2 AIV in poultry, it suggests that there is a reservoir with some link commercial poultry. On a general level, this offers insight into the molecular ecology of AIV in poultry where the virus has persisted despite vaccination and biosecurity. This data also illustrates the importance of sustained surveillance for AIVs in poultry.

  4. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, J; Rabbani, I; Aslam, S; Ahmad, H A

    2015-12-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960's and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country's economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan's poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry.

  5. Detection of avian influenza A(H7N9 virus from live poultry markets in Guangzhou, China: a surveillance report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiu Chen

    Full Text Available A virologic surveillance program for A(H7N9 virus was conducted from April 15, 2013 to February 14, 2014 in Guangzhou, aiming to clarify the geographical distribution of A(H7N9 viruses among live poultry markets (LPMs and poultry farms in Guangzhou. Virological and serological surveys of poultry workers were also conducted to evaluate the risk of poultry-to-human transmission of the A(H7N9 virus.36 retail LPMs, 6 wholesale LPMs and 8 poultry farms were involved in our surveillance program. About 20 live poultry and environmental samples were obtained from each surveillance site at every sampling time. Different environmental samples were collected to represent different poultry-related work activities. RT-PCR and virus culture were performed to identify the A(H7N9 virus. Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and RT-PCR were conducted to detect possible A(H7N9 infection among poultry workers.A total of 8900 live poultry and environmental samples were collected, of which 131(1.5% were tested positive for A(H7N9 virus. 44.4% (16/36 of retail LPMs and 50.0% (3/6 of wholesale LPMs were confirmed to be contaminated. No positive samples was detected from poultry farms. A significant higher positive sample rate was found in environmental samples related to poultry selling (2.6% and slaughtering (2.4%, compared to poultry holding (0.9%. Correspondingly, A(H7N9 viruses were isolated most frequently from slaughter zone. In addition, 316 poultry workers associated with the 19 contaminated-LPMs were recruited and a low seroprevalence (1.6% of antibody against A(H7N9 virus was detected. An asymptomatic A(H7N9 infection was also identified by RT-PCR.Our study highlights the importance of conducting effective surveillance for A(H7N9 virus and provides evidence to support the assumption that slaughtering is the key process for the propagation of A(H7N9 virus in retail LPMs. Moreover, the ability of A(H7N9 virus to cross species barrier is proved to be still limited.

  6. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Cecure® for the removal of microbial surface contamination of raw poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    into account the estimated margins of safety and the conservative exposure estimates used to assess CPC exposure from consumption of poultry carcasses, there are no safety concerns for humans from the proposed use of Cecure®. Based on the information provided by the applicant, both Cecure® and CPC were found......, rate of carcass processing, and time of exposure. The data about the potential emergence and selection of isolates with reduced susceptibility to biocides and/or resistance to therapeutic antimicrobials linked to the use of CPC under the conditions of application, in the recycled solution...... and in the wastewater, were not provided or not considered sufficient for the assessment. Based on the available limited data, the intended use of CPC in poultry slaughterhouses would pose risks for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment and soil. No risks for the function of sewage treatment plants...

  7. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  9. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  11. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  12. Escherichia coli and urinary tract infections: the role of poultry-meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, A R

    2016-02-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most common cause of community-acquired and hospital-acquired extraintestinal infections. The hypothesis that human ExPEC may have a food animal reservoir has been a topic of investigation by multiple groups around the world. Experimental studies showing the shared pathogenic potential of human ExPEC and avian pathogenic E. coli suggest that these extraintestinal E. coli may be derived from the same bacterial lineages or share common evolutionary roots. The consistent observation of specific human ExPEC lineages in poultry or poultry products, and rarely in other meat commodities, supports the hypothesis that there may be a poultry reservoir for human ExPEC. The time lag between human ExPEC acquisition (in the intestine) and infection is the fundamental challenge facing studies attempting to attribute ExPEC transmission to poultry or other environmental sources. Even whole genome sequencing efforts to address attribution will struggle with defining meaningful genetic relationships outside of a discrete food-borne outbreak setting. However, if even a fraction of all human ExPEC infections, especially antimicrobial-resistant ExPEC infections, is attributable to the introduction of multidrug-resistant ExPEC lineages through contaminated food product(s), the relevance to public health, food animal production and food safety will be significant. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. USING A GERMICIDAL INSTALLATION TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION AT A POULTRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Mayorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the effect of bactericidal installation in combination with a device for creating a water curtain on the microclimate in the poultry house and environment. Methods. Epizootic research was carried out according to "epizootic methodology", FGI «Federal Centre for Animal Health» (FGI «ARRIAH». Gas composition of air was investigated by means of universal gas-analyzer (UG-2; the content of carbon dioxide was measured by Subbotin-Nagorskiy titrimetric method; the amount of dust in the air was measured by a gravimetric (weight method. Air humidity was calculated by means of August statistical psychrometer. Evaluation of the microbial contamination of air was carried out using the Krotov’s device. Results. The performed studies before and after the air bactericidal purification in a poultry farm showed a reduction of carbon dioxide and ammonia by 2-2.5 times, the total microbial contamination of air by 1.9 times and the dust by 4.3 times. We found a direct link between the increases in the amount of microbial bodies of air depending on the age of the bird. Thus, after air-cleaning in the poultry house room where they kept 15-d-old chicks, we calculated 5 thousand microbial cells per one m3 found (E.coli, and at the age of 45 days, the level of contamination reached 11 thousand microbial bodies. Conclusion. Research in the poultry house reveals that using bactericidal installation paired with water curtain device can significantly reduce the concentration of gases, dust and microorganisms in the air of the house and decrease the release into the environment, which will undoubtedly have an impact on the ecological situation of the environment, animal and human health. 

  14. Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry Health ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Antibiotics use among poultry farmers was motivated by factors such as growth promotion ( x̄ = 2.38), ...

  15. Farmers' reason for going into poultry production in Plateau state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... This study aimed at investigating the effect of the reasons for going into poultry ... Hence poultry farmers need services of veterinary doctors, subsidies on feeds and drugs, and

  16. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... streptomycin and tylosin among poultry farms in. Ekiti State, Nigeria. ... in poultry production due to its possibility of forming residue in ... withdrawal periods are not observed before selling ... Manipulating pig production IX.

  17. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat in the Kumasi ... reduced its freshness and taste and made it less healthy for consumption. ... the government should subsidize the cost of inputs for the local poultry industry, ...

  18. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  19. Poultry, pig and the risk of BSE following the feed ban in France--a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrial, David; Calavas, Didier; Jarrige, Nathalie; Ducrot, Christian

    2005-01-01

    A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle. The hypothesis of cross-contamination between cattle feedstuff and monogastric feedstuff, which was strongly suggested from previous investigations, was assessed, with the assumption that the higher the pig or poultry density is in a given area, the higher the risk of cross-contamination and cattle infection might be. The data concerned the 467 BSE cases born in France after the ban of meat and bone meal (July 1990) and detected between July 1st, 2001 and December 31, 2003, when the surveillance system was optimal and not spatially biased. The disease mapping models were elaborated with the Bayesian graphical modelling methods and based on a Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing (hierarchical approach) and covariates. The parameters were estimated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation method. The main result was that the poultry density did not significantly influence the risk of BSE whereas the pig density was significantly associated with an increase in the risk of 2.4% per 10 000 pigs. The areas with a significant pig effect were located in regions with a high pig density as well as a high ratio of pigs to cattle. Despite the absence of a global effect of poultry density on the BSE risk, some areas had a significant poultry effect and the risk was better explained in some others when considering both pig and poultry densities. These findings were in agreement with the hypothesis of cross-contamination, which could take place at the feedstuff factory, during the shipment of food or on the farm. Further studies are needed to more precisely explore how the cross-contamination happened.

  20. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Swiatkiewicz, S; Dlugosz, Jakub; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein wit...

