WorldWideScience

Sample records for containerized wetland bioreactor

  1. Biological manganese removal from acid mine drainage in constructed wetlands and prototype bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2005-02-01

    Mine drainage waters vary considerably in the range and concentration of heavy metals they contain. Besides iron, manganese is frequently present at elevated concentrations in waters draining both coal and metal mines. Passive treatment systems (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) are designed to remove iron by biologically induced oxidation/precipitation. Manganese, however, is problematic as it does not readily form sulfidic minerals and requires elevated pH (>8) for abiotic oxidation of Mn (II) to insoluble Mn (IV). As a result, manganese removal in passive remediation systems is often less effective than removal of iron. This was found to be the case at the pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) constructed to treat water draining the former Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall, UK, where effective removal of manganese occurred only in one of the three rock filter components of the composite systems over a 1-year period of monitoring. Water in the two rock filter systems where manganese removal was relatively poor was generally system. These differences in water chemistry and manganese removal were due to variable performances in the compost bioreactors that feed the rock filter units in the composite passive systems at Wheal Jane. An alternative approach for removing soluble manganese from mine waters, using fixed bed bioreactors, was developed. Ferromanganese nodules (about 2 cm diameter), collected from an abandoned mine adit in north Wales, were used to inoculate the bioreactors (working volume ca. 700 ml). Following colonization by manganese-oxidizing microbes, the aerated bioreactor catalysed the removal of soluble manganese, via oxidation of Mn (II) and precipitation of the resultant Mn (IV) in the bioreactor, in synthetic media and mine water from the Wheal Jane PPTP. Such an approach has potential application for removing soluble Mn from mine streams and other Mn-contaminated water courses.

  2. Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaleddine, E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Composting is once again gaining interest among ecological engineers in view of greener industrial and residential activities. Uniform composting is needed to ensure decomposition and to keep the whole system at the same composting stage. A homogeneous temperature must be maintained throughout the media. A bioreactor design consisting of a heater core made of copper tubing was designed and tested. Two four-inch holes were made at the top and bottom of the barrel to allow air to flow through the system and promote aerobic composting. Once composting began and temperature increased, the water began to flow through the copper piping and the core heat was distributed throughout the medium. Three thermocouples were inserted at different heights on a 200 litre plastic barrel fitted with the aforementioned apparatus. Temperature variations were found to be considerably lower when the apparatus was operated with the heat redistribution system, enabling uniform composting, accelerating the process and reducing the risks of pathogenic or other contaminants remaining active in the barrels.

  3. Energy recovery from containerized waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of solid waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises: a heated, rotated cylinder containing in-process mineral material, the method comprising the steps of packaging the waste in containers and charging the containerized waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature is sufficient to decompose volatile components of the waste released upon contact of the waste with the in-process mineral material

  4. 19 CFR 19.41 - Movement of containerized cargo to a container station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. 19.41 Section 19.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... THEREIN Container Stations § 19.41 Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. Containerized...

  5. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  6. Bioreactor principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  8. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  9. The Frictionless Data Package: Data Containerization for Automated Scientific Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Fils, D.; Kinkade, D.; Saito, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    As cross-disciplinary geoscience research increasingly relies on machines to discover and access data, one of the critical questions facing data repositories is how data and supporting materials should be packaged for consumption. Traditionally, data repositories have relied on a human's involvement throughout discovery and access workflows. This human could assess fitness for purpose by reading loosely coupled, unstructured information from web pages and documentation. In attempts to shorten the time to science and access data resources across may disciplines, expectations for machines to mediate the process of discovery and access is challenging data repository infrastructure. This challenge is to find ways to deliver data and information in ways that enable machines to make better decisions by enabling them to understand the data and metadata of many data types. Additionally, once machines have recommended a data resource as relevant to an investigator's needs, the data resource should be easy to integrate into that investigator's toolkits for analysis and visualization. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) supports NSF-funded OCE and PLR investigators with their project's data management needs. These needs involve a number of varying data types some of which require multiple files with differing formats. Presently, BCO-DMO has described these data types and the important relationships between the type's data files through human-readable documentation on web pages. For machines directly accessing data files from BCO-DMO, this documentation could be overlooked and lead to misinterpreting the data. Instead, BCO-DMO is exploring the idea of data containerization, or packaging data and related information for easier transport, interpretation, and use. In researching the landscape of data containerization, the Frictionlessdata Data Package (http://frictionlessdata.io/) provides a number of valuable advantages over similar

  10. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  11. Comparision of Incidental Reflection From Containerized Maintenance/Housekeeping Solutions and One Inch of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids which will be analyzed as water that may be present under normal conditions of an operation. The reactivity worth is compared to the reactivity worth due to I-inch of close-fitting 4n water reflection and I-inch of close-fitting radial water reflection. Both have been used to bound incidental reflection by 2-liter bottles in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that, when the maintenance/housekeeping fluids are containerized the reactivity increase from a configuration which is bounding of normal conditions (up to eight bottles modeled with 2-liters of solution at varying diameter) is bound by I-inch of close fitting 4n water relection.

  12. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...... chain, its role in food safety cannot be ignored. Unfortunately not much effort has been put, scientifically, into understanding the role of the various features of the transportation links in food cross contamination (compared to studies for homes, processing factories and farm yards). The PhD project...... has attempted to shed light on containerized food transport and some of its important attributes as regards hygiene and cross contamination. The overall aim of the study was to ‘identify possible microbial hazards and ways of cross contamination during containerized transportation of foods...

  13. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  14. DLTAP: A Network-efficient Scheduling Method for Distributed Deep Learning Workload in Containerized Cluster Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Wei; Li Ying; Wu Zhong-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) have recently yielded strong results on a range of applications. Training these DNNs using a cluster of commodity machines is a promising approach since training is time consuming and compute-intensive. Furthermore, putting DNN tasks into containers of clusters would enable broader and easier deployment of DNN-based algorithms. Toward this end, this paper addresses the problem of scheduling DNN tasks in the containerized cluster environment. Efficiently scheduling ...

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  16. Cascades of bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de C.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis a common phenomenon in bioprocess engineering is described : the execution of a certain bioprocess in more than one bioreactor. Chapter 1, a review, classifies bioprocesses by means of a number of characteristics :
    i) processes with a variable

  17. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  18. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations

  19. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations.

  20. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  2. RFID Platform as a Service, Containerized Ecosystem, Feasibility and Security Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kypus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept as a special type of virtualization of particular event based communication components in RFID ecosystems. The new approach is containers based virtualization, and it is applied and tested on the container of Object name service. The results of the experiment allowed us to do the preliminary analysis of security consequences on the isolated containerized DNS-based RFID sub-service. We confirmed feasibility with this sandboxing technology represented by the special container. They bring the benefits in terms of efficient software component life-cycle management and integrity improvements. Experiments results of the containerization are discussed to show the possible isolation ways of other components like EPCis and middleware. There is present evaluation towards external threats and vulnerabilities. The result is a higher level of integrity, availability of whole ecosystem and resiliency against external threats. This gives a new opportunity to build robust RFID as Platform as a service, and it proves the ability to achieve a positive impact on the end to end service Quality of service.

  3. DLTAP: A Network-efficient Scheduling Method for Distributed Deep Learning Workload in Containerized Cluster Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neural networks (DNNs have recently yielded strong results on a range of applications. Training these DNNs using a cluster of commodity machines is a promising approach since training is time consuming and compute-intensive. Furthermore, putting DNN tasks into containers of clusters would enable broader and easier deployment of DNN-based algorithms. Toward this end, this paper addresses the problem of scheduling DNN tasks in the containerized cluster environment. Efficiently scheduling data-parallel computation jobs like DNN over containerized clusters is critical for job performance, system throughput, and resource utilization. It becomes even more challenging with the complex workloads. We propose a scheduling method called Deep Learning Task Allocation Priority (DLTAP which performs scheduling decisions in a distributed manner, and each of scheduling decisions takes aggregation degree of parameter sever task and worker task into account, in particularly, to reduce cross-node network transmission traffic and, correspondingly, decrease the DNN training time. We evaluate the DLTAP scheduling method using a state-of-the-art distributed DNN training framework on 3 benchmarks. The results show that the proposed method can averagely reduce 12% cross-node network traffic, and decrease the DNN training time even with the cluster of low-end servers.

  4. Containerization problems for radioactive waste of low and middle activity.; Problemy kontejnerizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov nizkoj i srednej aktivnosti.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolin, G A; Saverskij, S Yu [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Problems of containerization, basic principles and requirements to containers and radioactive waste prepared to burial have been determined, classification of containers and technical decisions on certain types of containers have been suggested. Development of the parametric series of containers for solid radioactive waste permits standardizing the types of containers and applying unified equipment for transportation, processing and burial of waste.

  5. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  6. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  7. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  8. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  9. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  10. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  11. Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions

  12. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  13. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  14. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating

  15. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  16. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Hawa Abdul Aziz; Wan Nazirah Wan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  17. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  18. Application of semifluidized bed bioreactor as novel bioreactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional bioreactors such as pond digester, anaerobic filtration, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed-film (UASFF), continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), anaerobic contact digestion and fluidized bed, used over the past decades are largely operated anaerobically. They have ...

  19. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  20. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  1. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  3. [Effects of mushroom residue compost on growth and nutrient accumulation of Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Liu, Yong; Lou, Jun Shan; Sun, Qiao Yu; Wan, Fang Fang; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Excessive use of peat may cause some environmental problems. To alleviate the negative effect, an experiment was conducted with the mushroom residue compost to replace peat in Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplant production, and the proportion of mushroom residue compost was 0% (T 0 , control), 15% (T 1 ), 18.75% (T 2 ), 25% (T 3 ), 37.50% (T 4 ), 50% (T 5 ), 56.25% (T 6 ) and 60% (T 7 ), respectively. The physical and chemical features of the substrates and its effect on the vegetative growth and nutrient accumulation of L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants were studied. The results showed when the proportion of mushroom residue compost in the substrate accounted for 50% or less, there was no significant difference in the transplant height, diameter, and biomass compared with the control, and the nutrient concentration in T 2 , T 4 , T 5 treatments was significantly higher than in T 0 . The pH value was sub-acidic to neutral which was suitable to the transplant growth. When the compost proportion accounted for more than 50%, the pH value was altered to alkali and was not suitable to the transplant growth. When the proportion of mushroom residue compost accounted for 15%, the plant grew best, and the height, diameter, and total biomass got the highest. Therefore, using mushroom residue compost to replace peat in L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants cultivation was feasible and the maximum replacement ratio could reach 50%. The high quality transplants could be obtained when the compost replacement ratio was 15%.

  4. Nitrate leaching beneath a containerized nursery crop receiving trickle or overhead irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, D J; Brand, M H

    2001-01-01

    Container production of nursery crops is intensive and a potential source of nitrogen release to the environment. This study was conducted to determine if trickle irrigation could be used by container nursery producers as an alternative to standard overhead irrigation to reduce nitrogen release into the environment. The effect of overhead irrigation and trickle irrigation on leachate nitrate N concentration, flow-weighted nitrate N concentration, leachate volume, and plant growth was investigated using containerized rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. 'Album') supplied with a controlled-release fertilizer and grown outdoors on top of soil-monolith lysimeters. Leachate was collected over two growing seasons and overwinter periods, and natural precipitation was allowed as a component of the system. Precipitation accounted for 69% of the water entering the overhead-irrigated system and 80% of the water entering the trickle-irrigated system. Leachate from fertilized plants exceeded the USEPA limit of 10 mg L(-1) at several times and reached a maximum of 26 mg L(-1) with trickle irrigation. Average annual loss of nitrate N in leachate for fertilized treatments was 51.8 and 60.5 kg ha(-1) for the overhead and trickle treatments, respectively. Average annual flow-weighted concentration of nitrate N in leachate of fertilized plants was 7.2 mg L(-1) for overhead irrigation and 12.7 mg L(-1) for trickle irrigation. Trickle irrigation did not reduce the amount of nitrate N leached from nursery containers when compared with overhead irrigation because precipitation nullified the potential benefits of reduced leaching fractions and irrigation inputs provided under trickle irrigation.

  5. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen...

  6. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  7. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  8. Remediation of uranium-contaminated soil using the Segmented Gate System and containerized vat leaching techniques: a cost effectiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, M.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. Until now, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended upon manual screening and analysis of samples, a costly and impractical approach, particularly with large volumes of heterogeneously contaminated soil. The baseline approach for the remediation of soils containing radioactive waste is excavation, pretreatment, containerization, and disposal at a federally permitted landfill. However, disposal of low-level radioactive waste is expensive and storage capacity is limited. ThermoNuclean's Segmented Gate System (SGS) removes only the radioactively contaminated soil, in turn greatly reducing the volume of soils that requires disposal. After processing using the SGS, the fraction of contaminated soil is processed using the containerized vat leaching (CVL) system developed at LANL. Uranium is leached out of the soil in solution. The uranium is recovered with an ion exchange resin, leaving only a small volume of liquid low-level waste requiring disposal. The reclaimed soil can be returned to its original location after treatment with CVL

  9. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  10. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  11. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  12. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  13. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  14. Comparison of membrane bioreactor technology and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to review the use of membrane bioreactor technology as an alternative for treating the discharged effluent from a bleached kraft mill by comparing and contrasting membrane bioreactors with conventional activated sludge systems for wastewater treatment. There are many water shortage ...

  15. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  16. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  17. A greenhouse-scale photosynthetic microbial bioreactor for carbon sequestration in magnesium carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2014-08-19

    A cyanobacteria dominated consortium collected from an alkaline wetland located near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada accelerated the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] in a linear flow-through experimental model wetland. The concentration of magnesium decreased rapidly within 2 m of the inflow point of the 10-m-long (∼1.5 m(2)) bioreactor. The change in water chemistry was monitored over two months along the length of the channel. Carbonate mineralization was associated with extra-cellular polymeric substances in the nutrient-rich upstream portion of the bioreactor, while the lower part of the system, which lacked essential nutrients, did not exhibit any hydromagnesite precipitation. A mass balance calculation using the water chemistry data produced a carbon sequestration rate of 33.34 t of C/ha per year. Amendment of the nutrient deficiency would intuitively allow for increased carbonation activity. Optimization of this process will have application as a sustainable mining practice by mediating magnesium carbonate precipitation in ultramafic mine tailings storage facilities.

  18. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  19. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  20. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  1. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  2. Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-04-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

  3. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    1Laboratory for Cell Culture Technology and Biotransformations, 2Laboratory for ... A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring ... consisted of 95% of air + 5% of CO2 using gas mixing module.

  4. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  5. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  6. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W.; Lloyd, David G.; Zheng, Ming H.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a s...

  7. Immobilized yeast in bioreactor for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handy, M.K.; Kim, K.

    1986-01-01

    Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed using a Co-60 source. Cells were immobilized onto sterile, channeled alumina beads and packed into bioreactor column under controlled temperature. Feedstocks containing substrate and nutrients were fed into the bioreactor at specific rates. Beads with greatest porosity and surface area produced the most ethanol. Factors affecting ethanol productivity included: temperature, pH, flow rate, nutrients and substrate in the feedstock

  8. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  9. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  10. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  11. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  13. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  14. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  15. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  16. Construction of a Simple Multipurpose Airlift Bioreactor and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The aim of the present research is to develop a simple airlift bioreactor which can be operated even ... compression metal. The bioreactor is mixed ... the method developed by (Bailey and Olis, .... (Ed) Concise Encyclopedia of Bio-resources.

  17. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  18. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  19. Assessment of biochar and hydrochar as minor to major constituents of growing media for containerized tomato production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Fernando; Belda, Rosa M; Fernández de Córdova, Pascual; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Chars are emerging materials as constituents of growth media. However, chars of different origin differ in their characteristics and more studies are needed to ratify them for such a role. The characteristics of coir mixed with 0%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (v/v) of two biochars, from forest waste (BCH-FW) and from olive mill waste (BCH-OMW), and one hydrochar, from forest waste (HYD-FW), and their effects on growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars (Gransol RZ and Cuarenteno) were assessed. Chars negatively affected plant growth and yield but not fruit quality. The effect was related to the char dose and was larger in HYD-FW and BCH-FW than in BCH-OMW, despite the high salinity of the latter, and more acute in Cuarenteno than in Gransol RZ. The results were discussed on the basis of the large particle size of BCH-FW, which could have caused low nutrient solution retention and, hence, reduced plant nutrient uptake, and the high water-holding capacity, poor aeration and large CO 2 emission of HYD-FW, which could lead to root anoxia. BCH-OMW can be used at high proportion in media for tomato cultivation. The use of BCH-FW at a high proportion might be taken into consideration after adjusting particle size, yet this needs additional assays. HYD-FW is inadequate for soilless containerized tomato cultivation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. GUIdock-VNC: using a graphical desktop sharing system to provide a browser-based interface for containerized software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Varun; Hung, Ling-Hong; Keswani, Jayant; Kristiyanto, Daniel; Lee, Sung Bong; Yeung, Ka Yee

    2017-04-01

    Software container technology such as Docker can be used to package and distribute bioinformatics workflows consisting of multiple software implementations and dependencies. However, Docker is a command line-based tool, and many bioinformatics pipelines consist of components that require a graphical user interface. We present a container tool called GUIdock-VNC that uses a graphical desktop sharing system to provide a browser-based interface for containerized software. GUIdock-VNC uses the Virtual Network Computing protocol to render the graphics within most commonly used browsers. We also present a minimal image builder that can add our proposed graphical desktop sharing system to any Docker packages, with the end result that any Docker packages can be run using a graphical desktop within a browser. In addition, GUIdock-VNC uses the Oauth2 authentication protocols when deployed on the cloud. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated the utility of GUIdock-noVNC in gene network inference. We benchmarked our container implementation on various operating systems and showed that our solution creates minimal overhead. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a) Buncombe County, North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements...

  2. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  3. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  5. Woodchip bioreactors effectively treat aquaculture effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus, can create eutrophication problems in any watershed. Preventing water quality impairment requires controlling nutrients from both point-source and non-point source discharges. Woodchip bioreactors are one relatively new approach that can be utilized ...

  6. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  7. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  9. Evaluation of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri on containerized citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Frank J; Daugherty, Matthew P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Bethke, James A; Morse, Joseph G

    2017-03-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments, and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were detected in leaf tissues within 1 week after treatment. Peak concentrations established at 1 week for imidacloprid and dinotefuran and at 2 weeks for thiamethoxam. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam outperformed the control and dinotefuran treatments at protecting trees from infestations by ACP eggs and nymphs. For a given insecticide concentration in leaf tissue, thiamethoxam induced the highest mortality of the three insecticides, and dinotefuran was the least toxic. If the time needed to achieve effective thresholds of a systemic neonicotinoid is known, treatments at production facilities could be scheduled that would minimize unnecessary post-treatment holding periods and ensure maximum retention of effective concentrations after the plants have shipped to retail outlets. The rapid uptake of the insecticides and retention at effective concentrations in containerized citrus suggest that the current 30 day post-treatment shipping restriction from production facilities to retail outlets outside of quarantine could be shortened to 14 days. Thiamethoxam should be added to the list of approved nursery treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  11. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  12. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  13. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  15. Designing electrical stimulated bioreactors for nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Ignasius Dwi; Whulanza, Yudan; Dhelika, Radon; Nurhadi, Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Bioreactor provides a biomimetic ecosystem that is able to culture cells in a physically controlled system. In general, the controlled-parameters are temperature, pH, fluid flow, nutrition flow, etc. In this study, we develop a bioreactor that specifically targeted to culture neural stem cells. This bioreactor could overcome some limitations of conventional culture technology, such as petri dish, by providing specific range of observation area and a uniform treatment. Moreover, the microfluidic bioreactor, which is a small-controlled environment, is able to observe as small number of cells as possible. A perfusion flow is applied to mimic the physiological environment in human body. Additionally, this bioreactor also provides an electrical stimulation which is needed by neural stem cells. In conclusion, we found the correlation between the induced shear stress with geometric parameters of the bioreactor. Ultimately, this system shall be used to observe the interaction between stimulation and cell growth.

