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Sample records for contact allergy quantitative

  1. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  2. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...

  3. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  4. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  5. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, Teddy; L Menné, T

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  6. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L

    2011-01-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and in 2005 permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up till then MI had only been used in combination with methylcholoroisthiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most...... frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products...... is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI e.g. in painters are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products...

  7. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    .4%) had doubtfully positive reaction(s) and 31 (5.8%) had irritant reaction(s). Skin-care products were tested most frequently and were also found to cause most positive, doubtfully positive and irritant reactions, 80% of the patients with positive reactions to their own products had no history of contact...

  8. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  9. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...

  10. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    typically have a history of rash to a fine fragrance or scented deodorants. Chemical analysis has revealed that well known allergens from the fragrance mix are present in 15-100% of cosmetic products, including deodorants and fine fragrances, and most often in combinations of three to four allergens...... in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...

  11. Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Basketter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.

  12. Clinical update on contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I; Frosch, Peter J; Schnuch, Axel

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union. Another group of important allergens that have been studied extensively included the fragrances oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and farnesol. A new fragrance mix II has been developed for standard testing, which includes the two latter compounds. Dose response studies have demonstrated broad individual variation of elicitation thresholds, dependent on the allergen concentration during induction, and other factors. Some unsuspected routes of exposure to allergens include oral, inhalational, connubial or airborne contact. Experimental studies provide a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue, and cutting fluid components. Constant awareness for new allergens, confirmed by critical evaluation, standardization of patch test materials, and the identification of temporal patterns and subgroups at risk will improve both the diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  14. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  15. Contact allergy epidemics and their controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis can be severe and lead to sick leave as well as significant healthcare expenses. The aim of this review is to present the published knowledge on 6 historical epidemics of contact allergy to apply this knowledge on the prevention and control of future contact allergy epidemics...

  16. Contact allergy to epoxy hardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Diglycidylether of bisphenol A resin is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients develop concomitant or solitary contact allergy to epoxy hardeners. At the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, several in-house test substances of epoxy hardeners have been tested in a special epoxy compound patch test series. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy hardeners. Test files (January 1991 to March 2013) were screened for contact allergy to different epoxy hardeners, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. The most commonly positive epoxy hardeners were m-xylylenediamine (n = 24), 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP; n = 14), isophorone-diamine (n = 12), and diethylenetriamine (n = 9). Trimethylhexamethylenediamine (n = 7), tetraethylenepentamine (n = 4), and triethylenetetramine (n = 2) elicited some reactions, although most patients were found to have no specific exposure. Allergic reactions to hexamethylenetetramine, dimethylaminopropylamine and ethylenediamine dihydrochloride were not related to epoxy products. Tris-DMP is an important sensitizer in epoxy hardeners, and should be included in the patch test series of epoxy chemicals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical update on contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union....... Another group of important allergens that have been studied extensively included the fragrances oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and farnesol. A new fragrance mix II has been developed for standard testing, which includes the two latter compounds. Dose response...... studies have demonstrated broad individual variation of elicitation thresholds, dependent on the allergen concentration during induction, and other factors. Some unsuspected routes of exposure to allergens include oral, inhalational, connubial or airborne contact. Experimental studies provide...

  18. Contact Allergy in Danish Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Sommerlund, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    . The primary objective was to determine whether healthcare work was associated with contact allergy to thiuram mix. Unadjusted univariate analyses revealed that healthcare work was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis and hand dermatitis. Contact allergy to thiuram mix was more common...... in healthcare workers was significantly associated with having occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis and older age. In conclusion, we report here a potential problem of contact allergy to thiurams in healthcare workers with contact dermatitis. Legislative authorities may in the future focus...

  19. Association between Contact allergy and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie

    2011-01-01

    6. SUMMERY 6.1 Summery in English Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis are the two most prevalent skin diseases in the western world. ACD is the clinical manifestation of contact allergy. Contact allergy and psoriasis are both due to inflammatory mechanisms involving the innate...... and adaptive immune system. Psoriasis is conceived to be an autoimmune disease. Recent studies have suggested an inverse relation between contact allergy and autoimmune diseases. The association between contact allergy and psoriasis could reveal mechanistic insights into both inflammatory processes....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate the association between contact allergy and autoimmune disease, with focus on psoriasis. The work was done in three study parts. Part I Epidemiological studies. Part II Sensitization study and Part III Experimental studies. In part I the association between...

  20. Quantitation of contact allergy in guinea pigs by measuring changes in skin blood flow and skin fold thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Staberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Skin blood flow determined by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and skin fold thickness (SFT) have been used to quantitate allergic contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) using chlorocresol as the allergen. The closed patch test procedure itself influenced both LDF and SFT meas...

  1. Quantitation of contact allergy in guinea pigs by measuring changes in skin blood flow and skin fold thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Staberg, B

    1985-01-01

    Skin blood flow determined by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and skin fold thickness (SFT) have been used to quantitate allergic contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) using chlorocresol as the allergen. The closed patch test procedure itself influenced both LDF and SFT...... measurements when determined in 12 sham-treated guinea pigs. The LDF was maximal at 24 hours and the SFT at 48 hours. Before correlating the quantitative measurements with the conventional visual scoring in test and control animals the value from a nearby control site was subtracted from the test site values...

  2. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  3. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observ.......2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis....

  4. [Contact allergy for Alstrumeria (inca lily)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M

    1990-06-30

    We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed.

  5. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cas...... of isolated MI contact allergy were published....

  6. Contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A B; Johansen, J D; Deleuran, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is frequently debated. Previously, patients with atopic dermatitis were believed to have a reduced ability to produce a type IV immunological response. However, this belief has been challenged and authors have highlighted the risk...... of underestimating and overlooking allergic contact dermatitis in children with atopic dermatitis. Several studies have been published aiming to shed light on this important question but results are contradictory. To provide an overview of the existing knowledge, we systematically reviewed studies that report...... frequencies of positive patch test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis. We identified 436 manuscripts of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. Although the literature is conflicting, it is evident that contact allergy is a common problem in children with atopic dermatitis....

  7. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    a method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first......In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...

  8. Tixocortol pivalate contact allergy in the GPMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Lepoittevin, J P; Kreilgaard, B;

    2001-01-01

    In spite of their intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids can induce contact allergy. When studying the allergenic properties of corticosteroids it has to be considered that both the allergenic and anti-inflammatory effect may influence the induction phase as well as the elicitation...... with logistic regression analysis. There was a significant tixocortol pivalate sensitization of the test animals compared to the control group (preactions than the challenge with 3%. The highest frequency...

  9. Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Royds, C; Buckley, Christopher D

    2004-01-01

    A total of 2261 (808 male, 1453 female) consecutive patients attending contact dermatitis clinics were patch tested to isoeugenol and its derivatives listed in the EU Inventory of Fragrance Ingredients. Positive reactions were found to isoeugenol in 40, transisoeugenol in 40, isoeugenyl acetate...... and 15/16 of those to isoeugenyl phenylacetate but in none of those 6 positive to isoeugenyl methyl ether and in neither of those 2 positive to benzyl isoeugenyl ether. Concomitant contact allergy between isoeugenol and its derivatives may occur through chemical cross-reactivity or local skin metabolism...

  10. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    and cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact allergy and cancer. Methods Record linkage of two different registers was performed: (1) a tertiary...... hospital register of dermatitis patients patch tested for contact allergy and (2) a nationwide cancer register (the Danish Cancer Register). After linking the two registers, only cancer subtypes with 40 or more patients registered were included in the analysis. The final associations were evaluated...... by logistic regression analysis. Results An inverse association between contact allergy and non-melanoma skin- and breast cancer, respectively, was identified in both sexes, and an inverse trend for brain cancer was found in women with contact allergy. Additionally, a positive association between contact...

  11. Association between cancer and contact allergy: a linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    hospital register of dermatitis patients patch tested for contact allergy and (2) a nationwide cancer register (the Danish Cancer Register). After linking the two registers, only cancer subtypes with 40 or more patients registered were included in the analysis. The final associations were evaluated...... by logistic regression analysis. Results An inverse association between contact allergy and non-melanoma skin- and breast cancer, respectively, was identified in both sexes, and an inverse trend for brain cancer was found in women with contact allergy. Additionally, a positive association between contact...... and cancer, few have looked into the association between cancer and contact allergy, a type IV allergy. By linking two clinical databases, the authors investigate the possible association between contact allergy and cancer. Methods Record linkage of two different registers was performed: (1) a tertiary...

  12. Corticosteroid contact allergy: an EECDRG multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandäo, F M;

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the results of an EECDRG multicentre study on contact allergy to corticosteroids. A total of 7238 patients were investigated: 6238 in 13 centres in the course of 1993, and 1000 patients in 1 centre in 1993 and 1994. The 5 corticosteroids tested were budesonide 0.1% pet......., betamethasone-17-valerate 1% pet., clobetasol-17-propionate 1% pet., hydrocortisone-17-butyrate 1% eth., and tixocortol-21-pivalate 1% pet.; 189 (2.6%) gave a positive patchtest reaction (+, ++, + + +) to at least 1 of the corticosteroids. The data regarding the corticosteroid-sensitive patients, as well...

  13. Persistence of contact allergy among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    In 1990, a random sample of 567 persons of the 15-69-year-old population living in the Western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark, was patch tested in a cross-sectional study. In 1998, a follow-up study was performed. Out of 540 invited, 365 (68%) were re-patch tested. In the follow-up study...... at least 1 positive patch test. Nickel allergy persisted in 79%. Allergen avoidance should probably be lifelong to prevent elicitation of contact dermatitis....

  14. Smoking might be a risk factor for contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Menné, Torkil;

    2003-01-01

    the association between smoking and contact allergy. METHODS: The study population comprised a cross-sectional, general population-based sample of 15- to 69-year-old persons living in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 1056 persons (73.6% of the invited) were given a patch test (TRUE test). Contact allergy...

  15. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  16. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-01-01

    Contact allergy is frequent among dermatitis patients and subjects in the general population. This review aims to update the reader on the epidemiology of contact allergy epidemics. It presents recent epidemiological data on metals, fragrances, hair dyes, preservatives and thiurams. It concludes ...

  17. The epidemiology of contact allergy. Allergen exposure and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergy is frequent among dermatitis patients and subjects in the general population. This review aims to update the reader on the epidemiology of contact allergy epidemics. It presents recent epidemiological data on metals, fragrances, hair dyes, preservatives and thiurams. It concludes that the prevalence of nickel allergy is decreasing among young women whereas the prevalence of cobalt allergy remains stable. The prevalence of chromium allergy is currently increasing significantly in both sexes, mainly as a result of leather exposure. The epidemiology of fragrance allergy is changing as the prevalence of fragrance mix I and myroxylon pereirae allergy has decreased significantly in recent years and as the prevalence of fragrance mix II allergy has increased. The prevalence of p-phenylenediamine allergy seems stable in Europe but remains high. The prevalence of isothiazolinone allergy remains high whereas the prevalence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile allergy has decreased following regulatory intervention. Finally, the prevalence of thiuram allergy is decreasing as a result of improved rubber glove production.

  18. Contact allergy and depigmentation from alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkner, B E

    1982-05-01

    Alstroemeria plants have increased in popularity in recent years, but surprisingly few cases of contact allergy have been reported. Observations of combined sensitivity between Alstroemeria and Tulipa have given support to the assumption that they contain identical sensitizing agents. A patient working as a gardner developed a dermatitis from Alstroemeria. Patch tests with Alstroemeria were positive, but patch tests with Tulipa were negative. 2 months after test application, the patient showed depigmented areas at the test sites and at the sites of a previous dermatitis. The depigmented test areas remained unchanged at least a year after test application. Whether the depigmentation was due to some unique character of the molecular structure of the unknown Alstroemeria allergen, or to a unique biological characteristic of the patient, remains to be determined.

  19. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  20. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H;

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited...... by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189...... individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing...

  1. Epidemiology of contact allergy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T; Böhler, E; Ruhdorfer, S; Weigl, L; Wessner, D; Filipiak, B; Wichmann, H E; Ring, J

    2001-12-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of contact sensitization in the general population and to investigate associations with important sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Within a population-based nested, case-control study in Germany, we performed patch tests with 25 standard allergens in 1141 adults (50.4% female, age median 50 years). Additional information was obtained by a dermatologic examination, a standardized interview, and blood analysis. At least one positive reaction was exhibited by 40.0% of the subjects, with reactions most frequently observed to fragrance mix (15.9%), nickel (13.1%), thimerosal (4.7%), and balsam of Peru (3.8%). Women were sensitized more often than men (50.2% vs 29.9%, OR 2.36, CI 1.84-3.03), and this was also significant for fragrance mix, nickel, turpentine, cobalt chloride, and thimerosal. Contact sensitization was more frequent in subjects who reported adverse skin reactions (53.8% vs. 32.6%; OR 2.41, CI 1.85-3.14), and this was particularly true for sensitization to nickel (45.5% vs 8.8%, OR 8.64, CI 5.67-13.17) and fragrance mix (29.0% vs 14.0%, OR 2.51, CI 1.60-3.91) and the corresponding intolerance of fashion jewelry and fragrances. Contact sensitization decreased with increasing degree of occupational training (unskilled 45.9%, apprenticeship 40.1%, technical college 40.4%, and school of engineering 12.5%; P=0.023; trend test P=0.042). Significant associations of contact sensitization and presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, atopic eczema, or psoriasis were not observed. Frequency estimates for the general adult population based on these findings were 28.0% for overall contact sensitization and 11.4% for fragrance mix, 9.9% for nickel, and 3.2% for thimerosal. It is concluded that contact allergy is influenced by sociodemographic parameters and plays an important role in the general population.

  2. Proposed ICDRG Classification of the Clinical Presentation of Contact Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2016-01-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group proposes a classification for the clinical presentation of contact allergy. The classification is based primarily on the mode of clinical presentation. The categories are direct exposure/contact dermatitis, mimicking or exacerbation of preexisting....../mucosal symptoms, oral contact dermatitis, erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis, minor forms of presentation, and extracutaneous manifestations....

  3. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact ...

  4. Risk assessment for nickel contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Chaiwanon, Onjuta; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    Nickel is one of the most common allergens causing allergic contact dermatitis worldwide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the contributing factors to nickel contact allergy (NiCA) in Asians who have a unique culture and lifestyle. We randomly selected 324 previously patch-tested patients, 162 nickel patch test (PT)-positive patients and 162 nickel PT-negative patients. The patients were telephone interviewed for their lifestyle information. Most of the nickel PT-positive patients (93.2%) were female with a mean age of 38.9 ± 13.3 years compared with the other group of nickel PT-negative patients who had a smaller proportion of females (76.5%) with an older mean age of 44.1 ± 14.9 years (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis was able to establish that the significant risk factors for NiCA were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 6.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-18.94), young age (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), occupation with long periods of exposure to metal (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.18-8.02), seafood (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.17-3.27) and canned food consumption (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.17-8.33) (P < 0.05). The adjusted factors found to associate with NiCA were female sex, young age, occupation with long periods of exposure to metal, seafood and canned food consumption.

  5. Dipropylene glycol allergy: A hidden cause of perfume contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Ernst Jemec, Gregor Borut

    1994-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a hand lotion is presented. A positive patch test reaction to the perfume formulation from the lotion was found, establishing a case of perfume allergy. However, when all 16 ingredients of the perfume were tested, the patient reacted not only...... to a fragrance material but also to the solvent used in the perfume, dipropylene glycol. The diagnosis of perfume allergy is common. However, the substances in the responsible perfume are rarely obtained for testing, and significant allergies to the solvent of the perfume may be overlooked. © 1994....

  6. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  7. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Yoshihisa; Tadamichi Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczema...

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis, gold therapy, contact allergy and blood cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Ake; Möller, Halvor; Björkner, Bert; Bruze, Magnus; Leden, Ido; Theander, Jan; Ohlsson, Kjell; Linder, Carina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the clinical and biochemical effects of a low starting dose for gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a contact allergy to gold. Methods Serum cytokines were assayed before and 24 h after the first injection of gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM). Results Contact allergy to gold was found in 4 of 19 patients. Compared to gold-negative patients (starting dose: 10 mg GSTM), there was a larger increase in serum TNFalpha (p < 0.05), sTNF-R1 (NS), and IL-1 ra (p ...