  1. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  2. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  3. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  4. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  5. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  6. Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 μm; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 24873 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... require that all establishments that slaughter poultry have written programs to address sanitary dressing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 381 and 500 [Docket No. FSIS-2011-0012] RIN 0583-AD32 Modernization of Poultry... the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and responding to questions...

  8. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  9. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  10. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  11. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  12. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  13. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  14. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  15. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  16. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition...

  17. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  18. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  19. Economics of poultry manure utilization in land quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid growth of Nigerian's poultry has made it more advantageous in terms of providing the essential raw material for soil fertility enhancement than other livestock. This paper evaluates the benefits of poultry manure use among integrated poultry-maize farmers in Ekiti and Osun States of Nigeria for improved land ...

  20. Climate change and poultry production in Nigeria: Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined perceived effects and adaptation measures employed by poultry farmers against climate change in derived savannah zone of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected poultry farmers were used. The respondents were mainly small scale with 6 years of experience in poultry production ...

  1. Training needs of small scale poultry farmers on improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry business is a job opportunity for numerous for earning income and ... needs of the small scale commercial poultry farmers to improve poultry production ... strategies (88%) while only 24.1% of the respondents need training on types of ...

  2. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  3. [A quantitative risk assessment model of salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Hu, Chunguang; Zhang, Huaning; Bi, Zhenwang; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-01

    To construct a quantitative risk assessment model of salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse and to find out effective interventions to reduce salmonella contamination. We constructed a modular process risk model (MPRM) from evisceration to chilling in Excel Sheet using the data of the process parameters in poultry and the Salmomella concentration surveillance of Jinan in 2012. The MPRM was simulated by @ risk software. The concentration of salmonella on carcass after chilling was 1.96MPN/g which was calculated by model. The sensitive analysis indicated that the correlation coefficient of the concentration of salmonella after defeathering and in chilling pool were 0.84 and 0.34,which were the primary factors to the concentration of salmonella on carcass after chilling. The study provided a quantitative assessment model structure for salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse. The risk manager could control the contamination of salmonella on carcass after chilling by reducing the concentration of salmonella after defeathering and in chilling pool.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility, Genetic Diversity, and the Presence of Toxin Producing Genes in Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Seo, Kunho; Yoon, Yohan; Lee, Soomin

    2017-11-17

    This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken ( n = 152) and duck ( n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLab TM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin ( cdt ) genes. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45 poultry samples out of 306 poultry samples (14.7%) and the average levels of Campylobacter contamination were 22.0 CFU/g and 366.1 CFU/g in chicken and duck samples, respectively. Moreover, more than 90% of the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Genetic correlation analysis showed greater than 95% similarity between 84.4% of the isolates, and three cdt genes ( cdtA , cdtB , and cdtC ) were present in 71.1% of Campylobacter isolates. These results indicate that Campylobacter contamination should be decreased to prevent and treat Campylobacter foodborne illness.

  5. Ochratoxin A in feeds, fluids and tissues of poultry in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mohammedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced by a large num- ber of Aspergillus species and by Penicillium verrucosum. It is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. The consumption of feeds contaminated by OTA affects the health and productivity of animals and can cause the presence of OTA in animal products destined for human consumption. The prevalence of OTA in poultry products in Algeria was determined from feeds, and from blood and organs collected from broilers, laying hens and turkeys. The analytical method was based on the partition coefficient of OTA in aqueous and organic solvents by adjusting the pH. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and spectrofluorimetry were used for detection and quantification. OTA was found in many poultry feeds at concentrations between 0.02 and 63 µg/kg. Serum concentrations were between 0.57 and 1.22 ng/ml. Although some serum samples were negative, organs (liver, testes, kidneys from the same animals contained OTA. Kidneys (concentrations between 0.02 and 9.73 ng/ml and testes (concentrations between 0.12 and 2.11 ng/ml seemed to be the most contaminated tissues. This study shows that it would be important to search systematically for OTA in the kidneys of poultry and, depending on results, prohibit consumption of their giblets.

  6. Assessing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry hatcheries by using hatched eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, M-R; Hsien, C-H; Yeh, C-M; Chou, S-J; Chu, C; Su, Y-C; Yu, C-Y

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a number of significant poultry diseases and is also a major pathogen in humans. Most poultry infected by Salmonella become carriers; infection may also be fatal, depending on the particular serovar and the age of the bird at infection. Younger birds are more susceptible to infection by Salmonella, so it is critical that hatcheries monitor birds. We developed a method to use hatched eggshell membranes (HEM) to assess contamination by Salmonella in poultry hatching cabinets and to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in a goose hatchery and rearing farm. Comparison of the Salmonella isolation rate in hatching cabinets using 3 sampling methods showed that the highest Salmonella contamination was detected in HEM, and that these results differed significantly from those obtained from fluff samples and cabinet swab samples (P chicken, and duck hatcheries. The lowest Salmonella-positive rate was found for the chicken hatchery, followed by the goose and the duck hatcheries (P hatcheries: A, B, C1, C2, D, and E. The distribution of these serogroups differed among the hatcheries. Salmonella serogroup C1 was the major serogroup found in geese, compared with serogroup B in chickens and ducks. However, Salmonella Typhimurium was dominant in 1 goose hatchery and also in geese from this hatchery that had been transferred to a farm. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from the farm geese with diarrhea showed significantly higher resistance to doxycycline, colistin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, and cephalothin than those isolated from the hatchery (P hatcheries and rearing farms.

  7. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  8. Application of modern nutrition principles in poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be improved by formulating poultry feeds based on the daily feed intake and .... for phase 1(20- 28 weeks) are shown in Table 4. The sulfur amino acid .... per 100birds per day, they will receive 10070less of all nutrients than is desired. ..... of copper and two levels of nutrient density. Nutrient. Egg. Egg-. Feed density. Copper.

  9. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  10. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  11. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  12. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  13. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiologica...

  15. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  16. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  17. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  18. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in eggs and poultry meat in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R C; Paredes, M D; Qureshi, R A

    1987-11-01

    The presence of Campylobacter jejuni was tested for but not isolated from any of 276 eggs sampled from 23 egg farms in New York State. The presence of C. jejuni was evaluated in broilers, kosher broilers, spent layers, Peking ducks, and turkeys. Four of five poultry dressing plants tested showed positive growth of C. jejuni on the 25-carcass samples at various stages of processing. Twenty to 100% of live birds sampled contained C. jejuni on the skin but 90 to 100% were contaminated after scalding and defeathering operations from contaminated birds and equipment. A three to four-fold increase in carcass contamination was observed after evisceration. The number of C. jejuni on the carcasses decreased after washing and chilling. The organisms did not survive the salting, rinsing, and chilling operations in a kosher processing plant. Several pieces of equipment, i.e., shackles, eviscerating troughs, and cooling tanks were contaminated with C. jejuni. This study illustrates how C. jejuni may be transmitted from the live bird to the final poultry product.