  16. Role of Bioreactors in Microbial Biomass and Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhang, Biao [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhu, Xun [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Chang, Haixing [Chongqing University of Technology; Ou, Shawn [ORNL; Wang, HONG [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China

    2018-04-01

    Bioenergy is the world’s largest contributor to the renewable and sustainable energy sector, and it plays a significant role in various energy industries. A large amount of research has contributed to the rapidly evolving field of bioenergy and one of the most important topics is the use of the bioreactor. Bioreactors play a critical role in the successful development of technologies for microbial biomass cultivation and energy conversion. In this chapter, after a brief introduction to bioreactors (basic concepts, configurations, functions, and influencing factors), the applications of the bioreactor in microbial biomass, microbial biofuel conversion, and microbial electrochemical systems are described. Importantly, the role and significance of the bioreactor in the bioenergy process are discussed to provide a better understanding of the use of bioreactors in managing microbial biomass and energy conversion.

  17. Modeling of a membrane bioreactor for production of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Paola Andrea; Moncada, Jorge Andres; Cardona, Carlos Ariel; Ruiz, Orlando Simon

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of an enzymatic catalyst lipase, produced by Candida Antarctica a membrane bioreactor was modeled and simulated to obtain biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol. A conversion of 0.97 was reached for a residence time of 10.64 min. The membrane bioreactor was compared to a CSTR reactor, where a conversion of 0.76 was obtained. It was concluded that the membrane bioreactor is a better way of producing biodiesel than the CSTR

  18. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish; Upadhyay, Govinda; Abeysekera, Muditha; Salehin, Sayedus; Appleyard, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency

  19. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe

    2017-07-25

    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  20. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  1. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  2. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  3. Microbiology of a wetland ecosystem constructed to remediate mine drainage from a heavy metal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2005-02-01

    A pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) was constructed to evaluate the potential of a composite wetland system to remediate acidic, metal-rich water draining the former Wheal Jane tin, in Cornwall, England. The treatment plant consists of three separate and controllable composite systems, each of which comprises a series of aerobic wetlands for iron oxidation and precipitation, a compost bioreactor for removing chalcophilic metals and to generate alkalinity, and rock filter ponds for removing soluble manganese and organic carbon. To understand the roles of microorganisms in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD) in constructed wetland ecosystems, populations of different groups of cultivatable acidophilic microbes in the various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP were enumerated over a 30-month period. Initially, moderately acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria (related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus) were found to be the major cultivatable microorganisms present in the untreated AMD, though later heterotrophic acidophiles emerged as the dominant group, on a numerical basis. Culturable microbes in the surface waters and sediments of the aerobic wetlands were similarly dominated by heterotrophic acidophiles, though both moderately and extremely acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria were also present in significant numbers. The dominant microbial isolate in waters draining the anaerobic compost bioreactors was an iron- and sulfur-oxidising moderate acidophile that was closely related to Thiomonas intermedia. The acidophiles enumerated at the Wheal Jane PPTP accounted for 1% to 25% of the total microbial population. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 isolates from various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP showed that, whilst many of these bacteria were commonly encountered acidophiles, some of these had not been previously encountered in AMD and AMD-impacted environments.

  4. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  5. Disposable bioreactors: maturation into pharmaceutical glycoprotein manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, René

    2009-01-01

    Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.Over the last 10 years, a huge and still increasing number of disposable bioreactors have entered the market. Bioreactor volumes of up to 2,000 L can be handled by using disposable bag systems. Each individual technology has been made available for different purposes up to the GMP compliant production of therapeutic drugs, even for market supply. This chapter summarises disposable technology development over the last decade by comparing the different technologies and showing trends and concepts for the future.

  6. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  7. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  8. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  9. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  10. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  11. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.

    1998-01-01

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  12. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  13. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant bioreactor, also called molecular farming, has enormous potential to produce recombinant proteins infinitely. Products expressed in plants have natural physico-chemical properties and bioactivities. Plant bioreactor could be a safe, economic and convenient production system, and can been widely applied in ...

  14. Schisandra lignans production regulated by different bioreactor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-04-10

    Schisandra chinensis (Chinese magnolia vine) is a rich source of therapeutically relevant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans with anticancer, immunostimulant and hepatoprotective activities. In this work, shoot cultures of S. chinensis were grown in different types of bioreactors with the aim to select a system suitable for the large scale in vitro production of schisandra lignans. The cultures were maintained in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Five bioreactors differing with respect to cultivation mode were tested: two liquid-phase systems (baloon-type bioreactor and bubble-column bioreactor with biomass immobilization), the gas-phase spray bioreactor and two commercially available temporary immersion systems: RITA ® and Plantform. The experiments were run for 30 and 60 days in batch mode. The harvested shoots were evaluated for growth and lignan content determined by LC-DAD and LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Of the tested bioreactors, temporary immersion systems provided the best results with respect to biomass production and lignan accumulation: RITA ® bioreactor yielded 17.86g/l (dry weight) during 60 day growth period whereas shoots grown for 30 days in Plantform bioreactor contained the highest amount of lignans (546.98mg/100g dry weight), with schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and gomisin A as the major constituents (118.59, 77.66 and 67.86mg/100g dry weight, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR); Bioreactores de membrana (MBR) para la depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardino Ferre, R.

    2001-07-01

    Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR), are a good alternative of treatment to the conventional processes when wish to obtain very high quality of the treated water or to try high load contaminants in low flow. Simultaneously, the article explains the significant reduction of the wastewater treatment plant space, eliminating the secondary septic tank. (Author) 7 refs.

  16. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  17. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  18. Bioreactor engineering of stem cell environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-11-15

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by the development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to the translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...... modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones...

  20. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  1. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  2. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  3. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut

  4. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  5. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  6. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of wetlands in Sec. 55.2(b)(11) to cover manmade wetlands in order to ensure that wetlands built for...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD... wetlands and floodplains. With respect to wetlands, the rule codifies existing procedures for Executive...

  7. Biodegradation of phenolic waste liquors in stirred-tank, packed-bed, and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D W; Hancher, G W; Chilcote, D D; Scott, C D

    1978-11-01

    The biological degradation of phenolic scrub liquors similar to those that arise in coal conversion processes was studied for symbiotic bacterial populations contained in a continuously stirred tank bioreactor, a three-phase packed-bed bioreactor, and a three-phase, fluidized-bed bioreactor. The conversions of phenol compounds were comparable in the three-phase, packed-bed bioreactor and the continuously stirred tank bioreactor; however, the packed-bed bioreactor degradation rates were as much as twice those in the continuously stirred tank bioreactor, and packed-bed bioreactor retention times were as low as one- tenth those of the continuously stirred tank bioreactors (minimum time was 12 hours).

  8. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  9. The Role of Bioreactors in Ligament and Tendon Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, James; Wheelton, Andy; Khan, Wasim S; Anand, Sanj

    2016-01-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal to the emerging field of tissue engineering. The formation of neotissue from pluripotent cell lineages potentially offers a source of tissue for clinical use without the significant donor site morbidity associated with many contemporary surgical reconstructive procedures. Modern bioreactor design is becoming increasingly complex to provide a both an expandable source of readily available pluripotent cells and to facilitate their controlled differentiation into a clinically applicable ligament or tendon like neotissue. This review presents the need for such a method, challenges in the processes to engineer neotissue and the current designs and results of modern bioreactors in the pursuit of engineered tendon and ligament.

  10. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  11. Modelling across bioreactor scales: methods, challenges and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    that it is challenging and expensive to acquire experimental data of good quality that can be used for characterizing gradients occurring inside a large industrial scale bioreactor. But which model building methods are available? And how can one ensure that the parameters in such a model are properly estimated? And what......Scale-up and scale-down of bioreactors are very important in industrial biotechnology, especially with the currently available knowledge on the occurrence of gradients in industrial-scale bioreactors. Moreover, it becomes increasingly appealing to model such industrial scale systems, considering...

  12. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  13. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small

  14. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  15. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.P.; Lucier, A.A.; Haines, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  16. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through secondary impacts. Discharging fill material in wetlands as part of municipal, industrial or recreational development may modify the capacity of wetlands to retain and store floodwaters and to serve as a...

  17. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    desorption from the sediments.When highly reducing, methanogenic, or sulfate-reducing conditions existed in the wetland groundwater, molar composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed that chlorobenzene and benzene were predominant, indicating biodegradation of the chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination pathways. Temporal changes in redox conditions between 2009 and 2011–12 have shifted the locations in the wetland study area where reductive dechlorination is evident. Microbial community analyses of sediment showed relatively high cell numbers and diversity of populations (Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium, and Geobacter) that are known to contain species capable of reductive dechlorination, confirming groundwater geochemistry evidence of the occurrence of reductive dechlorination. Natural attenuation was not sufficient, however, to reduce total VOC concentrations along upward groundwater flowpaths in the wetland sediments, most likely due to the additional source of contaminants in the upper sediments. In situ microcosms that were unamended except for the addition of 13C-labeled contaminants in some treatments, confirmed that the native microbial community was able to biodegrade the higher chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination and that 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and benzene could be degraded to carbon dioxide through oxidation pathways. Microcosms that were bioaugmented with the anaerobic dechlorinating consortium WBC-2 and deployed in the wetland sediments showed reductive dechlorination of tri-, di-, and monochlorobenzene, and 13C-chlorobenzene treatments showed complete degradation of chlorobenzene to carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions.Experiments with a continuous flow, fixed-film bioreactor seeded with native microorganisms in groundwater from the wetland area showed both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene, and benzene, although

  18. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations... actions (e.g., restoration of existing degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a reasonable determination with respect to these demonstrations...

  19. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  20. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  1. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  2. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR

  3. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Huete, E.; Martinez, L. C.; Torres, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  4. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  5. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon

    2008-02-01

    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning.

  6. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  7. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  8. Nitrate Removal Rates in Denitrifying Bioreactors During Storm Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Field denitrifying bioreactors are designed to reduce excess nitrate (NO3-) pollution in runoff from agricultural fields. Field bioreactors saturate organic matter to create conditions that facilitate microbial denitrification. Prior studies using steady flow in lab-scale bioreactors showed that a hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 4 and 10 hours was optimal for reducing NO3- loads. However, during storm-induced events, flow rate and actual HRT fluctuate. These fluctuations have the potential to disrupt the system in significant ways that are not captured by the idealized steady-flow HRT models. The goal of this study was to investigate removal rate during dynamic storm flows of variable rates and durations. Our results indicate that storm peak flow and duration were not significant controlling variables. Instead, we found high correlations (p=0.004) in average removal rates between bioreactors displaying a predominantly uniform flow pattern compared with bioreactors that exhibited preferential flow (24.4 and 21.4 g N m-3 d-1, respectively). This suggests that the internal flow patterns are a more significant driver of removal rate than external factors of the storm hydrograph. Designing for flow patterns in addition to theoretical HRT will facilitate complete mixing within the bioreactors. This will help maximize excess NO3- removal during large storm-induced runoff events.

  9. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  10. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, Olof

    1998-01-01

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  11. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    wetland habitats where: habitat disruption should be minimized; desirable flora or fauna might be harmed by traditional remedial excavation methods...However, it is possible that short-term impacts to hydrophytic flora and fauna may occur. Other potential challenges include the long-term physical

  12. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  13. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  14. Time analysis of the containerized cargo flow in the logistic chain using simulation tools: the case of the Port of Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Aguilar, J.J.; Turias, J.I.; Cerban, M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Pulido, A.

    2016-07-01

    The logistic chain that connects the capital of Spain (Madrid) with the Canary Islands has the Port of Seville as the port node. This port node makes possible to switch from one transport mode (railway) to another (maritime) at the container terminal of the port. Some constraints, such as the operational time window that restricts the freight train access into the port in a certain time-slot or the need of the reversal of the train before entering into port, lead to generate important time delays in the intermodal chain. A time analysis of the process is necessary in order to check the critical points. A simulation of the whole process from the goods departing the origin station by train until they leave the port of Seville by ship to the Canary Islands is performed. To this aim, a queuing model network was developed in order to simulate the travel time of the cargo. The database is composed of daily departures of goods train and daily departures of vessels (including times of docking, berthing or load/unload cargo). The final objective of this work is twofold: firstly, to provide a validated model of the containerized cargo flow and secondly, to demonstrate that this kind of queuing models can become a powerful supporting tool in making decisions about future investments. (Author)

  15. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li

    2007-01-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  16. Anaerobic membrane bio-reactors for severe industrial effluents and urban spill waters : The AMBROSIUS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor,

  17. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  18. A dual flow bioreactor with controlled mechanical stimulation for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, Tim; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Deus, F.D.; Costa, I.B.F.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering bioreactors can create a controlled environment to study chondrocyte behavior under mechanical stimulation or produce chondrogenic grafts of clinically relevant size. Here we present a novel bioreactor, which combines mechanical stimulation with a two compartment

  19. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  20. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  1. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  2. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000 2 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m 3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  3. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  4. Functional study on two artificial liver bioreactors with collagen gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo improve the hollow fiber bioreactor of artificial liver. MethodsRat hepatocytes mixed with collagen solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor to construct a bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ. Other rat hepatocytes suspended in solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor with a layer of collagen on the wall of the external cavity to construct a bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. For each group, the culture solution circulated through the internal cavity of the hollow fiber bioreactor; the bioreactor was put in a culture box for 9 d, and the culture solution in the internal cavity was exchanged for new one every 24 h; the concentrations of albumin (Alb, urea, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the culture solution samples were measured to examine the hepatocyte function of the bioreactor. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 130. Continuous data were expressed as mean±SD, and comparison between groups was made by paired t test. ResultsFor groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, Alb levels reached peak values on day 3 of culture (1.41±0.08 g/L and 0.65±0.05 g/L; from day 3 to 9, group I had a significantly higher Alb level than group Ⅱ (t>7.572, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, urea levels reached peak values on days 3 and 5 of culture (1.73±0.14 mmol/L and 1.56±0.18 mmol/L; from days 5 to 9, group I had a significantly higher urea level than group Ⅱ (t>8.418, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, LDH levels reached peak values on day 9 of culture (32.03±9.13 U/L and 70.17±25.28 U/L; from days 1 to 9, group I had a significantly lower LDH level than group Ⅱ(t>5.633, P<0.01. Therefore, the bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ showed a better hepatocyte function and less hepatic enzyme leakage compared with the bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. Conclusion

  5. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: mobr@dtu.dk [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  6. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  7. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  8. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  9. Staying alive! Sensors used for monitoring cell health in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, P; Farrell, A; Bones, J; Twomey, K

    2018-01-01

    Current and next generation sensors such as pH, dissolved oxygen (dO) and temperature sensors that will help drive the use of single-use bioreactors in industry are reviewed. The current trend in bioreactor use is shifting from the traditional fixed bioreactors to the use of single-use bioreactors (SUBs). However as the shift in paradigm occurs there is now a greater need for sensor technology to play 'catch up' with the innovation of bioreactor technology. Many of the sensors still in use today rely on technology created in the 1960's such as the Clark-type dissolved oxygen sensor or glass pH electrodes. This is due to the strict requirements of sensors to monitor bioprocesses resulting in the use of traditional well understood methods, making it difficult to incorporate new sensor technology into industry. A number of advances in sensor technology have been achieved in recent years, a few of these advances and future research will also be discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Operation of a fluidized-bed bioreactor for denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, C.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Napier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two denitrification fluidized-bed bioreactors of the same length (i.e., 5 m) but with different inside diameters (i.e., 5 and 10 cm) have been operated on feed ranging in nitrate concentration from 200 to 2000 g/m 3 ; thus far, good agreement has been obtained. Two 10-cm-ID bioreactors operating in series have also been tested; the results are in accordance with predicted results based on the performance of a 5-cm-ID bioreactor. The overall denitrification rate in the dual 10-cm-ID bioreactor system was found to be 23 kg N(NO 3 - )/day-m 3 using feed with a nitrate concentration of 1800 g/m 3 . Data obtained in operating-temperature tests indicate that the maximum denitrification rate is achieved between 22 and 30 0 C. These data will form the basis of the design of our mobile pilot plant which consists of dual 20-cm-ID by 7.3-m-long bioreactors

  11. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    habitat (i.e. number of snags, extent of exposed steep shoreline, etc.) rather than selecting species themselves as function indicators [ WWF 1992...etc.) that are converted to portray hydrologic, water quality, and habitat functions as well as wetland loss on watershed scales [ WWF 1992]. The...Natural Areas - include the Stewardship Program, a partnership program between the private and public sectors for conservation land acquisitions

  12. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  14. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  15. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  16. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  17. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  18. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  19. Plantform Bioreactor for Mass Micropropagation of Date Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusawi, Abdulminam H A; Sayegh, Abdullah J; Alshanaw, Ansam M S; Griffis, John L

    2017-01-01

    A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor successfully addresses other hindrances that can occur during the scale-up of date palm micropropagation, including asynchrony of somatic embryos, limited maturation of somatic embryos, and highly variable germination frequencies of embryos.

  20. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  1. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  2. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  4. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  5. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-05-27

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines.

  6. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO 3 - )/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  7. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  8. Hydraulic Behavior in The Downflow Hanging Sponge Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance efficiency in a Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS bioreactor is associated with the amount of time that a wastewater remains in the bioreactor. The bioreactor is considered as a plug flow reactor and its hydraulic residence time (HRT depends on the void volume of packing material and the flow rate. In this study, hydraulic behavior of DHS bioreactor was investigated by using tracer method. Two types of sponge module covers, cylindrical plastic frame (module-1 and plastic hair roller (module-2, were investigated and compared. A concentrated NaCl solution used as an inert tracer and input as a pulse at the inlet of DHS bioreactor. Analysis of the residence time distribution (RTD curves provided interpretation of the index distribution or holdup water (active volume, the degree of short-circuiting, number of tanks in series (the plug flow characteristic, and the dispersion number. It was found that the actual HRT was primarily shorter than theoretical HRT of each test. Holdup water of the DHS bioreactor ranged from 60% to 97% and 36% to 60% of module-1 and module-2, respectively. Eventhough module-1 has higher effective volume than module-2, result showed that the dispersion numbers of the two modules were not significant difference. Furthermore, N-values were found larger at a higher flow rate. It was concluded that a DHS bioreactor design should incorporated a combination of water distributor system, higher loading rate at startup process to generate a hydraulic behavior closer to an ideal plug flow.ABSTRAKEfisiensi unjuk kerja bioreactor Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS berkaitan dengan lamanya waktu tinggal limbah berada di dalam bioreaktor tersebut. Bioreaktor DHS dianggap sebagai seuatu reaktor aliran sumbat (plug flow dimana waktu tinggal hidraulik (HRT tergantung pada volume pori material isian dan laju alir. Dua jenis modul digunakan dalam penelitian ini, yang diberi nama dengan module-1 dan module-2 untuk melihat pengaruh jenis modul

  9. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  10. Wise use of wetlands: current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  11. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  12. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  13. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  14. 398 ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND VALUATION PROCESSES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  15. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  16. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  17. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  18. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  19. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  20. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  1. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  2. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  3. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleva, I., E-mail: izheleva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Heat Technology, Hydraulics and Ecology, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria); Lecheva, A., E-mail: alecheva@uni-ruse.bg [Department of Mathematics, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  4. Membrane bioreactor biomass characteristics and microbial yield at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a laboratory-scale MBR and SBR were operated in parallel and at very low MCRTs (3 d, 2 d, 1 d and 0.5 d) to assess the relative bioreactor performance, biomass characteristics, and microbial yield. This study confirmed that the MBR maintains higher solids levels and better overall effluent quality than ...