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis, gold therapy, contact allergy and blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åke; Möller, Halvor; Björkner, Bert; Bruze, Magnus; Leden, Ido; Theander, Jan; Ohlsson, Kjell; Linder, Carina

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical and biochemical effects of a low starting dose for gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a contact allergy to gold. Methods Serum cytokines were assayed before and 24 h after the first injection of gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM). Results Contact allergy to gold was found in 4 of 19 patients. Compared to gold-negative patients (starting dose: 10 mg GSTM), there was a larger increase in serum TNFalpha (p < 0.05), sTNF-R1 (NS), and IL-1 ra (p < 0.05) in gold-allergic patients. Conclusions Cytokines are released in blood by GSTM in RA patients with gold allergy. To minimize the risk of acute adverse reactions the starting dose of GSTM should be lowered to 5 mg. Alternatively, patients should be patch-tested before gold therapy; in test-positive cases, 5 mg is recommended as the first dose. PMID:11860615

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis, gold therapy, contact allergy and blood cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theander Jan

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the clinical and biochemical effects of a low starting dose for gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a contact allergy to gold. Methods Serum cytokines were assayed before and 24 h after the first injection of gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM. Results Contact allergy to gold was found in 4 of 19 patients. Compared to gold-negative patients (starting dose: 10 mg GSTM, there was a larger increase in serum TNFalpha (p Conclusions Cytokines are released in blood by GSTM in RA patients with gold allergy. To minimize the risk of acute adverse reactions the starting dose of GSTM should be lowered to 5 mg. Alternatively, patients should be patch-tested before gold therapy; in test-positive cases, 5 mg is recommended as the first dose.

  11. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2014-01-01

    : painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration...

  12. Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental products are widely used by patients and dental personnel alike and may cause problems for both. Dental materials could cause contact allergy with varying manifestations such as burning, pain, stomatitis, cheilitis, ulcers, lichenoid reactions localized to the oral mucosa in patients, and hand dermatitis in dental personnel. Patch testing with the dental series comprising commonly used materials can be used to detect contact allergies to dental materials. Aim: This study aimed to identify contact allergy among patients who have oral mucosal lesions after dental treatment and among dental personnel who came in contact with these materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who had undergone dental procedures with symptoms of oral lichen planus, oral stomatitis, burning mouth, and recurrent aphthosis, were included in the study. Dental personnel with history of hand dermatitis were also included in the study. Patch testing was performed using Chemotechnique Dental Series and results interpreted as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG. Results: Out of 13 patients who had undergone dental treatment/with oral symptoms, six patients with stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, and oral ulcers showed positive patch tests to a variety of dental materials, seven patients with ulcers had negative patch tests, seven dental personnel with hand dermatitis showed multiple allergies to various dental materials, and most had multiple positivities. Conclusion: The patch test is a useful, simple, noninvasive method to detect contact allergies among patients and among dental personnel dealing with these products. Long term studies are necessary to establish the relevance of these positive patch tests by eliminating the allergic substances, identifying clinical improvement, and substituting with nonallergenic materials.

  13. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  14. Cheilitis, perioral dermatitis and contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Evelyne; Jeudy, Géraldine; Dalac, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis is a superficial inflammatory condition of the lip. It can occur either alone or be associated with stomatitis or perioral eczema. Contact hypersensitivity reactions are a frequent cause of cheilitis. Cosmetic and hygiene products are the most usual causes. Less frequently, allergic cheilitis is caused by contact with musical instruments, topical medicines or food allergens. Cases of cheilitis induced by dental material are rare and debated. The diagnosis relies on patch tests, which start with the European baseline series and the patient's personal cosmetic and topical products. This investigation will then be completed by the ingredients in the topical products and specific test series.

  15. Isobornyl acrylate contact allergy: Rare or underdiagnosed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, W.A.; Coenraads, P.J.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to isobornyl acrylate has been reported in only two cases in literature. Therefore, isobornyl acrylate is not part of a (meth) acrylates patch test series. At our department an industrial worker presented with therapy-resistant hand eczema and sensitizations f

  16. Contact allergy to a reaction product in Hirudoid cream: an example of compound allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenk, G; Kerckhoffs, H P; Schreurs, P H

    1987-02-01

    We have investigated patients with a contact allergy to Hirudoid cream. The hypersensitivity reactions appeared to be due to an allergy to the cream base, but the separate ingredients did not give rise to positive patch test reactions. The hypersensitivity proved to be due to an allergy to a reaction product, and the simultaneous presence of the preservatives 1,3,5-trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine and thymol was found to be necessary for the occurrence of a positive patch test reaction. A new allergen was found to be formed by the reaction between thymol and the degradation products of the triazine derivative. This allergen was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy as 3-(hydroxyethyl)-5-methyl-8-(2-methylethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazi ne.

  17. Screening occupational contact allergy to bisphenol F epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) are widely used as such in applications requiring chemical resistance, and also together with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R). Concomitant patch test reactions to DGEBA-R and DGEBF resin (DGEBF-R) are common. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the frequency of independent DGEBF-R contact allergies. To report the results of over 11 years of screening with DGEBF-R. An in-house test substance of DGEBF-R (Epikote 862) was tested in the baseline patch test series, first at 1% and later at 0.25%. Test files were screened for allergic reactions to DGEBF-R and DGEBA-R, and the clinical records of positively reacting patients were analysed for occupation and exposure. Among 1972 patients, 66 (3.3%) reacted to DGEBF-R and 96 (4.9%) to DGEBA-R. Independent DGEBF-R allergies were seen in 5 patients only, and independent DGEBA-R allergies in 35. Specific exposure to DGEBF-R was found in 26 patients. The main occupational fields were the aircraft industry, the electrical and sports equipment industry, boat building, painting/floor coating, tile setting, and pipe relining. Independent contact allergies to DGEBF-R were rare, and screening with it was not found to be useful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Contact allergy caused by poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster-Holst, R; Hausen, B M; Brasch, J; Christophers, E

    2001-02-01

    Within 3 days two female patients presented with an eruption featuring erythema, edema, vesicles and bullae. We suspected poison ivy allergy which was subsequently proven by history and positive patch tests. In Germany the risk of specific hypersensitivity to Toxicodendron species is low, since the distribution of such plants is confined to botanical gardens. Other species belonging to the family of Anacardiaceae contain urushiols as well (e.g., mango, cashew) and may cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  19. Contact dermatitis to alcohol swabs masquerading as vaccine allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Emma; Marshman, Gillian; Kupa, Ann

    2004-05-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed an eruption on her upper arm of pruritic, follicular papules each time she received a vaccination. This was initially thought to be a local reaction to the vaccines. After a similar rash appeared at a venepuncture site, a contact allergy to the alcohol swabs used before the procedures was postulated. A repeated open application test clarified this observation.

  20. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Pollen Allergy Allergy Symptoms Anaphylaxis / Severe Allergic Reaction Eye Allergies Rhinitis Sinusitis Skin Allergies Eczema Contact Dermatitis Hives Swelling Allergy Diagnosis Allergy Treatment Allergy ...

  1. Acceptable risk of contact allergy in the general population assessed by CE-DUR--a method to detect and categorize contact allergy epidemics based on patient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Over the 20th century, several contact allergy epidemics arose in Western Europe. Today, industries use various assays to determine the sensitization potential of new ingredients and thereby prevent new contact allergy outbreaks. This study debates acceptable risk of sensitization in the general...

  2. Contact Allergy to Castor Oil, but Not to Castor Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Verheyden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis (castor seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4, a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics containing castor oil, in whom a correct diagnosis was achieved by patch testing castor oil ‘as is’. PEGylated and/or hydrogenated derivatives (the latter formerly also available from patch test allergen suppliers and/or cosmetics containing these specific derivatives did not result in contact allergy or allergic contact dermatitis. This observation might be relevant for the manufacturing of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the future, further research into the allergenicity of castor oil and its numerous derivatives, and their optimal patch test concentrations, may be desirable.

  3. Metal allergy and systemic contact dermatitis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST), have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  4. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  5. [Importance of epidemiologic surveillance in contact dermatitis: Spanish surveillance system on contact allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Armario-Hita, J C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Fernández-Vozmediano, J M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Silvestre, J F; Uter, W; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of contact dermatitis means that this common medical problem has considerable personal, societal, and economic impact. Clinical and epidemiologic research is needed if we are to shed light on the real situation of contact dermatitis in Spain. In this article we will look at epidemiologic research from a practical point of view and analyze the role of the dermatologist in planning and designing studies. The advantages of multicenter studies are discussed, along with the roles of national and international surveillance networks. We present the Spanish Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, which serves as a bridge between Spanish dermatologists and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies. The present and future aims of the Spanish network are described.

  6. Contact allergy to epoxy resin: risk occupations and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Veien, Niels Kren; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Bo Lasthein; Danielsen, Anne; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-08-01

    Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis patients patch tested during 2005-2009. All patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test were sent a questionnaire. A positive patch test reaction to epoxy resin was found in 275 patients (1.3%), with a higher proportion in men (1.9%) than in women (1.0%). The prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated in an educational programme. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Contact allergy to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-06-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most common sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients also develop contact allergy to reactive diluents. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins. Test files (January 1991 to June 2014) were screened, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. A total of 67 patients reacted to at least one of the compounds. The largest numbers of allergic reactions were to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE; n = 41), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE; n = 34), and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether (PTBPGE; n = 19). Ten of the patients did not have contact allergy to DGEBA-R. The reactions of 5 of these were related to the use of BDDGE-containing products. We found no significant exposure to PGE or PTBPGE in patients sensitized to them, but some of the patients had used cresyl glycidyl ether-containing products. Allergic reactions to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins usually occurred together with reactions to DGEBA-R. BDDGE was the clinically most significant compound, and was the sole cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 3 patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-03-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed in 885 consecutive patients. A significant relationship between reactions to colophonium and FM was seen (p < 0.001) as well as a significant relationship between oak moss absolute and colophonium (p < 0.001). The relationship between colophonium and FM was still significant when all reactions to oak moss absolute were disregarded (p < 0.001), showing a relationship also between colophonium and fragrance ingredients other than oak moss absolute. Second, 119 consecutive patients were tested with an old and a new version of oak moss absolute containing resin acid (0.05%) and no measurable resin acid, respectively, and with the corresponding FM. No overall difference in reactivity to the old and new version of oak moss absolute/FM was seen. It is concluded the diagnostic value of oak moss absolute as indicator fragrance contact allergy has been and is unaffected by the resin acid contamination.

  9. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The immune system normally protects the body against harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses. It also reacts ... during the allergic reaction Drowsiness and other side effects of medicines When to Contact a Medical ... Breastfeeding can help prevent or decrease allergies when you ...

  10. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menné, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-08-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.

  11. Contact allergy to chlorhexidine in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is a widely used disinfectant in the healthcare setting and in cosmetic products. A high prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy was reported in Denmark in the 1980s (2.0-5.4% of patients patch tested). It is unknown whether the prevalence is still high, which products...... cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate...... is necessary; to investigate how many patients have combined immediate-type allergy and contact allergy; and to identify which products cause chlorhexidine contact allergy, and whether patients are accidentally re-exposed. METHODS: This was a retrospective study including all patients patch tested...

  12. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  13. Contact allergy in children with and without atopic dermatitis; which are the frequent allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbes, S.; Rustemeyer, T.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; Middelkamp-Hup, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on contact allergies in children are poor. This study aims to identify the occurrence of contact allergies and relevance of allergens in children. This will allow better identification of potential sensitizers and improve patients' care in children. Patients and methods: We retrospe

  14. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  15. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M;

    1998-01-01

    . Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy...... in a comparison with both control groups. The risk (odds ratio) of being diagnosed as fragrance allergic was 2.3 to 2.9 greater in cases of a history of first-time rash to deodorant sprays and 3.3 to 3.4 greater in cases of a history of rash to perfumes than if no such history were present. First-time rash...... to cleansing agents, deodorant sticks, or hand lotions was also statistically significant but only in comparison with one of the control groups. CONCLUSION: Safety evaluation of fragrance materials used in perfumes and deodorant sprays should be performed with special attention....

  16. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M

    1998-01-01

    . Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy...... in a comparison with both control groups. The risk (odds ratio) of being diagnosed as fragrance allergic was 2.3 to 2.9 greater in cases of a history of first-time rash to deodorant sprays and 3.3 to 3.4 greater in cases of a history of rash to perfumes than if no such history were present. First-time rash...... to cleansing agents, deodorant sticks, or hand lotions was also statistically significant but only in comparison with one of the control groups. CONCLUSION: Safety evaluation of fragrance materials used in perfumes and deodorant sprays should be performed with special attention....

  17. Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S

    1980-01-01

    Atranorin, one of the most common lichen substances, gave positive patch test reactions in eight subjects (1%) in a routine series. These subjects also reacted to fumarprotocetraric acid and some of them to evernic acid. Stictic acid and usnic acid gave negative reactions. The lichen oak moss Evernia prunastri and an oak moss perfume gave positive reactions. Thin-layer chromatography and a spot test indicated that atranorin is present in oak moss perfumes which are made from oak moss and tree moss. Contact with oak moss perfumes and lichens in nature may cause atranorin allergy. None of the eight subjects had a history of light sensitivity or atopy and none had chronic facial eczema.

  18. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact...... allergy to a standard series allergen was found in 15.2% of schoolchildren. The point prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis was 0.7% and the lifetime prevalence 7.2%, predominantly in girls. The most common contact allergens were nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). Nickel allergy was clinically...... relevant in 69% and fragrance allergy in 29% of cases. A significant association was found between contact allergy and hand eczema while no association was found between contact allergy and atopic dermatitis or inhalant allergy. In the future this cohort of schoolchildren will be followed with regard...

  19. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils.

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease in relation to contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has previously been investigated with relation to allergic conditions; however, diverging results were found and there are only a few small studies focusing on delayed hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an assoc......OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has previously been investigated with relation to allergic conditions; however, diverging results were found and there are only a few small studies focusing on delayed hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... there was an association between contact allergy (CA), which is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction of the skin, and IBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A database consisting of a cohort of 13,315 patients, patch tested between 1985 and 2003, was linked with the Danish National Patient Registry using a unique personal identifier...... number. The patients were patch tested at a dermatology department with a long history of research in CA. By record linking with the Danish National Patient Registry, patients were identified who had either an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for Crohn's disease (CD) or an ICD code...

  1. Contact Allergy to Preservatives—Is the European Commission a Commendable Risk Manager?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Ferløv Schwensen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health point of view, are permitted for use in cosmetic products in the European Union. Notwithstanding the efforts by the European Commission (EC to avoid epidemics of contact allergy, the former epidemic of contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile and the unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone show the procrastination of the European Union risk management process for cosmetic ingredients. Timely risk management is of the utmost importance to avoid rapidly increasing numbers of contact allergy to turn into full-blown epidemics. It is therefore proposed that in order to avoid future epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives, the allowed preservatives in cosmetic products should be entered onto Annex V on a time-limited basis only, and they must be re-evaluated in order to stay on Annex V.

  2. Filaggrin null alleles are not associated with hand eczema or contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Anne Lerbæk; Bisgaard, H; Agner, T;

    2007-01-01

    association with hand eczema or contact allergy are unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between the variant alleles, hand eczema, contact allergy and atopic dermatitis. METHODS: In total, 183 adult individuals participated in a clinical examination of the hands, patch testing and filaggrin...... genotyping. Children without any evidence of atopic dermatitis from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) study were used as controls. The chi(2) test was used for comparison of allele frequencies. RESULTS: The majority (73%) had hand eczema, 25% had contact allergy and 14% had...... a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. The association between atopic dermatitis and the filaggrin variant alleles was confirmed (odds ratio 3.5, P = 0.015). Allele frequencies in individuals with hand eczema or contact allergy were not statistically significantly increased. CONCLUSION: There is no association...