  19. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  20. Mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in poultry feed for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Franchi, María Luisa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  1. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana Vanesa; Rico Golba, Silvia Laura; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Pose, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb). Forty-four out of 49 samples (90%) were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb) and OTA (median 5 ppb). Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety. PMID:25126610

  2. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  3. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  4. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  5. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  6. Integration of a linear accelerator into a production line of mechanically deboned separated poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, Theo; Volle, Christophe

    2000-01-01

    Linear accelerators, commonly called Linacs, are being used for different industrial processes. This kind of machine produces high power electron beams and can treat many products with a high throughput. The main application of a Linac is the sterilization of medical disposable devices, polymerization and decontamination of food products. Salmonella commonly contaminates poultry. Thanks to E-beam treatment, it eradicates the pathogen quickly and permits the use of meat that should have been thrown away because of its infection. The world's first Linac dedicated to treat mechanically deboned poultry meat is located in Brittany at the Societe des Proteines Industrielles. It is a Thomson CSF Linac product, the CIRCE II, with an energy of 10 MeV and a power of 10 kW. This Linac has been used for more than 8 years, and its technology is fully proven. (author)

  7. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  8. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella . This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella . The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Nidaullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test, serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46% with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161, Salmonella Corvallis (42/161, and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161 being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying

  12. Development of a chick bioassay for determination of infectivity of viral pathogens in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F M F; Walkden-Brown, S W; Groves, P J; Wells, B

    2013-01-01

    To develop a chicken bioassay to detect infective viral pathogens in poultry litter and to determine the effects of type of chicken and age of exposure, as well as the effect of simulated litter transportation, on the level of viral infectivity detected. A 5 × 2 × 2 factorial design, plus negative controls. Five chicken litters, including two with deliberate contamination (one transported and one not), two chicken types (specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Leghorns and Cobb broilers) and two ages at initial exposure (days 1 and 8). Two replicates of each treatment combination. The 10 chickens in each of 22 isolators were either exposed (20 isolators) or not (2 isolators) to 8 L of previously used or deliberately contaminated poultry litter in two deep scratch trays. At day 35 post-exposure, sera were assayed for antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and fowl adenovirus (FAV). Spleen samples were tested for Marek's disease virus (MDV) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bioassay detected CAV, IBDV and FAV, but not NDV, IBV or MDV, in chickens exposed to infected litters. Infection in SPF chickens was detected with greater sensitivity than in the broiler chickens. Sensitivity increased with age at exposure in broiler but not SPF chickens. Simulated transportation for 24 h had little effect on pathogen detection. A bioassay based on the exposure of day-old SPF chickens to poultry litter and measurement of seroconversion at day 35 post-exposure is a useful semi-quantitative assay for viral infectivity in poultry litter, with overnight transportation of litter having little effect on the level of viral infectivity detected. This bioassay has applications in research on litter treatment protocols. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  14. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  15. Study on the overview on foodborne bacteria in food with animal origin in Iran; Part four: Poultry and egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Shekarforoush

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the contamination of poultry meat and eggs to pathogenic bacteria was investigated in Iran, for over three decades. Health assessment of these two products is highly important due to their high level of consumption and consequent health risks of food borne diseases such as salmonellosis. Many reports indicate the presence of majority of pathogenic bacteria such as campylobacter, staphylococci, salmonellas, etc. in the poultry abattoirs across the country. It seems that most of these contaminations had been occurred through cross contamination during slaughtering or other stages of processing. Although many bacterial contaminations have been reported in eggs (e.g., streptococci, staphylococci, or Escherichia coli, most of studies have focused on salmonella as eggs are among the major transmission routes of this bacterium. In several suveys, salmonella has been isolated from the shell of the eggs of native breeds. According to the studies, campylobacter contamination has not been reported. Moreober, occurrence rate with other bacteria species was very low. It seems that due to the high proportions of chicken meat and eggs in the food basket of community, even low levels of contamination could be of great concern. It was concluded that maintaining of hygienic conditions and improving the knowledge of producers in the food production chain could be effective in reducing the overall contamination of pathogenic bacterial.

  16. Vaccinating chickens against avian influenza with fowlpox recombinants expressing the H7 haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, D B; Selleck, P; Heine, H G

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the H7 haemagglutinin of avian influenza virus in poultry. Specific-pathogen-free poultry were vaccinated with fowlpox recombinants expressing H7 or H1 haemagglutinins of influenza virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 2 or 7 days of age and challenged with virulent Australian avian influenza virus at 10 and 21 days later, respectively. Morbidity and mortality, body weight change and the development of immune responses to influenza haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein were recorded. Vaccination of poultry with fowlpox H7 avian influenza virus recombinants induced protective immune responses. All chickens vaccinated at 7 days of age and challenged 21 days later were protected from death. Few clinical signs of infection developed. In contrast, unvaccinated or chickens vaccinated with a non-recombinant fowlpox or a fowlpox expressing the H1 haemagglutinin of human influenza were highly susceptible to avian influenza. All those chickens died within 72 h of challenge. In younger chickens, vaccinated at 2 days of age and challenged 10 days later the protection was lower with 80% of chickens protected from death. Chickens surviving vaccination and challenge had high antibody responses to haemagglutinin and primary antibody responses to nucleoprotein suggesting that although vaccination protected substantially against disease it failed to completely prevent replication of the challenge avian influenza virus. Vaccination of chickens with fowlpox virus expressing the avian influenza H7 haemagglutinin provided good protection against experimental challenge with virulent avian influenza of H7 type. Although eradication will remain the method of first choice for control of avian influenza, in the circumstances of a continuing and widespread outbreak the availability of vaccines based upon fowlpox recombinants provides an additional method for disease control.

  17. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Edible vaccines against veterinary parasitic diseases--current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Siju S; Cherian, Susan; Sumithra, T G; Raina, O K; Sankar, M

    2013-04-08

    Protection of domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major challenge in most of the developing countries, especially in the surge of drug resistant strains. In this circumstance vaccination seems to be the sole practical strategy to combat parasites. Most of the presently available live or killed parasitic vaccines possess many disadvantages. Thus, expression of parasitic antigens has seen a continued interest over the past few decades. However, only a limited success was achieved using bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems. This is witnessed by an increasing number of reports on transgenic plant expression of previously reported and new antigens. Oral delivery of plant-made vaccines is particularly attractive due to their exceptional advantages. Moreover, the regulatory burden for veterinary vaccines is less compared to human vaccines. This led to an incredible investment in the field of transgenic plant vaccines for veterinary purpose. Plant based vaccine trials have been conducted to combat various significant parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, schistosomosis, poultry coccidiosis, porcine cycticercosis and ascariosis. Besides, passive immunization by oral delivery of antibodies expressed in transgenic plants against poultry coccidiosis is an innovative strategy. These trials may pave way to the development of promising edible veterinary vaccines in the near future. As the existing data regarding edible parasitic vaccines are scattered, an attempt has been made to assemble the available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Whither vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-06-01

    Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  1. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  2. Marker-assisted selection in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, D.-J. de; Hocking, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among livestock species, chicken has the most extensive genomics toolbox available for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). The uptake of MAS is therefore not limited by technical resources but mostly by the priorities and financial constraints of the few remaining poultry breeding companies. With the cost of genotyping decreasing rapidly, an increase in the use of direct trait- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-associations in MAS can be predicted. (author)

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  4. EVALUATION OF A “DRY” SYSTEM FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF POULTRY: MICROBIAL PROFILE OF CARCASSES - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soncini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The “dry” system for the slaughter of poultry provides mechanical defeathering followed by waxing, without scalding. The microbical contamination of n. 60 poultry carcasses was evaluated in different phases of a “dry” slaughter process. Samples from the neck region after stun and from breast after defeathering and waxing were carried out by non-destructive methods, by swabbing (n. 30 carcasses and by sponging (n. 30 carcasses. The collected samples were examined for the Total Aerobic Count, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The non-destructive method by sponging showed the higher recovery capacity for each group of microrganisms, except Salmonella spp. as absent from all samples. A low level of carcasses contamination was observed in all the processing phases considered in this study, although S. aureus was observed to be on the increase after waxing.

  5. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in all the three plant categories, averagely accounting for about 44% of the total energy consumption in the processing plants. Other processing operations consuming energy in the following order are eviscerating (17.5%, slaughtering (17%, washing & chilling (16% and packing (6%. The results of the study clearly indicated that the least mechanized of the plants consumed the highest energy (50.36 MJ followed by the semi-mechanized plant (28.04 MJ and the most mechanized plant (17.83 MJ. The energy audits have provided baseline information needed for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion in the poultry processing industries in the study area.

  6. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  7. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  8. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  9. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  10. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  11. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    a means of mobilizing these extensive networks. Having the primary ... order to test, evaluate and demonstrate the husbandry ... group prioritizing chicken as one of their three ... A sample group of 31 trainees, male and female, vaccinated ...