  5. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  6. Modelling and characterization of an airlift-loop bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, P.

    1987-01-01

    An airlift-loop reactor is a bioreactor for aerobic biotechnological processes. The special feature of the ALR is the recirculation of the liquid through a downcomer connecting the top and the bottom of the main bubbling section. Due to the high circulation-flow rate, efficient mixing and

  7. The kinetics of crossflow dynamic membrane bioreactor | Li | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossflow dynamic membrane bioreactor (CDMBR) kinetics was investigated by treating caprolactam wastewater over a period of 180 d. The removal efficiencies of organic substances and nitrogen averaged over 99% and 80%, respectively. The observed sludge yield was only 0.14 g SS·g-1 COD·d-1 at an SRT of 30 d ...

  8. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  9. Anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors for high strength wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersahin, M.E.; Gimenez Garcia, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Tao, Y.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory scale external anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating high strength wastewater was operated to assess the effect of gas sparging velocity and organic loading rate on removal efficiency and dynamic membrane (DM) filtration characteristics. An increase in gas sparging

  10. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  11. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A.; Timmers, P.H.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Weijma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its

  12. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  13. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site

  14. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

  15. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  16. Enhancing inhibited fermentations through a dynamic electro-membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Garde, Arvid; Rype, Jens-Ulrik

    produced in the bioreactor) with hydroxide ions, which maintained a pH close to optimal growing conditions. The ion-exchange was in turn regulated by a PID control unit, which adjusted the electrical current output between the REED electrodes to match the growing production speed of lactic acid, which...

  17. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

    The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix

  19. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  20. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  1. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  2. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  3. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands Correction In proposed rule document... Type of proposed action Type of proposed action (new Wetlands or 100- Non-wetlands area reviewable... construction in wetlands locations. \\2\\ Or those paragraphs of Sec. 55.20 that are applicable to an action...

  4. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  5. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical and...

  6. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  7. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  8. Natural wetland in China | Pan | African Journal of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it is known to all, wetland is one of the most crucial ecosystems in the world, with large varieties in China. How to protect wetland in China has become a more serious problem and five typical wetlands were selected in the article to illustrate the condition. Through the comparison between the past and present of wetland, ...

  9. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  10. BUFFER ZONE METHOD, LAND USE PLANNING AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES ABOUT WETLANDS UNDER URBANIZATION PRESSURE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ergen, Baris

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must ...

  11. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  12. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  13. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  14. Effect of sudden addition of PCE and bioreactor coupling to ZVI filters on performance of fluidized bed bioreactors operated in simultaneous electron acceptor modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Medina, C U; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Breton-Deval, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N

    2017-11-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of (i) feeding a water contaminated with 80 mg/L PCE to bioreactors seeded with inoculum not acclimated to PCE, (ii) coupling ZVI side filters to bioreactors, and (iii) working in different biological regimes, i.e., simultaneous methanogenic aeration and simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying regimes, on fluidized bed bioreactor performance. Simultaneous electron acceptors refer to the simultaneous presence of two compounds operating as final electron acceptors in the biological respiratory chain (e.g., use of either O 2 or NO 3 - in combination with a methanogenic environment) in a bioreactor or environmental niche. Four lab-scale, mesophilic, fluidized bed bioreactors (bioreactors) were implemented. Two bioreactors were operated as simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying (MD) units, whereas the other two were operated in partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) mode. In the first period, all bioreactors received a wastewater with 1 g chemical oxygen demand of methanol per liter (COD-methanol/L). In a second period, all the bioreactors received the wastewater plus 80 mg perchloroethylene (PCE)/L; at the start of period 2, one MD and one PAM were coupled to side sand-zero valent iron filters (ZVI). All bioreactors were inoculated with a microbial consortium not acclimated to PCE. In this work, the performance of the full period 1 and the first 60 days of period 2 is reported and discussed. The COD removal efficiency and the nitrate removal efficiency of the bioreactors essentially did not change between period 1 and period 2, i.e., upon PCE addition. On the contrary, specific methanogenic activity in PAM bioreactors (both with and without coupled ZVI filter) significantly decreased. This was consistent with a sharp fall of methane productivity in those bioreactors in period 2. During period 2, PCE removals in the range 86 to 97 % were generally observed; the highest removal corresponded to PAM bioreactors along with the

  15. Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study calculated the energy and greenhouse gas life cycle and cost profiles of transitional aerobic membrane bioreactors (AeMBR) and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Membrane bioreactors (MBR) represent a promising technology for decentralized wastewater treatment and...

  16. Limnology of Jagatpur wetland, Bhagalpur (Bihar), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajnandan

    2011-10-01

    The water quality in Jagatpur wetland was assessed in terms of physico - chemical characteristics for two years, between August 2003-July 2005. The variations in different physico-chemical parameters have been discussed in this paper in relation to fluctuating climatic condition. The wetland is experiencing racing eutrophication as evidenced by pH was acidic to alkaline, total hardness was considerably high, bicarbonate was in moderate amount, phosphate-phosphorus content was in a range of medium to high and higher values of COD. The present status of the quality of water of Jagatpur wetland is delineated in this paper.

  17. Reduction of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in Prairie wetlands by common wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Fehr, Jessica; Liber, Karsten; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues. Study wetlands were surrounded by clothianidin-treated canola and selected based on the presence (n=10) or absence (n=10) of a zonal plant community. Neonicotinoids were positively detected in 43% of wetland plants, and quantified in 8% of all plant tissues sampled. Three plant species showed high rates of detection: 78% Equisetum arvense (clothianidin, range: wetlands had higher detection frequency and water concentrations of clothianidin (β±S.E.: -0.77±0.26, P=0.003) and thiamethoxam (β±S.E.: -0.69±0.35, P=0.049) than vegetated wetlands. We assessed the importance of wetland characteristics (e.g. vegetative zone width, emergent plant height, water depth) on neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands over time using linear mixed-effects models. Clothianidin concentrations were significantly lower in wetlands surrounded by taller plants (β±S.E.: -0.57±0.12, P≤0.001). The results of this study suggest that macrophytes can play an important role in mitigating water contamination by accumulating neonicotinoids and possibly slowing transport to wetlands during the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of Electrochemical Processes with Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment and Fouling Control: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ensano, Benny M. B.; Borea, Laura; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; de Luna, Mark D. G.; Ballesteros, Florencio C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review about the integration of electrochemical processes into membrane bioreactors (MBR) in order to understand the influence of these processes on wastewater treatment performance and membrane fouling control. The integration can be realized either in an internal or an external configuration. Electrically enhanced membrane bioreactors or electro membrane bioreactors (eMBRs) combine biodegradation, electrochemical and membrane filtration processes into one syst...

  19. Combination of electrochemical processes with membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and fouling control: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Benny Marie B. Ensano; Laura Borea; Vincenzo Naddeo; Vincenzo Belgiorno; Mark Daniel G. de Luna; Mark Daniel G. de Luna; Florencio C. Ballesteros, Jr.; Florencio C. Ballesteros, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review about the integration of electrochemical processes into membrane bioreactors (MBR) in order to understand the influence of these processes on wastewater treatment performance and membrane fouling control. The integration can be realized either in an internal or an external configuration. Electrically enhanced membrane bioreactors or electro membrane bioreactors (eMBRs) combine biodegradation, electrochemical and membrane filtration processes into one syst...

  20. Nonlinear adaptive optimization of biomass productivity in continuous bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvaire, P; Mellichamp, D A; Agrawal, P [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1991-11-01

    A novel on-line adaptive optimization algorithm is developed and applied to continuous biological reactors. The algorithm makes use of a simple nonlinear estimation model that relates either the cell-mass productivity or the cell-mass concentration to the dilution rate. On-line estimation is used to recursively identify the parameters in the nonlinear process model and to periodically calculate and steer the bioreactor to the dilution rate that yields optimum cell-mass productivity. Thus, the algorithm does not require an accurate process model, locates the optimum dilution rate online, and maintains the bioreactors at this optimum condition at all times. The features of the proposed new algorithm are compared with those of other adaptive optimization techniques presented in the literature. A detailed simulation study using three different microbial system models was conducted to illustrate the performance of the optimization algorithms. (orig.).

  1. Optimization of biological sulfide removal in a CSTR bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Aliakbar; Jahanmiri, Abdolhossein; Mowla, Dariush; Niazi, Ali; Sotoodeh, Hamidreza

    2012-08-01

    In this study, biological sulfide removal from natural gas in a continuous bioreactor is investigated for estimation of the optimal operational parameters. According to the carried out reactions, sulfide can be converted to elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, and polysulfide, of which elemental sulfur is the desired product. A mathematical model is developed and was used for investigation of the effect of various parameters on elemental sulfur selectivity. The results of the simulation show that elemental sulfur selectivity is a function of dissolved oxygen, sulfide load, pH, and concentration of bacteria. Optimal parameter values are calculated for maximum elemental sulfur selectivity by using genetic algorithm as an adaptive heuristic search. In the optimal conditions, 87.76% of sulfide loaded to the bioreactor is converted to elemental sulfur.

  2. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial study of the anaerobic bioreactor for distillery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F. A.; Pathan, M. I.

    2006-01-01

    This study relates with anaerobic bioreactors of Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah. Bacterial growth was studied through microscope along with its effect on the production of methane gas (Biogas) at all HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Times) between 15 and 28 days. The bacterium has the efficiency to convert 12% glucose within 24 hours to final product and cell mass. The acetogenic organisms also show their maximum growth on glucose in BGP-1 and BPG-2 at both the corks, where as Methanogenic organisms have shown their zero shown their zero growth on glucose. The efforts have been taken to determine the methanogenic, acetogenic and syntrophomonas sp. data of anaerobic bioreactors of BGP (Biogas Plant) I and II, when these samples were cultured on acetate, methanol, formate, butyrate, propionate and glucose. (author)

  4. Application of a membrane bioreactor for winery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F; Pavan, P; Cecchi, F

    2010-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are variable in nature and are hard to treat by means of the conventional activated sludge process because of the high organic loading associated with their production, especially during vintage. To face this situation, recently, membrane bioreactors have been widely applied to treat winery wastewaters. In this study, a full-scale membrane bioreactor treated some 110 m(3)/d of wastewater and organic loadings up to 1,600 kg COD per day. The average removal efficiency was 95% while the corresponding sludge yield was only 0.1 kg MLVSS per kg COD removed, as usual for these wastewaters. A detailed analysis of energy consumption showed specific energy demands of 2.0-3.6 kWh/m(3) of treated wastewater or 1 kWh per kg of COD removed.

  5. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  6. High-throughput miniaturized bioreactors for cell culture process development: reproducibility, scalability, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, Shahid; Mostafa, Sigma S; Miller, Christopher; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing the timeframe for cell culture process development has been a key goal toward accelerating biopharmaceutical development. Advanced Microscale Bioreactors (ambr™) is an automated micro-bioreactor system with miniature single-use bioreactors with a 10-15 mL working volume controlled by an automated workstation. This system was compared to conventional bioreactor systems in terms of its performance for the production of a monoclonal antibody in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. The miniaturized bioreactor system was found to produce cell culture profiles that matched across scales to 3 L, 15 L, and 200 L stirred tank bioreactors. The processes used in this article involve complex feed formulations, perturbations, and strict process control within the design space, which are in-line with processes used for commercial scale manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Changes to important process parameters in ambr™ resulted in predictable cell growth, viability and titer changes, which were in good agreement to data from the conventional larger scale bioreactors. ambr™ was found to successfully reproduce variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH conditions similar to the larger bioreactor systems. Additionally, the miniature bioreactors were found to react well to perturbations in pH and DO through adjustments to the Proportional and Integral control loop. The data presented here demonstrates the utility of the ambr™ system as a high throughput system for cell culture process development. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Development of a Mechanically Versatile Bioreactor System as a Cellular Microgravity Countermeasure for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this research project is to develop a compact, mechanically versatile bioreactor capable of producing desired local mechanical environments...

  8. Osmotic membrane bioreactor for phenol biodegradation under continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Osmotic membrane bioreactor was used for phenol biodegradation in continuous mode. • Extractant impregnated membranes were used to alleviate substrate inhibition. • Phenol removal was achieved through both biodegradation and membrane rejection. • Phenol concentrations up to 2500 mg/L were treated at HRT varying in 2.8–14 h. • A biofilm removal strategy was formulated to improve bioreactor sustainability. - Abstract: Continuous phenol biodegradation was accomplished in a two-phase partitioning osmotic membrane bioreactor (TPPOMBR) system, using extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) as the partitioning phase. The EIMs alleviated substrate inhibition during prolonged operation at influent phenol concentrations of 600–2000 mg/L, and also at spiked concentrations of 2500 mg/L phenol restricted to 2 days. Filtration of the effluent through forward osmosis maintained high biomass concentration in the bioreactor and improved effluent quality. Steady state was reached in 5–6 days at removal rates varying between 2000 and 5500 mg/L-day under various conditions. Due to biofouling and salt accumulation, the permeate flux varied from 1.2–7.2 LMH during 54 days of operation, while maintaining an average hydraulic retention time of 7.4 h. A washing cycle, comprising 1 h osmotic backwashing using 0.5 M NaCl and 2 h washing with water, facilitated biofilm removal from the membranes. Characterization of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) through FTIR showed peaks between 1700 and 1500 cm{sup −1}, 1450–1450 cm{sup −1} and 1200–1000 cm{sup −1}, indicating the presence of proteins, phenols and polysaccharides, respectively. The carbohydrate to protein ratio in the EPS was estimated to be 0.3. These results indicate that TPPOMBR can be promising in continuous treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  9. Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-08-01

    In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues.

  10. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    of the solids placed in the bioreactor and, generate a biogas • What do you get? • Biogas that can be...contains methane = fuel source • Biogas measured by flow meter • Biogas generated was correlated to mass of volatile solids destroyed • Biogas ...to enhance operation and biogas production Applicability to larger scale Verification of power generation using a microturbine Refinement of

  11. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  12. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  13. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  14. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  15. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  16. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... the Wetland Conservation Provisions of the Food Security Act. Other applications of the list include... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site where...

  17. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  18. A review of some parameters involved in fluidized bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.C. [School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Raper, J.A. [School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Three-phase fluidized bed bioreactors have advantages over conventional chemical reaction systems. There is a lack of agreement over most major operational conditions, and a wide range of design variables are open to question. A large body of recent work in the field has been reviewed, with a degree of historical comparison and discussion. It has been found that aspects of fluidized bed biofilm reactors of vital importance include: choice of solid media, gas and liquid loadings, bacterial type and reactor mechanical design. A large proportion of the work in the field of three-phase fluidization is non-biologically specific, or not tested on a bacterially inoculated system. The majority of three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor work is in the field of water treatment. Although this work has highlighted the potential for use of bio-fluidized beds for this application, there are still specific problems hinderin the large scale industrial acceptance of three-phase fluidized bed bioreactors. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO 3 - /K/sub s/ + NO 3 - ) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m 3 -min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m 3 for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued

  20. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR, the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  1. A Novel bioreactor with mechanical stimulation for skeletal tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical stimulation is believed to be necessary for the functional assembly of skeletal tissues, which are normally exposed to a variety of biomechanical signals in vivo. In this paper, we present a development and validation of a novel bioreactor aimed for skeletal tissue engineering that provides dynamic compression and perfusion of cultivated tissues. Dynamic compression can be applied at frequencies up to 67.5 Hz and displacements down to 5 m thus suitable for the simulation of physiological conditions in a native cartilage tissue (0.1-1 Hz, 5-10 % strain. The bioreactor also includes a load sensor that was calibrated so to measure average loads imposed on tissue samples. Regimes of the mechanical stimulation and acquisition of load sensor outputs are directed by an automatic control system using applications developed within the LabView platform. In addition, perfusion of tissue samples at physiological velocities (10–100 m/s provides efficient mass transfer, as well as the possibilities to expose the cells to hydrodynamic shear and simulate the conditions in a native bone tissue. Thus, the novel bioreactor is suited for studies of the effects of different biomechanical signals on in vitro regeneration of skeletal tissues, as well as for the studies of newly formulated biomaterials and cell biomaterial interactions under in vivo-like settings.

  2. Membrane bioreactors' potential for ethanol and biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Akinbomia, Julius; Taherzadeha, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Companies developing and producing membranes for different separation purposes, as well as the market for these, have markedly increased in numbers over the last decade. Membrane and separation technology might well contribute to making fuel ethanol and biogas production from lignocellulosic materials more economically viable and productive. Combining biological processes with membrane separation techniques in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) increases cell concentrations extensively in the bioreactor. Such a combination furthermore reduces product inhibition during the biological process, increases product concentration and productivity, and simplifies the separation of product and/or cells. Various MBRs have been studied over the years, where the membrane is either submerged inside the liquid to be filtered, or placed in an external loop outside the bioreactor. All configurations have advantages and drawbacks, as reviewed in this paper. The current review presents an account of the membrane separation technologies, and the research performed on MBRs, focusing on ethanol and biogas production. The advantages and potentials of the technology are elucidated.