  3. [Contact allergy to Anacardiaceae. A review and case reports of poison ivy allergy in central Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippen, H

    1983-01-01

    In Europe, as opposed to North America, poison-ivy rash is hardly known. For this reason a detailed review of the allergenic members of the Anacardiaceae family is given, and the misleading nomenclature of "poison ivy", "poison oak", and some other species of this family are discussed. An up-to-date representation of the chemical structure of the allergenic substance group (denoted as "Urushiol") from this family is provided as well as botanical information regarding the plants themselves. Prevention of this dangerous sensitization and the therapy of this allergic reaction are discussed. The four cases presented are as follows: a young German woman who became sensitized to poison ivy or poison oak while in the USA and showed a cross reaction to other Rhus species (R. copallina, R. javanica (semialata), R. trichocarpa) as well as to Choerospondias axillaris var. japonica and to mangoes; a landscape gardener with an occupationally acquired allergy to Anacardium occidentale; and two control persons giving positive results to skin tests with Urushiol and Rhus trichocarpa respectively, to which the source of sensitization could not be clarified. Tests with three kinds of pistachio and two native-European Anacardiaceae (Rhus typhina and Cotinus coggygria) yielded negative results in each case. Prophylaxis to sensitization requires familiarity with the numerous Anacardiaceae and derivative products to which one could come in contact. These substances, summarized in a table, include mango, cashew and "sweet pepper".

  4. Association between filaggrin null mutations and concomitant atopic dermatitis and contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Thyssen, J P; Menné, T

    2011-01-01

    The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined.......The phenotypic traits of people with the filaggrin mutation (FLG) genotype and atopic dermatitis (AD) are still under elucidation, and the association with concomitant AD and contact allergy (CA) has not previously been examined....

  5. Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel Allergy in Patients Suffering from Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alcamo, Alberto; Mansueto, Pasquale; Soresi, Maurizio; Iacobucci, Rosario; La Blasca, Francesco; Geraci, Girolamo; Cavataio, Francesca; Fayer, Francesca; Arini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Laura; Iacono, Giuseppe; Bosco, Liana; Carroccio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a new clinical entity in the world of gluten-related diseases. Nickel, the most frequent cause of contact allergy, can be found in wheat and results in systemic nickel allergy syndrome and mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: To evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients diagnosed by a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, and to identify the characteristics of NCWS patients with nickel allergy. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 60 patients (54 females, 6 males; mean age 34.1 ± 8.1 years) diagnosed with NCWS from December 2014 to November 2016; 80 age- and sex-matched subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms served as controls. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickel-containing objects underwent nickel patch test (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02750735). Results: Six out of sixty patients (10%) with NCWS suffered from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy and this frequency was statistically higher (p = 0.04) than observed in the control group (5%). The main clinical characteristic of NCWS patients with nickel allergy was a higher frequency of cutaneous symptoms after wheat ingestion compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer from nickel allergy (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy are more frequent in NCWS patients than in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders; furthermore, these patients had a very high frequency of cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. Nickel allergy should be evaluated in NCWS patients who have cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. PMID:28157173

  6. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders: dry eye disease, blepharitis, and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemp, Michael A; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses the use of contact lenses in patients suffering from dry eye and ocular allergy. The diagnosis of dry eye is outlined along with the relationship between contact lenses, the tear film, and the ocular surface. A practical approach to the recognition and management of the dry eye patient wishing to wear contact lenses is presented. In addition, a consideration of a careful strategy to identify patients with ocular allergy and manage the use of contact lenses in these patients is developed with an emphasis on the avoidance of complications.

  7. Contact allergy in children with and without atopic dermatitis; which are the frequent allergens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbes, S.; Rustemeyer, T.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; Middelkamp-Hup, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on contact allergies in children are conflicting. This study aims to identify frequent contact allergens and their relevance in children with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). This will allow better identification of potential sensitizers and improve patients' care in children. Me

  8. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  9. The significance of allergic contact urticaria to milk in children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichter-Konfino, Vered; Almog, Meital; Bamberger, Ellen; Berkowitz, Drora; Kessel, Aharon

    2015-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in infancy. Food allergy is generally triggered through ingestion, but can also be triggered through skin contact. We investigated the incidence and the clinical significance of cow's milk protein (CMP)-induced contact urticaria in individuals with CMA with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). A total of 157 children of whom 133 were diagnosed with CMA were participated. The study was based on observational data gathered in the course of patient care, including a skin prick test and a 'finger test', in which cow's milk is applied on the cheek by a physician's finger to detect contact urticaria. Eighty nine of 133 patients (66.9%) had IgE-mediated CMA. Forty of these 89 (44.9%) tested positive in the finger test. Family atopy was higher in those with positive contact urticaria [21/40 (52.5%) vs. 14/49 (28.5%), p = 0.029]. Patients with positive vs. negative CMP contact urticaria had higher incidence of multiple food allergies [20 of 40 (50%) vs. 7/49 (14.3%), p urticaria compared to patients without AD [71% (15/21) vs. 37% (25/68), p = 0.0064]. Children with non-IgE milk allergy and healthy control group did not have contact urticaria to CMP. CMP contact urticaria exists only in patients with IgE-mediated CMA. A 'finger test' to CMP should be part of the evaluation of CMA patients, and positivity suggests the potential for multiple food allergies, especially to sesame and egg. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common allergens. Airborne particles that can cause allergies include dust mites (tiny bugs that live in house dust); mold ... breathe in (like pollen, pet dander, or dust mites) or insect allergies. Immunotherapy doesn't help with some allergies, like ...

  11. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly......, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency...

  12. Contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile--data from a 'front line' network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Lauritzen, Martin; Avnstorp, Christian

    2005-03-01

    The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has caused an epidemic of contact allergy in Europe. However, most data concerning contact allergy comes from hospital departments of dermatology. As a part of the primary health care sector, Danish dermatologists in private practice provide the front line of care for patients with skin diseases. Data from this source may therefore better reflect trends in the general population than material from hospital departments of dermatology. In this study, the frequency of MDBGN allergy and the characteristics of patients seen by dermatologists in private practice were studied. In 1 year, 2146 patients were patch tested by the participating dermatologists from 4 clinics in various parts of Denmark. 5% (110) had positive patch tests to MDBGN, with no difference between the sexes. After adjustment was made for other background variables, multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed a significant association between hand eczema and MDBGN allergy (OR 2.5, P < 0.001). In 53 cases (52.4%), the patch test reaction to MDBGN was judged to be of current relevance. Creams and lotions accounted for 31% of the identified causative products and liquid soaps for 23%. It is concluded that contact allergy to MDBGN is frequent among patients seen by dermatologists in private practice. This is consistent with results from hospital departments of dermatology in Europe and indicates a general trend and ongoing epidemic in the general population. The significant relationship between hand eczema and MDBGN allergy is of concern, and the finding that wash-off products, especially liquid soaps, play a significant role in MDBGN allergy calls for a revision of the safety assessment of MDBGN in wash-off products.

  13. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  14. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in leave-on products elicits contact allergy at low concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Agner, T; Held, E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rapidly increasing level of contact allergy to methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) in Europe is of concern. In April 2003, the EU Commission prohibited the use of MDBGN in leave-on cosmetic products, such as creams and lotions, until a level of safe use can be defined. Industry risk...... assessment has indicated that such a safe level could be 50-100 p.p.m. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 50 p.p.m. or 100 p.p.m. could be tolerated by MDBGN-sensitized individuals, and to evaluate if the risk for elicitation of MDBGN allergy is higher for a leave-on product with a high lipid content than...... for a product with a low lipid content. METHODS: Eighteen volunteers with contact allergy to MDBGN and 10 healthy controls were exposed to repeated open application tests (ROATs) with two moisturizers with a high and a low lipid content, respectively, both containing MDBGN at a concentration of 50 p...

  15. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay in Touch Donate Get Support Kids with Food Allergies Search: Resources Recipes Community Home About KFA Programs ... AAFA KFA-AAFA Merger Contact Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy ...

  16. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. OBJECTIVE: To investigate concomitant reactio...

  17. Air-oxidized linalool-a frequent cause of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Background. Linalool is a common fragrance terpene that, in pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, linalool autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a Swedish study, oxidized linalool 6.0% in petrolatum (pet.) gave 5% positiv...

  18. Permanent-wave dermatitis: contact allergy to cysteamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Maeran C; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-09-01

    Cysteamine hydrochloride (CHC) is a newly recognized sensitizer found in permanent-wave solutions. We report the case of a hairdresser who was found to be allergic to CHC. Our allergic patient was patch-tested to various chemicals found in permanent-wave solutions, including CHC (1.0% in petrolatum). Patch-test reactions were positive to CHC, glyceryl thioglycolate, diglyceryl thioglycolate, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and PPD through a piece of latex glove. Sixty-four controls to CHC (1.0% in petrolatum) had negative results. Household-weight latex gloves were protective against CHC allergy. Persons with CHC-waved hair were not allergic. CHC contained in "neutral" permanent-wave preparations has been used in American beauty salons since 1993. We briefly discuss the introduction and significance of CHC in permanent waves.

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...... as potential sensitizers. Methods: This article reviews clinical data for three fragrance ingredients cinnamic aldehyde, citral, and isoeugenol to assess the utility of the QRA approach for fragrance ingredients. Results: This assessment suggests that had the QRA approach been available at the time standards...

  20. Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in 1 year (II). Clinical features in patients with Compositae contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1993-01-01

    During our first year of routine testing with Compositae allergens and extracts, contact allergy to Compositae was frequently found in eczema patients (4.5%), especially in middle-aged or elderly persons. Based on clinical patterns, patch test reactions and the long-term course of the disease, 4...... and more-or-less widespread dermatitis with seasonal variation from the beginning. 65% of the patients had vesicular hand eczema at some time, partly reflecting the frequency of atopy (25%) and metal allergy (44%). 75% of the patients had contact allergy to > or = 1 compounds besides Compositae. Thus......, Compositae allergy may be primary, e.g., in young patients with occupational plant contact, or secondary to other contact allergies, perhaps as a result of increased individual susceptibility. The clinical patterns in the latter patients were most often a widespread dermatitis with summer exacerbation...

  1. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Torres1

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Torres1, Maria das Graças Mota Melo2, Antonella Tosti31Department of Dermatology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Occupational Dermatology Sector, Center for the Study of Worker Health and Human Ecology, National School of Public Health, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, metals, contact hypersensitivity, occupational exposure, children, contact dermatitis

  2. Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects.

  3. Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect stings Medicines ...

  4. Contact allergy in Indonesian patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Subono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shoe dermatitis is a form of contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to shoes (1). Diagnostic is based on patient history, the presence of skin lesions, positive patch test reactions to allergens in the 'screening' tray, and the absence of dermatitis in a patient wearing proper substi

  5. Guidelines for the presentation of contact allergy case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Goossens, An; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Case reports constitute a classic publication format that is being increasingly appreciated, for example because of its educational value. In the field of contact dermatitis research, case reports often serve as sentinel publications concerning new allergens, or new exposures to known allergens, ...

  6. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy? - An epidemiological study based on consecutive patch test results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-01-01

    on proteins in mechanistic studies. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that patients sensitized to PPD are at increased risk of concomitant reactivity to either of the terpene hydroperoxides, owing to a 'common pathway' of skin protein oxidation. METHODS: A database study of consecutively patch tested eczema...... patients (n = 3843) from 2012 to 2015, tested concomitantly with PPD, Lim-OOHs and Lin-OOHs, was performed. Associations were examined by level of concordance and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and contact allergy to fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II. RESULTS: Concomitant reactions to PPD were...... increased risk (OR 2.11, 95%CI:0.92-4.80) of a positive patch test reaction to Lin-OOHs. CONCLUSIONS: PPD sensitization cannot explain the high rates of sensitization to Lin-OOHs and/or Lim-OOHs. Contact allergy to oxidized linalool is more strongly associated with fragrance allergy than with PPD allergy....

  7. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...... on three fragrance ingredients in order to provide a practical assessment of the predictive value of the QRA approach. It is important to have data to assess that the methodology provides a robust approach for primary prevention of contact sensitization induction for fragrance ingredients identified...... as potential sensitizers. Methods: This article reviews clinical data for three fragrance ingredients cinnamic aldehyde, citral, and isoeugenol to assess the utility of the QRA approach for fragrance ingredients. Results: This assessment suggests that had the QRA approach been available at the time standards...

  8. Trends of contact allergy to fragrance mix I and Myroxylon pereirae among Danish eczema patients tested between 1985 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance contact allergy has for long been recognized as an important health issue. In Denmark, the frequency of fragrance mix (FM) I contact allergy increased between 1985-1986 and 1997-1998 among male and female dermatitis patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of FM I...... and Myroxylon pereirae (MP) contact allergy between 1985 and 2007 with an emphasis on recent years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patch test data from our database was performed. Comparison of sensitivity rates was made using a chi-squared test for trend. Logistic regression analyses were used...

  9. Contact allergy to allergens of the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) has decreased modestly in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population is nearly 20%. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to monitor the development of contact allergy to allergens from the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) between 1990 and 2006. METHODS: Two random samples of adults from the general population...... of contact allergy in all male age groups and in young and middle-aged female age groups (18-55 years) whereas increasing prevalences were observed among older women (56-69 years). The diverging trend observed in women was probably explained by a cohort effect due to a change in the prevalence of nickel...

  10. Development and Significance of the E-surveillance System for Contact Allergies in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugonik, Aleksandra; Kalač Pandurovič, Maja; Vok, Marko; Dugonik, Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the development and significance of online systems for the collection and analysis of medical data (patch test results) with a web application. Modern digital tools greatly aid in collecting, combining, and preserving the data in a way that is friendly, undemanding and time-efficient for the dermatologist. Creating a central database for the results of patch testing provides a better picture of contact sensitivity and characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis in Slovenia. An electronic database and connected network was started in Slovenia in 2010. Data from skin allergy units since 2000 has also been included retrospectively. At present (Oct 2016), the database contains the data of 19,772 patch tests performed by seven skin allergy units. Creating a central database of the results of patch testing provides a larger and therefore more credible collection of data. Immediate integration and data processing enable a current overview of contact sensitivity for each participating center as well as at the national level. Data can be easily transferred to other databases or edited with other software tools. This on-line register has worked flawlessly for more than five years. We have contributed data to the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network database since 2012, which, along with the Deutsche Kontaktallergie-Gruppe system of collecting patch test data for German-speaking countries, represents the only multicenter surveillance system of patch test results in Europe.

  11. Decreasing trends in methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy--following regulatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels; Laurberg, Grete; Avnstorp, Christian; Kaaber, Knud; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Thormann, Jens; Nielsen, Niels H; Vissing, Susanne; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Agner, Tove; Menné, Torkil

    2008-07-01

    The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has been banned, first from stay-on, and later from rinse-off cosmetics, in the EU countries because of increasing rates of contact allergy. To evaluate the frequency of contact allergy to MDBGN among patients patch tested by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group just before and following regulatory decisions. The data set comprised 19 279 consecutive eczema patients patch tested from 2003-2007 with MDBGN 0.3% in petrolatum (pet.) or, in a minority of patients, with Euxyl K 400 1.5% in pet. A significantly decreasing trend in the frequency of positive patch tests to MDBGN was found from 4.6% in 2003 to 2.6% in 2007 (P < 0.001). The decreasing trend was seen for both men and women. A significantly decreasing proportion of cases with a current relevance of contact allergy to MDBGN was also seen from 51.3% in 2003 to 29% in 2007 (P < 0.001). Regulatory interventions have already had a major effect on allergic disease due to MDBGN in Denmark. The same trends are likely to be seen in other EU countries.

  12. Contact allergy to preservatives: ESSCA* results with the baseline series, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, A M; Deza, G; Bauer, A; Johnston, G A; Mahler, V; Schuttelaar, M-L; Sanchez-Perez, J; Silvestre, J F; Wilkinson, M; Uter, W

    2017-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common and causes significant patient morbidity. To describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baseline series of most European countries. Data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network between 2009 and 2012 from 12 European countries were analysed. Methylisothiazolinone 0.2% aq. produced the highest prevalence of sensitization during the study period, with an overall prevalence of 4.5%. The mixture methylchloroisothiazolinone /methylisothiazolinone tested at 0.02% aq. followed closely, with 4.1% of positive reactions. Other preservatives with lower rates of sensitization, but still over 1%, include methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) 0.5% pet. and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) 0.2% pet. Formaldehyde releasers and parabens yielded less than 1% positive reactions during the study period. Some regional differences in the prevalence of contact allergy to biocides among European countries were observed. Contact allergy to biocides is common throughout Europe, and regional differences could be explained by differences in exposure or characteristics of the population tested. Timely regulatory action for isothiazolinones is required. Although MDBGN is banned from cosmetics products since 2005, sensitization prevalence has not appeared to plateau. IPBC is an emerging allergen with an increasing prevalence over the last few years, and its inclusion in the European baseline series may be appropriate. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Sorbitan sesquioleate; a rare cause of contact allergy in consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sorbitan sesquioleate (SSO) has been added to fragrance mix I (FM I) as an emulsifier since the 1990s. Being a contact allergen itself, SSO has the potential to cause false-positive reactions to FM I. Recent results obtained with selected FM I-positive patients have shown that 5% have...... concomitant positive reactions to SSO. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-year prevalence of contact allergy to SSO and evaluate the importance of SSO allergy when patch test results for FM I are interpreted. METHODS: This was a retrospective database study of consecutively patch tested eczema patients (n = 4 6...... 3 7) from 2010 to 2014. All patients were tested with our baseline series including FM I and SSO 20% in pet. RESULTS: Sensitization to SSO was identified in 9 (0.2%) patients. The proportion of FM I-positive patients with concomitant positive reactions to SSO was 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: SSO is a rare...