  12. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain - From culture to genes and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Bhunia, Arun; Engvall, Eva Olsson

    2015-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large...... numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors...

  13. An Appraisal of the Use of Vaccination for Disease Prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become almost practically impossible to engage in commercial poultry production without the challenges of diseases. Farmers therefore, have intensified efforts on various preventive measures including vaccination but with varying degree of success. This study was undertaken to assess the use and effectiveness of ...

  14. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  15. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  16. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  17. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  18. Estimates of nitrogen availability of poultry manure and sewage sludge amendments in mined prime farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Q.; Barnhisel, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The application of poultry manure and sewage sludge may speed up the return of productivity of prime farmland following surface mining, as well as for utilizing nutrients in these wastes. However, excessive application may result in nitrate contamination of ground water. This research was carried out under laboratory and field conditions to test this concern. The objective was to examine nitrogen mineralization indices used to evaluate nitrogen availability to wheat (Triticum astivum). Two field experiments were established in fall 1992 in western Kentucky. Sewage sludge was applied to both topsoil and subsoil at one site, and poultry manure was applied to only the topsoil at the second site. Three rates of organic amendments were used in these experiments. Soil available nitrogen was evaluated by both biological mineralization and chemical extraction methods. A 7-day anaerobic incubation method was well correlated with grain yield and was superior to other chemical methods in predicting nitrogen availability. Both sewage sludge and poultry manure application to the topsoil provided a high available nitrogen source for wheat growth, which resulted in a higher yield than that for the unamended control

  19. Pulsed-plasma gas-discharge inactivation of microbial pathogens in chilled poultry wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, N J; Espie, S; Harrower, J; Anderson, J G; Marsili, L; MacGregor, S J

    2007-12-01

    A pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) system was developed for the novel decontamination of chilled poultry wash water. Treatment of poultry wash water in the plasma generation chamber for up to 24 s at 4 degrees C reduced Escherichia coli NCTC 9001, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559, Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 9863, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 4931, and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 populations to non-detectable levels ( or = 3 log CFU/ml) in recalcitrant B. cereus NCTC 11145 endospore numbers within 30 s, the level of endospore reduction was dependent on the nature of the sparged gas used in the plasma treatments. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that significant damage occurred at the cellular level in PPGD-treated test organisms. This electrotechnology delivers energy in intense ultrashort bursts, generating products such as ozone, UV light, acoustic and shock waves, and pulsed electric fields that have multiple bactericidal properties. This technology offers an exciting complementary or alternative approach for treating raw poultry wash water and for preventing cross-contamination in processing environments.

  20. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jonges

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4 genome copies/m(3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  1. Mitigation strategies to reduce the generation and transmission of airborne highly pathogenic avian influenza virus particles during processing of infected poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Clark, Andrew; Swayne, David E

    2018-06-08

    Airborne transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has occurred among poultry and from poultry to humans during home or live-poultry market slaughter of infected poultry, and such transmission has been experimentally reproduced. In this study, we investigated simple, practical changes in the processing of H5N1 virus-infected chickens to reduce infectious airborne particles and their transmission. Our findings suggest that containing the birds during the killing and bleeding first step by using a disposable plastic bag, a commonly available cooking pot widely used in Egypt (halla), or a bucket significantly reduces generation of infectious airborne particles and transmission to ferrets. Similarly, lack of infectious airborne particles was observed when processing vaccinated chickens that had been challenged with HPAI virus. Moreover, the use of a mechanical defeatherer significantly increased total number of particles in the air compared to manual defeathering. This study confirms that simple changes in poultry processing can efficiently mitigate generation of infectious airborne particles and their transmission to humans. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  3. The role of probiotics in the poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S M

    2009-08-12

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer's protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.

  4. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  5. Identifying Sources of Fecal Contamination in Streams Associated with Chicken Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry is responsible for 44% of the total feces production in the U.S., followed by cattle and swine. The large U.S. production of feces poses a contamination risk for affected watersheds across the country. To aid in the identification of the sources of contamination, many D...

  6. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of an autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    vaccine in broiler breeders. Three groups of 28 weeks old broiler breeders (unvaccinated, vaccinated once and twice, respectively) were challenged with a homologous E. coli strain (same strain as included in the vaccine) or a heterologous challenge strain in an experimental ascending model. The clinical...... infection, significant protection of an autogenous E. coli vaccine against neither a homologous nor a heterologous E. coli challenge could not be documented.......In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli...

  8. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    pathogens and may also interact directly with certain bacteria. 7. From a food safety perspective, there is evidence that egg contents contamination in ovo may be linked to transient stress in the hen. Current work at the University of Bristol on the epidemiology of campylobacter in broiler production is also showing a potential link between gut health and campylobacter colonisation and challenging the concept that these bacteria are common commensals. 8. The poor economic returns received by the egg and poultry industries mean that intensive production methods are common. Is it possible to rear chickens under these conditions in such a way as to exclude zoonotic pathogens like salmonella and campylobacter? Data from the UK strongly suggest that this is possible with the former pathogen. Can similar advances be achieved with campylobacter?

  9. The effectiveness of preventative mass vaccination regimes against the incidence of highly pathogenic avian influenza on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; McLaws, M; Jost, C; Schoonman, L; Unger, F; Poole, J; Lapar, M L; Siregar, E S; Azhar, M; Hidayat, M M; Dunkle, S E; Mariner, J

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an operational research study involving backyard and semicommercial farms on Java Island, Indonesia, between April 2008 and September 2009 to evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive mass vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). One regimen used Legok 2003 H5N1 vaccine, while the other used both Legok 2003 H5N1 and HB1 Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. A total of 16 districts were involved in the study. The sample size was estimated using a formal power calculation technique that assumed a detectable effect of treatment as a 50% reduction in the baseline number of HPAI-compatible outbreaks. Within each district, candidate treatment blocks with village poultry populations ranging from 80 000 to 120 000 were created along subdistrict boundary lines. Subsequently, four of these blocks were randomly selected and assigned one treatment from a list that comprised control, vaccination against HPAI, vaccination against HPAI + ND. Four rounds of vaccination were administered at quarterly intervals beginning in July 2008. A vaccination campaign involved vaccinating 100 000 birds in a treatment block, followed by another 100 000 vaccinations 3 weeks later as a booster dose. Data on disease incidence and vaccination coverage were also collected at quarterly intervals using participatory epidemiological techniques. Compared with the unvaccinated (control) group, the incidence of HPAI-compatible events declined by 32% (P = 0.24) in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 73% (P = 0.00) in the HPAI- and ND-vaccinated group. The effect of treatment did not vary with time or district. Similarly, an analysis of secondary data from the participatory disease and response (PDSR) database revealed that the incidence of HPAI declined by 12% in the HPAI-vaccinated group and by 24% in the HPAI + ND-vaccinated group. The results suggest that the HPAI + ND vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of HPAI-compatible events in mixed populations of

  10. Susceptibility of Salmonella Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria to Common Disinfectant Agents Used in Poultry Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylkova, Tereza; Cadena, Myrna; Ferreiro, Aura; Pitesky, Maurice

    2017-07-01

    Poultry contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a major cause of zoonotic foodborne gastroenteritis. Salmonella Heidelberg is a common serotype of Salmonella that has been implicated as a foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of improperly prepared chicken. To better understand the effectiveness of common antimicrobial disinfectants (i.e., peroxyacetic acid [PAA], acidified hypochlorite [aCH], and cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]), environmental isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella were exposed to these agents under temperature, concentration, and contact time conditions consistent with poultry processing. Under simulated processing conditions (i.e., chiller tank and dipping stations), the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of each disinfectant were assessed against biofilm and planktonic cultures of each organism in a disinfectant challenge. Log reductions, planktonic MICs, and mean biofilm eradication concentrations were computed. The biofilms of each Salmonella isolate were more resistant to the disinfectants than were their planktonic counterparts. Although PAA was bacteriostatic and bactericidal against the biofilm and planktonic Salmonella isolates tested at concentrations up to 64 times the concentrations commonly used in a chiller tank during poultry processing, aCH was ineffective against the same isolates under identical conditions. At the simulated 8-s dipping station, CPC was bacteriostatic against all seven and bactericidal against six of the seven Salmonella isolates in their biofilm forms at concentrations within the regulatory range. These results indicate that at the current contact times and concentrations, aCH and PAA are not effective against these Salmonella isolates in their biofilm state. The use of CPC should be considered as a tool for controlling Salmonella biofilms in poultry processing environments.