  3. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  4. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  5. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-12-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  6. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  7. Ultra-micro aqua bioreactor systems for modifying edible oils and fats; Shokuyo yushi kaishitsuyo chobisuikei bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashige, J. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-20

    Practical solvent-free bioreactor systems using immobilized lipases have been constructed to convert palm oil to high quality foodstuff oil without quality deterioration through hydrolysis of triglycerides in oil. To avoid hydrolysis, moisture level of substrate oil has to be maintained at less than the solubility level of water in oil, which we call ultra-micro aqueous level. On the other hand, lipase is well known to manifest its activities mostly at the interface between oil and water phases. To make lipase manifest its activities at the ultra-micro aqueous oil phase, the novel bioreactor systems with the new immobilizing method of lipase together with activator on-to hydrophylic carriers, and without a drying procedure have been developed. These biochemical accomplishments show high promises for efficient convention of edible fats and oils to highly valuable foodstuff, which can not be attained by means of chemical or physical methods. 29 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  10. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  11. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  12. Design-a-wetland: a tool for generating and assessing constructed wetland designs for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaril, Carolina J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The hydrological cycle is a key cycle affected by current and predicted climate change. Wetlands are one of the key ecosystems within the hydrological cycle and could contribute significantly in facing the challenges of climate change, such as water shortage. The impact of wetlands on greenhouse gas emissions is much debated and, conversely, the impact of climate change on wetlands also raises many questions. There have been many attempts to harness and integrate the natural capacities of wetlands into constructed systems. These systems are especially designed for multiple purposes. They can be used for wastewater treatment and reuse, and have the potential to increase sustainability by changing land and water use practices. This project generates a 'Design-A-Wetland' prototype model, designed to facilitate decision-making in the creation of constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands are specifically tailored to their end use; water treatment fish and fowl habitat, flood buffer zones, or sequestration of greenhouse gases. This project attempts to answer the following questions: Can a single integrated decision model be created for the design and assessment of artificial wetlands, provided either entry or exit standards are known and specified?; Can the elements of a system of interfacing the model with public consultation be specified?; The project identifies model schematics and lays the groundwork for modelling suited to the wide variety of inputs required for decision making

  13. Functional roles of wetlands: a case study of the coastal wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Coastal Wetland of the study area is used extensively for a large number of activities. It is also threatened because of their vulnerability and attractiveness for development. These therefore prompted a study of the Wetlands for a period of 18 months (July 1997 – December 1998) to identify the functional roles that ...

  14. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  15. Inclusion of Riparian Wetland Module (RWM) into the SWAT model for assessment of wetland hydrological benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are an integral part of many agricultural watersheds. They provide multiple ecosystem functions, such as improving water quality, mitigating flooding, and serving as natural habitats. Those functions are highly depended on wetland hydrological characteristics and their connectivity to the d...

  16. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie

    2011-02-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  17. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    and decision support, [iii] receive a freely available, open, flexible and modifiable framework for easy establishment of new wetland observatories, for easy integration in existing observatory infrastructures and for easy adaptation to new requirements, e.g. changes in management processes.......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is to provide the major...

  18. Wetlands of the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This set of images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The images were acquired on October 15, 2001 (Terra orbit 9718)and represent an area of 345 kilometers x 315 kilometers.The two smaller images on the right are (top) a natural color view comprised of red, green, and blue band data from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera, and (bottom) a false-color view comprised of near-infrared, red, and blue band data from the same camera. The predominantly red color of the false-color image is due to the presence of vegetation, which is bright at near-infrared wavelengths. Cities appear as grey patches, with New Orleans visible at the southern edge of Lake Pontchartrain, along the left-hand side of the images. The Lake Pontchartrain Bridge runs approximately north-south across the middle of the lake. The distinctive shape of the Mississippi River Delta can be seen to the southeast of New Orleans. Other coastal cities are visible east of the Mississippi, including Biloxi, Mobile and Pensacola.The large image is similar to the true-color nadir view, except that red band data from the 60-degree backward-looking camera has been substituted into the red channel; the blue and green data from the nadir camera have been preserved. In this visualization, green hues appear somewhat subdued, and a number of areas with a reddish color are present, particularly near the mouths of the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile-Tensaw, and Escambia Rivers. Here, the red color is highlighting differences in surface texture. This combination of angular and spectral information differentiates areas with aquatic vegetation associated with poorly drained bottom lands, marshes, and/or estuaries from the surrounding surface vegetation. These wetland regions are not as well differentiated in the conventional nadir views.Variations in ocean color are apparent in

  19. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  20. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  1. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  2. Hydrogel/poly-dimethylsiloxane hybrid bioreactor facilitating 3D cell culturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Luttge, R.

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a hydrogel/poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid bioreactor. The bioreactor enables a low shear stress 3D culture by integrating a hydrogel as a barrier into a PDMS casing. The use of PDMS allows the reversible adhesion of the device to a commercially available microelectrode

  3. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  4. Define of internal recirculation coefficient for biological wastewater treatment in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinskyi, Volodymyr

    2018-02-01

    The biological wastewater treatment technologies in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors with recycle of sludge mixture are used for the effective removal of organic compounds from wastewater. The change rate of sludge mixture recirculation between bioreactors leads to a change and redistribution of concentrations of organic compounds in sludge mixture in bioreactors and change hydrodynamic regimes in bioreactors. Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture between bioreactors is important for the choice of technological parameters of biological treatment (wastewater treatment duration in anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, flow capacity of recirculation pumps). Determination of the coefficient of internal recirculation of sludge mixture requires integrated consideration of hydrodynamic parameter (flow rate), kinetic parameter (rate of oxidation of organic compounds) and physical-chemical parameter of wastewater (concentration of organic compounds). The conducted numerical experiment from the proposed mathematical equations allowed to obtain analytical dependences of the coefficient of internal recirculation sludge mixture between bioreactors on the concentration of organic compounds in wastewater, the duration of wastewater treatment in bioreactors.

  5. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Diaz, K. E.; Limas-Ballesteros, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  6. Life on the energetic edge: Iron oxidation by circumneutral lithotrophic bacteria in the wetland plant rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Emerson, D.; Megonigal, J. P.; Weiss, J. V.

    2002-05-01

    We have discovered a phylogenetically and genotypically coherent group of obligately lithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria that grow at neutral pH and are globally distributed in a range of habitats, from the rhizosphere of freshwater wetlands to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We have initiated bioreactor studies using pure cultures of these organisms to determine the significance of microbial Fe(II) oxidation at circumneutral pH and identify the biotic and abiotic variables that affect the partitioning between microbial and chemical oxidation. These studies have focused on strain BrT, which was isolated from an iron oxide precipitate in rhizosphere of a wetland plant. In one set of experiments, Fe(II) oxidation rates were measured before and after cultures of strain BrT were poisoned with sodium azide. These experiments indicated that 18 to 53 % of total iron oxidation was due to microbial metabolism. In a second set of experiments, Fe(II) was constantly added to bioreactors inoculated with live cells, killed cells, or no cells. A statistical model fit to the experimental data demonstrated that metabolic Fe(II) oxidation accounted for up to 62 % of total oxidation. Total Fe(II) oxidation rates in these experiments were strongly limited by the rate of Fe(II) delivery to the system, and were also influenced by O2 and total iron concentrations. Additionally, the model suggested that the microbes inhibited rates of abiotic Fe(II) oxidation, perhaps by binding Fe(II) to bacterial exopolymers. The net effect of strain BrT was to accelerate total oxidation rates by up to 18 % versus cell-free treatments. Using two independent techniques, we demonstrated that strain BrT actively metabolizes Fe(II) and can account for up to 50 to 60 % of total Fe(II) oxidation in laboratory cultures. These results suggest that neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria may compete for limited O2 in the rhizosphere and influence the biogeochemistry of other elements including carbon, phosphorus, and

  7. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  8. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  9. a comparison of wetland valuation purposes in lagos metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    streams to maintain flow throughout the dry season, and ... consequently the wetland filtration process and the quality of the water in ... restoration versus degradation of wetlands. ... value to individual species based on economic functions and ...

  10. The study of Phosphorus distribution at Putrajaya Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin Zahari, Nazirul; Malek, Nur Farzana Fasiha Abdul; Fai, Chow Ming; Humaira Haron, Siti; Hafiz Zawawi, Mohd; Nazmi Ismail, Iszmir; Mohamad, Daud; Syamsir, Agusril; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Zakwan Ramli, Mohd; Ismail, Norfariza; Zubir Sapian, Ahmad; Noordin, Normaliza; Rahaman, Nurliyana Abdul; Muhamad, Yahzam; Mat Saman, Jarina

    2018-04-01

    This study is concerning phosphorus distribution in Putrajaya Wetland. Phosphorus is one of the important component in nutrients for living things be it aquatic or non – aquatic organisms. Total phosphorus (TP) results will give some information on the trophic status of surface water in water bodies. The focus of this study is to determine the total phosphorus concentration in Putrajaya Wetland which is in the inlet of the wetland then outlet of the wetland (Central Wetland Lake). The water sample is taken from Putrajaya Wetland and the test was conducted in the laboratory. The result from this study shows the results for total phosphorus according to month, sampling station and cells. Lowest total phosphate at the Central Wetland compare with all the wetland arms cells.

  11. New species of Eunotia from small isolated wetlands in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatom species composition of small wetlands is diverse and unique due to a plethora of spatial and temporal variables. Diatoms from small wetlands can contribute greatly to better understanding microbial biodiversity, distribution, dispersal and populations.

  12. Wetland Polygons, California, 2016, California Aquatic Resources Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains polgon features depicting wetlands that are standardized to a common wetland classification system (CARI) and provide additional source...

  13. Geothermal wetlands: an annotated bibliography of pertinent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, N.E.; Thurow, T.L.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-05-01

    This annotated bibliography covers the following topics: algae, wetland ecosystems; institutional aspects; macrophytes - general, production rates, and mineral absorption; trace metal absorption; wetland soils; water quality; and other aspects of marsh ecosystems. (MHR)

  14. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  15. Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Data collection methods. Qualitative ..... Sondu-Miriu wetland some traditional fishing methods, for example, the ... ted processing, cooking and trading activities in the three wetlands. .... water access was making the water dirty after collection.

  16. Membrane bioreactors for enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose; Idrolisi enzimatica del lattosio con bioreattori a membrana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M; Pilloton, R [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia e Innovazione; Pontecorvo, M; Mignogna, G; Fortunato, A; Beone, F

    1993-03-01

    Bioreactor systems obtained by cell or enzyme immobilization offer many advantages compared with native enzyme, intact cell systems or other biocatalysts. Thus, many attempts have been made to design and use new types of bioreactor systems in order to improve performance, enhance productivity and reduce environmental impacts. Membrane bioreactors, obtained by physical immobilization of biocatalysts, in polymeric membrane support, offer such practical advantages as: a continuous separation and transformation process with low product inhibition and suitable hydraulic configuration (backflushing recycling, ultrafiltrating). Specific membrane modules (Amicon VitaFiber), for bioreactor applications are being commercialized. Beta-galctosidase enzyme has successfully been immobilized in a hollow fiber and in ceramic modules to hydrolyze lactose in waste whey. This technical report presents the general properties and performances (permeability, washing procedures, hydraulic configurations, physical and chemical properties) of both, polymeric and ceramic supports, enzyme kinetics, physical and covalent immobilization, mathematical model of the bioreactor and on-line process monitoring.

  17. Construction and evaluation of urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To design and construct a urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes and to compare the viability and proliferative activity of cell-seeded extracellular matrix scaffolds cultured in the bioreactor with conventional static growth conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A urinary bladder bioreactor was designed and constructed to replicate physiologic bladder dynamics. The bioreactor mimicked the filling pressures of the human bladder by way of a cyclical low-delivery pressure regulator. In addition, cell growth was evaluated by culturing human urothelial cells (UCs) on porcine extracellular matrix scaffolds in the bioreactor and in static growth conditions for 5 consecutive days. The attachment, viability, and proliferative potential were assessed and compared with quantitative viability indicators and by fluorescent markers for intracellular esterase activity and plasma membrane integrity. Scaffold integrity was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and 4\\

  18. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of momentum transport in rotating wall perfused bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N; Tığli, R Seda; Beşkardeş, Işil Gerçek; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Colak, Uner

    2010-11-01

    In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a rotating-wall perfused-vessel (RWPV) bioreactor is performed to characterize the complex hydrodynamic environment for the simulation of cartilage development in RWPV bioreactor in the presence of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs, i.e., cell-chitosan scaffolds. Shear stress exerted on chitosan scaffolds in bioreactor was calculated for different rotational velocities in the range of 33-38 rpm. According to the calculations, the lateral and lower surfaces were exposed to 0.07926-0.11069 dyne/cm(2) and 0.05974-0.08345 dyne/cm(2), respectively, while upper surfaces of constructs were exposed to 0.09196-0.12847 dyne/cm(2). Results validate adequate hydrodynamic environment for scaffolds in RWPV bioreactor for cartilage tissue development which concludes the suitability of operational conditions of RWPV bioreactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables

  20. Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 μg P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

  1. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  2. Broken connections of wetland cultural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    As global agriculture intensifies, cultural knowledge of wetland utilization has eroded as natural resources become more stressed, and marginal farmers move away from the land. The excellent paper by Fawzi et al. (2016) documents a particularly poignant case of traditional knowledge loss among the Marsh Arab women of Iraq. Through interviews, the authors document the breakdown of skill transfer from the older to younger generation of women. The authors link the loss of their cultural knowledge with the loss of wetlands in the region. Women no longer can help provide for their families using wetland products, and along with that, their ancient knowledge of plant usage is lost. These ancient skills included medicinal uses, and reed harvesting for weaving and water buffalo fodder. As, the majority of the Mesopotamian Marshes have dried, this way of life is being forgotten (Fawzi et al. 2015). The global tragedy is that while the careful alliance of wetlands and people have sustained human cultures for millennia, degraded wetlands lose their ability to provide these services (Maltby 1980).

  3. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J; Alm, J; Saarnio, S [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  4. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community

  5. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  6. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  7. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  8. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Chris

    2002-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management of wetlands...

  9. The road to higher permanence and biodiversity in exurban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Roehm, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Exurban areas are expanding throughout the world, yet their effects on local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Wetlands, in particular, face ongoing and substantial threats from exurban development. We predicted that exurbanization would reduce the diversity of wetland amphibian and invertebrate communities and that more spatially aggregated residential development would leave more undisturbed natural land, thereby promoting greater local diversity. Using structural equation models, we tested a series of predictions about the direct and indirect pathways by which exurbanization extent, spatial pattern, and wetland characteristics might affect diversity patterns in 38 wetlands recorded during a growing season. We used redundancy, indicator species, and nested community analyses to evaluate how exurbanization affected species composition. In contrast to expectations, we found higher diversity in exurban wetlands. We also found that housing aggregation did not significantly affect diversity. Exurbanization affected biodiversity indirectly by increasing roads and development, which promoted permanent wetlands with less canopy cover and more aquatic vegetation. These pond characteristics supported greater diversity. However, exurbanization was associated with fewer temporary wetlands and fewer of the species that depend on these habitats. Moreover, the best indicator species for an exurban wetland was the ram's head snail, a common disease vector in disturbed ponds. Overall, results suggest that exurbanization is homogenizing wetlands into more permanent water bodies. These more permanent, exurban ponds support higher overall animal diversity, but exclude temporary wetland specialists. Conserving the full assemblage of wetland species in expanding exurban regions throughout the world will require protecting and creating temporary wetlands.

  10. Mitigating Losses of Wetland Ecosystems: A Context for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of our wetlands has been an issue for many years. Today, despite current laws and those adopted 200 years ago, the wetlands remain insufficiently protected and developed. A holistic guide and suggestions for the classroom are provided to aid in efforts directed at wetland education, research and management. (ZWH)

  11. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  12. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  13. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  14. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  15. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  16. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  17. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  18. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will determine the food security status of households adjacent to wetlands and the part that wetlands resources contribute to it. They will analyze the tradeoffs in using wetlands for crop production. And, they will test, adapt and promote agricultural technologies that enhance productivity while minimizing ...

  19. 32 CFR 644.319 - Protection of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Protection of wetlands. 644.319 Section 644.319... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.319 Protection of wetlands. The requirements of Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, 42 FR 26961, (24 May 1977) are applicable to the disposal of Federal lands and...

  20. 7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmable Wetlands Program. 1410.11 Section 1410.11... Wetlands Program. (a) In addition to other allowable enrollments, land may be enrolled in this program through the Farmable Wetlands Program (FWP) within the overall Conservation Reserve Program provided for...

  1. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  2. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  3. Book review: Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    The southern region has the largest proportion of wetlands in the conterminous US. The majority of that wetland resource is forested by diverse vegetation communities reflecting differences in soil, hydrology, geomorphology, climatic conditions and past management. Wetland resources in the southern US are very important to the economy providing both commodity and non-...

  4. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of trace metals in sediment can cause severe ecological impacts. In this study, determination of elemental concentrations in water and sediment was done. Shadegan wetland is one of the most important wetlands in southwest of Iran and is among the Ramsar-listed wetlands. Wastewaters from industries ...

  5. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  6. Scale-up of bioreactors: The concept of bioreactor number and its relation to the physiology of industrial microorganisms at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ford, D

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a novel approach to the problem of scale-up of fermentations. The work subscribes the idea that two regions appear in bioreactors as the volume increases. The first is where high oxygen transfer occurs and the second is where low oxygen transfer occurs. It is assumed that organisms grown in a stirred tank fermenter travel in a cyclical manner through these two regions. A dimensionless factor is developed, the bioreactor number. Using this number the performance of any stirred tank fermenter can be described as a function of its geometry, operating conditions and physical properties of media. A mathematical model for the prediction of the physiological response of aerobic micro-organisms (specific growth rate, final cell concentration and product synthesis) as a function of the bioreactor number is also developed. It was adjusted by using the results of fermentations performed in a specially designed experimental rig allowing the simulation of fermenters with various bioreactor numbers. If the bioreactor and physiological models are linked it is possible to predict how micro-organisms respond when geometry, operating conditions or media properties are changed in a bioreactor. This approach is a tool for decision making in the design and operation of fermenters.

  7. Biomethanation of salty cheese whey using multichamber anaerobic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Chirag; Madamwar, Datta [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

    1998-07-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey after diluting with total dairy waste water, a multichamber anaerobic bioreactor has been developed using different combination of bedding materials in different chambers. Best performance has been obtained at 37''oC under the combination of polystyrene chips, pumice stones and PVC beads as supporting materials, and operating at 2 day hydraulic retention time. Maximum gas production of 3.2 litre/litre of digester/day with methane content of 68% and 83% reduction in COD have been noticed. (Author)

  8. Bioreactor activated graft material for early implant fixation in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek Henriksen, Susan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    from the iliac crest. For both groups, mononuclear cells were isolated, and injected into a perfusion bioreactor (Millenium Biologix AG, Switzerland). Scaffold granules (Ø~900-1500 µm, ~88% porosity) in group 1, consisted of hydroxyapatite (HA, 70%) with β-tricalcium-phosphate (β-TCP, 30%) (Danish....... The superficial part was used for mechanical testing and micro-CT scanning, and the profound part for histomorphometry. Push-out tests were performed on an 858 Bionix MTS hydraulic materials testing machine (MTS Systems Corporation, USA). Shear mechanical properties between implant and newly generated bone were...

  9. Sensor equipment for quantification of spatial heterogeneity in large bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Stocks, Stuart M.

    of sensors and in order to apply more sensor equipment the bioreactor has to be modified which is both costly and results in production downtime. The presence of three phases (gas, liquid, and solid), and the opaque nature of the fermentation broth together with the necessity of heat sterilization further...... increases the requirements to the sensor equipment. In order to address these issues this study aims to make an investigation into freely floating, battery driven sensor particles that can follow the liquid movement in the reactor and make measurements while being distributed in the whole volume...

  10. Effect of Mixing on Microorganism Growth in Loop Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al Taweel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mixing on the promotion of microorganism growth rate has been analyzed using a multiphase forced-circulation pipe-loop reactor model capable of identifying conditions under which it is possible to convert natural gas into Single-Cell Protein. The impact of mixing in the interphase mass transfer was found to exert a critical role in determining the overall productivity of the bioreactor, particularly at the high cell loadings needed to reduce the capital costs associated with the large-scale production needed for the production of relatively low-value SCP in a sustainable manner.