  14. Symptomatic oral lesions may be associated with contact allergy to substances in oral hygiene products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Røn; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dental materials and oral hygiene products may be responsible for oral contact allergic reactions. We aimed to determine the occurrence of allergies in patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) and stomatitis and investigate if patch testing could...... identify contact allergies to dental materials and oral hygiene products in these patients. METHODS: Forty-nine patients (7 men, 42 women) aged 31 to 77 years (61 ± 10.3 years) with symptomatic OLP, OLL or stomatitis and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects were included. They underwent.......01). Avoidance cleared symptoms in all cases. CONCLUSION/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Allergic reactions to aroma substances in oral hygiene products are common in patients with symptomatic OLP, OLL and stomatitis....

  15. Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with

  16. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact...

  17. Contact allergy to popular perfumes; assessed by patch test, use test and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The frequency of contact allergy to the 10 best-selling women's perfumes was studied in 335 consecutive female eczema patients by patch testing. The diagnostic ability of the fragrance mix, in relation to these products, was evaluated. Of eczema patients, 6.9% had a positive patch test to one...... or more of the perfumes, and 56.5% of these had a concurrent positive reaction to the fragrance mix. Hence, testing with the patients' own cosmetics is a significant part of diagnosing perfume allergy. The clinical relevance of the patch-test reactions to the commercial perfumes was equal...... to that of the fragrance mix, as judged from the patient's history and use testing with one of the perfumes. At least three of the chemically defined sensitizers in the fragrance mix were detected in all the perfumes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicates that the fragrance mix is a good imitation...

  18. Contact allergy to allergens of the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) has decreased modestly in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T; Nielsen, N H; Johansen, J D

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population is nearly 20%. This study aimed to monitor the development of contact allergy to allergens from the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) between 1990 and 2006. Two random samples of adults from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, were invited to participate in a general health examination including patch testing. In 1990 and 2006, we patch tested and questioned 543 and 3460 adult Danes. Patch test readings were performed on day 2 only. The overall prevalence decreased significantly from 15.5% in 1990 to 10.0% in 2006, mainly as a result of a decrease in thimerosal allergy from 3.4% to 0.8%. Furthermore, the prevalence of cobalt allergy and rubber-related allergens decreased from 1.1% to 0.2% and from 1.5% to 0.2%, respectively. Stratification by sex and age group revealed decreasing prevalences of contact allergy in all male age groups and in young and middle-aged female age groups (18-55 years) whereas increasing prevalences were observed among older women (56-69 years). The diverging trend observed in women was probably explained by a cohort effect due to a change in the prevalence of nickel allergy following the Danish regulation on nickel exposure. Although the overall prevalence of contact allergy decreased in the general population, frequent contact allergens such as fragrance mix II and methyldibromo glutaronitrile were not tested. Thus, contact allergy remains prevalent in the general population.

  19. Time trends of contact allergy to the European baseline series in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linauskienė, Kotryna; Malinauskienė, Laura; Blažienė, Audra

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring trends of positive patch test reactions is useful for epidemiological surveillance and contact allergy prevention, and has not previously been reported in Lithuania. To examine and compare changes in the prevalence of contact allergy to European baseline series allergens in adults with suspected contact dermatitis during a 9-year period. In this retrospective study, patch test results of 297 consecutive patients, tested with the European baseline series in 2014-2015, were analysed and compared with the data published earlier in Lithuania. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (30.6%), methylisothiazolinone (MI) (13.5%), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI (7.4%), potassium dichromate (6.1%), cobalt chloride (6.1%), Myroxylon pereirae resin (5.4%), p-phenylenediamine (5.4%), fragrance mix I (4.7%), formaldehyde (4.4%), and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (3.7%). Increases in the prevalence of sensitization to MCI/MI (2.3% in 2006-2008 and 7.4% in 2014-2015; p < 0.0001) and nickel sulfate (16.4% in 2006-2008 and 30.6% in 2014-2015; p < 0.0001) and decreases in the prevalence of sensitization to paraben mix (3.2% in 2006-2008 and 0.3% in 2014-2015; p = 0.006) were observed. Prevalences for the other allergens remained stable or showed a decreasing trend (Myroxylon pereirae resin; p = 0.06). This study provides current information on the prevalence of contact allergy in Lithuania. Changing trends in sensitivity to some allergens probably reflect changes in exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Contact allergy to gold and its alloys. Pertinence of gold salt patch tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, E; Lacroix, M; Dalac, S; Ponnelle, C; Lambert, D

    1994-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to gold and its alloys is a rare affection and it is difficult to interpret gold salts patch tests. We report two cases of patients with positive patch tests to 0.5% sodium aurothiosulfate discovered during a dermatology exploration of an occupational contact eczema (for the first patient) and an intolerance to gold jewelry (for the second). There is much confusion in the literature concerning the allergologic exploration of contact dermatitis to gold: no standardized test, possible cross reactions between different gold salts, the tests often irritate. The mechanism of sensitization to gold salts is unknown since pure gold is inalterable and does not contain any salts. The pertinence of a positive test to one or more gold salts must therefore be examined carefully and the diagnosis of gold allergy must not be made without sufficient evidence.

  1. Contact allergy to essential oils cannot always be predicted from allergy to fragrance markers in the baseline series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroe, Ruth A; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2016-04-01

    Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  3. Isothiazolinones as causal factors of contact allergy epidemics in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Chomiczewska-Skóra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloromethylisothiazolinone (MCI and methylisothiazolinone (MI have been widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, household products and industrial products since the late 1970s. First cases of contact allergy to the MCI/MI combination were noted in 1980–1982 in Sweden. Then, a significant increase in the frequency of sensitization to these compounds was observed in many European centers. The increase has been stopped by the introduction of legislation on their maximum concentrations in consumer and industrial products in Europe and in some non-European countries. But approval of the use of MI alone without limits in industrial products (from 2000 and at a maximum concentration of 100 ppm in cosmetics (from 2005 resulted in an unprecedented increase in the number of individuals sensitized to this compound. Allergic contact dermatitis due to MI occurs in both adults and children. It is often manifested by severe symptoms, which may be also induced by airborne exposure. The most important sources of sensitization include cosmetic products and paints. To counteract the increasing problem of contact allergy epidemic to MI, the recommendations have been developed, suggesting the ban on the use of MI in “leave-on” cosmetics and maximum concentration of 15 ppm in “rinse-off” products. These recommendations are likely to be implemented in 2014. Med Pr 2014;65(4:543–554

  4. The association between contact allergy and hand eczema in 2 cross-sectional surveys 8 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil;

    2002-01-01

    Hand eczema is a recurrent chronic skin disease related to contact allergy and atopic dermatitis. When possible, efforts should be redoubled to eliminate provoking factors. Our objective was to assess changes in the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema and to evaluate the association between...... contact allergy and hand eczema among adult Danes before and after nickel exposure regulation in Denmark. In 1990 and 1998, random samples of 15-41-year-old persons were examined in 2 cross-sectional studies of the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. The studies included questionnaires, patch...... and prick testing. From 1990 to 1998 the prevalence of a history of hand eczema increased significantly. This increase did not appear to be fully explained by changes in the prevalence of flexural eczema, prick test reactivity, patch test reactivity, and nickel allergy. In 1990, nickel allergy and allergic...

  5. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in children - a review of current data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children was previously considered to be a rare occurrence. However, the growing number of case reports and cross-sectional studies through the past three decades indicate that ACD is, in fact, a highly relevant diagnosis in children. Furthermore, the frequency...... reactions. Children with atopic dermatitis are as frequently sensitized as children with no history of atopic dermatitis, and there are no differences associated with sex. Children and adults can be tested with equal concentrations of patch test allergens. Our findings may support the notion...

  6. The European baseline series in 10 European Countries, 2005/2006 : Results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rämsch, Christiane; Aberer, Werner; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Fartasch, Manigè; Mahler, Vera; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; Gawkrodger, David J; Gimènez-Arnau, Ana-Maria; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Jolanki, Riitta; King, Codagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Ormerod, Anthony D; Orton, David I; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sansom, Jane E; Simon, Dagmar; Statham, Barry N; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continual surveillance based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of contact allergy. OBJECTIVES: To provide a current view on the spectrum of contact allergy to important sensitizers across Europe. PATIENTS/METHODS: Clinical and patch test data of 19 793 patien

  7. The European baseline series in 10 European Countries, 2005/2006 : Results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rämsch, Christiane; Aberer, Werner; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Fartasch, Manigè; Mahler, Vera; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; Gawkrodger, David J; Gimènez-Arnau, Ana-Maria; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Jolanki, Riitta; King, Codagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Ormerod, Anthony D; Orton, David I; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sansom, Jane E; Simon, Dagmar; Statham, Barry N; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continual surveillance based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of contact allergy. OBJECTIVES: To provide a current view on the spectrum of contact allergy to important sensitizers across Europe. PATIENTS/METHODS: Clinical and patch test data of 19 793 patien

  8. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  9. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in children - a review of current data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    reactions. Children with atopic dermatitis are as frequently sensitized as children with no history of atopic dermatitis, and there are no differences associated with sex. Children and adults can be tested with equal concentrations of patch test allergens. Our findings may support the notion......Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children was previously considered to be a rare occurrence. However, the growing number of case reports and cross-sectional studies through the past three decades indicate that ACD is, in fact, a highly relevant diagnosis in children. Furthermore, the frequency...... of ACD in children seems to be increasing. In 1999, a review of the literature reported prevalence rates of 14.5-70% in selected paediatric populations. The current paper reviews the studies on the prevalence of positive patch test reactions and ACD in the paediatric population during the past decade...

  10. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from...... a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products...... for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. RESULTS: The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly...

  11. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...

  12. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR)...

  13. Trends of contact allergy to fragrance mix I and Myroxylon pereirae among Danish eczema patients tested between 1985 and 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.;

    2008-01-01

    and Myroxylon pereirae (MP) contact allergy between 1985 and 2007 with an emphasis on recent years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patch test data from our database was performed. Comparison of sensitivity rates was made using a chi-squared test for trend. Logistic regression analyses were used...

  14. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N;

    1997-01-01

    in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...... of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems....

  15. Contact allergy to sodium sulfite and its relationship to sodium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Thomas; Mitra, Angana; Wilkinson, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Sulfites are in widespread use as preservatives/antioxidants. There is increasing recognition of allergic contact dermatitis caused by sodium metabisulfite; however, contact allergy to sodium sulfite is less well recognized. We sought to establish the prevalence of positive patch test reactions to sodium sulfite in our patient population and investigate its relationship with sodium metabisulfite. Over a 4-month period, 183 patients referred for patch testing were tested with sodium sulfite 1% pet. in addition to sodium metabisulfite 1% pet., which already forms part of our baseline series. Positive allergic reactions occurred to sodium metabisulfite in 5.5% of the tested patients and to sodium sulfite in 3.8% of the tested patients. Sixty per cent of patients with a positive reaction to sodium metabisulfite were positive to sodium sulfite. Only 1 patient (0.6%) with a negative reaction to sodium metabisulfite showed a positive reaction to sodium sulfite. This study shows that the majority of patients with positive reactions to sodium metabisulfite are also positive to sodium sulphite. Routinely patch testing with sodium sulfite is probably unnecessary, as most patients with positive reactions will also react to sodium metabisulfite. Clinicians should consider advising patients to avoid sodium sulfite and other sulfites when a positive allergic reaction to sodium metabisulfite occurs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and methacrylic monomers in students of dental medicine and dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry. Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical agent, which is an ingredient of some dental materials and may be released from methacrylate-based composites. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence and the risk of cross-sensitization to some methacrylic monomers (methylmethacrylate – MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate – TEGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate – EGDMA, 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-metha­crylo-xypropoxyphenyl]-propane – Bis-GMA, 2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate 2-HEMA, and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacry­late and formaldehyde in students of dentistry, dental professionals and dental patients. Material and Methods: A total of 139 participants were included in the study, i.e., occupationally exposed dental professionals, students of the 3rd, 4th and 6th year of dental medicine, and occupationally unexposed dental patients. They were patch-tested with methacrylic monomers and formaldehyde. The results were subjected to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: From the allergic to formaldehyde students of the 3rd and 4th year of dental medicine, 46.2% were also sensitized to MMA. Among the group of patients, the incidence of cross-sensitization to formaldehyde and methacrylic monomers was as follows: to TEGDMA – 20.6%, to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate – 20.7%, to 2-HEMA – 20.7% and to tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate – 24.1%. Contact allergy to MMA was diagnosed among 22.7%, and to TEGDMA – among 27.1% of the students of the 3rd and 4th year of dental medicine. In the group of occupationally unexposed dental patients the prevalence of contact allergy to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was 20.7%, to Bis-GMA – 27.6%, to 2-HEMA – 44.9% and to tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate – 38.0%. Conclusions: The students of the 3rd and 4th year of dental medicine could be outlined as a group at risk of sensitization to MMA and TEGDMA and of cross-sensitization to MMA

  18. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, fill...... of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems....

  19. What is the relevance of contact allergy to sodium metabisulfite and which concentration of the allergen should we use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Nicola; Verma, Saroj; Merry, Subha; Lally, Aoife; Kirby, Brian; Collins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to sodium metabisulfite (SMB) has increased from the range of 1.4% to 1.7% to the range of 3.4% to 6.8% in published series over the past 20 years. The aims of this study were to review contact allergy to SMB in our cohort and to investigate different concentrations to define the most appropriate concentration for patch testing. Patient records were reviewed between February 2009 and December 2011 to obtain information on patient demographics, clinical presentation, and prevalence of contact allergy to SMB. Patients attending for patch testing, between January 2012 and June 2013, were tested with 3 strengths of SMB as part of the British standard series (1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%). Nine hundred ninety-six patients were patch tested to the British standard series including SMB 1% in petrolatum between February 2009 and June 2013, and 70 (7%) were positive. In the prospective group, 380 were tested to 3 concentrations of SMB (1.0%, 0.1%, and 0.01%). Fourteen patients (3.68%) had a positive patch test with 1% SMB, 7 to 0.1% SMB, and 3 to 0.01% SMB. There was exposure to SMB in 10 patients who cleared with avoidance at review 3 months later. The most frequent location of rash included face, hands, vulval, and perianal region. Our study confirms reports of increasing prevalence of SMB allergy. A detailed review of exposure in the prospective study showed that SMB is relevant in most patients, and 1% in petrolatum is the best concentration for patch testing.

  20. Gold concentration in blood in relation to the number of gold restorations and contact allergy to gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnlide, Ingela; Ahlgren, Camilla; Björkner, Bert; Bruze, Magnus; Lundh, Thomas; Möller, Halvor; Nilner, Krister; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between gold allergy and the presence of dental gold restorations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of gold in blood (B-Au) and the number of tooth surfaces with gold alloys in subjects with and without contact allergy to gold. In 80 patients referred for patch testing because of eczematous disease, blood samples were taken and analyzed for B-Au using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection limit for the Au determination was 0.04 microg/L. In addition, a dentist made a clinical and radiological examination of the patients and registered the number of dental gold surfaces. Patients with dental gold restorations had a statistically significantly higher B-Au in Mann-Whitney U test (P = 0.025), (range < 0.04-1.07 microg/L) than patients without (range < 0.04-0.15 microg/L). Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between B-Au and the number of dental gold surfaces (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in B-Au between persons with and without contact allergy to gold. The study thus indicates that gold is released from dental restorations and taken tip into the circulation.