  11. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  12. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent studies of gene expression and transcriptome responses to exposure, and mitigation strategies to reduce toxicity are discussed. Exposure to AFB1 primarily occurs by consumption of contaminated corn, grain or other feed components. Low levels of residual AFB1 in poultry feeds can cause reduction in growth, feed conversion, egg production, and compromised immune functions, resulting in significant economic costs to producers. Thus, AFB1 acts as a “force multiplier” synergizing the adverse effects of microbial pathogens and other agents, and factors detrimental to poultry health. Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1 due, in large part, to a combination of efficient hepatic bioactivation by cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37, and deficient hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST-mediated detoxification. Because of their sensitivity, turkeys are a good model to investigate chemopreventive treatments and feed additives for their ability to reduce AFB1 toxicity. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq of turkey poults (liver and spleen has identified AFB1-induced gene expression changes in pathways of apoptosis, carcinogenesis, lipid regulation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Current research focuses on further identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying AFB1 toxicity with the goal of reducing aflatoxicosis and improving poultry health.

  13. Tenacity of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in different types of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A; Stallknecht, D; Ritz, C; García, M

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk of infection associated with exposure to low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus-contaminated poultry litter, the tenacity of low pathogenic A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2), A/Mallard/MN/355779/00(H5N2), and A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04(H3N2) was evaluated. Viral stocks were incubated with poultry litter from commercial flocks at 25°C. Three types of poultry litter, wood shavings, shavings plus gypsum, and shavings plus peanut hulls, from commercial broiler flocks were used. The 3 low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses retained infectivity for one day in wood shavings and shavings plus peanut hulls litter types, whereas in wood shavings plus gypsum, litter viruses remained infective for up to 3 d. In contrast to the survivability in litter, all the viruses maintained infectivity in water for 4 d at titers of log(10)4.5. The infectivity of A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2) shed by experimentally infected layers, broilers, and turkeys was retained for one day, independently of the type of litter. In commercial production where a high density of birds are housed, the viral load shed by an infected flock will be significantly higher than the viral load shed 3 d postinfection obtained under the experimental conditions used in this study. Therefore proper management and disposal of poultry by products, such as windrow composting of litter and the composting of carcasses during an AI outbreak should be implemented.

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Motile Salmonella in Commercial Layer Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15–21%), and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb). PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh. PMID:22558269

  15. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  16. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  17. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  18. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  20. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods......, and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive...

  1. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  2. O Comportamento das Aves Poultry Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Campos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre o comportamento das aves, principalmente as galinhas, datam de 1912, quando o gênero Gallus passou a ser estudado com mais intensidade na área da Genética. Tais estudos eram simplesmente filosóficos até o início da década de 80, quando uma nova era da produção industrial avícola surgiu, objetivando um maior volume de produção econômica em todas as áreas de exploração. Esse objetivo reativou de maneira científica os estudos de comportamento das aves face à tecnologia de produção empregada nos sistemas de exploração, tornando-os mais acentuados já na década de 90, culminando com um simpósio internacional realizado nos Estados Unidos onde foram traçados os objetivos ou linhas de pesquisas na exploração avícola. O intuito era evitar problemas com os movimentos ambientalistas, traçando novos rumos para uma produção eficiente sem interferir no comportamento das aves já no início do novo milênio. Esta revisão, tem como objetivo principal uma análise científica e filosófica sobre o comportamento das aves em diversos métodos de exploração.Studies on poultry behavior initiated in 1972, at that time, fowls from Gallus domesticus species were the most important animal for the initial studies of Genetic. Since then, just the philosophical concepts where involved in those studies. However, at the beginning of 80 decade, these studies were intensified taking into account technological approaches for an economical industrial poultry production. Meanwhile, the reactions from activists involved in the behavior of the animal subjected to production became more strong at the beginning of 90's as well as those studies on chicken behavior. Finally, in 1998, an international symposium, promoted by chicken behavior scientists were held in the United States, in order to establish new methods of exploitation of poultry without interfering in its normal behavior, at the beginning of new millenium. The main

  3. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among high-risk populations in Thailand, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Prapasiri, Prabda; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Leetongin, Grit; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Rattanayot, Jarowee; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2015-01-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. National records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. From 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; pThailand. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  5. Antibody titer has positive predictive value for vaccine protection against challenge with natural antigenic-drift variants of H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with Hong Kong in 2002, vaccines have been used as part of an integrated control strategy in 14 countries/regions to protect poultry against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). H5N1 HPAI was first reported in Indonesia in 2003 and vaccination was initiated the following year. ...

  6. Microbiological safety of tenderized, proteinaceous, semi-processed and processed food prepared from poultry treated with ionizing radiation and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a microbiological point of view, poultry meat is considered to be one of the most contaminated raw foods, harbouring bacteria, including pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. Some of these pathogens can survive the heat treatment used during the further processing of poultry meat into ready to eat products such as sausages and patties, and thus endanger consumer health, particularly in the young, the elderly and the immunocompromised. L. monocytogenes is of particular concern. This Gram positive, non-spore forming, psychrotrophic pathogen has been recognized as one of the causes of a severe food borne illness. The organism is relatively heat stable and can multiply under refrigeration conditions, but is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A survey conducted in Israel demonstrated that raw poultry meat was heavily contaminated with L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen could also be recovered from ready to eat poultry products. It was proposed that treatment of the raw meat with ionizing radiation prior to heating and use of the hazard analysis critical control point concept in the further processing plant would result in the elimination of contamination in ready to eat products. (author)

  7. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. II. Effects of gamma radicidation on the biological value of poultry feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.; Eisenberg, E.; Lapidot, M.; Tsir, D.

    1978-01-01

    Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12 1/4 months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

  8. Prevalence reduction of pathogens in poultry fed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The growth of new antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens represents a huge problem in poultry rearing. There is evidence that dietary yeast could be effective in the protection against a variety of pathogens that can affect poultry health and cause foodborne diseases in humans. Since still few or contradictory information are available for this topic. Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of live yeast supplementation in broiler chickens on Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni content in feces, cecum, and skin. Method. Supplemented yeast consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Levucell® SB20, type boulardii I-1079, Lallemand, France and was administered at a rate of 1 x 106 CFU·g-1 of feed. On day ten of life, birds were orally challenged with S. enteritidis (1 x 105 CFU/bird and C. jejuni (3 x 105 CFU/bird. Growth performance, and coliforms, yeasts and lactobacilli enumeration were evaluated on day 0, 10, 20 and 38. Ten and eighteen days post infection (PI, 10 animals per replicate were slaughtered and pooled ceca content were analyzed for yeast enumeration and Salmonella and Campylobacter frequency and enumeration. The presence and the enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in neck and breast skin were performed on one subject per replicate. Results. Dietary S. cerevisiae increased yeast and lactobacilli (p = 0.01 count, while Salmonella enumeration and frequency significantly decreased in neck (p = 0.03 and tended to decrease in cecum (p = 0.06, feces (p = 0.06, and breast (p = 0.08. On 10d PI Campylobacter presence was decreased in cecum (p = 0.01, feces (p < 0.01, breast skin (p = 0.04 and neck skin (p < 0.01, while the enumeration was found to be lower in feces (p < 0.01 and neck skin (p = 0.05. At the end of the trial the frequency of this pathogen was decreased in feces (p < 0.01, and breast skin (p = 0.02, while the enumeration was diminished in cecum (p

  9. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  10. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  11. Trends in microbial control techniques for poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety management system certification together with technological steps, such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality, and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with nonthermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and natural alternatives, such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this article, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.