  11. Enrichment of carbon monoxide utilising microorganisms from methanogenic bioreactor sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Luísa; Stams, Alfons Johannes Maria; Alves, M. M.; Sousa, D. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of CO is the rate limiting step during anaerobic conversion of syngas (a gaseous mixture mainly composed of CO, CO2 and H2). In this work we study the microbial diversity in anaerobic sludge submitted to extended contact to syngas in a multi-orifice baffled bioreactor (MOBB). Methane was the main product resulting from syngas conversion in the MOBB. Enrichment cultures started with this sludge produced methane as final product, but also acetate. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a pr...

  12. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  13. Multiple factors influence the vegetation composition of Southeast U.S. wetlands restored in the Wetlands Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of wetlands on agricultural lands contributes to the loss of local or regional vegetation diversity. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) funds the restoration of degraded wetlands on private ‘working lands’, but these WRP projects have not been studied in the Southeast United States. Wetland hydrogeomorphic type influences...

  14. Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Jia, Jia; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    As the important landscape with rich biodiversity and high productivity, wetlands can provide numerous ecological services including playing an important role in regulating global biogeochemical cycles, filteringpollutants from terrestrial runoff and atmospheric deposition, protecting and improving water quality, providing living habitats for plants and animals, controlling floodwaters, and retaining surface water flow during dry periods (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008; Qin and Mitsch, 2009; Zhao et al., 2016). However, more than 50% of the world's wetlands had been altered, degraded or lost through a wide range of human activities in the past 150 years, and only a small percentage of the original wetlands remained around the world after over two centuries of intensive development and urbanization (O'connell, 2003; Zhao et al., 2016).

  15. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  16. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  17. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  18. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spat......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...

  19. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  20. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  1. A Good Neighborhood for Cells: Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leland W. K.; Goodwin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good neighborhoods help you grow. As with a city, the lives of a cell are governed by its neighborhood connections Connections that do not work are implicated in a range of diseases. One of those connections - between prostate cancer and bone cells - will be studied on STS-107 using the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05). To improve the prospects for finding novel therapies, and to identify biomarkers that predict disease progression, scientists need tissue models that behave the same as metastatic or spreading cancer. This is one of several NASA-sponsored lines of cell science research that use the microgravity environment of orbit in an attempt to grow lifelike tissue models for health research. As cells replicate, they "self associate" to form a complex matrix of collagens, proteins, fibers, and other structures. This highly evolved microenvironment tells each cell who is next door, how it should grow arid into what shapes, and how to respond to bacteria, wounds, and other stimuli. Studying these mechanisms outside the body is difficult because cells do not easily self-associate outside a natural environment. Most cell cultures produce thin, flat specimens that offer limited insight into how cells work together. Ironically, growing cell cultures in the microgravity of space produces cell assemblies that more closely resemble what is found in bodies on Earth. NASA's Bioreactor comprises a miniature life support system and a rotating vessel containing cell specimens in a nutrient medium. Orbital BDS experiments that cultured colon and prostate cancers have been highly promising.

  2. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  3. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Decker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely CHO cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production.The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety and efficacy of the products.The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin. Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken.Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors.

  4. Farm Deployable Microbial Bioreactor for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict [Auburn Univ., Montgomery AL (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Research was conducted to develop a farm and field deployable microbial bioreactor for bioethanol production from biomass. Experiments were conducted to select the most efficient microorganisms for conversion of plant fiber to sugars for fermentation to ethanol. Mixtures of biomass and surface soil samples were collected from selected sites in Alabama black belt counties (Macon, Sumter, Choctaw, Dallas, Montgomery, Lowndes) and other areas within the state of Alabama. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of culture parameters on key biomass saccharifying enzymes (cellulase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and beta-xylosidase). A wide-scale sampling of locally-grown fruits in Central Alabama was embarked to isolate potential xylose fermenting microorganisms. Yeast isolates were evaluated for xylose fermentation. Selected microorganisms were characterized by DNA based methods. Factors affecting enzyme production and biomass saccharification were examined and optimized in the laboratory. Methods of biomass pretreatment were compared. Co-production of amylolytic enzymes with celluloytic-xylanolytic enzymes was evaluated; and co-saccharification of a combination of biomass, and starch-rich materials was examined. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with and without pre-saccharifcation was studied. Whole culture broth and filtered culture broth simultaneous saccahrifcation and fermentation were compared. A bioreactor system was designed and constructed to employ laboratory results for scale up of biomass saccharification.

  5. A fault diagnosis prototype for a bioreactor for bioinsecticide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifa, Enrique E.; Scenna, Nicolas J.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an algorithm for fault diagnosis in a process of animal cell cultivation, for bioinsecticide production. Generally, these processes are batch processes. It is a fact that the diagnosis for a batch process involves a division of the process evolution (time horizon) into partial processes, which are defined as pseudocontinuous blocks. Therefore, a PCB represents the evolution of the system in a time interval where it has a qualitative behavior similar to a continuous one. Thus, each PCB, in which the process is divided, can be handled in a conventional way (like continuous processes). The process model, for each PCB, is a Signed Directed Graph (SDG). To achieve generality and to allow the computational implementation, the modular approach was used in the synthesis of the bioreactor digraph. After that, the SDGs were used to carry out qualitative simulations of faults. The achieved results are the fault patterns. A special fault symptom dictionary - SM - has been adopted as data base organization for fault patterns storage. An effective algorithm is presented for the searching process of fault patterns. The system studied, as a particular application, is a bioreactor for cell cultivation for bioinsecticide production. During this work, we concentrate on the SDG construction, and 3btaining real fault patterns by the elimination of spurious patterns. The algorithm has proved to be effective in both senses, resolution and accuracy, to diagnose different kinds of simulated faults

  6. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  7. Connecting the Dots: Hydrologic Connectivity Between Wetlands and Other Wetlands and Waterbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands perform numerous ecosystem functions that in turn provide abundant ecosystem services beneficial to humankind. These may include, but are not limited to, flood water storage and release, nutrient transformations, carbon sequestration, and the provision of habitat or ref...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetlands classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system for...

  9. Scale up of diesel oil biodegradation in a baffled roller bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikakhtari, Hossein; Song, Wanning; Kumar, Pardeep; Nemati, Mehdi; Hill, Gordon A

    2010-05-01

    Diesel oil is a suitable substance to represent petroleum contamination from accidental spills in operating and transportation facilities. Using a microbial culture enriched from a petroleum contaminated soil, biodegradation of diesel oil was carried out in 2.2, 55, and 220 L roller baffled bioreactors. The effects of bioreactor rotation speed (from 5 to 45 rpm) and liquid loading (from 18% to 73% of total volume) on the biodegradation of diesel oil were studied. In the small scale bioreactor (2.2L), the maximum rotation speed of 45 rpm resulted in the highest biodegradation rate with a first order biodegradation kinetic constant of 0.095 d(-1). In the larger scale bioreactors, rotation speed did not affect the biodegradation rate. Liquid loadings higher than 64% resulted in reduced biodegradation rates in the small scale bioreactor; however, in the larger roller bioreactors liquid loading did not affect the biodegradation rate. Biodegradation of diesel oil at 5 rpm and 73% loading is recommended for operating large scale roller baffled bioreactors. Under these conditions, high diesel oil concentrations up to 50 gL(-1) can be bioremediated at a rate of 1.61 gL(-1)d(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioreactor design for successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells operated in an automated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino-Oka, Masahiro; Ogawa, Natsuki; Umegaki, Ryota; Taya, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    A novel bioreactor system was designed to perform a series of batchwise cultures of anchorage-dependent cells by means of automated operations of medium change and passage for cell transfer. The experimental data on contamination frequency ensured the biological cleanliness in the bioreactor system, which facilitated the operations in a closed environment, as compared with that in flask culture system with manual handlings. In addition, the tools for growth prediction (based on growth kinetics) and real-time growth monitoring by measurement of medium components (based on small-volume analyzing machinery) were installed into the bioreactor system to schedule the operations of medium change and passage and to confirm that culture proceeds as scheduled, respectively. The successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells was conducted with the bioreactor running in an automated way. The automated bioreactor gave a successful culture performance with fair accordance to preset scheduling based on the information in the latest subculture, realizing 79- fold cell expansion for 169 h. In addition, the correlation factor between experimental data and scheduled values through the bioreactor performance was 0.998. It was concluded that the proposed bioreactor with the integration of the prediction and monitoring tools could offer a feasible system for the manufacturing process of cultured tissue products.

  11. Thinking beyond the Bioreactor Box: Incorporating Stream Ecology into Edge-of-Field Nitrate Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, Brandon C; Febria, Catherine M; Harding, Jon S; McIntosh, Angus R

    2016-05-01

    Around the world, artificially drained agricultural lands are significant sources of reactive nitrogen to stream ecosystems, creating substantial stream health problems. One management strategy is the deployment of denitrification enhancement tools. Here, we evaluate the factors affecting the potential of denitrifying bioreactors to improve stream health and ecosystem services. The performance of bioreactors and the structure and functioning of stream biotic communities are linked by environmental parameters like dissolved oxygen and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations, dissolved organic carbon availability, flow and temperature regimes, and fine sediment accumulations. However, evidence of bioreactors' ability to improve waterway health and ecosystem services is lacking. To improve the potential of bioreactors to enhance desirable stream ecosystem functioning, future assessments of field-scale bioreactors should evaluate the influences of bioreactor performance on ecological indicators such as primary production, organic matter processing, stream metabolism, and invertebrate and fish assemblage structure and function. These stream health impact assessments should be conducted at ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales. Bioreactors have great potential to make significant contributions to improving water quality, stream health, and ecosystem services if they are tailored to site-specific conditions and implemented strategically with land-based and stream-based mitigation tools within watersheds. This will involve combining economic, logistical, and ecological information in their implementation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Object-Based Image Analysis in Wetland Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The applications of object-based image analysis (OBIA in remote sensing studies of wetlands have been growing over recent decades, addressing tasks from detection and delineation of wetland bodies to comprehensive analyses of within-wetland cover types and their change. Compared to pixel-based approaches, OBIA offers several important benefits to wetland analyses related to smoothing of the local noise, incorporating meaningful non-spectral features for class separation and accounting for landscape hierarchy of wetland ecosystem organization and structure. However, there has been little discussion on whether unique challenges of wetland environments can be uniformly addressed by OBIA across different types of data, spatial scales and research objectives, and to what extent technical and conceptual aspects of this framework may themselves present challenges in a complex wetland setting. This review presents a synthesis of 73 studies that applied OBIA to different types of remote sensing data, spatial scale and research objectives. It summarizes the progress and scope of OBIA uses in wetlands, key benefits of this approach, factors related to accuracy and uncertainty in its applications and the main research needs and directions to expand the OBIA capacity in the future wetland studies. Growing demands for higher-accuracy wetland characterization at both regional and local scales together with advances in very high resolution remote sensing and novel tasks in wetland restoration monitoring will likely continue active exploration of the OBIA potential in these diverse and complex environments.

  13. Evaluation of a market in wetland credits: entrepreneurial wetland banking in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Morgan; Hayden, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    With the rise of market-led approaches to environmental policy, compensation for permitted discharge of dredge or fill material into wetlands under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act has been purchased increasingly from entrepreneurial third-party providers. The growth of this practice (i.e., entrepreneurial wetland banking) has resolved many challenges associated with wetland compensation. But it has also produced (1) quantifiable temporal loss of wetland ecological functions, (2) spatial redistribution of wetland area, and (3) a degree of regulatory instability that may pose a threat to entrepreneurial compensation as a sustainable component of wetland-compensation policy. We used achieved compensation ratios, lapse between bank credit sale and the attainment of performance standards, distance between impact and bank site, and changes in bank market area to examine these 3 factors. We analyzed data from a census of all such transactions in the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled from site visits, Corps databases, and contacts with consultants and Section 404 permittees. Entrepreneurial banking provided compensation at a lower overall ratio than nonbank forms of compensation. Approximately 60% of bank credits were sold after site-protection standards were met but before ecological performance standards were met at the bank site. The average distance between bank and impact site was approximately 26 km. The area of markets within which established banks can sell wetland credits has fluctuated considerably over the study period. Comparing these data with similar data for other compensation mechanisms will assist in evaluating banking as an element of conservation policy. Data characterizing the performance of entrepreneurial wetland banks in actual regulatory environments are scarce, even though it is the most established of similar markets that have become instrumental to federal policy in administering several major environmental

  14. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  15. Exploring drivers of wetland hydrologic fluxes across parameters and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Cheng, F. Y.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Basu, N. B.; Lang, M.; Alexander, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Depressional wetlands provide diverse ecosystem services, ranging from critical habitat to the regulation of landscape hydrology. The latter is of particular interest, because while hydrologic connectivity between depressional wetlands and downstream waters has been a focus of both scientific research and policy, it remains difficult to quantify the mode, magnitude, and timing of this connectivity at varying spatial and temporary scales. To do so requires robust empirical and modeling tools that accurately represent surface and subsurface flowpaths between depressional wetlands and other landscape elements. Here, we utilize a parsimonious wetland hydrology model to explore drivers of wetland water fluxes in different archetypal wetland-rich landscapes. We validated the model using instrumented sites from regions that span North America: Prairie Pothole Region (south-central Canada), Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain), and Big Cypress Swamp (southern Florida). Then, using several national scale datasets (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory, USFWS; National Hydrography Dataset, USGS; Soil Survey Geographic Database, NRCS), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to elucidate dominant drivers of simulated fluxes. Finally, we simulated and compared wetland hydrology in five contrasting landscapes dominated by depressional wetlands: prairie potholes, Carolina and Delmarva bays, pocosins, western vernal pools, and Texas coastal prairie wetlands. Results highlight specific drivers that vary across these regions. Largely, hydroclimatic variables (e.g., PET/P ratios) controlled the timing and magnitude of wetland connectivity, whereas both wetland morphology (e.g., storage capacity and watershed size) and soil characteristics (e.g., ksat and confining layer depth) controlled the duration and mode (surface vs. subsurface) of wetland connectivity. Improved understanding of the drivers of wetland hydrologic connectivity supports enhanced, region

  16. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  17. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  18. Ecohydrological characterization of the Nyando wetland, Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ihe

    hydrological factors that have influenced wetland evolution. Multi-temporal .... ongoing experimental and modeling investigations by the authors of this paper. Soils .... season (dry) imagery due to the lack of suitable (cloud free) wet season scenes. ..... basins where the interactions between land use, climatic characteristics ...

  19. 2011 Summary: Coastal wetland restoration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Czayka, Alex; Dominguez, Andrea; Doty, Susan; Eggleston, Mike; Green, Sean; Sweetman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) projects currently taking place in Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a unique opportunity to study ecosystem response to management actions as practitioners strive to improve wetland function and increase ecosystem services. Through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ducks Unlimited, a GLRI-funded project has reestablished the hydrologic connection between an intensively managed impounded wetland (Pool 2B) and Crane Creek, a small Lake Erie tributary, by building a water-control structure that was opened in the spring of 2011. The study site is located within the USFWS Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and lies within the boundaries of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-designated Maumee River Area of Concern. The broad objective of the project is to evaluate how hydrologically reconnecting a previously diked wetland impacts fish, mollusks, and other biota and affects nutrient transport, nutrient cycling, water quality, flood storage, and many other abiotic conditions. The results from this project suggest large system-wide benefits from sustainable reestablishment of lake-driven hydrology in this and other similar systems. We comprehensively sampled water chemistry, fish, birds, plants, and invertebrates in Crane Creek coastal wetlands, Pool 2A (a reference diked wetland), and Pool 2B (the reconnected wetland) in 2010 and 2011 to: 1) Characterize spatial and seasonal patterns for these parameters. 2) Examine ecosystem response to the opening of a water-control structure that allows fish passage Our sampling efforts have yielded data that reveal striking changes in water quality, hydrology, and fish assemblages in our experimental unit (2B). Prior to the reconnection, the water chemistry in pools 2A and 2B were very similar. Afterwards, we found that the water chemistry in reconnected Pool 2B was more

  20. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, J.; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, A.; Brom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1299-1305 ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wetlands * vegetation * energy fluxes * primary production * landscape management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5t4750647q84553/

  1. Wetlands Conservation and Use. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview stresses the significance of wetland habitats in all 50 states. The needs of wildlife and humans are also considered in respect to…

  2. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  3. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  4. River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... regional- or provincial-scale conservation planning. The hierarchical structure of the classifications provides scope for finer resolution, by the addition of further levels, for application at a sub-regional or municipal scale.

  5. Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnová, Monika; van Diggelen, R.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2010), s. 33-39 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth organ * the Netherlands * wetland plant community Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.087, year: 2010

  6. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  7. A description of the wetlands research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available ) What is the relationship between soil moisture and vegetation type? 2) What is the relationship between soil type and vegetation type? 3 ) What are the environmental requirements of wetland dependent animals? 4) What are the roles of microbiota...

  8. A CFD model for determining mixing and mass transfer in a high power agitated bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Albæk, Mads O.; Stocks, Stuart M.

    performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulence inside the vessel was found to be most efficiently described by using the k-ε model with regards...... simulations, and the overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be in accordance with experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the hydrodynamic performance of an agitated bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied in the testing of new bioreactor...

  9. Commissioning of Research Bioreactor made in Korea with Malaysian Environment Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jamil Hashim; Mohd Azmi Sidid Omar

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor is equipment used by researcher in Agrotechnology and Biosciences department (BAB) as a scientific approach to get a scale up of product. Headed by one of the senior researcher in the department, an effort has been made to upscale the project by using MTDC fund. The technology platform has been acquired from South Korea. Some modification has to be made to cater for the need of a research bioreactor to be established for Nuclear Malaysia Agency. This research bioreactor is to emulate a tissue culture product in a bigger scale bio processing, pharmaceutical biotechnology and industrial production. (author)

  10. Solvent Fermentation From Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Clostridium acetobutylicum In Oscillatory Flow Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriff, M.S.; Masngut, N.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Kalil, M.S.; Mohammad, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by C. acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 in an oscillatory flow bioreactor was investigated. Experimental works were conducted in a U-shaped stainless steel oscillatory flow bioreactor at oscillation frequency between 0.45-0.78 Hz and a constant amplitude of 12.5 mm. Fermentations were carried out for 72 hr at 35 degree Celsius using palm oil mill effluent and reinforced clostridia medium as a growth medium in batch culture. Result of this investigation showed that POME is a viable media for ABE fermentation and oscillatory flow bioreactor has an excellent potential as an alternative fermentation device. (author)

  11. Spatial and stress-related variation in benthic microbial gas flux in northeastern Alberta wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Gardner Costa, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of oil sands process material (OSPM) on the sediment microbial respiration in newly constructed wetlands located in northeastern Alberta. The sediment gas flux in 10 wetlands with various sediment characteristics and ages was studied. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to contrast the mean wetland production of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with season, wetland status, wetland age, and wetland zones. The study showed that CH 4 was significantly higher in reference wetlands than in OSPM-impacted wetlands. A significant relationship between the status and zone of the wetland was observed for CH 4 fluxes in reference wetlands. CH 4 fluxes were higher in the non-vegetated zones of reference wetlands than in the vegetated zones of reference wetlands. CO 2 fluxes were low and not significantly different in any of the studied sites. Results indicated that the wetlands contributed little atmospheric carbon.