  1. Cellular Aspects of Cutaneous Inflammation: Clinical and in vitro studies of allergie contact dermatitis and allergie drug eruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the application of immunological insights and techniques to improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of inflammatory skin diseases, like allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and allergic drug eruptions (ADE). The cells and mediators involved in cutaneous inflammation,

  2. Cellular Aspects of Cutaneous Inflammation: Clinical and in vitro studies of allergie contact dermatitis and allergie drug eruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the application of immunological insights and techniques to improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of inflammatory skin diseases, like allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and allergic drug eruptions (ADE). The cells and mediators involved in cutaneous inflammation,

  3. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  4. Can simultaneous contact allergies to phenyl glycidyl ether and epoxy resins of the bisphenol A/F-types be explained by contamination of the epoxy resins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Simultaneous contact allergies to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-R) or epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) have been reported. The reason might be cross-reactivity, exposure to an epoxy resin system with PGE as a component, or contamination by PGE in the epoxy resin. To study contamination by PGE, 20 commercial epoxy resins were analysed for the presence of PGE. To study contact allergy to PGE and its relation to epoxy resins by inserting PGE in the standard series. Among 2227 patients, 7 reacted to PGE. Of 23 (30%) patients, 7 with contact allergy to DGEBA-R and 7/19 (37%) with contact allergy to an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type reacted to PGE. All 7 patients with contact allergy to PGE reacted both to the DGEBA-R and to the epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type. PGE was found in 90% of the investigated resins. The amounts of PGE ranged between 0.004% w/w and 0.18% w/w. Most probably, the presence of PGE as a contaminant in epoxy resins is of minor importance for the sensitization, but possibly the contamination of PGE might elicit contact dermatitis in individuals with a high reactivity to PGE.

  5. Nineteen cases of persistent pruritic nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after injection of commonly used aluminium-adsorbed vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfors, Elisabet; Björkelund, Cecilia; Trollfors, Birger

    2005-11-01

    Rare cases of persistent pruritic nodules, sometimes associated with aluminium (Al) allergy, have been reported after the use of several Al adsorbed vaccines. During vaccine trials in the 1990s a high incidence of pruritic nodules (645 cases/76,000 recipients), in 77% associated with Al allergy, was observed after the administration of diphtheria-tetanus / acellular pertussis (DT/aP) vaccines from a single producer. In the present report 19 children with pruritic nodules after vaccination with Al hydroxide-adsorbed DTaP/polio+Hib (Infanrix, Pentavac) are described. The children had intensely itching nodules at the injection site, often aggravated during upper respiratory tract infections, and local skin alterations. So far, the symptoms have persisted for up to 7 years. The median time between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 1 month. 16 children were epicutaneously tested for Al, all with positive reactions indicating delayed hypersensitivity to Al. The condition is not commonly known but is important to recognise, as the child and the family may suffer considerably. Future vaccinations with Al-adsorbed vaccines may cause aggravation of the symptoms and the Al allergy. Al-containing skin products, such as antiperspirants, may cause contact dermatitis. Nodules may be mistaken for tumours. Even though the incidence of itching nodules and Al allergy after administration of Infanrix, Pentavac and other Al-adsorbed vaccines is probably low, research to replace Al adjuvants seems appropriate. We conclude that intensely itching subcutaneous nodules, lasting for many years, and hypersensitivity to aluminium may occur after DTaP/polio+Hib vaccination of infants.

  6. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A;

    2015-01-01

    of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  7. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents.

  8. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetic

  9. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  10. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, Peter J.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; Silvestre, Juan F.; Sanchez-Perez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. Objective. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Methods. Data of patients

  11. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetic

  12. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in

  13. Functions of Exosomes and Microbial Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy and Contact and Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Askenase, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation. Exosomes are natural ancient nanoparticles of life. They are made by all cells and in some form by all species down to fungi and bacteria, and are present in all fluids. Besides a new focus on their role in the transmission of genetic regulation, exosome transfer of allergens was recently shown to induce allergic inflammation. Importantly, regulatory and tolerogenic exosomes can potently inhibit allergy and hypersensitivity responses, usually acting nonspecifically, but can also proceed in an antigen-specific manner due to the coating of the exosome surface with antibodies. Deep analysis of processes mediated by exosomes should result in the development of early diagnostic biomarkers, as well as allergen-specific, preventive and therapeutic strategies. These will likely significantly diminish the risks of current allergen-specific parenteral desensitization procedures, and of the use of systemic immunosuppressive drugs. Since extracellular vesicles are physiological, they can be fashioned for the specific delivery of therapeutic molecular instructions through easily tolerated, noninvasive routes, such as oral ingestion, nasal administration, and perhaps even inhalation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  15. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  16. Wrist dermatitis: contact allergy to neoprene in a keyboard wrist rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Elston, D M

    1997-09-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis to a keyboard wrist rest containing neoprene is reported. The patient, who had a history of sensitivity to rubber products, developed an acute vesicular reaction of the palmar aspects of her distal wrists, followed by eczematous patches of her extremities and face. Treatment with prednisone, a 3-week tapering dose (60, 40, 20 mg), cleared the dermatitis. The widespread uses of neoprene are discussed and suggest that neoprene will become a common source of contact dermatitis as the potential sources of exposure increase.

  17. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  18. Contact allergy in Indonesian patients with foot eczema attributed to shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, S. A.; Soebono, H.; Coenraads, P. J.; Schuttelaar, M. L. A.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundShoe dermatitis is a form of contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to shoes. Allergens and types of shoes responsible may vary depending on manufacturing techniques, climatic conditions and indigenous traditions. This study focuses primarily on as yet unexplored shoe dermatitis cases

  19. Contact allergy to preservatives : ESSCA* results with the baseline series, 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimenez-Arnau, A. M.; Deza, G.; Bauer, A.; Johnston, G. A.; Mahler, V.; Schuttelaar, M. -L.; Sanchez-Perez, J.; Silvestre, J. F.; Wilkinson, M.; Uter, W.

    BackgroundAllergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common and causes significant patient morbidity. ObjectiveTo describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baseline series of most European countries. MethodsData collected by the

  20. The association between alcohol consumption and contact sensitization in Danish adults: the Glostrup Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Nielsen, N.H.; Linneberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    to a follow-up and 734 were re-examined (participation rate 69.0%). Adjustment for potential confounders was performed by using logistic regression analyses. Results Women who reported no consumption of alcoholic drinks per week were more likely to develop contact sensitization (adjusted odds ratio 2.12, 95...

  1. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize...

  2. Contact allergy to preservatives : ESSCA* results with the baseline series, 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez-Arnau, A M; Deza, G; Bauer, A; Johnston, G A; Mahler, V; Schuttelaar, M-L; Sanchez-Perez, J; Silvestre, J F; Wilkinson, M; Uter, W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common and causes significant patient morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data collected by

  3. Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Tozer, Sarah; Rich, Kim; Hoting, Edo; Hollenberg, Detlef; Fuchs, Anne; Fautz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The post-marketing undesirable events to hair colouring products in the European Union notified to the cosmetovigilance departments of four major cosmetic companies were analysed (2003-2006). The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors. Alleged undesirable events (UEvs, all notifications prior to causality assessment), were compared to the respective undesirable effects (UEfs, reasonably attributable to product use). A detailed analysis was performed on notifications with manifestations compatible with allergic contact dermatitis. No time effect of UEvs and UEfs was shown, for all hair-dye associated notifications and for allergic contact dermatitis, for all hair colouring products together and by product type. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes. The reporting rates of UEfs were statistically higher in the UK for one of four companies. Past history of black henna tattoos appeared as a major risk factor for seriousness of allergic contact reactions.

  4. Contact allergy to preservatives : ESSCA* results with the baseline series, 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimenez-Arnau, A. M.; Deza, G.; Bauer, A.; Johnston, G. A.; Mahler, V.; Schuttelaar, M. -L.; Sanchez-Perez, J.; Silvestre, J. F.; Wilkinson, M.; Uter, W.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAllergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common and causes significant patient morbidity. ObjectiveTo describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baseline series of most European countries. MethodsData collected by the E

  5. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Metalworking fluids and remainder. Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.C.; Le Coz, C.J.; Lensen, G.J.; Flyvholm, M.A.; Maibach, H.I.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a review article on formaldehyde-releasers used as durable press chemical finishes (DPCF) in textiles. The early finishes contained large amounts of free formaldehyde, which led to many cases of allergic contact dermatitis to clothes in the 1950s and 1960s. Currently, most

  6. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies: joint statement by the implant allergy working group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German association of orthopedics and orthopedic surgery), DKG (German contact dermatitis research group) and dgaki (German society for allergology and clinical immunology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-01-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent.

  7. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies. Joint statement by the Implant Allergy Working Group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German Association of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery), DKG (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) and DGAKI (German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-03-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent.

  8. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M

    1991-01-01

    From animal studies we know that oral administration of T-dependent antigens before sensitization effectively induces systemic immune unresponsiveness. Such 'oral tolerance' is persistent, dose-dependent, antigen-specific and presumably T suppressor cell-mediated. Oral tolerance induction could...... the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  9. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A.; Cartwright, P.H.; Smith, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  10. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... is a valuable means for quantitative evaluation of leukocyte mobilization and morphology in skin exudates during exposure to an allergen in delayed hypersensitivity reactions....

  11. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize....... It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological...

  12. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of ... Food Labels Food Allergies Nut and Peanut Allergy Egg Allergy Shellfish Allergy Food Allergies and Travel 5 ...

  13. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appears Safe in Study Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  14. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  15. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  16. [Occupational contact allergy to feverfew Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.; Asteraceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, B M

    1981-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Feverfew Tanacetum parathenium, Asteraceae. After breeding and selling a new ornamental form of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz-Bip. = Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh.), sold the flower markets under the misleading name, "chamomile", a 40 year old female florist developed after a half year handling recurrent dermatitis of the face, neck, hands and forearms. Epicutaneous tests revealed positive reactions to 10 species of the Compositae family, including chrysanthemums, aster Gaillardia. Arnica and truc chamomile. However, the strongests results were seen with petals and leaves of feverfew. Renewed strong reactions to parthenolid, the main sesquiterpene lactonic constitutent of European feverfew demonstrated that this compound was the responsible contact allergen. The sensitizing capacity of parthenolid has been shown in previous investigations in guina pigs. Furthermore, cross-reactionsto parthenolid were frequently observed in chrysanthemum sensitive persons. Mexican samples of feverfew contain the eudesmanolid santamarin and traces of other sesquiterpene lactones, but parthenolid is lacking. Further studies are needed to clarify the sensitizing potency of this related compound.

  17. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy: effect of single versus repeated daily exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C D; J Ohansen, J D; Menné, T; Andersen, K E

    2005-02-01

    Some types of cosmetic products such as hand soaps and creams are commonly used several times a day, especially in occupational use situations. Little has experimentally been shown of how the daily frequency of the application of an allergen in a product influences the allergic response. This study investigates the allergic responses elicited in presensitized individuals when exposed to a specific amount of allergen applied either in 1 application per day or distributed over 4 applications per day. As model allergen, the cosmetic preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) is used. 19 contact allergic individuals and 12 controls participated in a double-blind, randomized use test. To areas on the forearms were applied 2 drops either once daily of a solution containing 0.04% MDBGN or 4 times a day of a solution containing 0.01% MDBGN. 14 of 19 patients developed dermatitis following the application of approximately equal amounts of MDBGN on both arms. Controls were negative. In this experiment, applications of 0.04% MDBGN once daily or 0.01% MDBGN 4 times daily had, in a use test, approximately equal capabilities of provoking allergic contact dermatitis. This adds new knowledge to the risk assessment and regulation of cosmetic allergens. However, these results may be highly allergen dependent, and further studies are needed before more general conclusions can be made.

  18. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-09-01

    Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed. It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological studies so far have been cross-sectional.

  19. Contact allergy caused by fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru)--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turić, Petra; Lipozencić, Jasna; Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Kulisić, Sandra Marinović

    2011-03-01

    Because of their widespread use, fragrances are among the most common causes of contact allergic dermatitis, second only to nickel. During a five-year period 3,065 patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested using a specific mix of fragrances. 509 (16.6%) patients were allergic to the fragrance mix, while 258 (8.4%) patients exhibited an allergic reaction to Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). Between those 509 patients, 157 were patch tested with eight individual substances contained in the fragrance mix: cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). The most frequent allergens were isoeugenol 57.9% (91/157), eugenol 55.4% (87/157), cinnamyl alcohol 34.4% (54/157) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) 24.2% (38/157). There were 62 patients (39.5%) who exhibited an allergic reaction to both the fragrance mix and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru). The results prove the importance of avoiding allergens in daily life, especially in industrial and cosmetic products. In order to prevent ACD, better cooperation between industry and dermatologists is needed.

  20. Increase in contact allergy to fragrances: patch-test results 1989-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunder, T; Kansky, A

    2000-08-01

    We report the results of patch tests with fragrance-mix as a part of the standard series carried out over the last 10 years (1989-1998) during routine testing of 6129 patients in our department. 5.9% of the total number of patients who were patch tested were positive to fragrance mix. The sex ratio was 2.3:1 with a female predominance. In 1989-1993, the frequency of contact sensitivity to fragrance mix was 3.9% (4.9% for females and 2.1% for males). This rate rose both in female and male patients during the observed period of time and attained 8.9% (females) and 4.1% (males) in 1994-1998; the overall frequency in 1994-98 was 7.5%. This rising trend, which was statistically significant, might be the consequence of an increased use of cosmetics and toiletries containing fragrances in our population.

  1. Methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy: effect of single versus repeated daily exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    Some types of cosmetic products such as hand soaps and creams are commonly used several times a day, especially in occupational use situations. Little has experimentally been shown of how the daily frequency of the application of an allergen in a product influences the allergic response. This study...... investigates the allergic responses elicited in presensitized individuals when exposed to a specific amount of allergen applied either in 1 application per day or distributed over 4 applications per day. As model allergen, the cosmetic preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) is used. 19 contact...... assessment and regulation of cosmetic allergens. However, these results may be highly allergen dependent, and further studies are needed before more general conclusions can be made....

  2. Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel Allergy in Patients Suffering from Non‐Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto D’Alcamo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non‐celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS is a new clinical entity in the world of  gluten‐related diseases. Nickel, the most frequent cause of contact allergy, can be found in wheat  and results in systemic nickel allergy syndrome and mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.  Objective: To evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients  diagnosed by a double‐blind placebo‐controlled(DBPCchallenge,and to identify  the  characteristics  of  NCWS  patients  with  nickel  allergy.  Methods: We performed  a prospective study  of 60 patients (54 females, 6 males; mean age 34.1 ± 8.1 years diagnosed with NCWS from  December  2014 to November 2016; 80 age‐ and sex‐matched subjects with functional gastrointestina l symptoms served as controls. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickel‐containing objects  underwent  nickel  patch  test  (Clinicaltrials.gov  registration number: NCT02750735.Results:  Six  out  of  sixty  patients  (10%  with  NCWS  suffered  from contact dermatitis and  nickel allergy  and  this  frequency  was  statistically  higher (p = 0.04than observed in the control group(5%. The main clinical characteristic of  NCWS  patients with nickel allergy was a  higher frequency  of  cutaneous  symptoms  after  wheat ingestion compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer  from  nickel  allergy  (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy  are more  frequent  in  NCWS  patients than  in  subjects  with  functional gastrointestinal disorders;furthermore, these patients had a very high frequency of cutaneous manifestations after wheat  ingestion.  Nickel  allergy  should  be  evaluated  in  NCWS  patients  who  have  cutaneous  manifestations after wheat ingestion.