  12. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  13. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  14. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential Greenhouse Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal matter on potential greenhouse gas emission and its field application. Poultry litters were randomly assigned to four treatments viz; salt solution, alum, air exclusion and the control (untreated). Alum treated faeces had higher (p<0.05) percentage nitrogen ...

  15. Common Diseases of Poultry in Kaduna State: Perspective of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several reports on prevailing poultry diseases across some states in Nigeria have been documented. The common prevailing poultry diseases in Kaduna Sate ... As a single entity, Coccidiosis appeared to be the most occurring disease ... Private Veterinary Clinics have pivotal role to play in disease reporting in the country.

  16. A survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production in Gombe metropolis, 2,121 poultry cases were presented at the Gombe State Veterinary Clinic between January 1995 and December 2004. Out of the total number of cases presented, Newcastle disease (ND) accounted for 14.66%, chronic respiratory ...

  17. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... samples from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks... required only for egg- type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird.... Avian Influenza Clean program of the Plan in Sec. 145.23(h); Meat-type breeding chickens from a flock...

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Poultry Production in Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83) poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority ...

  19. Poultry-based poverty alleviation projects in Ehlanzeni District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High price of poultry feeds force PAPs to stock fewer chickens was the major production constraint followed by diseases, in particular New Castle and Bronchitis are killing chickens and water supply is so erratic and unreliable that it affects effective running of poultry-based PAPs. It was concluded that despite the wide range ...

  20. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  1. The Challenges and Prospects of the Poultry Industry in Dormaa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poultry industry is perceived to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of nutrition and food security. In spite of these contributions, the poultry industry is entangled with a number of problems that necessitate redress. The purpose of the study was to determine ...

  2. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg farmers in Delta ... analysis of factors affecting the output of poultry farmers showed that stock ... should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the ...

  3. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  4. Yield analysis at a poultry processing plant in Harare, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to establish the yield of parts or organs of chickens brought for slaughter at a poultry processing plant in Harare. Results of the study will furnish management and other poultry farmers with information that will enable them to identify yield losses and sustainable ways of minimizing resultant ...

  5. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juin 2016 ... Farmers have also formed 18 marketing groups (716 men and 1,007 women) to negotiate better prices. For example, farmers obtained up to 75% more than the average price for bulk poultry purchases. Read the story of change: Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya (PDF, 423 KB).

  6. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  7. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  8. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  9. Biofilms associated with poultry processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D; Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria were enumerated on non-metallic surfaces and stainless steel test pieces attached to equipment surfaces by swabbing and a mechanical dislodging procedure, respectively, in a South African grade B poultry processing plant. Changes in bacterial numbers were also monitored over time on metal test pieces. The highest bacterial counts were obtained from non-metallic surfaces such as rubber fingered pluckers and plastic defeathering curtains which exceeded the highest counts found on the metal surfaces by at least 1 log CFU cm-2. Gram-negative bacterial counts on all non-metallic surface types were at least 2 log CFU cm-2 lower than corresponding aerobic plate counts. On metal surfaces, the highest microbial numbers were obtained after 14 days exposure, with aerobic plate counts ranging from 3.57 log CFU cm-2 to 5.13 log CFU cm-2, and Gram-negative counts from 0.70 log CFU cm-2 to 3.31 log CFU cm-2. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of bacterial cells on non-metallic and metallic surfaces associated with poultry processing. Rubber 'fingers', plastic curtains, conveyor belt material and stainless steel test surfaces placed on the scald tank overflow and several chutes revealed extensive and often confluent bacterial biofilms. Extracellular polymeric substances, but few bacterial cells were visible on test pieces placed on evisceration equipment, spinchiller blades and the spinchiller outlet.

  10. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  11. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  12. Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaramaiah C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaitanya Shivaramaiah,1 John R Barta,2 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,3 Guillermo Téllez,1 Billy M Hargis11Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada; 3Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, MexicoAbstract: Coccidiosis, caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, is probably the most expensive parasitic disease of poultry. Species of Eimeria are ubiquitous where poultry are raised and are known to cause drastic reductions in performance and induce mortality, thereby affecting the overall health status of poultry. Chemotherapy has been the predominant form of disease control for many years, even though vaccination is steadily gaining importance as a feasible control method. The objective of this review is to highlight recent advancements in understanding the role of host immunity against coccidiosis. In addition, pros and cons associated with chemotherapy and the role of vaccination as an increasingly popular disease control method are discussed. Finally, the role played by recombinant vaccines as a potential vaccination tool is highlighted. With interest growing rapidly in understanding host–parasite biology, recent developments in designing recombinant vaccines and potential epitopes that have shown promise are mentioned.Keywords: Eimeria, coccidiosis, chemotherapy, recombinant vaccines, immunity

  13. Structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Salkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to carry out a marketing research of the state and structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine; to identify the factors that hold back and stimulate the development of the poultry market and potential opportunities for growth. The competitive advantages of producers are determined and the main trends in the poultry meat market are characterized. The balance of supply and demand for meat and meat products in Ukraine has been studied. The Herfindahl-Hirschman index was used to determine the level of competition in the chicken meat market, which showed the disadvantages of competition in the market. The market is monopolistic, which poses a threat to the development of competition. The constraining factors of poultry meat market development are determined. Based on the conducted research, potential opportunities for the development of the industry and the competitiveness of the Ukrainian poultry meat producer in the external and internal market are identified.

  14. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  15. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  16. Airway Obstruction Among Latino Poultry Processing Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRABELLI, MARIA C.; CHATTERJEE, ARJUN B.; MORA, DANA C.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; CHEN, HAIYING; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MARÍN, ANTONIO J.; SCHULZ, MARK R.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities. PMID:24965321

  17. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  18. Incidence of poultry diseases in different seasons in Khushab district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the prevalence of various poultry diseases in broilers and layers at Khushab district in Pakistan. The prevalence study was conducted in 360 poultry farms. Diagnosis of diseases in poultry was done based on history, clinical signs, post-mortem examination, cultural, and biochemical characterization. Overall, incidence of Newcastle disease (ND was found as the highest (avg. 7.85% in broiler, followed by Fowl typhoid (avg. 6.58%, Mycoplasma (avg. 5.68%, Escherichia coli infection (avg. 5.52%, Coccidiosis (avg. 4.59%, Mycotoxicosis (avg. 4.56%, Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD; avg. 2.84%, Infectious coryza (avg. 2.50%, Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS; avg. 1.67%, and Infectious bronchitis (IB; avg. 1.59%. The period during April to June appeared to be comparatively safer for the broilers as low incidence of disease was recorded at this period. In case of layers, incidence of ND was the highest (avg. 7.92%, followed by Fowl typhoid (avg. 6.97%, Mycotoxicosis (avg. 5.52%, Coccidiosis (avg. 4.75%, IBD (avg. 3.17%, Mycoplasmosis (avg. 3.0%, Infectious coryza (avg. 2.52%, Fowl cholera (avg. 1.52%, IB (avg. 0.90k%, E. coli infection (avg. 0.73%, and HPS (avg. 0.46%. For layers, the period during January to March appeared to be safer. In conclusion, diversified diseases are prevalent in both layers and broilers. Thus, proper vaccination practices, brooding arrangements, preventive measures, and biosecurity practices are recommended.