  12. Wetland Management - A Success Story In Transition - Restoration of Bhoj Wetland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, M. K.; Tech, B. M.; Miwwa

    Wetlands are beautiful, biologically diverse, hydrologically disperse and ecological vibrant landscape world wide, embracing soils, water, plants, animals and human be- ing. The population growth in the catchment of wetlands led to multifarious human interventions for deriving maximum benefit from the wetlands and their catchments neglecting and disrespecting the principles of sustainability. This act of destruction has been pronounced in developing countries which are under the grip of poverty, illiteracy and lack of environmental education. SBhoj WetlandS is a Lake situated ´ in Central India, Earthen Dam across the river KOLANS in 1061 AD by then ruler king BHOJ. Till 1950 this Wetland was served as a principal source of water supply, even not requiring filtration. As the city grew and the wetland started getting encir- cled by habitation and urban development, the anthropogenic pressures on the lake increased, thus accelerating the process of eutrophication, making the water unfit for human consumption without due treatment due to deterioration of quality of water. For the conservation and management of Bhoj Wetland (Lake Bhopal) a project is under- taken in the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC, Japan). The project envisages tackle various issues of conservation and management ofn the wetlands under a multi prongs strategies and manner. Although these issues are deeply interrelated and interlinked but for operational and management ease, these issues have been divided into various sub projects which are being tackled indepen- dently, albeit with undercurrent knowledge and understanding of the related issues and interconnectivity with each other. The Project itself is an apt example of the spectrum of varied problems and issues that come to light when attempts are made for sustain- able conservation and management of a wetland. The Project as envisaged intends to conserve and manage through 14 sub projects as under:- Sub

  13. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Muslum, E-mail: muslumaltun@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sahinkaya, Erkan [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Komnitsas, Kostas [Technical University of Crete, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Chania (Greece)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulfidogenic treatment of As-containing AMD was investigated. • High rate simultaneous removal of As and Fe was achieved. • As was removed without adding alkalinity or adjusting pH. • As and Fe removal mechanisms were elucidated. - Abstract: In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As{sup 5+}) (0.5–20 mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) (100–200 mg/L) and sulfate (2000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780–1560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6 h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100 mg/L Fe{sup 2+} increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe{sup 2+} concentration to 200 mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe{sup 2+} and As{sup 5+} concentrations remained at 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1736 ± 239 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms.

  14. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feki; Firas; Jraou, Mouna; Loukil, Slim; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami; Arnolt, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m 3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m 3 , whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh -1 m -2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh -1 m -2 , the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m 3 . However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1

  15. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  16. Working group report on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, L.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the impacts of climatic change on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries. Impacts that could occur as a result of climatic change include: sea level rise affecting coastal wetlands by inundation, erosion and saltwater intrusion; temperature rise/moisture balance changes on other wetlands; lake level changes affecting shoreline wetlands; vegetation species/community modification of biological systems; and changes in values derived from wetlands impacting socio-economic systems. The Great Lakes shoreline is considered to be at high risk, and it is predicted that there will be profound effects on the ecological and socio-economic value of the Great Lakes wetlands. Presentations were given on wildlife as biological indicators, modelling the effects of climate warming on the stream habitats of brook trout, and the effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands. It was concluded that a fundamental research program of an interdisciplinary nature be established to determine current linkages of climatic variables to the function, distribution and productivity of wetlands and associated fish and wildlife resources. A national wetlands monitoring network should be established to trace the influence of climatic variables on wetlands and fish, to identify environmental indicators for reporting and to complement other monitoring programs

  17. Winter Tourism and mountain wetland management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Mauz, I.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that of other ecosystems (MEA 2005). In mountains area, wetlands are small and scattered and particularly sensitive to global change. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of mountain wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, soil compression and erosion, etc. Since 2008, we have studied a high altitude wetland complex in the ski resort of Val Thorens. The aim of our study was to identify the impacts of mountain tourism development (winter and summer tourism) on wetland functioning and to produce an action plan designed to protect, rehabilitate and value the wetlands. We chose an approach based on multi-stakeholder participatory process at every stage, from information gathering to technical choices and monitoring. In this presentation, we show how such an approach can efficiently improve the consideration of wetlands in the development of a ski resort, but also the bottlenecks that need to be overcome. We will also discuss some of the ecological engineering techniques used to rehabilitate or restore high altitude degraded wetlands. Finally, this work has contributed to the creation in 2012 of a mountain wetland observatory coordinated by the conservatory of Haute-Savoie. The objective of this observatory is to estimate ecosystem services furnished by mountain wetlands and to find restoration strategies adapted to the local socio-economical context (mountain agriculture and mountain tourism).

  18. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  19. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  20. Bioreactors as Engineering Support to Treat Cardiac Muscle and Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Massai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. The inability of fully differentiated, load-bearing cardiovascular tissues to in vivo regenerate and the limitations of the current treatment therapies greatly motivate the efforts of cardiovascular tissue engineering to become an effective clinical strategy for injured heart and vessels. For the effective production of organized and functional cardiovascular engineered constructs in vitro, a suitable dynamic environment is essential, and can be achieved and maintained within bioreactors. Bioreactors are technological devices that, while monitoring and controlling the culture environment and stimulating the construct, attempt to mimic the physiological milieu. In this study, a review of the current state of the art of bioreactor solutions for cardiovascular tissue engineering is presented, with emphasis on bioreactors and biophysical stimuli adopted for investigating the mechanisms influencing cardiovascular tissue development, and for eventually generating suitable cardiovascular tissue replacements.

  1. CULTIVATION OF HUMAN LIVER CELLS AND ADIPOSE-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS IN PERFUSION BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. В. Basok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to show the progress of the experiment of cultivation of human liver cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in perfusion bioreactor.Materials and methods. The cultivation of a cell-engineered construct, consisting of a biopolymer microstructured collagen-containing hydrogel, human liver cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, and William’s E Medium, was performed in a perfusion bioreactor.Results. On the 7th day large cells with hepatocyte morphology – of a polygonal shape and a centrally located round nucleus, – were present in the culture chambers of the bioreactor. The metabolic activity of hepatocytes in cell-engineered constructs was confi rmed by the presence of urea in the culture medium on the seventh day of cultivation in the bioreactor and by the resorption of a biopolymer microstructured collagen-containing hydrogel.

  2. Removal of Cyclohexane from a Contaminated Air Stream Using a Dense Phase Membrane Bioreactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of a dense phase membrane bioreactor to remove cyclohexane, a volatile organic compound in JP-8 jet fuel, from a contaminated air stream using...

  3. Influence of phosphorus precipitation on permeability and soluble microbial product concentration in a membrane bioreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez, M.; Dvořák, L.; Růžičková, I.; Wanner, J.; Holba, Marek; Sýkorová, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 129, Feb 2013 (2013), s. 164-169 ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactor * coagulant adition * soluble microbial products Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  4. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  5. Concept of Compound Retention Time for Organic Micro Pollutants in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jiangjiang

    2011-01-01

    to control OMPs wastage. An innovative hybrid process, anaerobic membrane bioreactor with nanofiltration (AnMBR-NF), in which enhanced OMPs removal is possible based on the concept of compound retention time (CRT) through coupling anaerobic biodegradation

  6. Use of G3-DHS Bioreactor for Secondary Treatment of Septic Tank Desludging Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was done for the use of the third-generation of downflow hanging sponge (G3-DHS bioreactor for secondary treatment of septic tank desludging wastewater. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prospective system of G3-DHS bioreactor to be applied in Indonesia. During experiment, the G3-DHS bioreactor kept a relatively high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural aeration. At a relatively short hydraulic retention (HRT of 3 h, the G3-DHS bioreactor could remove up to 21% (SD 15% of total COD, 21% (SD = 7% of filtered-COD, 58% (SD = 24% of unfiltered-BOD, and 33% (SD = 24% of ammonium removal. The final effluent had an unfiltered-BOD of only 46 mg.L-1 (SD = 20 mg.L-1 that it was below the Indonesian standard (unfiltered-BOD = 100 mg.L-1 for thresholds of domestic wastewater treatment plants effluent.

  7. Forecasting the settlement of a bioreactor landfill based on gas pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Li, Liang; Sun, Hongjun

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the influence of settlement under gas pressure in bioreactor landfill, the landfill is simplified as a one-way gas seepage field, combining Darcy's Law, the gas equation of state, and the principle of effective stress and fluid dynamics of porous media theory. First assume that the bioreactor landfill leachate is fully recharged on the basis of gas mass conservation, then according to the changes in gas pressure (inside the landfill and surrounding atmosphere) during the gas leakage time and settlement in the landfill, establish a numerical model of bioreactor landfill settlement under the action of the gas pressure, and use the finite difference method to solve it. Through a case study, the model's improved prediction of the settlement of bioreactor landfill is demonstrated.

  8. Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Dufva, Martin; Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in small-scale bio-reactors has increased dramatically. To ensure homogeneous conditions within the complete area of perfused microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continually feed bio-reactor with uniform perfusion flow. This is achieved...... by introducing a specific type of perfusion inlet to the reaction area. The geometry of these inlets are found using the methods of topology optimization and shape optimization. The results are compared with two different analytic models, from which a general parametric description of the design is obtained...... and tested numerically. Such a parametric description will generally be beneficial for the design of a broad range of microfluidic bioreactors used for, e. g., cell culturing and analysis and in feeding bio-arrays....

  9. Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Ederson Paulo Xavier; de Oliveira, Jocilane Pereira; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Cota, Junio; Mara Aparecida de Carvalho, Bruna

    2017-11-01

    A bioreactor was built by means of immobilizing alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae by encapsulation, through cryopolymerization of acrylamide monomers for the continuous starch hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis was evaluated regarding pH, the concentration of immobilized amylase on cryogel, the concentration of starch solution and temperature. The maximum value for starch hydrolysis was achieved at pH 5.0, concentration of immobilized enzyme 111.44 mg amylase /g cryogel , concentration of starch solution 45 g/L and temperature of 35°C. The immobilized enzyme showed a conversion ratio ranging from 68.2 to 97.37%, depending on the pH and temperature employed. Thus, our results suggest that the alpha-amylase from A. oryzae immobilized on cryogel monoliths represents a potential process for industrial production of maltose from starch hydrolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong

    2007-01-01

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  11. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  12. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  13. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  14. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  15. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  16. Membrane bioreactors in waste water treatment - status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraume, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Chair of Chemical and Process Engineering, Berlin (Germany); Drews, A. [HTW Berlin, FB II, Life Science Engineering, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Due to their unique advantages like controlled biomass retention, improved effluent quality, and decreased footprint, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are being increasingly used in waste water treatment up to a capacity of several 100,000 p.e. This article reviews the current status of MBRs and reports trends in MBR design and operation. Typical operational and design parameters are given as well as guidelines for waste water treatment plant revamping. To further improve the biological performance, specific or hybrid process configurations are shown to lead to, e.g., enhanced nutrient removal. With regards to reducing membrane fouling, optimized modules, advanced control, and strategies like the addition of flux enhancers are currently emerging. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le-Clech, Pierre [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology

    2010-12-15

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major drawbacks, including high operational costs due to the use of anti-fouling strategies applied to the system to maintain sustainable filtration conditions. Moreover, this specific use of membranes has not reached full maturity yet, as MBR suppliers and users still lack experience regarding the long-term performances of the system. Still, major improvements of the MBR design and operation have been witnessed over the recent years, making MBR an option of choice for wastewater treatment and reuse. This mini-review reports recent developments and current research trends in the field. (orig.)

  18. Impact of sludge flocs on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Niessen, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are widely used for wastewater treatment, but membrane fouling reduces membrane performance and thereby increases the cost for membranes and fouling control. Large variation in filtration properties measured as flux decline was observed for the different types of sludges....... Further, the flux could partly be reestablished after the relaxation period depending on the sludge composition. The results underline that sludge properties are important for membrane fouling and that control of floc properties, as determined by the composition of the microbial communities...... and the physico-chemical properties, is an efficient method to reduce membrane fouling in the MBR. High concentration of suspended extracellular substances (EPS) and small particles (up to 10 µm) resulted in pronounced fouling propensity. The membrane fouling resistance was reduced at high concentration...

  19. Online monitoring of cartilage tissue in a novel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Burg, E.; von Buttlar, M.; Grill, W.

    2011-04-01

    Standard techniques for the analysis of biological tissues like immunohistochemical staining are typically invasive and lead to mortification of cells. Non-invasive monitoring is an important element of regenerative medicine because implants and components of implants should be 100% quality-checked with non-invasive and therefore also marker-free methods. We report on a new bioreactor for the production of collagen scaffolds seeded with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). It contains a computer controlled mechanical activation and ultrasonic online monitoring and has been constructed for the in situ determination of ultrasonic and rheological parameters. During the cultivation period of about two weeks the scaffold is periodically compressed by two movable pistons for improved differentiation of the MSCs. This periodic compression beneficially ensures the supply with nutrition even inside the sample. During the physiological stimuli, rheological properties are measured by means of highly sensitive load cells. In addition measurements of the speed of sound in the sample and in the culture medium, with frequencies up to 16 MHz, are performed continuously. Therefore piezoceramic transducers are attached to the pistons and emit and detect ultrasonic waves, travelling through the pistons, the sample and the culture medium. The time-of-flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic signals is determined in real time with the aid of chirped excitation and correlation procedures with a resolution of at least 10 ps. The implemented ultrasonic measurement scheme allows beside the speed of sound measurements the detection of the distance between the pistons with a resolution better than 100 nm. The developed monitoring delivers information on rigidity, fluid dynamics and velocity of sound in the sample and in the culture medium. The hermetically sealed bioreactor with its life support system provides a biocompatible environment for MSCs for long time cultivation.

  20. Denitrifying Bioreactors Resist Disturbance from Fluctuating Water Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Hathaway

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate can be removed from wastewater streams, including subsurface agricultural drainage systems, using woodchip bioreactors to promote microbial denitrification. However, the variations in water flow in these systems could make reliable performance from this microbially-mediated process a challenge. In the current work, the effects of fluctuating water levels on nitrate removal, denitrifying activity, and microbial community composition in laboratory-scale bioreactors were investigated. The performance was sensitive to changing water level. An average of 31% nitrate was removed at high water level and 59% at low water level, despite flow adjustments to maintain a constant theoretical hydraulic retention time. The potential activity, as assessed through denitrifying enzyme assays, averaged 0.0008 mg N2O-N/h/dry g woodchip and did not show statistically significant differences between reactors, sampling depths, or operational conditions. In the denitrifying enzyme assays, nitrate removal consistently exceeded nitrous oxide production. The denitrifying bacterial communities were not significantly different from each other, regardless of water level, meaning that the denitrifying bacterial community did not change in response to disturbance. The overall bacterial communities, however, became more distinct between the two reactors when one reactor was operated with periodic disturbances of changing water height, and showed a stronger effect at the most severely disturbed location. The communities were not distinguishable, though, when comparing the same location under high and low water levels, indicating that the communities in the disturbed reactor were adapted to fluctuating conditions rather than to high or low water level. Overall, these results describe a biological treatment process and microbial community that is resistant to disturbance via water level fluctuations.

  1. Osmotic stress on nitrification in an airlift bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rencun; Zheng Ping; Mahmood, Qaisar; Hu Baolan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of osmotic pressure on nitrification was studied in a lab-scale internal-loop airlift-nitrifying reactor. The reactor slowly adapted to the escalating osmotic pressure during 270 days operation. The conditions were reversed to the initial stage upon full inhibition of the process. Keeping influent ammonium concentration constant at 420 mg N L -1 and hydraulic retention time at 20.7 h, with gradual increase in osmotic pressure from 4.3 to 18.8 x 10 5 Pa by adding sodium sulphate, the ammonium removal efficiencies of the nitrifying bioreactor were maintained at 93-100%. Further increase in osmotic pressure up to 19.2 x 10 5 Pa resulted in drop of the ammonium conversion to 69.2%. The osmotic pressure caused abrupt inhibition of nitrification without any alarm and the critical osmotic pressure value causing inhibition remained between 18.8 and 19.2 x 10 5 Pa. Nitrite oxidizers were found more sensitive to osmotic stress as compared with ammonia oxidizers, leading to nitrite accumulation up to 61.7% in the reactor. The performance of bioreactor recovered gradually upon lowering the osmotic pressure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that osmotic stress resulted in simplification of the nitrifying bacterial populations in the activated sludge as the cellular size reduced; the inner membrane became thinner and some unknown inclusions appeared within the cells. The microbial morphology and cellular structure restored upon relieving the osmotic pressure. Addition of potassium relieved the effect of osmotic pressure upon nitrification. Results demonstrate that the nitrifying reactor possesses the potential to treat ammonium-rich brines after acclimatization

  2. Placing prairie pothole wetlands along spatial and temporal continua to improve integration of wetland function in ecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Newton, Wesley E.; Otto, Clint R.V.; Nelson, Richard D.; LaBaugh, James W.; Scherff, Eric J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of using chemical characteristics to rank wetland relation to surface and groundwater along a hydrologic continuum ranging from groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge. We used 27 years (1974–2002) of water chemistry data from 15 prairie pothole wetlands and known hydrologic connections of these wetlands to groundwater to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical characteristics that correspond to the unique ecosystem functions each wetland performed. Due to the mineral content and the low permeability rate of glacial till and soils, salinity of wetland waters increased along a continuum of wetland relation to groundwater recharge, flow-through or discharge. Mean inter-annual specific conductance (a proxy for salinity) increased along this continuum from wetlands that recharge groundwater being fresh to wetlands that receive groundwater discharge being the most saline, and wetlands that both recharge and discharge to groundwater (i.e., groundwater flow-through wetlands) being of intermediate salinity. The primary axis from a principal component analysis revealed that specific conductance (and major ions affecting conductance) explained 71% of the variation in wetland chemistry over the 27 years of this investigation. We found that long-term averages from this axis were useful to identify a wetland’s long-term relation to surface and groundwater. Yearly or seasonal measurements of specific conductance can be less definitive because of highly dynamic inter- and intra-annual climate cycles that affect water volumes and the interaction of groundwater and geologic materials, and thereby influence the chemical composition of wetland waters. The influence of wetland relation to surface and groundwater on water chemistry has application in many scientific disciplines and is especially needed to improve ecological understanding in wetland investigations. We suggest ways that monitoring in situ wetland conditions could be linked

  3. Mathematical modeling of the integrated process of mercury bioremediation in the industrial bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Głuszcz, Paweł; Petera, Jerzy; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model of the integrated process of mercury contaminated wastewater bioremediation in a fixed-bed industrial bioreactor is presented. An activated carbon packing in the bioreactor plays the role of an adsorbent for ionic mercury and at the same time of a carrier material for immobilization of mercury-reducing bacteria. The model includes three basic stages of the bioremediation process: mass transfer in the liquid phase, adsorption of mercury onto activated carbon and ionic me...