  3. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Contact allergy to epoxy resins plastics based on materials collected by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2003-01-01

    Of the 5604 patients examined in 1984-2001 for suspected occupational dermatitis, 160 persons (2.8%) showed allergy to epoxy resins plastics. Allergy was more frequent in men (4.9%) than in women (1.2%); in 154 persons, allergy was of occupational etiology (in a group of 160 patients with allergy to epoxy resins, the following proportions were observed: bricklayers, platelayers--17.5%; fitters, turners, machinist millers--13.8%; plastics molders--13.1%; laminators--11.3%; electrical equipment assemblers--10.6%; painters--10.0%). Having compared the frequency of allergy to components of epoxy resins in the years 1984-1993 and 1994-2001, it was found that allergy to resin, reactive diluents and plasticizers was on increase, whereas allergy to amines and acid anhydrides hardeners was on decrease. In a group of 13 chemical compounds entering into the composition of epoxy resins, epoxy resin contributed to the largest number of positive patch tests (77.5% of epoxy-allergic persons). This was followed by triethylenetetramine (23.1%), ethylenediamine (13.1%), phthalic anhydride (8.1%), diethylenetetramine (6.9%) and phenylglycidylether (6.2%). In addition, three patients reacted to both epoxy resin and cycloaliphatic resin.

  5. Concomitant contact allergy to the resins, reactive diluents and hardener of a bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin in subway construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Pontén, Ann; Sun, Chee-Ching; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of suspected contact dermatitis among subway construction workers was suspected to be due to a new bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin system (ERS). The construction workers used ERSs during the insertion of iron bars into concrete walls. The objective of the study was to determine the components (if any) of the ERS responsible for the contact allergy. Patch testing was performed on 20 of the 22 construction workers who had had contact with the ERS, and to the various subcomponents of component A on 5 of the 7 who reacted to this component. 9 patients (9/22, 40.9%) had clinical symptoms and signs of suspected contact dermatitis at presentation. 7 of these 9, but none of the 11 asymptomatic individuals, were positive to component A, while all were negative to component B. Of the 5 cases receiving further patch testing, all reacted to m-xylylene diamine, 4 to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether, 3 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether 0.25% petrolatum, and only 1 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol A-type. Contact allergy to ERSs may involve hardeners and diluents as well as resins, and patch testing for reaction to all components should be performed.

  6. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    in 4/19 (20%) of the test subjects. The ROAT was performed with a test solution of 0.2% isoeugenol in ethanol, which is the recommended maximum concentration used in perfumes, ethanol being applied as vehicle control. 4 weeks was the maximum exposure period. The upper arm was used as test site the 1st...

  7. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The clinical implications of sensitization to the fragrance material isoeugenol were studied in 19 subjects. Patch testing with serial dilutions of isoeugenol and a repeated open application test (ROAT) were performed. The minimum effect level under patch test conditions was below 0.01% isoeugeno...

  8. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  9. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  10. Natural rubber latex allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deval Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex (NRL is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.

  11. Mold Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  13. Contact hypersensitivity: quantitative aspects, susceptibility and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter S; Pickard, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The development of allergic sensitisation by environmental chemicals results in allergic contact dermatitis and highly undesirable morbidity and disability. This form of hypersensitivity is mediated by specific T lymphocytes that recognise the chemical sensitiser bound to self-proteins. Use of deliberate experimental contact sensitisation with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) has been used to investigate the human immune system which exhibits dose-related responses. Many factors contribute to whether sensitisation occurs and the nature and magnitude of the immune response. Chemicals vary in sensitising potency, mainly reflecting their intrinsic protein-binding properties. The amount of sensitiser reaching the immune system is determined by many factors of which the concentration (dose per unit area), the relative lipid solubility and molecular weight are the most critical. Host-related factors contributing to the nature and magnitude of immune responses are mainly genetically determined including gender, age, the biochemical/physical integrity of the epidermal barrier and the quality of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated before it will be possible to make reliable predictions of whether a given individual will develop allergic sensitisation by a given chemical.

  14. A clinically relevant contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile at 1% (0.32 mg/cm) detected by a patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Zimerson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) at 0.5% w/w in petrolatum was included in the European standard patch test series based on the studies on chemical stability and consideration of rates of contact allergy, doubtful and irritant reactions as well as information on clinical relevance represented by results of a repeated open application test (ROAT) and patch test concentrations required to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN in individual cases. In this report, a case with a clinically relevant contact allergy to MDBGN, which on the mandatory reading occasion on D3 only was traced by a patch test with MDBGN at 1.0% (0.32 mg/cm2), is presented. The patient suffered from a chronic hand dermatitis, and when the patient stopped using a liquid soap containing MDBGN, the hand dermatitis substantially improved. A ROAT performed in a blinded and controlled way with applications twice daily on the hands with 2 moisturizers with and without MDBGN resulted in a deterioration of the hand dermatitis on the hand to which the MDBGN-preserved moisturizer had been applied.

  15. 20 Years of standard patch testing in an eczema population with focus on patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    (Me)isothiazolinone, and primin and poor for paraben mix. 5.1% were multiple allergic, primarily women, and 90% got diagnosed by the first test. Frequency of multiple allergies increased with age. More multiple- than mono/double-allergic patients were tested multiple times. Persistency and sensitivity rates in a Danish eczema...

  16. Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Kristiansen, J; Borg, L

    2000-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of daily repeated exposures to low cobalt or chromate concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and cobalt or chromate allergy. For 2 weeks, the patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into the appropriate metal salt solution in...

  17. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-11-01

    Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate......). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance....... Conclusions. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed....

  19. [Severe contact-allergy dermatitis due to poison ivy--a plant that is rarely encountered in The Netherlands; a family history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, R M F M

    2005-07-23

    In successive years, three members of the same family (a man and woman aged 46 years and their son, aged 20) constantly developed severe pruritic, erythematous, vesicular and bullous dermatitis in the spring and summer after working in the garden. Although the findings were consistent with a photophytotoxic dermatitis, the causative plant remained unclear. Oral therapy with high doses ofprednisolone was necessary. When the man travelled to the USA and visited a doctor there, he recognised the symptoms as those of contact dermatitis caused by poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), a plant that is found sporadically in the wild state in Europe. Their grandparents had brought the plant back from a trip to the USA and planted it in the garden because of the beautiful fall colours. The family identified the plant via a search on Internet and eliminated it from the garden completely. Since then, the family has no longer suffered from contact-allergy dermatitis.

  20. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8-29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3-19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  1. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  2. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Research 2016 Fall Allergy Capitals If you’re one of the millions ... needs of their residents with allergic diseases. Fall Allergies by the Numbers Nasal allergies affect more than ...

  3. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  4. Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) are the active ingredients in commonly used preservative systems (e.g. Kathon CG(®) ). MCI/MI is present in the European baseline patch test series at 100 ppm aq. Since 1986, 200 ppm (dose 0.006 mg/cm(2) ) has been used...... in 3300 consecutively tested dermatitis patients at eight European patch test clinics and one US patch test clinic. With the Finn Chambers(®) technique (diameter 8 mm), 15 µl was micropipetted on to the filter paper in the chamber. The corresponding volume for Van der Bend(®) chambers was 20 µl......, and that for IQ Chambers(®) was 25 µl. RESULTS: Contact allergy to MCI/MI at 100 and 200 ppm was found in 1.2% and 2.1% of patients, respectively (p contact allergy than the presently used concentration of 100 ppm (dose...

  5. Not only oxidized R-(+)- but also S-(-)-limonene is a common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna;

    2006-01-01

    proven to be a good and frequent indicator of fragrance-related contact allergy. The current study extends these investigations to 6 European clinics of dermatology, where the oxidation mixture of both enantiomers of limonene (R and S) have been tested in 2411 dermatitis patients. Altogether, 63 out......Limonene, one of the most often used fragrance terpenes in any kind of scented products, is prone to air-oxidation. The oxidation products formed have a considerable sensitizing potential. In previous patch test studies on consecutively tested dermatitis patients, oxidized R-limonene has been...... of 2411 patients tested (2.6%) reacted to 1 or both the oxidized limonene preparations. Only 2.3% reacted to the oxidized R-limonene and 2.0% to the oxidized S-limonene. In 57% of the cases, simultaneous reactions were observed to both oxidation mixtures. Concomitant reactions to the fragrance mix...

  6. Nickel, cobalt, chromium, palladium and gold induce a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine response in vitro in subjects with contact allergy to the respective metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minang, J T; Areström, I; Troye-Blomberg, M; Lundeberg, L; Ahlborg, N

    2006-12-01

    Nickel (Ni), the main cause of contact allergy to metals, induces in vitro production of both Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from allergic subjects. Because the knowledge of the cellular immune response to other metals involved in contact allergy has been limited, we investigated the cytokine profile induced by Ni, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) in PBMC from patients with patch test reactivity to the respective metals. PBMC from patients with patch test reactivity to Ni, Co, Cr, Au and/or Pd (n = 31) and non-allergic controls (n = 5) were stimulated in vitro with corresponding metal salts. Th1- [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma] and Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) type cytokine responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All metals induced a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine production in PBMC from individual patients with patch test reactivity to the corresponding metal, but not in control PBMC. Significantly higher responses in the patient versus controls were found for Cr (IL-2 and IL-13), Pd (IL-2 and IL-4), Au (IL-13 and IFN-gamma) (all P reactivities to metals, respectively, were matched by the in vitro reactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that sensitization to Co, Cr, Pd and Au results in a cellular immune response of a character similar to the mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine profile shown previously to be induced by Ni.

  7. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... IgG4 » Clinical Cases: Food Allergy » CME P.I. Pro: Food Allergy » Food allergy: a practice parameter update ( ...

  8. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. EU legislation has reduced the epidemic of nickel contact allergy affecting the consumer, and shifted the focus towards occupational exposure. The acid wipe sampling technique was developed to quantitatively determine skin exposure to metals. Objectives. To assess the clinical...

  9. A novel quantitative approach for evaluating contact mechanics of meniscal replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder-Ganz, E; Elsner, J J; Danino, A; Guilak, F; Shterling, A

    2010-02-01

    One of the functions of the meniscus is to distribute contact forces over the articular surfaces by increasing the joint contact areas. It is widely accepted that total/partial loss of the meniscus increases the risk of joint degeneration. A short-term method for evaluating whether degenerative arthritis can be prevented or not would be to determine if the peak pressure and contact area coverage of the tibial plateau (TP) in the knee are restored at the time of implantation. Although several published studies already utilized TP contact pressure measurements as an indicator for biomechanical performance of allograft menisci, there is a paucity of a quantitative method for evaluation of these parameters in situ with a single effective parameter. In the present study, we developed such a method and used it to assess the load distribution ability of various meniscal implant configurations in human cadaveric knees (n=3). Contact pressures under the intact meniscus were measured under compression (1200 N, 0 deg flexion). Next, total meniscectomy was performed and the protocol was repeated with meniscal implants. Resultant pressure maps were evaluated for the peak pressure value, total contact area, and its distribution pattern, all with respect to the natural meniscus output. Two other measures--implant-dislocation and implant-impingement on the ligaments--were also considered. If any of these occurred, the score was zeroed. The total implant score was based on an adjusted calculation of the aforementioned measures, where the natural meniscus score was always 100. Laboratory experiments demonstrated a good correlation between qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the same pressure map outputs, especially in cases where there were contradicting indications between different parameters. Overall, the proposed approach provides a novel, validated method for quantitative assessment of the biomechanical performance of meniscal implants, which can be used in various

  10. An analysis On 78 cases of contact allergy to topical corticosteroids%外用糖皮质激素接触过敏78例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施辛; 孙晓东; 季孙平; 闫志华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To update the knowledge of contact allergy to topical corticosteroids.Methods A total Of 1,822 patients,who Sufiered from inflammatory skin disorders but did not respond well to topical corticosteroids,were enrolled into this study.Patch test was performed on these subjects with corticosteroid allergens,following the standardized rocedures ecommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group(ICDRG).Results Of all patients,78(4.28%)had positive patch test.Among the 78 patients,33 were males,45 females,and most were young or middle-aged.During 96-168 hours after the removal of patches,positive results Were observed in 42.31%(33/78)of the patients.Twenty eight patients had anaphy lactic reaction induced by hydrocortisone butyrate,25 by dexamethasone sodium phosphate,and 17 by triam cinolone acetonide.A correlation Between sensitizing glucocorticoids detected by patch testing and adminis trated drugs in clinic was found in 74 cases.Conclusions Contact allergy caused by topical corticosteroids is not rare,and more attention should be paid to this issue in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.%目的 探讨外用糖皮质激素的过敏情况.方法 选择适宜外用糖皮质激素治疗但疗效欠佳的患者1822例,按照国际接触性皮炎研究组的规定做糖皮质激素皮肤斑贴试验.结果 1822例患者中,78例斑贴试验阳性,占4.28%;其中男33例,女45例;取掉斑试物后96~168h判读结果阳性33例,占42.31%;氢化可的松丁酸酯(阳性28例)、地塞米松磷酸钠盐(阳性25例)、醋酸曲安奈德(阳性17例)等发生过敏较多.74例被检阳性糖皮质激素与临床使用的药物存在关联.结论 外用糖皮质激素接触过敏并不罕见,在外用糖皮质激素治疗皮肤炎症时,宜注意糖皮质激素过敏问题.

  11. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  12. Contact allergy to oak moss: search for sensitizing molecules using combined bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, GC-MS, and structure-activity relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2003-11-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied a method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first results showed that atranol and chloroatranol, formed by transesterification and decarboxylation of the lichen depsides, atranorin and chloroatranorin, during the preparation of oak moss absolute, are strong elicitants in most patients sensitized to oak moss. Methyl-beta-orcinol carboxylate, a depside degradation product and the most important monoaryl derivative of oak moss from an olfactory standpoint, was also found to elicit a reaction in most patients.

  13. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  14. The dark side of p-Phenylenediamine : Biological aspects and prevalence of contact allergy to an extraordinary molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tatiana Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    In hoofdstuk 2,3 en 4 wordt de prevalentie van p-phenylenediamine (PPD) contact allergieen beschreven. De prevalentie van PPD sensibilisaties in the algemene populatie is 1.3%, terwijl de prevalentie in de plakproefpopulatie van zowel Noord-Nederlands als Europa ongeveer 4% zijn. Een beroep als kapp

  15. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  17. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  19. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W

    2003-05-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  20. Quantitative analysis of methacycline hydrochloride by direct potentiometry using the internal solid contact sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Xiang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2007-02-01

    An internal solid contact sensor (ISCS) for the determination of methacycline hydrochloride (MC.Cl), Pt/PPy/PVC(MC-PT), is described, based on the use of conducting poly(pyrrole) (PPy) as solid contact material and MC-phosphotungstate (PT) as the ion exchanger and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as the plasticizer. A direct potentiometric method for the quantitative analysis of MC.Cl is also described. Under the condition of pH 2.7, the linear concentration range, slope (25 degrees C) and detection limit of the sensor are 6.4 x 1.0(-6) - 3.0 x 1.0(-3) M, 52.4 +/- 0.2 mV/decade and 4.4 x 1.0(-6) M, respectively. The response time is potentiometry. The average recovery and relative standard deviation are 100.1 and 0.7% (n = 4), respectively.

  1. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  2. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  3. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  4. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  5. Globalisation and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  6. Allergy shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective for common allergens such as: Weed and tree pollen Grass Mold or fungus Animal dander Dust mites Insect stings Adults (including the older people) as ...

  7. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we all know skipping breakfast is never a good idea anyway). Living with an egg allergy means you have to ... be just part of your action plan for living with a severe egg allergy. It's also a good idea to carry an over-the-counter antihistamine ...

  8. Food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  9. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  10. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  11. Quantitative measurements of vibration amplitude using a contact-mode freestanding triboelectric nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Niu, Simiao; Yang, Jin; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-12-23

    A vibration sensor is usually designed to measure the vibration frequency but disregard the vibration amplitude, which is rather challenging to be quantified due to the requirement of linear response. Here, we show the application of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a self-powered tool for quantitative measurement of vibration amplitude based on an operation mode, the contact-mode freestanding triboelectric nanogenerator (CF-TENG). In this mode, the triboelectrically charged resonator can be agitated to vibrate between two stacked stationary electrodes. Under the working principle with a constant capacitance between two electrodes, the amplitudes of the electric signals are proportional to the vibration amplitude of the resonator (provided that the resonator plate is charged to saturation), which has been illuminated both theoretically and experimentally. Together with its capability in monitoring the vibration frequency, the CF-TENG appears as the triboelectrification-based active sensor that can give full quantitative information about a vibration. In addition, the CF-TENG is also demonstrated as a power source for electronic devices.