  19. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  20. Comprehensive resistome analysis reveals the prevalence of NDM and MCR-1 in Chinese poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Rongmin; Li, Jiyun; Wu, Zuowei; Yin, Wenjuan; Schwarz, Stefan; Tyrrell, Jonathan M; Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Jianye; Lei, Lei; Li, Mei; Zhang, Qidi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Yongning; Walsh, Timothy R; Shen, Jianzhong

    2017-02-06

    By 2030, the global population will be 8.5 billion, placing pressure on international poultry production, of which China is a key producer 1 . From April 2017, China will implement the withdrawal of colistin as a growth promoter, removing over 8,000 tonnes per year from the Chinese farming sector 2 . To understand the impact of banning colistin and the epidemiology of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (using bla NDM and mcr-1 as marker genes), we sampled poultry, dogs, sewage, wild birds and flies. Here, we show that mcr-1, but not bla NDM , is prevalent in hatcheries, but bla NDM quickly contaminates flocks through dogs, flies and wild birds. We also screened samples directly for resistance genes to understand the true breadth and depth of the environmental and animal resistome. Direct sample testing for bla NDM and mcr-1 in hatcheries, commercial farms, a slaughterhouse and supermarkets revealed considerably higher levels of positive samples than the bla NDM - and mcr-1-positive E. coli, indicating a substantial segment of unseen resistome-a phenomenon we have termed the 'phantom resistome'. Whole-genome sequencing identified common bla NDM -positive E. coli shared among farms, flies, dogs and farmers, providing direct evidence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli transmission and environmental contamination.

  1. Occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae on commercial poultry farms of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia R. Barros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Pernambuco is the largest producer of eggs in the North and Northeast of Brazil and second one in the broiler production. Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS in broilers and commercial laying hens in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tracheal fragments were analyzed from 55 healthy broilers, 35 broilers with respiratory signs and 30 commercial laying hens with respiratory signs, from 24 commercial poultry farms, each sample was composed of a pool of five birds. The bacteriological exam, PCR and nested PCR were used for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. All samples were negative in bacteriological isolation. In the PCR analyses, seven samples from birds with respiratory signs were positive for MS and one was positive for MG, the latter of which was confirmed as the MG-F vaccine strain. The occurrence of MS in chickens with respiratory signs may indicate inadequate sanitary management on poultry farms, favoring the propagation of mycoplasmosis.

  2. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this pou...

  3. Inactivated H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine with gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen could produce improved immune response in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D-H; Kwon, J-S; Lee, H-J; Lee, Y-N; Hur, W; Hong, Y-H; Lee, J-B; Park, S-Y; Choi, I-S; Song, C-S

    2011-05-01

    The frequent economic losses incurred with H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) infection have raised serious concerns for the poultry industry. A 1-dose regimen with inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could not prevent vaccinated poultry from becoming infected and from shedding wild viruses. A study was conducted to determine whether a 2-dose regimen of inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could enhance the immunologic response in chickens. Such gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen has produced encouraging results associated with improved immune responses to an H9N2 LPAI. This strategy could be cost effective and helpful for preventing avian influenza virus in the poultry industry.

  4. The response of mute swans (Cygnus olor, Gm. 1789) to vaccination against avian influenza with an inactivated H5N2 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-10-22

    Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of wild mute swans to immunization with an inactivated AI H5N2 vaccine approved for use in poultry. The serological responses of mute swans were assessed by comparison with racing pigeons (Columba livia), a species which is characterized by different susceptibility to infection with the H5N1 HPAI virus and plays a questionable role in the ecology of influenza (H5N1) viruses. Swans were vaccinated once or twice at an interval of 4 weeks. The humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NP-ELISA. The lymphocyte blast transformation test was used to determine the cell-mediated immune response. Higher values of the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 100 % seroconversion (HI ≥32) were noted in double vaccinated swans (1448.2) than in single vaccinated swans (128.0) or in double vaccinated pigeons (215.3). Significant differences in HI titers were observed between swans and pigeons, but no variations in ELISA scores were noted after the booster dose. Immunization of swans had no effect on the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. The inactivated H5N2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic for mute swans and pigeons. Vaccination may have practical implications for swans kept in zoos, wildlife parks or rehabilitation centers. However, challenge studies are needed to prove the efficacy of the H5N2 AI vaccine.

  5. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  6. Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region.

  7. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  8. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  9. Call 1 Innovation in Livestock vaccines (F)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    ... rythme auquel les vaccins pour le bétail sont mis au point est lent, il est difficile ..... deux autres cocandidats (c' est -à-dire un maximum de trois accords de ... contamination, la pollution, l'excrétion virale, l'infection d'espèces non ... 4. OCDE :.

  10. Development of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.

  11. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  12. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  13. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  15. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  16. Family poultry production in Mauritius: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugessur, V.S.; Seenevassen Pillay, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of Mauritius has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for more than two decades and has been successfully meeting the increasing demand for these commodities. About 85% of the poultry meat is presently produced by four industrial farms, 10% by small commercial producers, and around 5% by family (backyard) poultry farms. The flourishing broiler production industry has transformed the erstwhile important traditional backyard poultry farming of indigenous chickens into an insignificant side activity on the main island of Mauritius, while on the other hand, scavenging chickens continue to be an important source of both food and income on Rodrigues, the second biggest island territory of the Republic. A survey carried out on 30 selected family poultry farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues in 1999 and 2000 enabled the identification of the major problems faced by smallholder poultry farmers. At the same time the results provided a basis for future interventions for improving family poultry production. The results showed that diseases like fowl pox, Newcastle disease, Gumboro disease, respiratory and parasitic diseases occurred all year round on 42% and 82% of farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. Low to mild helminth and lice infestations were detected on 40% and 50% of the farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. (author)

  17. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  18. Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient supply, high prices and competition with the human food and biofuel industries means there is a continuous demand for alternative energy sources for poultry. As a result, cassava is becoming an increasingly important ingredient in poultry diets, largely due to its high availability. Efficient use of cassava products has been shown to reduce feed costs of poultry production. The utilisation of cassava is, however, limited by a number of factors, including its high fibre and low energy content and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, primarily hydrocyanic acid (HCN. With correct processing the inclusion level of cassava in poultry diets could be increased. Extensive research has been conducted on cassava products for poultry, but there is still a lack of consistency amongst the measured nutritive values for cassava and its products, hence variation exists in results from poultry studies. This paper reviews the nutrient composition of cassava products and its value as an alternative energy source in poultry diets.

  19. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.

  20. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  1. The physical and microbiological quality of chicken meat in the different type of enterprise poultry slaughterhouse: a case study in Karanganyar District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertanto, B. S.; Nurmalasari, C. D. A.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Cahyadi, M.; Kartikasari, L. R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological quality of chicken meat produced by the different type of enterprise slaughterhouse in Karanganyar District. The number of 20 poultry slaughterhouses was determined by convenience sampling method. The samples of chicken meat were randomly collected from medium enterprise poultry slaughterhouses (n=12) and small enterprise poultry slaughterhouses (n=8). A survey was carried out among poultry slaughterhouses in Karanganyar District. All the samples were subjected to physical quality consisted of pH test, texture, and color, while microbiological quality consisted of total plate count, microbial detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative analysis. The study showed that chicken meat in 6 small enterprise slaughterhouses and 11 medium enterprise slaughterhouses had normal pH of 5.81 - 6.3. Color and texture of chicken meats had relatively normal in both small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses. The total plate count of chicken meat showed in both small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses was 1x101 CFU/gr, and Salmonella was detected in 1 medium enterprise slaughterhouse. The overall results of the study suggest that the potential risk of chicken meat contamination depends on the processing of chicken meat in poultry slaughterhouses.

  2. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  3. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world.

  4. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism.

  5. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his supervisor...