  4. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  5. Methane emissions from global wetlands: An assessment of the uncertainty associated with various wetland extent data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowen; Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Anderson, Christopher; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    A wide range of estimates on global wetland methane (CH4) fluxes has been reported during the recent two decades. This gives rise to urgent needs to clarify and identify the uncertainty sources, and conclude a reconciled estimate for global CH4 fluxes from wetlands. Most estimates by using bottom-up approach rely on wetland data sets, but these data sets show largely inconsistent in terms of both wetland extent and spatiotemporal distribution. A quantitative assessment of uncertainties associated with these discrepancies among wetland data sets has not been well investigated yet. By comparing the five widely used global wetland data sets (GISS, GLWD, Kaplan, GIEMS and SWAMPS-GLWD), it this study, we found large differences in the wetland extent, ranging from 5.3 to 10.2 million km2, as well as their spatial and temporal distributions among the five data sets. These discrepancies in wetland data sets resulted in large bias in model-estimated global wetland CH4 emissions as simulated by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The model simulations indicated that the mean global wetland CH4 emissions during 2000-2007 were 177.2 ± 49.7 Tg CH4 yr-1, based on the five different data sets. The tropical regions contributed the largest portion of estimated CH4 emissions from global wetlands, but also had the largest discrepancy. Among six continents, the largest uncertainty was found in South America. Thus, the improved estimates of wetland extent and CH4 emissions in the tropical regions and South America would be a critical step toward an accurate estimate of global CH4 emissions. This uncertainty analysis also reveals an important need for our scientific community to generate a global scale wetland data set with higher spatial resolution and shorter time interval, by integrating multiple sources of field and satellite data with modeling approaches, for cross-scale extrapolation.

  6. Generation of Neural Progenitor Spheres from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Suspension Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Song, Liqing; Tsai, Ang-Chen; Ma, Teng; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems cannot provide large numbers of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their derivatives that are demanded for commercial and clinical applications in in vitro drug screening, disease modeling, and potentially cell therapy. The technologies that support three-dimensional (3-D) suspension culture, such as a stirred bioreactor, are generally considered as promising approaches to produce the required cells. Recently, suspension bioreactors have also been used to generate mini-brain-like structure from hPSCs for disease modeling, showing the important role of bioreactor in stem cell culture. This chapter describes a detailed culture protocol for neural commitment of hPSCs into neural progenitor cell (NPC) spheres using a spinner bioreactor. The basic steps to prepare hPSCs for bioreactor inoculation are illustrated from cell thawing to cell propagation. The method for generating NPCs from hPSCs in the spinner bioreactor along with the static control is then described. The protocol in this study can be applied to the generation of NPCs from hPSCs for further neural subtype specification, 3-D neural tissue development, or potential preclinical studies or clinical applications in neurological diseases.

  7. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  8. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  9. Recreating wetland ecosystems in an oil sands disturbed landscape : Suncor consolidated-tailings demonstration wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Aquatic Reclamation Research; Tedder, W.; Marlowe, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Div.

    2009-10-01

    Open pit oil sands mining involves the disturbance of thin overburden covers of Boreal forest lands that must be returned to equivalent land capability after mining activities have ceased. Before mining starts, any wetlands are drained, timber is harvested, and peat, topsoils and subsoils are stockpiled for later use. This article discussed wetland reclamation activities conducted by Suncor Energy at its open pit mining operations. Research facilities were constructed in order to determine if wetlands constructed with consolidated tailings (CT) and pond effluent water (PEW) were able to support a sustainable vegetation community. Thirty-three cat-tail plots were established at the facility as well as unplanted plots in order to determine how quickly natural establishment occurred. Shoreline plug transplants and transplants from a natural saline lake were also introduced. Within 5 years, over 23 plant species had naturally colonized the CT wetlands. However, diversity was lower in CT and PEW-constructed wetlands. It was concluded that the application of a native peat-mineral mix soil may help to increase plant diversity. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Applicability Assessment of Uavsar Data in Wetland Monitoring: a Case Study of Louisiana Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Niu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Yang, J.; Li, P.; Liu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are highly productive and support a wide variety of ecosystem goods and services. Monitoring wetland is essential and potential. Because of the repeat-pass nature of satellite orbit and airborne, time-series of remote sensing data can be obtained to monitor wetland. UAVSAR is a NASA L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor compact pod-mounted polarimetric instrument for interferometric repeat-track observations. Moreover, UAVSAR images can accurately map crustal deformations associated with natural hazards, such as volcanoes and earthquakes. And its polarization agility facilitates terrain and land-use classification and change detection. In this paper, the multi-temporal UAVSAR data are applied for monitoring the wetland change. Using the multi-temporal polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data, the change detection maps are obtained by unsupervised and supervised method. And the coherence is extracted from the interfometric SAR (InSAR) data to verify the accuracy of change detection map. The experimental results show that the multi-temporal UAVSAR data is fit for wetland monitor.

  11. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologicevents in Apalachicola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S. C.; Singh, A.; Tahsin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact fromthese extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide rangeof hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover,while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  12. Study of Wetland Ecosystem Vegetation Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, E. A.; Alekseeva, M. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate the aboveground net production (ANP) of wetland ecosystems for the key area at the South Taiga zone of West Siberia. The vegetation index and aboveground production are related by linear dependence and are specific for each wetland ecosystem. The NDVI grows with an increase in the ANP at wooded oligotrophic ecosystems. Open oligotrophic bogs and eutrophic wetlands are characterized by an opposite relation. Maps of aboveground production for wetland ecosystems are constructed for each study year and for the whole period of studies. The average aboveground production for all wetland ecosystems of the key area, which was estimated with consideration for the area they occupy and using the data of satellite measurements of the vegetation index, is 305 g C/m2/yr. The total annual carbon accumulation in aboveground wetland vegetation in the key area is 794600 t.

  13. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E.; Creed, Irena F.; Ali, Genevieve; Basu, Nandita; Neff, Brian; Rains, Mark C.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Ameli, Ali A.; Christensen, Jay R.; Evenson, Grey R.; Jones, Charles N.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently requires information on their hydrologic connectivity to other surface waters, and their cumulative watershed‐scale effects. The integration of measurements and models can supply this information. However, the types of measurements and models that should be integrated are dependent on management questions and information compatibility. We summarize the importance of GIWs in watersheds and discuss what wetland connectivity means in both science and management contexts. We then describe the latest tools available to quantify GIW connectivity and explore crucial next steps to enhancing and integrating such tools. These advancements will ensure that appropriate tools are used in GIW decision making and maintaining the important ecosystem services that these wetlands support.

  14. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action

  16. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  17. Tree establishment in response to hydrology at IDOT wetland mitigation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has compensated for unavoidable impacts to wetlands in transportation : project corridors by restoring and creating wetlands throughout Illinois. As part of the IDOT Wetlands Program, monitoring : of p...

  18. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  19. Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia-Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.

  20. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  1. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims to communi......The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  2. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  3. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, R.; del Jesus, M.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of ...

  4. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  5. A symbiotic gas exchange between bioreactors enhances microalgal biomass and lipid productivities: taking advantage of complementary nutritional modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C A; Ferreira, M E; da Silva, T Lopes; Gouveia, L; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the association of two bioreactors: one photoautotrophic and the other heterotrophic, connected by the gas phase and allowing an exchange of O(2) and CO(2) gases between them, benefiting from a symbiotic effect. The association of two bioreactors was proposed with the aim of improving the microalgae oil productivity for biodiesel production. The outlet gas flow from the autotrophic (O(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the heterotrophic bioreactor. In parallel, the outlet gas flow from another heterotrophic (CO(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the autotrophic bioreactor. Aside from using the air supplied from the auto- and hetero-trophic bioreactors as controls, one mixotrophic bioreactor was also studied and used as a model, for its claimed advantage of CO(2) and organic carbon being simultaneously assimilated. The microalga Chlorella protothecoides was chosen as a model due to its ability to grow under different nutritional modes (auto, hetero, and mixotrophic), and its ability to attain a high biomass productivity and lipid content, suitable for biodiesel production. The comparison between heterotrophic, autotrophic, and mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides growth for lipid production revealed that heterotrophic growth achieved the highest biomass productivity and lipid content (>22%), and furthermore showed that these lipids had the most suitable fatty acid profile in order to produce high quality biodiesel. Both associations showed a higher biomass productivity (10-20%), when comparing the two separately operated bioreactors (controls) which occurred on the fourth day. A more remarkable result would have been seen if in actuality the two bioreactors had been inter-connected in a closed loop. The biomass productivity gain would have been 30% and the lipid productivity gain would have been 100%, as seen by comparing the productivities of the symbiotic assemblage with the sum of the two

  6. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  7. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  8. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  9. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Lebel, Peter J.; Koller, Albert M.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-02-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases are presented that were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide (CO2) normalized emission ratios (ΔX/ΔCO2; V/V; where X is trace gas) for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak (Quercus spp) and saw palmetto (Screnoa repens) were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. We believe that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-size fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly diminished.

  11. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  12. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  13. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands. | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. We provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales and describe how soil carbon stocks vary by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. To estimate the quantity and distribution of carbon stocks in wetlands of the conterminous US, we used data gathered in the field as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) conducted by USEPA. During the growing season, field crews collected soil samples by horizon from 120-cm deep soil pits at 967 randomly selected wetland sites. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density and organic carbon. We applied site carbon stock averages by soil depth back to the national population of wetlands and to several subpopulations, including five geographic areas and anthropogenic disturbance level. Disturbance levels were categorized by the NWCA as least, intermediately, or most disturbed using a priori defined physical, chemical, and biological indicators that were observable at the time of the site visit.Results/Conclusions We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US, with the greatest soil ca

  14. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  16. Description of floodplains and wetlands, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Floodplains and wetlands are important features of the Texas Panhandle landscape, and are found on the Deaf Smith County site and in its vicinity. Use or disturbance of floodplains and wetlands in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is subject to environmental review requirements implementing two Executive Orders. This report provides general information on playa wetlands in the Texas Panhandle, and describes and maps floodplains and wetlands on the Deaf Smith site and in its vicinity. The report is based on the published literature, with information from limited field reconnaissance included

  17. Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Types of constructed wetland, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth...

  18. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  19. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D. Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01

    The compost bioreactor ('anaerobic cell') components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

  20. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2005-02-01

    The compost bioreactor ("anaerobic cell") components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in metal concentrations, only one of the cells showed effective removal of the two dominant heavy metals (iron and zinc) present. With two of the compost bioreactors, concentrations of soluble (ferrous) iron draining the cells were significantly greater than those entering the reactors, indicating that there was net mobilisation (by reductive dissolution) of colloidal and/or solid-phase ferric iron compounds within the cells. Soluble sulfide was also detected in waters draining all three compost bioreactors which was rapidly oxidised, in contrast to ferrous iron. Oxidation and hydrolysis of iron, together with sulfide oxidation, resulted in reacidification of processed AMD downstream of the compost bioreactors in two of the passive treatment systems. The dominant cultivatable microorganism in waters draining the compost bioreactors was identified, via analysis of its 16S rRNA gene, as a Thiomonas sp. and was capable of accelerating the dissimilatory oxidation of both ferrous iron and reduced sulfur compounds. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were also detected, although only in the bioreactor that was performing well were these present in significant numbers. This particular compost bioreactor had been shut down for 10 months prior to the monitoring period due to operational problems. This unforeseen event appears to have allowed more successful development of AMD-tolerant and other microbial populations with critical roles in AMD bioremediation, including neutrophilic SRB (nSRB), in this compost bioreactor than in the other two, where the throughput of AMD was not interrupted. This study has

  1. Remotely sensed MODIS wetland components for assessing the variability of methane emissions in Indian tropical/subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sangeeta; Katyal, Deeksha; Saluja, Ridhi; Chakraborty, Monojit; Garg, J. K.

    2018-02-01

    Temperature and area fluctuations in wetlands greatly influence its various physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients dynamic, rates of biomass generation and decomposition, floral and faunal composition which in turn influence methane (CH4) emission rates. In view of this, the present study attempts to up-scale point CH4 flux from the wetlands of Uttar Pradesh (UP) by modifying two-factor empirical process based CH4 emission model for tropical wetlands by incorporating MODIS derived wetland components viz. wetland areal extent and corresponding temperature factors (Ft). This study further focuses on the utility of remotely sensed temperature response of CH4 emission in terms of Ft. Ft is generated using MODIS land surface temperature products and provides an important semi-empirical input for up-scaling CH4 emissions in wetlands. Results reveal that annual mean Ft values for UP wetlands vary from 0.69 (2010-2011) to 0.71(2011-2012). The total estimated area-wise CH4 emissions from the wetlands of UP varies from 66.47 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2564.04 km2 and 0.69 respectively in 2010-2011 to 88.39 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2720.16 km2 and 0.71 respectively in 2011-2012. Temporal analysis of estimated CH4 emissions showed that in monsoon season estimated CH4 emissions are more sensitive to wetland areal extent while in summer season sensitivity of estimated CH4 emissions is chiefly controlled by augmented methanogenic activities at high wetland surface temperatures.

  2. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  3. Process-Based Modeling of Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widespread facilities for wastewater treatment. In subsurface flow wetlands, contaminated wastewater flows through a porous matrix, where oxidation and detoxification phenomena occur. Despite the large number of working CWs, system design and optimization are still mainly based upon empirical equations or simplified first-order kinetics. This results from an incomplete understanding of the system functioning, and may in turn hinder the performance and effectiveness of the treatment process. As a result, CWs are often considered not suitable to meet high water quality-standards, or to treat water contaminated with recalcitrant anthropogenic contaminants. To date, only a limited number of detailed numerical models have been developed and successfully applied to simulate constructed wetland behavior. Among these, one of the most complete and powerful is CW2D, which is based on Hydrus2D. The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive simulator tailored to model the functioning of horizontal flow constructed wetlands and in turn provide a reliable design and optimization tool. The model is based upon PHWAT, a general reactive transport code for saturated flow. PHWAT couples MODFLOW, MT3DMS and PHREEQC-2 using an operator-splitting approach. The use of PHREEQC to simulate reactions allows great flexibility in simulating biogeochemical processes. The biogeochemical reaction network is similar to that of CW2D, and is based on the Activated Sludge Model (ASM). Kinetic oxidation of carbon sources and nutrient transformations (nitrogen and phosphorous primarily) are modeled via Monod-type kinetic equations. Oxygen dissolution is accounted for via a first-order mass-transfer equation. While the ASM model only includes a limited number of kinetic equations, the new simulator permits incorporation of an unlimited number of both kinetic and equilibrium reactions. Changes in pH, redox potential and surface reactions can be easily incorporated

  4. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  5. Ecosystem function in oil sands wetlands : rates of detrital decomposition, moss growth, and microbial respiration in oilsands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which leaf litter breakdown and biomass accrual in 31 reference and oilsands affected (OSPM) wetlands in Northeastern Alberta was examined. The purpose was to determine how the decomposition of dead plant matter controls the primary productivity in wetlands. The data collected from this study will provide information about carbon flow and dynamics in oilsands affected wetlands. The study involved the investigation of wetlands that contrasted in water origin (OSPM vs. reference), sediment origin (OSPM vs. natural), sediment organic content and age. Mesh bags containing 5 g of dried Typha (cattail) or 20 g of damp moss were placed into 31 wetlands in order to monitor the rate at which biomass was lost to decomposition, as measured by changes in dry mass. After 1 year, moss growth was found to be greatest in younger wetlands with natural sediments. Cattail decomposition was found to be slower in wetlands containing OSPM water than that in reference wetlands. Preliminary analysis of respiration rates of biota associated with decomposing cattail indicate that the amount of oxygen consumed is not affected by wetland water source, sediment source, level of initial sediment organic content, or age.

  6. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Rainwater Basin Depressional Wetlands in Nebraska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stutheit, Randy

    2004-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management...

  7. Pre-Construction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield (HAAF) Wetlands Restoration Site. Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly P; Fredrickson, Herbert L; Hintelmann, Holger; Clarisse, Olivier; Dimock, Brian; Lutz, Charles H; Lotufo, Gui R; Millward, Rod N; Bednar, Anthony J; Furey, John S

    2007-01-01

    ...) is working with the San Francisco Basin Regional Water Board, California State Coastal Conservancy, and San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission to reconstruct wetlands at the former...

  8. Restoration of Bhoj Wetlands At Bhopal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. S.; Kulshrestha, M.; Wetland Project, Bhoj

    Bhoj Wetlands comprise the two lakes at Bhopal, India. These wetlands are listed amongst the 21 lakes recognized by Ministry of Environment and Forest, India and are under consideration for Ramsar lake status. The twin lakes have a total water- spread area of 32.29 sq. kms and catchment area of 370.6 sq. kms and both lakes support a rich and diverse range of flora and fauna. Currently with the help of 7055-m Yen soft loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), a comprehen- sive project called the Bhoj Wetland Project has been launched for Eco-conservation management of twin lakes and this is one of the most reputed projects of its kind being undertaken in India. This paper presents details of the various works being undertaken for restoration of these wetlands at Bhopal. The Bhoj Wetlands are located at Bhopal, a city founded in 11th century AD by King Bhoj and which became known for the worst industrial Gas tragedy in 1984 when thousands lost their lives. The city is still recovering and the Bhoj Wetland Project is playing a very crucial role in improving the overall environmental status of the City. These wetlands are at present facing acute en- vironmental degradation due to pollution from a number of sources such as inflow of untreated sewage and solid waste, silt erosion and inflow from catchment, commercial activities like washing of clothes and cleaning of vehicles etc., inflow of agricultural residues and pesticides, and encroachment by builders all of which are fast eroding the rich eco-culture, flora fauna in and around the wetlands. The Bhoj Wetland Project is being implemented since the year 1995 and is scheduled to end in March 2002. The project works are being undertaken under the overall aegis of Ministry of Housing Environment, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) State, India. All the detailed project reports (DPRs) and preliminary ground work was undertaken by the in-house staff of Bhoj Wetland project, resulting in huge amounts of

  9. Biofabrication of customized bone grafts by combination of additive manufacturing and bioreactor knowhow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro F; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Vaquette, Cédryck; Baldwin, Jeremy; Chhaya, Mohit; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on an original concept of additive manufacturing for the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs (TEC), offering the possibility of concomitantly manufacturing a customized scaffold and a bioreactor chamber to any size and shape. As a proof of concept towards the development of anatomically relevant TECs, this concept was utilized for the design and fabrication of a highly porous sheep tibia scaffold around which a bioreactor chamber of similar shape was simultaneously built. The morphology of the bioreactor/scaffold device was investigated by micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy confirming the porous architecture of the sheep tibiae as opposed to the non-porous nature of the bioreactor chamber. Additionally, this study demonstrates that both the shape, as well as the inner architecture of the device can significantly impact the perfusion of fluid within the scaffold architecture. Indeed, fluid flow modelling revealed that this was of significant importance for controlling the nutrition flow pattern within the scaffold and the bioreactor chamber, avoiding the formation of stagnant flow regions detrimental for in vitro tissue development. The bioreactor/scaffold device was dynamically seeded with human primary osteoblasts and cultured under bi-directional perfusion for two and six weeks. Primary human osteoblasts were observed homogenously distributed throughout the scaffold, and were viable for the six week culture period. This work demonstrates a novel application for additive manufacturing in the development of scaffolds and bioreactors. Given the intrinsic flexibility of the additive manufacturing technology platform developed, more complex culture systems can be fabricated which would contribute to the advances in customized and patient-specific tissue engineering strategies for a wide range of applications. (paper)

  10. Biofabrication of customized bone grafts by combination of additive manufacturing and bioreactor knowhow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro F; Vaquette, Cédryck; Baldwin, Jeremy; Chhaya, Mohit; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-09-01

    This study reports on an original concept of additive manufacturing for the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs (TEC), offering the possibility of concomitantly manufacturing a customized scaffold and a bioreactor chamber to any size and shape. As a proof of concept towards the development of anatomically relevant TECs, this concept was utilized for the design and fabrication of a highly porous sheep tibia scaffold around which a bioreactor chamber of similar shape was simultaneously built. The morphology of the bioreactor/scaffold device was investigated by micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy confirming the porous architecture of the sheep tibiae as opposed to the non-porous nature of the bioreactor chamber. Additionally, this study demonstrates that both the shape, as well as the inner architecture of the device can significantly impact the perfusion of fluid within the scaffold architecture. Indeed, fluid flow modelling revealed that this was of significant importance for controlling the nutrition flow pattern within the scaffold and the bioreactor chamber, avoiding the formation of stagnant flow regions detrimental for in vitro tissue development. The bioreactor/scaffold device was dynamically seeded with human primary osteoblasts and cultured under bi-directional perfusion for two and six weeks. Primary human osteoblasts were observed homogenously distributed throughout the scaffold, and were viable for the six week culture period. This work demonstrates a novel application for additive manufacturing in the development of scaffolds and bioreactors. Given the intrinsic flexibility of the additive manufacturing technology platform developed, more complex culture systems can be fabricated which would contribute to the advances in customized and patient-specific tissue engineering strategies for a wide range of applications.