  12. Allergy and orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  13. Latex Allergy with Discus Form of Inhalation Drug of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogun Sezer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers and which was taken chronic medical therapy has significantly increased during the last 15 years. Latex allergy generally refers to a type 1 reaction to natural rubber latex (NRL proteins with clinical manifestations ranging from contact urticaria to asthma and anaphylaxis. In this report, we discuss latex allergy with discus form of inhalation drug of asthma after contact of discus form to lips. Still, latex allergy is an important problem in patients with latex allergy. We must inform all patients about latex allergy and all latex containing devices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 451-452

  14. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  15. [ Food allergy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B

    1983-06-01

    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  16. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  17. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Award Clinical Terms of Award Restriction for China Clinical Terms Guidance Compliance Sample Letter Inclusion Codes ... Division of AIDS Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Division of ...

  18. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. SymptomsWhat ...

  19. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  20. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  1. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  2. Fragrance allergy and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. METHODS: A case-control surve...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of monomers in polyesters for food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenz, Fabrian; Linke, Susanne; Simat, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Polyesters (PESs) are gaining more importance on the food contact material (FCM) market and the variety of properties and applications is expected to be wide. In order to acquire the desired properties manufacturers can combine several FCM-approved polyvalent carboxylic acids (PCAs) and polyols as monomers. However, information about the qualitative and quantitative composition of FCM articles is often limited. The method presented here describes the analysis of PESs with the identification and quantification of 25 PES monomers (10 PCA, 15 polyols) by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis. Accurate identification and quantification were demonstrated by the analysis of seven different FCM articles made of PESs. The results explained between 97.2% and 103.4% w/w of the polymer composition whilst showing equal molar amounts of PCA and polyols. Quantification proved to be precise and sensitive with coefficients of variation (CVs) below 6.0% for PES samples with monomer concentrations typically ranging from 0.02% to 75% w/w. The analysis of 15 PES samples for the FCM market revealed the presence of five different PCAs and 11 different polyols (main monomers, co-monomers, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)) showing the wide variety of monomers in modern PESs. The presented method provides a useful tool for commercial, state and research laboratories as well as for producers and distributors facing the task of FCM risk assessment. It can be applied for the identification and quantification of migrating monomers and the prediction of oligomer compositions from the identified monomers, respectively.

  4. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...... ingredient labelling on cosmetic products....

  5. Cladosporium herbarum extract characterized by means of quantitative immunoelectrophoretic methods with special attention to immediate type allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, H; Aukrust, L; Gravesen, S

    1977-01-01

    Freeze-dried extract of Cladosporium herbarum Link ex Fr. was obtained by growing, harvesting, extracting, centrifuging, dialysing and freeze-drying. Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis using rabbit antibodies revealed the extraction procedure to be reproducible and the extract to be composed of 57 antigens, none of which originated from the substrate used in the growth. The molecular weight distribution and the approximate molecular weight of some antigens of C. herbarum were obtained using gel filtration. The pI distribution and the approximate pIs of a few distinct antigens of C. herbarum were obtained by isoelectric focusing. Preliminary identification of 4 allergens from C. herbarum was performed by means of CRIE (crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis).

  6. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  7. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know that some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food allergy , his ... sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have ...

  8. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  9. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a signif...

  10. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... butters (such as almond butter) and sunflower seeds Ethnic foods including African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese ... Toit G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for ... RA. Food allergy in children: Prevalence, natural history, and monitoring ...

  11. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  12. Immunology of metal allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metal allergens is a common health concern worldwide, greatly impacting affected individuals with regard to both quality of life and their ability to work. With an estimated 15-20 % of the Western population hypersensitive to at least one metal allergen, sensitization rates for metallic haptens by far outnumber those reported for other common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis such as fragrances and rubber. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metal-induced hypersensitivity remains high despite extensive legislative efforts to ban/reduce the content of allergy-causing metals in recreational and occupational products. Recently, much progress has been made regarding the perception mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses to this unique group of contact allergens. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune activation and T cell activation by common metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and chromate.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils: A literature-based database on contact allergens used for safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2016-10-01

    The risks related to the use of essential oils are difficult to ascertain at present, due in part to the large number of different oils available on the market, making it difficult for the risk assessor. Essential oils may contain skin allergens in significant amounts, and could thus pose a risk to the consumer. The aim of our study was to collect as much qualitative and quantitative data as possible on allergens present in essential oils. 11 types of essential oils, with 25 respective subspecies, were taken into account based on a previous survey. Based on the literature, 517 dosages were recorded from 112 publications, providing precious information for probabilistic exposure assessment purposes. 22 substances recognized as established allergens were found in the essential oils we included. Of these, 11 are also found in cosmetics as fragrance components. These results are of major importance regarding co-exposure to fragrance allergens. Moreover, this could lead to regulatory measures for essential oils in the future, as it is the case for cosmetic products, in order to better protect consumers against skin allergy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test.......78 microg nickel cm(-2) in the patch test. The threshold for the ROAT (in microg nickel cm(-2) per application) was significantly lower than the threshold for the patch test, while the dose-response for the accumulated ROAT dose at 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks was very similar to the patch test dose......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  15. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 ... Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  17. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos; Fernandez-Vozmediano, José M; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Bauer, Andrea; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magda; Zmudzinska, Maria; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; García-Gavín, Juan; Fernández-Redondo, Virginia; Gawkrodger, David J; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Jolanki, Riitta; Pesonen, Maria; King, Clodagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Larese, Francesca; Mahler, Vera; Ormerod, Anthony D; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Sansom, Jane E; Silvestre, Juan Fco; Simon, Dagmar; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Statham, Barry N; Stone, Natalie; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in c

  18. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in consecutiv...... patients in the years 2007 and 2008, and to discuss possible differences....

  19. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  20. Allergies and Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  1. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  2. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  3. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  4. Contact angle hysteresis on polymer substrates established with various experimental techniques, its interpretation, and quantitative characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Bormashenko, Yelena; Whyman, Gene; Pogreb, Roman; Musin, Albina; Jager, Rachel; Barkay, Zahava

    2008-04-15

    The effect of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) was studied on various polymer substrates with traditional and new experimental techniques. The new experimental technique presented in the article is based on the slow deformation of the droplet, thus CAH is studied under the constant volume of the drop in contrast to existing techniques when the volume of the drop is changed under the measurement. The energy of hysteresis was calculated in the framework of the improved Extrand approach. The advancing contact angle established with a new technique is in a good agreement with that measured with the needle-syringe method. The receding angles measured with three experimental techniques demonstrated a very significant discrepancy. The force pinning the triple line responsible for hysteresis was calculated.

  5. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. METHODS: Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven...... databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy...... is limited and weak and is therefore difficult to interpret. Overall, SPT and sIgE appear sensitive although not specific for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy....

  6. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  7. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council Microbiology and....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Gretchen; Grodnitzky, Justin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel

    2009-08-26

    The plant terpenoids encompass a diversity of structures and have many functional roles in nature, including protection against pest arthropods. Previous studies in this laboratory have identified naturally occurring sesquiterpenes contained in essential oils from two plants, amyris (Amyris balsamifera) and Siam-wood (Fokienia hodginsii), that are significantly repellent to a spectrum of arthropod pests. In efforts to further examine the biological activity of this class of compounds 12 of these plant-derived sesquiterpenes have been isolated, purified, and assayed for spatial and contact repellency against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . These data were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships that identified key properties of the sesquiterpene molecule, including electronic and structural parameters that were used to predict optimal repellent activity. There were notable similarities in the models developed for spatial repellency over five time points and for contact repellency. Vapor pressure was an important component of all repellency models. Initial levels of spatial repellency were also related to polarizability of the molecule and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, whereas the equation for late spatial repellency was dependent on other electronic features, including Mulliken population and electrotopological state descriptors. The model identified for contact repellency was the best fit and most significant model in this analysis and showed a relationship with vapor pressure, Mulliken population, and total energy.

  9. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  11. Latex allergy in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Virtič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.

  12. Contact allergy to ingredients of hair cosmetics - a comparison of female hairdressers and clients based on IVDK 2007-2012 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; John, Swen Malte; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    Cosmetics for bleaching, waving/relaxing and dyeing hair contain well-known allergens, leading to a substantial number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the frequency of important contact allergens (i) between two distinct groups of exposed patients, and (ii) with previous surveillance data. On the basis of data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivkd.org) between 2007 and 2012 in 824 female hairdressers and 2067 female clients, the current spectrum of contact sensitization to ingredients of hair cosmetics, as contained in different pertinent series, is described. A similar burden of sensitization as in previous analyses was observed, but with some increase in sensitization to oxidative hair dye components in clients. Some allergens mainly affected hairdressers, such as ammonium persulfate (18.7% positive) and glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG; still 4.7% positive, with a few cases also in young hairdressers, despite removal from the German market). Hair dyes remain important contact allergens, despite various attempts by the cosmetic industry to introduce hair dyes with lower allergenic potential. The re-emergence of GMTG as an occupational allergen should be considered as a warning signal ('sentinel event') prompting close monitoring. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Repeated monthly epicutaneous challenges with diphenylcyclopropenone result in a clinically reproducible level of contact allergy in de novo sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, K F; Andersen, F; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) has been used as an experimental contact allergen in humans and for topical immunotherapy of patients with alopecia areata. However, the efficacy is mostly based on case series. Randomized controlled clinical trials are lacking(1) , as is detailed descriptions of how...

  14. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from ....... CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a positive association between cobalt allergy and a history of dermatitis caused by non-occupational exposure to leather articles.......BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from...... as the most frequent exposure source causing dermatitis in the case group. Although the case group significantly more often reported non-occupational dermatitis caused by leather exposure (p

  15. End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end‐point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end‐effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system’s inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one‐link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.

  16. End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.

  17. Latex allergy in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pradeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous exposure or contact to latex products may sensitize the human body by causing mild to fatal reactions. Despite the availability of the literature, medical personnel are still unaware of the implications of the use of latex materials. The increased awareness to prevent the transmission of infectious blood borne pathogens has lead to increased usage of medical gloves among health care workers. This increased usage of medical gloves, along with improved methods in diagnosing latex allergy, has been the reason for the rise in the number of reported cases. This has lead to recognition of latex allergy as a serious medical concern. Patients in high-risk groups must be assessed carefully, so that appropriate protocols can be used to protect them from contact with latex.

  18. Perfuração dos lóbulos das orelhas como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de alergia de contato ao níquel Ear piercing as a risk factor for contact allergy to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda H. T. Brandão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência da alergia de contato aos metais em crianças que frequentam um centro de saúde e caracterizar o subgrupo com alergia em relação aos fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal não controlado, conduzido em um centro de saúde de Belo Horizonte (MG. Foram incluídas crianças com idades entre 0 e 12 anos que se apresentaram para consulta pediátrica de rotina, sendo aplicados testes de contato para o cromo, o cobalto e o níquel. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas com base na leitura do teste em 96 horas. Leituras classificadas como fraca (+, forte (++ ou extrema (+++ foram consideradas como reação, enquanto as classificadas como duvidosa, negativa ou irritativa foram consideradas como não reação. RESULTADOS: Completaram o estudo 144 crianças. Destas, 4,9% apresentaram reação ao cromo, 9,7% ao cobalto e 20,1% ao níquel. Os pacientes com orelha perfurada tiveram mais chance de reação ao níquel do que aqueles sem essa característica (p = 0,031 e odds ratio = 2,8. CONCLUSÕES: Em face da tendência atual ao aumento da alergia ao níquel, familiares devem ser alertados sobre a sua associação com a perfuração das orelhas. Estudos posteriores são necessários para avaliar a idade ideal para a perfuração das orelhas e o material ideal para brincos.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of metal contact allergy among the children seen at a health center and to characterize children with metal allergies in terms of risk factors. METHODS: This was an uncontrolled cross-sectional study undertaken at a health center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Children aged from 0 to 12 years were recruited when they presented at the health center for routine pediatric consultations and were given contact tests for chrome, cobalt and nickel. Statistical analyses were conducted on test readings taken at 96 hours. Results classed as weak (+, strong (++ or extreme (+++ were defined as "reaction," while

  19. Quantitative Contact Resonance Force Microscopy for Viscoelastic Measurement of Soft Materials at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, Allison B; Tung, Ryan C; Killgore, Jason P

    2015-10-13

    Viscoelastic property measurements made at the solid-liquid interface are key to characterizing materials for a variety of biological and industrial applications. Further, nanostructured materials require nanoscale measurements. Here, material loss tangents (tan δ) were extracted from confounding liquid effects in nanoscale contact resonance force microscopy (CR-FM), an atomic force microscope based technique for observing mechanical properties of surfaces. Obtaining reliable CR-FM viscoelastic measurements in liquid is complicated by two effects. First, in liquid, spurious signals arise during cantilever excitation. Second, it is challenging to separate changes to cantilever behavior due to the sample from changes due to environmental damping and added mass effects. We overcame these challenges by applying photothermal cantilever excitation in multiple resonance modes and a predictive model for the hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrated quantitative, nanoscale viscoelastic CR-FM measurements of polymers at the solid-liquid interface. The technique is demonstrated on a point-by-point basis on polymer samples and while imaging in contact mode on a fixed plant cell wall. Values of tan δ for measurements made in water agreed with the values for measurements in air for some experimental conditions on polystyrene and for all examined conditions on polypropylene.

  20. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  1. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  2. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure Reactions to foods, like peanuts ... outgrow certain food allergies over time (like milk, egg, soy, and wheat allergies), peanut and tree nut ...

  3. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  5. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  6. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your ability to function, you don't find relief from OTC drugs, or you experience allergy symptoms ...

  7. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitization...... in the cases in this study may not have occurred through direct skin contact but through the respiratory organs via latex proteins that are absorbed in glove powder and aerosolized......Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...

  8. Food allergy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods...

  9. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  10. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  11. Addressing Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  12. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  13. IL-33/ST2 signaling excites sensory neurons and mediates itch response in a mouse model of poison ivy contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Tai, Yan; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Caceres, Ana I; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-22

    Poison ivy-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most common environmental allergic condition in the United States. Case numbers of poison ivy ACD are increasing due to growing biomass and geographical expansion of poison ivy and increasing content of the allergen, urushiol, likely attributable to rising atmospheric CO2 Severe and treatment-resistant itch is the major complaint of affected patients. However, because of limited clinical data and poorly characterized models, the pruritic mechanisms in poison ivy ACD remain unknown. Here, we aim to identify the mechanisms of itch in a mouse model of poison ivy ACD by transcriptomics, neuronal imaging, and behavioral analysis. Using transcriptome microarray analysis, we identified IL-33 as a key cytokine up-regulated in the inflamed skin of urushiol-challenged mice. We further found that the IL-33 receptor, ST2, is expressed in small to medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, including neurons that innervate the skin. IL-33 induces Ca(2+) influx into a subset of DRG neurons through neuronal ST2. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-33 or ST2 reduced scratching behavior and skin inflammation in urushiol-challenged mice. Injection of IL-33 into urushiol-challenged skin rapidly exacerbated itch-related scratching via ST2, in a histamine-independent manner. Targeted silencing of neuronal ST2 expression by intrathecal ST2 siRNA delivery significantly attenuated pruritic responses caused by urushiol-induced ACD. These results indicate that IL-33/ST2 signaling is functionally present in primary sensory neurons and contributes to pruritus in poison ivy ACD. Blocking IL-33/ST2 signaling may represent a therapeutic approach to ameliorate itch and skin inflammation related to poison ivy ACD.

  14. Fragrance allergy: assessing the risk from washed fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Namali V; Basketter, David A; Clapp, Catherine; Van Asten, Arian; Marty, Jean-Paul; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Laverdet, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients increased during the last part of the 20th century with the consequence that a substantial number of individuals are at risk of experiencing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) if they have a sufficient degree of skin exposure to the chemical to which they have become sensitized. Such exposure does not necessarily have to arise from the type of source that originally induced the sensitization. A number of sources of exposure are clearly associated with risk of elicitation of ACD, but the role of fragrance deposited on fabrics, for example as a result of laundry processes, also can be questioned. In this article, firstly, the risk of the induction of fragrance-related ACD from exposure to fragrance via fabric is considered. Using a quantitative risk-assessment approach, the risk appears to be extremely low. The possibility that fragrance residues on laundered fabrics might elicit reactions in those already sensitized by a different route is also discussed. Clinically, clothing pattern dermatitis associated with fragrance allergy is almost never observed, although this could be investigated clinically by exposing sensitized individuals to the relevant fragrance allergen.