  6. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  7. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  8. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  9. 9 CFR 93.203 - Ports designated for the importation of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of poultry. 93.203 Section 93.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  10. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  11. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  12. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  13. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  14. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  16. The occurrence of Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus and chicken anemia virus in chickens of the poultry industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Rios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four fecal samples taken from broiler chickens from 1 to 45 days of age, and of pullets from 10 to 13 weeks of age, original from eight different poultry regions in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were collected from March 2008 to January 2010 for avian Orthoreovirus (ARV and avian Rotavirus (AvRV analyses. For the assay of ARV, RNA was immediately extracted (Trizolâ and transcribed into cDNA for assaying in a nested-PCR with ARV-specific primers. For AvRV, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE was performed with RNA extracts obtained by phenol-chloroform extraction. CAV was additionally investigated through a nested-PCR of thymus and spleen. Results found 5.55% positive for ARV and 9.25% for AvRV. Also, CAV and ARV genomes were detected in co-infection, in a highly prostrated and claudicating chicken flock. No ARV or AvRV infections were detected in pullets. Material of a clinically affected flock was inoculated into SPF embryos, resulting in embryonic hemorrhage, whitish foci in the chorio-allantoic membrane and death. Sequencing of ARV amplicons and isolate cDNA grouped local strains with the ARV S1133 strain, historically used in live vaccines, suggesting the continued circulation of this vaccine virus strain in intensive poultry regions. Detection rates for ARV and AvRV, as well as the presence of CAV, were additionally indicative of failing biosecurity strategies for the intensive poultry regions examined.

  17. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  18. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P vaccines. We also found that the Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had significantly (P vaccine titer before and after spray in embryonated eggs and found that both Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had a similar drop in titer, 0.40 logi and 0.310 logi, respec10ively. Based on these data, it appears that mechanical damage to the Ark-DPI vaccine is not occurring when delivered by a hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves Extracts of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum on Poultry Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Nallaiyan, S.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Doraiswamy, H.; Palanisamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Indian poultry industry in general, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, layer industry in particular, is remarkably fast and it is growing on leaps and bounds with respect to poultry egg production. The layer birds in poultry were affected by bacterial pathogens. However, antimicrobial activities of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum were examined using agar diffusion method against E. coli, Bacillus and Klebsiella isolated from poultry litter collected from poultry farm...

  20. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  1. Modelling the feed mix for poultry production, the case of Adama Musa farms, in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Amponsah; Dominic Otoo; A. K. Peprah; S. D. Ampofo

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has a significant importance on national economy. It is a popular industry for the small holders with tremendous contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment creation. Poultry feed cost represents over sixty (60) percent of the total cost of poultry production; consequently, efficient feed formulation practice is required for a sustainable poultry industry. Many Ghanaian poultry farmers, however, employ inefficient methods like rule of thumb, experiences, a...

  2. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  3. Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman area: A value chain analysis ... from each community as well as service providers and support institutions in ...

  4. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  5. Nutritional modulation of the immune response in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic efficiency demanded by the poultry industry has pushed selection towards high production with improved feed conversion ratios (FCR) and high yield; however, selection based heavily on growth characteristics and other phenotypic traits has adversely affected immune competence. Despite incre...

  6. Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.H.M.; Havelaar, A.H.; Westra, P.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands in 2003, an outbreak of avian influenza in poultry resulted in extensive culling, especially of layer hens. Concurrently, human campylobacteriosis cases decreased, particularly in the culling area. These observations raise the hypothesis that Campylobacter spp. dissemination from

  7. Assessment of Risks and Uncertainties in Poultry Farming in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , identify the risks and uncertainties encountered by the farmers, determines the level of severity of the risks and uncertainties, and identifies the coping strategies employed by the farmers. Primary data obtained from 99 registered poultry ...

  8. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  9. RNA-interference gene knockdown in the poultry red mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... transmission of poultry diseases, such as salmonellosis. (Afrim et al., 2011; Moro et al., ... tick lysosomal cathepsin D- like protease and also cathepsin-like proteins ..... potential vector of pathogenic agents. Exp. Appli. Acarol.

  10. Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Authie, E.; Berg, C.; Bøtner, A.; Browman, H.; Capua, I.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Depner, K.; Domingo, M.; Edwards, S.; Fourichon, C.; Koenen, F.; More, S.; Raj, M.A.B.; Sihvonen, L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Thulke, H.H.; Vågsholm, I.; Velarde, A.; Willeberg, P.; Zientara, S.

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators, and their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death, for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for poultry stunned using electrical waterbaths and gas mixtures or slaughtered without stunning. For

  11. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum requirements for organic fertilizers. It seems that recycling of organic waste from the poultry industry should be the primary method of nutrient recovery for plants and organic matter contained in them, however on condition that the health safety is preserved.

  12. 24 hydrocarbon degradation in poultry droppings and cassava peels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... This greenhouse study was aimed at determining the potentials of poultry droppings (PD) and cassava peels ... shift in the composition of bacterial community to ..... Oil and Gas Journal. pp. ... Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd.

  13. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Esaki, Motoyuki; Dorsey, Kristi M; Jiang, Haijun; Jackwood, Mark; Moraes, Mauro; Gardin, Yannick

    2015-02-25

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce protection against heterologous isolates and ability to overcome maternal antibody interference. In these studies, we compared protection of chickens provided by a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006) against homologous H5N1 as well as heterologous H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic (HP) AI challenge. The results demonstrated all vaccinated birds were protected from clinical signs of disease and mortality following homologous challenge. In addition, oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared to sham-vaccinated birds. Following heterologous H5N1 or H5N2 HPAI challenge, 80-95% of birds receiving the HVT vector AI vaccine at day of age survived challenge with fewer birds shedding virus after challenge than sham vaccinated birds. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that splenic T lymphocytes from HVT-vector-AI vaccinated chickens recognized MHC-matched target cells infected with H5, as well as H6, H7, or H9 AI virus. Taken together, these studies provide support for the use of HVT vector vaccines expressing HA to protect poultry against multiple lineages of HPAI, and that both humoral and cellular immunity induced by live vaccines likely contributes to protection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  15. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  16. Retrospective study on cattle and poultry diseases in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Byaruhanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and poultry enterprises are among the major contributors to food security and socioeconomic empowerment of households in Uganda. However, various diseases constrain their productivity. A two-year retrospective study between April 2012 and March 2014 was conducted using records for cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed at the Central Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL to determine prevalent diseases in Uganda. The laboratory received 836 samples from poultry (36.3% and cattle (63.7%. Of the 836 samples, 47.5% had a definitive diagnosis of disease causation. Most of the cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed were protozoan diseases (39.3% followed by bacterial (21.4%, viral (17.1%, helminthiasis (11.1%, nutritional diseases (4% and others (7.1%. For poultry, viral diseases (29.5% and protozoan diseases (27.1% especially newcastle disease (44.3% and coccidiosis (100% respectively, were the most diagnosed. While for cattle, hemo-protozoan parasites (52.1% were the most prevalent, of which 92.9% were east coast fever infection. Bacterial infection (20.5% in cattle were the second most diagnosed diseases and mastitis was the most diagnosed (46.2%. In summary, coccidioisis, collibacillosis, newcastle disease, gumboro disease, and avian helminthiasis were the most prevalent poultry diseases while in cattle, east coast fever, helminthiasis, mastitis, brucellosis and rabies were the most frequently diagnosed diseases. This study has identified the major diseases that hinder poultry and cattle production in Uganda. The data generated by CDL could be used for surveillance, monitoring and designing strategic interventions for control of poultry and cattle diseases in Uganda. Keywords: Coccidiosis, Collibacillosis, East coast fever, Mastitis, Newcastle disease, Rabies

  17. Predicting the distribution of intensive poultry farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; D’Aietti, Laura; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Intensification of animal production can be an important factor in the emergence of infectious diseases because changes in production structure influence disease transmission patterns. In 2004 and 2005, Thailand was subject to two highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic waves and large surveys were conducted of the poultry sector, providing detailed spatial data on various poultry types. This study analysed these data with the aim of establishing the distributions of extensive and intensiv...

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO_2_e_q/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  19. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  20. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.