  11. On-line removal of volatile fatty acids from CELSS anaerobic bioreactor via nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, G; Sager, J C

    2001-01-01

    The CELSS resource recovery system, which is a waste-processing system, uses aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plants nutrients and secondary foods from the inedible biomass. The anaerobic degradation of the inedible biomass, by means of culture of rumen bacteria, generates organic compounds such as volatile fatty acids (VFA) (acetic, propionic, butyric) and ammonia. The presence of VFA in the bioreactor medium at fairly low concentrations decreases the microbial population's metabolic reactions due to end-product inhibition. Technologies to remove VFA continuously from the bioreactor are of high interest. Several candidate technologies were analyzed, such as organic solvent liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption and/or ion exchange, dialysis, electrodialysis, and pressure-driven membrane separation processes. The proposed technique for the on-line removal of VFA from the anaerobic bioreactor was a nanofiltration membrane recycle bioreactor. In order to establish the nanofiltration process performance variables before coupling it to the bioreactor, a series of experiments was carried out using a 10,000 molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) tubular ceramic membrane module. The variables studied were the bioreactor slurry permeation characteristics, such as: the permeate flux, VFA and nutrient removal rates as a function of applied transmembrane pressure, fluid recirculation velocity, suspended matter concentration, and process operating time. Results indicated that the permeate flux, VFA, and nutrients removal rates are directly proportional to the fluid recirculation velocity in the range between 0.6 and 1.0 m/s, applied pressure when these are lower than 1.5 bar, and inversely proportional to the total suspended solids concentration in the range between 23,466 and 34,880 mg/L. At applied pressure higher than 1.5 bar the flux is not more linearly dependent due to concentration polarization and fouling effects over the membrane surface. It was also found that the

  12. On-line removal of volatile fatty acids from CELSS anaerobic bioreactor via nanofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Guillermo

    1995-01-01

    The CELSS (controlled ecological life support system) resource recovery system, which is a waste processing system, uses aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plants nutrients and secondary foods from the inedible biomass. The anaerobic degradation of the inedible biomass by means of culture of rumen bacteria,generates organic compounds such as volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric, VFA) and ammonia. The presence of VFA in the bioreactor medium at fairly low concentrations decreases the microbial population's metabolic reactions due to end-product inhibition. Technologies to remove VFA continuously from the bioreactor are of high interest. Several candidate technologies were analyzed, such as organic solvent liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption and/or ion exchange, dialysis, electrodialysis, and pressure driven membrane separation processes. The proposed technique for the on-line removal of VFA from the anaerobic bioreactor was a nanofiltration membrane recycle bioreactor. In order to establish the nanofiltration process performance variables before coupling it to the bioreactor, a series of experiments were carried out using a 10,000 MWCO tubular ceramic membrane module. The variables studied were the bioreactor slurry permeation characteristics, such as, the permeate flux, VFA and the nutrient removal rates as a function of applied transmembrane pressure, fluid recirculation velocity, suspended matter concentration, and process operating time. Results indicate that the permeate flux, VFA and nutrients removal rates are directly proportional to the fluid recirculation velocity in the range between 0.6 to 1.0 m/s, applied pressure when these are low than 1.5 bar, and inversely proportional to the total suspended solids concentration in the range between 23,466 to 34,880. At applied pressure higher than 1.5 bar the flux is not more linearly dependent due to concentration polarization and fouling effects over the membrange surface. It was also found

  13. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  14. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  15. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 °C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. Limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of zinc from the influent developed after 137 days of operation. At that day, the SMA in medium with a complete trace metal solution except Zn was 3.4 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1, compared to 4.2 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with a complete (including zinc) trace metal solution. The methanol removal capacity during these 137 days was 99% and no volatile fatty acids accumulated. Two UASB reactors, inoculated with the zinc-deprived sludge, were operated to study restoration of the zinc limitation by zinc supplementation to the bioreactor influent. In a first reactor, no changes to the operational conditions were made. This resulted in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent after 12 days of operation, which subsequently induced acetogenic activity 5 days after the methanol accumulation started. Methanogenesis could not be recovered by the continuous addition of 0.5 μM ZnCl2 to the reactor for 13 days. In the second reactor, 0.5 μM ZnCl2 was added from its start-up. Although the reactor stayed 10 days longer methanogenically than the reactor operated without zinc, methanol accumulation was observed in this reactor (up to 1.1 g COD-MeOH L−1) as well. This study shows that zinc limitation can induce failure of methanol fed UASB reactors due to acidification, which cannot be restored by resuming the continuous supply of the deprived metal. PMID:18283507

  16. The landscape pattern characteristics of coastal wetlands in Jiaozhou Bay under the impact of human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongqi; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Xuliang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we interpreted coastal wetland types from an ASTER satellite image in 2002, and then compared the results with the land-use status of coastal wetlands in 1952 to determine the wetland loss and degradation around Jiaozhou Bay. Seven types of wetland landscape were classified, namely: shallow open water, inter-tidal flats, estuarine water, brackish marshes, salt ponds, fishery ponds and ports. Several landscape pattern indices were analysed: the results indicate that the coastal wetlands have been seriously degraded. More and more natural wetlands have been transformed into artificial wetlands, which covered about 33.7% of the total wetlands in 2002. In addition, we used a defined model to assess the impacts of human activities on coastal wetlands. The results obtained show that the coastal wetlands of Jiaozhou Bay have suffered severe human disturbance. Effective coastal management and control is therefore needed to solve the issues of the coastal wetland loss and degradation existing in this area.

  17. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  18. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  19. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  20. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  1. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

  2. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  3. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  4. Remote sensing of wetlands at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) occupies about 300 sq mi along a 10-mile stretch of the Savannah River. Large areas of wetlands cover the site, especially along tributary stream floodplains and the Savannah River. Some of these areas have been altered by cooling water discharges from nuclear production reactors onsite. To assess the effects of current and future plant operations on SRP and regional wetlands, an accurate quantitative survey was needed. Several studies were initiated to provide wetland acreage and distribution information: regional wetland inventories were provided from an analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) satellite data. Wetlands were mapped throughout the entire Savannah River watershed and in the Savannah River floodplain. SRP wetlands were identified using a combination of LANDSAT MSS and Thematic Mapper satellite data and aerial photography. Wetlands in the SRP Savannah River swamp and thermally affected areas were mapped using high resolution MSS data collected from a low-flying aircraft. Vegetation communities in areas receiving cooling water discharges were then compared to surface temperatures measured from the airborne scanner at the same time to evaluate plant temperature tolerance. Historic changes to SRP wetlands from cooling water discharges were tabulated using aerial photography

  5. Healthy Wetlands: Valuing Both the Wet and the Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    February 2nd of each year is World Wetlands Day. It commemorates the signing of the Ramsar Convention in Iran in 1971 and the crucial role wetlands play in terms of ecological health. Not only do they provide essential habitats for many aquatic species of organisms but they are used by many terrestrial animals as temporary havens for food, or…

  6. Assessing the value of wetlands to waterbirds: exploring a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, species richness, species diversity, total count, biomass, energy consumption and the Ramsar '1% threshold' have been used to assess the importance of wetlands for waterbirds. Designation of wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites) based on waterbirds has focused on those species meeting the ...

  7. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  8. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the mitigation of pesticide runoff has been studied in the last decade. However, a lack of related data was verified when subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) are considered for this purpose. In the present work, SSF CWs were submitted to continuous ...

  9. Prospects for extirpating small populations of the wetland invader ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad-leaved paper bark tree Melaleuca quinquenervia is a major invader in the wetlands of the Florida Everglades, USA. In South Africa, this introduced species is known from eight locality records and is naturalising at two of these sites. The potential for its spread to other wetlands and estuaries is of concern.

  10. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower ...

  11. The Impacts of wetland restoration on Fish Productivity in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, O. A.; Okunade, K. M.; Agboola, D. M.; Adesokan, Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Wetland is one of the resources of high value which has been exposed to indiscriminate use. It is an important ecosystem to fish and loss or degradation of wetland will have a direct consequence on sustainable fisheries. This paper reviewed the term "wetland", its functions and values, importance to fish production in Nigeria and threats to its sustainability. The term "wetland" has been defined by various researchers especially based on their profession and their needs but up till today there is no single definition accepted by all users. In Nigeria, the most commonly adopted is that of RAMSAR convention. Wetland has both marketed and non-marketed functions and values. They provide essential link in the life cycle of 75 percent of the fish and shell fish commercially harvested in the world and are vital to fish health. Despite the importance, there have been exceptional losses of wetlands. Lagos state alone has witnessed more than 96 percent loss. Major threats to wetlands are: agriculture, development, pollution and climate change. Therefore proper management of the wetland ecosystem is important in other to ensure continuous fish production.

  12. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  13. Modeling Vertical Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    be forced to flow in a 90 serpentine manner back and forth as it moves upward through the wetland (think waiting in line at Disneyland ). This...Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  14. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on

  15. Mine-drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herptofaunal wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacki, Michael J.; Hummer, Joseph W.; Webster, Harold J.

    1992-07-01

    Land reclamation techniques that incorporate habitat features for herptofaunal wildlife have received little attention. We assessed the suitability of a wetland, constructed for the treatment of mine-water drainage, for supporting herptofaunal wildlife from 1988 through 1990 using diurnal and nocturnal surveys. Natural wetlands within the surrounding watershed were also monitored for comparison. The treatment wetland supported the greatest abundance and species richness of herptofauna among the sites surveyed. Abundance was a function of the frog density, particularly green frogs ( Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs ( R. palustris), while species richness was due to the number of snake species found. The rich mix of snake species present at the treatment wetland was believed due to a combination of an abundant frog prey base and an amply supply of den sites in rock debris left behind from earlier surface-mining activities. Nocturnal surveys of breeding male frogs demonstrated highest breeding activity at the treatment wetland, particularly for spring peepers ( Hyla crucifer). Whole-body assays of green frog and bullfrog ( R. catesbeiana) tissues showed no differences among sites in uptake of iron, aluminum, and zinc; managanese levels in samples from the treatment wetland were significantly lower than those from natural wetlands. These results suggest that wetlands established for water quality improvement can provide habitat for reptiles and amphibians, with the species composition dependent on the construction design, the proximity to source populations, and the degree of acidity and heavy-metal concentrations in drainage waters.

  16. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion...

  17. Lake Alaotra wetlands: how long can Madagascar's most important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alaotra wetlands represent the biggest lake and wetland complex in Madagascar and are home of several endemic species. The region constitutes the largest rice production area and inland fishery of Madagascar. Rice and fish are the main local sources of income. While the population has increased fivefold during ...

  18. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, little is known about the contribution of wetland resources to household food security or the environmental impact of using wetlands for agriculture or other purposes. Researchers will ... IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  19. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Lang; Greg McCarty; Mark Walbridge; Patrick Hunt; Tom Ducey; Clinton Church; Jarrod Miller; Laurel Kluber; Ali Sadeghi; Martin Rabenhorst; Amir Sharifi; In-Young Yeo; Andrew Baldwin; Margaret Palmer; Tom Fisher; Dan Fenstermaher; Sanchul Lee; Owen McDonough; Metthea Yepsen; Liza McFarland; Anne Gustafson; Rebecca Fox; Chris Palardy; William Effland; Mari-Vaughn Johnson; Judy Denver; Scott Ator; Joseph Mitchell; Dennis Whigham

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands impart many important ecosystem services, including maintenance of water quality, regulation of the climate and hydrological flows, and enhancement of biodiversity through the provision of food and habitat. The conversion of natural lands to agriculture has led to broad scale historic wetland loss, but current US Department of Agriculture conservation programs...

  20. Conservation and restoration of forested wetlands: new techniques and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Johnston; Steve Hartley; Antonio Martucci

    2000-01-01

    A partnership of state and federal agencies and private organizations is developing advanced spatial analysis techniques applied for conservation and restoration of forested wetlands. The project goal is to develop an application to assist decisionmakers in defining the eligibility of land sites for entry in the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) of the U.S. Department of...

  1. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  2. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  3. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  4. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  5. Methane emissions from different coastal wetlands in New England, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    According to the IPCC, methane have 25 times warming effect than CO2, and natural wetlands contribute 20-39 % to the global emission of methane. Although most of these methane was from inland wetlands, there was still large uncertain in the methane emissions in coastal wetlands. In the past three years, we have investigated methane emissions in coastal wetlands in MA, USA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we have observed relative larger methane flux in some salt marshes than freshwater wetlands. We further detect the methane source, and found that plant activities played an important role in methane flux, for example, the growth of S. aterniflora, the dominate plants in salt marsh, could enhance methane emission, while in an fresh water wetland that was dominated by cattail, plant activity oxided methane and reduced total flux. Phragmite, an invasive plant at brackish marsh, have the highest methane flux among all coastal wetland investigated. This study indicated that coastal wetland could still emit relatively high amount of methane even under high water salinity condiations, and plant activity played an important role in methane flux, and this role was highly species-specific.

  6. Contribution of wetland agriculture to farmers' livelihood in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living in the vicinity of the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. Three tools were used: 1) focus group discussion 2) formal surveys and 3) Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands

  7. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  8. Planktonic Biodiversity of Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India | Neelam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years of evolution. This article deals with planktonic distribution of Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India . Bhoj Wetland comprises of two lakes i.e. Upper and Lower lakes of Bhopal. The Upper lake is ...

  9. Wetland restoration in Central Europe : aims and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfadenhauer, Joerg; Grootjans, Ab

    . Wetlands have always been of particular significance for mankind. While originally attractive as hunting grounds, they were later cultivated and modified from sinks into sources. Today, great efforts are being made to restore disturbed or destroyed wetland areas. Different models and goals for

  10. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Canter, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency

  11. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  12. Multi-membrane chitosan hydrogels as chondrocytic cell bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladet, S G; Tahiri, K; Montembault, A S; Domard, A J; Corvol, M-T M

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the bioactivity of new chitosan-based multi-membrane hydrogel (MMH) architectures towards chondrocyte-like cells. The microstructure of the hydrogels constituting the membranes precludes any living cell penetration, whereas their lower scale architecture allows the protein diffusion. The biological behavior of chondrocytes implanted within the MMH inter-membrane spaces was studied for 45 days in culture. Chondrocytes formed cell aggregates and proliferated without loosing their chondrogenic phenotype as illustrated by collagen II and aggrecan expressions at the mRNA and protein levels. Cells produced neo-formed alcyan blue matrix proteins filling MMH interspaces. The HiF-2α/SOX9 pattern of expression suggested that the elevated chondrocytic phenotype in MMH could be related to a better hypoxic local environment than in classical culture conditions. Pro-inflammatory markers were not expressed during the period of culture. The low level of nitric oxide accumulation within the inter-membrane spaces and in the incubation medium implied that chitosan consumed nitrites produced by entrapped chondrocytes, in relation with the decrease of its molecular weight of 50%. Our data suggest that MMH structures may be considered as complex chondrocytic cell bioreactors; "active decoys of biological media", potentially promising for various biomedical applications like the inter-vertebral disk replacement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  14. A risk analysis for production processes with disposable bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merseburger, Tobias; Pahl, Ina; Müller, Daniel; Tanner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    : Quality management systems are, as a rule, tightly defined systems that conserve existing processes and therefore guarantee compliance with quality standards. But maintaining quality also includes introducing new enhanced production methods and making use of the latest findings of bioscience. The advances in biotechnology and single-use manufacturing methods for producing new drugs especially impose new challenges on quality management, as quality standards have not yet been set. New methods to ensure patient safety have to be established, as it is insufficient to rely only on current rules. A concept of qualification, validation, and manufacturing procedures based on risk management needs to be established and realized in pharmaceutical production. The chapter starts with an introduction to the regulatory background of the manufacture of medicinal products. It then continues with key methods of risk management. Hazards associated with the production of medicinal products with single-use equipment are described with a focus on bioreactors, storage containers, and connecting devices. The hazards are subsequently evaluated and criteria for risk evaluation are presented. This chapter concludes with aspects of industrial application of quality risk management.

  15. Numerical simulation of fluid flow in a rotational bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganimedov, V. L.; Papaeva, E. O.; Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    Application of scaffold technology for the problem of bone tissue regeneration has great prospects in modern medicine. The influence of fluid shear stress on stem cells cultivation and its differentiation into osteoblasts is the subject of intensive research. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in bioreactor allowed us to determine the structure of flow and estimate the level of mechanical stress on cells. The series of computations for different rotation frequencies (0.083, 0.124, 0.167, 0.2 and 0.233 Hz) was performed for the laminar flow regime approximation. It was shown that the Taylor vortices in the gap between the cylinders qualitatively change the distribution of static pressure and shear stress in the region of vortices connection. It was shown that an increase in the rotation frequency leads to an increase of the unevenness in distribution of the above mentioned functions. The obtained shear stress and static pressure dependence on the rotational frequency make it possible to choose the operating mode of the reactor depending on the provided requirements. It was shown that in the range of rotation frequencies chosen in this work (0.083 < f < 0.233 Hz), the shear stress does not exceed the known literature data (0.002 - 0.1 Pa).

  16. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  17. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration

  18. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  19. Use of NASA Bioreactor in Engineering Tissue for Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    This study was proposed in search for a new alternative for bone replacement or repair. Because the systems commonly used in repair of bony defects form bone by going through a cartilaginous phase, implantation of a piece of cartilage could enhance the healing process by having a more advanced starting point. However, cartilage has seldom been used to replace bone due, in part, to the limitations in conventional culture systems that did not allow production of enough tissue for implants. The NASA-developed bioreactors known as STLV (Slow Turning Lateral Vessel) provide homogeneous distribution of cells, nutrients, and waste products, with less damaging turbulence and shear forces than conventional systems. Cultures under these conditions have higher growth rates, viability, and longevity, allowing larger "tissue-like" aggregates to form, thus opening the possibilities of producing enough tissue for implantation, along with the inherent advantages of in vitro manipulations. To assure large numbers of cells and to eliminate the use of timed embryos, we proposed to use an immortalized mouse limb bud cell line as the source of cells.

  20. Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthanant Natpinit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.