  15. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  16. Frequência da dermatite de contato ocupacional em ambulatório de alergia dermatológica Frequency of occupational contact dermatitis in an ambulatory of dermatologic allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatite de contato ocupacional (DCO corresponde a 80% dos casos de dermatoses relacionadas ao trabalho. OBJETIVOS: Determinar: a frequência de DCO em pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de alergia, não específico de dermatose ocupacional; o perfil dos pacientes de acordo com idade, sexo, cor, profissão, antecedentes atópicos, duração e localização da dermatose; os tipos de dermatite de contato; os principais alérgenos; e comparar as frequências dos principais sensibilizantes com os resultados obtidos em pacientes atendidos no mesmo período, sem DCO. MÉTODOS: Durante o período 2003-2006, 630 pacientes foram atendidos e submetidos à bateria padrão de testes de contato. Selecionaram-se aqueles com DCO. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e nove (10,9% pacientes apresentaram DCO. A média de idade foi de 44,5 anos. As mãos foram acometidas em 48 (70% casos. As profissões prevalentes foram do lar (27,39% e construção civil (23; 33,5%. Dermatite alérgica de contato (DAC ocorreu em 48 (70% casos, e dermatite irritativa de contato (DIC, em 21 (30%. Os principais sensibilizantes foram o bicromato de potássio (28; 41%, sulfato de níquel (16; 23% e carba-mix (16; 23%. CONCLUSÕES: A DCO foi diagnosticada em 10,9% dos pacientes, sendo mais comum na faixa etária produtiva da população. DAC esteve presente em 48 casos, provavelmente influenciada pelo longo tempo de evolução da dermatose. Os metais e os componentes da borracha foram os principais sensibilizantes.BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD corresponds to 80% of the cases of skin diseases related to work. OBJECTIVES: To determine: the frequency of OCD in an ambulatory of allergy not specific for occupational dermatosis; the profile of these patients according to age, gender, color, profession, atopic history, duration and localization of the dermatosis; the diagnosed types of contact dermatitis; the main allergens and to compare the frequency of the main

  17. [Special aspects of food allergy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B

    2012-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods represent the earliest and most important manifestation of allergic diseases in childhood. Sensitization to foods may happen very early in life. Basic options for alimentary allergy prevention are breast-feeding of at least 4 months and in case nursing is impossible, use of an alternative hypoallergenic formula. The most common food allergens in childhood are cow's milk, hen's egg, peanuts, tree nuts and wheat. The prevalence of food allergies in childhood is 2 to 6%. In up to 50% of infants and children with atopic eczema, food allergies play a role; vice versa 95% of children with an IgE-mediated food allergy have atopic eczema as an underlying disease. Diagnostic reliability in suspected allergic reactions to food is only achieved in most cases by performing controlled oral food challenges. The long-term prognosis is good for cow's milk and hen's egg allergy, while peanut and tree nut allergies often last life-long. The most important therapeutic option is a specific elimination diet; especially in infancy, a nutritionally adequate substitution diet has to be considered. Children who might inadvertently get into contact with their potentially life threatening food allergen, should be provided with an epinephrine autoinjector.

  18. Semen Allergy Manifesting As Chronic Pruritus Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A young woman of 24 with personal and family history of atopy development pruritus vulva each time after sexual intercourse with her husband. History of urticaria of sites of contact with semen on her thighs gave suspicion of contact urticaria. Positive wheal and flare response to pin prick test with semen, excellent therapeutic response to topical steroid and oral Cetirizine and non- recurrence of the problem after using condom by her husband confirmed the diagnosis of semen allergy.

  19. The history of the idea of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igea, J M

    2013-08-01

    About 100 years ago, a young paediatrician understood that the function of the immune system should be rationalized not in terms of exemption of disease but in terms of change of reactivity. He coined a new word to represent such an idea: 'allergy': the first contact of the immune system with an antigen changes the reactivity of the individual; on the second and subsequent contacts, this change (or allergy) can induce a spectrum of responses from protective (literally, immune) to hypersensitivity ones. The idea was at first hardly understood by the scientific community because it undermined the essentially protective nature of the immune response as it was defined. Nevertheless, in the next years, the growing clinical evidence led to the acceptance of this new point of view, but not of the new word, at least not unconditionally. The original significance of the neologism 'allergy' became perverted and limited to describe hypersensitivity conditions. Perhaps because of the corruption of the term, today 'allergy' does not have a well-delimited significance among health professionals. Furthermore, the word has long ago escaped from physicians and gone to the streets, where it is popularly used also as synonymous with antipathy and rejection. This vulgarization of the term 'allergy' has significantly increased its imprecision.

  20. Establishment of quantitative sequencing and filter contact vial bioassay for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Keon Mook; Lee, Da-Young; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kwon, Deok Ho; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2010-07-01

    Two point mutations (V419L and L925I) in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene have been identified in deltamethrin-resistant bed bugs. A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol was developed to establish a population-based genotyping method as a molecular resistance-monitoring tool based on the frequency of the two mutations. The nucleotide signal ratio at each mutation site was generated from sequencing chromatograms and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequency. Frequency prediction equations were generated from the plots by linear regression, and the signal ratios were shown to highly correlate with resistance allele frequencies (r2 > 0.9928). As determined by QS, neither mutation was found in a bed bug population collected in 1993. Populations collected in recent years (2007-2009), however, exhibited completely or nearly saturating L925I mutation frequencies and highly variable frequencies of the V419L mutation. In addition to QS, the filter contact vial bioassay (FCVB) method was established and used to determine the baseline susceptibility and resistance of bed bugs to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. A pyrethroid-resistant strain showed >9,375- and 6,990-fold resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. Resistance allele frequencies in different bed bug populations predicted by QS correlated well with the FCVB results, confirming the roles of the two mutations in pyrethroid resistance. Taken together, employment of QS in conjunction with FCVB should greatly facilitate the detection and monitoring of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs in the field. The advantages of FCVB as an on-site resistance-monitoring tool are discussed.

  1. Latex Allergy in Dental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermata A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex is found in numerous medical and dental products. Adverse latex reactions in dental patients and practitioners have significantly increased since the introduction of universal precautions for infection control. These reactions range from contact dermatitis to potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity. Patients with a history of spina bifida, urogenital anomalies, multiple surgical procedures, allergic reactions or atopy, health care personnel and latex production workers are at increased risk of latex allergy. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical history and laboratory tests. Identification of latex sources and the avoidance of latex exposure are critical for protecting both dental patients and dental personnel.

  2. The roles of allopatric divergence and natural selection in quantitative trait variation across a secondary contact zone in the lizard Anolis roquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Helena; Surget-Groba, Yann; Thorpe, Roger S

    2008-12-01

    Populations of the Caribbean lizard, Anolis roquet, are thought to have experienced long periods of allopatry before recent secondary contact. To elucidate the effects of past allopatry on population divergence in A. roquet, we surveyed parallel transects across a secondary contact zone in northeastern Martinique. We used diagnostic molecular mitochondrial DNA markers to test fine-scale association of mitochondrial DNA lineage and geological region, multivariate statistical techniques to explore quantitative trait pattern, and cline fitting techniques to model trait variation across the zone of secondary contact. We found that lineages were strongly associated with geological regions along both transects, but quantitative trait patterns were remarkably different. Patterns of morphological and mitochondrial DNA variation were consistent with a strong barrier to gene flow on the coast, whereas there were no indications of barriers to gene flow in the transitional forest. Hence, the coastal populations behaved as would be predicted by an allopatric model of divergence in this complex, while those in the transitional forest did not, despite the close proximity of the transects and their shared geological history. Patterns of geographical variation in this species complex, together with environmental data, suggest that on balance, selection regimes on either side of the secondary contact zone in the transitional forest may be more convergent, while those either side of the secondary contact zone on the coast are more divergent. Hence, the evolutionary consequences of allopatry may be strongly influenced by local natural selection regimes.

  3. Food allergy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  4. Quality in epidemiological surveillance of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Wilkinson, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    -specific information, including partial non-compliance with the guideline, as indicated. Besides technical aspects, the quality of reporting of scientific results has several other dimensions, including epidemiological and biostatistical aspects discussed in this article. Prospectively, when a study is planned...... of quality should be considered when the weight of evidence that a study publication provides is evaluated. Employing rigid 'quality criteria' may have the detrimental effect of relevant, if slightly imperfect, evidence being deliberately excluded....

  5. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cases...

  6. Prevalence and cause of methylisothiazolinone contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) has been one of the most frequent sensitizers since the 1980s. In 2005, the use of MI alone was approved for the preservation of cosmetic and household products in the EU. Before that, MI was used in industrial products, and the first cases...

  7. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2010-01-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products.......A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products....

  8. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    .... Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts...

  9. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...

  10. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back. Allergy skin tests aren't painful. This type of ...

  11. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substance. Some common allergens (substances that trigger the allergy) are dust mites, molds, pollen, pets with fur or feathers, stinging insects, and foods. The body reacts to the trigger by releasing chemicals, ... to prevent or control allergy symptoms is to avoid triggers. An allergist (a ...

  12. Fighting Allergies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  13. Learning about Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are probably allergic to the allergen. previous continue Taking Control Your doctor will probably suggest ways to stay ... away from the allergen might be enough to control your allergy. If your ... and taking medicines, an allergist might recommend allergy shots. These ...

  14. [Latex allergy--Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełmińska, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL), is a resin sap produced in the cells of caoutchouc plants. It is a water dispersion of cis-1,4-polisopren (caoutchouc)--35%, stabilized with little amounts of proteins, sugar, alcohol, fatty acids and salts. The concentration of all solid substances is about 40%, the rest is water. Immunogenicity of latex depends on the proteins it contains. For many years we read in medical papers about the cases of contact urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis after contacting with latex products. It turns out that medical staff is the group of high occupational risk, because of exposure to gloves and other latex products. It is connected with the fact of high gloves usage caused by the danger of virus infections: HIV, HBV, HCV. Latex allergy is one of the reasons of dramatic complications after surgical operations. People who are allergic to latex may have cross reactions to allergens not connected with occupational environment. These are: food and houseplants (Ficus benjamina). The frequency of latex allergy is about 0.1% of the population. In the groups of high risk the frequency rises sharply. It is 17% among medical staff and it reaches 60% among children with spina bifida.

  15. Shellfish allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  16. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  17. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  18. INITIAL ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Pampura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  19. Textile allergy--the Melbourne experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodownik, Dan; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce; Tam, Mei; Cahill, Jennifer; Frowen, Kathryn; Nixon, Rosemary

    2011-07-01

    Textile allergy is a well-established entity, but there are relatively few Australian reports in this area. To report the combined experience of textile contact dermatitis from the general and occupational contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. On the basis of the clinical suspicion of textile allergy, 2069 patients were tested with a textile series. One hundred and fifty-seven (7.6%) patients reacted to any of the textile-related allergens. The most common allergen was Basic Red 46 (20.2% of the positive reactions), followed by Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 (11.8% and 11.2%, respectively). Reactions to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing chemicals accounted for 30.6% of the concomitant reactions, and reactions to p-phenylenediamine accounted for 12.6% of the concomitant reactions. The use of Disperse Blue mix yielded only 12.2% of patients sensitive to either of these two allergens, and it is not endorsed as a screening agent for textile dye allergy. Textile allergy is not uncommon. In Melbourne, Basic Red 46 in inexpensive, dark-coloured, acrylic-blend, men's work socks is the most important cause. It is important to test with samples of patients' clothing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  1. Research needs in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  2. Cobalt allergy: suitable test concentration, and concomitant reactivity to nickel and chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Carola; Andersson, Niklas; Julander, Anneli; Matura, Mihály

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt allergy is frequent, but knowledge about exposure is limited. The patch test concentration and relevance of positive reactions are sometimes questioned. To assess the suitability of cobalt 1% versus 0.5% for patch testing, and to analyse the co-occurrence of allergy to cobalt, chromium, and nickel. Consecutive dermatitis patients (n = 656) were patch tested with cobalt chloride 0.5% and 1%, potassium dichromate 0.5%, and nickel sulfate 5%, all in petrolatum. Reactions were assessed on day (D)3, and on D6 or D7, and the reactivity and development of reactions were analysed. Allergy to any metal was shown in 31% of patients, allergy to cobalt in 14%, allergy to chromium in 7%, and allergy to nickel in 20%. A significant proportion (37%) of cobalt allergy cases were missed by cobalt 0.5% versus 1%, whereas the reactivity profiles were similar. Cobalt allergy was solitary, without concomitant allergy to chromium or nickel, in 50% of patients. Cobalt chloride 1% pet. is more suitable for patch testing than 0.5%. Solitary cobalt allergy is as frequent as concomitant allergy to cobalt and nickel or chromium. Sources of skin exposure to metals need to be identified for prevention of contact allergy. This is, owing to large knowledge gaps, particularly demanding for cobalt. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  4. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly...... is responsible for most cases of metal allergy, the importance of occupational metal exposure remains present and should always be taken into consideration when one interprets allergic patch test reactions to metals. Traditionally, nickel, cobalt, and chromium have been the most important contact allergens....... The epidemiology of metal allergy has recently changed in Europe as nickel allergy among ear-pierced Danish women has decreased following regulatory intervention on nickel release from consumer products. In the United States, the prevalence of nickel allergy is still increasing, which may be explained...

  5. Quantitative Subsurface Atomic Structure Fingerprint for 2D Materials and Heterostructures by First-Principles-Calibrated Contact-Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qing; Lange, Björn; Parlak, Zehra; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J; Blum, Volker; Zauscher, Stefan

    2016-07-26

    Interfaces and subsurface layers are critical for the performance of devices made of 2D materials and heterostructures. Facile, nondestructive, and quantitative ways to characterize the structure of atomically thin, layered materials are thus essential to ensure control of the resultant properties. Here, we show that contact-resonance atomic force microscopy-which is exquisitely sensitive to stiffness changes that arise from even a single atomic layer of a van der Waals-adhered material-is a powerful experimental tool to address this challenge. A combined density functional theory and continuum modeling approach is introduced that yields sub-surface-sensitive, nanomechanical fingerprints associated with specific, well-defined structure models of individual surface domains. Where such models are known, this information can be correlated with experimentally obtained contact-resonance frequency maps to reveal the (sub)surface structure of different domains on the sample.

  6. Food allergy training event for restaurant staff; a pilot evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A previous cross-sectional survey highlighted that restaurant staff in Brighton had gaps in their knowledge of food allergy, which could lead to the provision of unsafe meals to food-allergic customers. A food allergy training event was developed by a multi-disciplinary team (health service researcher, clinician, teacher and patient group representative) to equip restaurant staff with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely serve food-allergic customers. This evaluation summarises the training event’s impact on participants’ knowledge of food allergy and their satisfaction with the event. No attendee had previously attended any formal training on food allergy. The percentage of participants who answered all true-false questions correctly increased from 82% before the training event to 91% afterwards. The percentage of participants who were able to name at least three common allergens increased from 9% to 64%. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback was positive. Restaurant staff require a good understanding of food allergy to ensure that food-allergic customers are kept safe, and their restaurants operate within the law. This food allergy training event improved participants’ absolute knowledge of food allergy, and attendees changed practice. Recommendations are made which could improve the impact and uptake of future food allergy training events. PMID:25225607

  7. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  8. Seasonal Allergies in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrists, and ankles also may indicate an allergy. Eczema When it comes to rashes, the most common ... seen with the naked eye Furry animals: cats, dogs, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, and other pets Clothing ...

  9. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  10. Food allergies (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  11. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  12. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  13. Coping with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  14. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flight and where your auto-injector is. All-Inclusive Resorts A growing number of family resorts are ... Vehicle How to Get Involved Become a Member Benefits Join Now Renew Events FARE's Food Allergy Heroes ...

  15. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  16. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy – a growing epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the isothiazolinone preservative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with methylisothiazolinone (MI) and MI alone has increased in the last couple of years.......The prevalence of contact allergy to the isothiazolinone preservative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with methylisothiazolinone (MI) and MI alone has increased in the last couple of years....

  17. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  18. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Syndrome Milk & Dairy Allergy Meat Allergy Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) Fish Allergy Eosinophilic Esophagitis ... MA Charleston, SC Charlotte, NC Chicago, IL Cincinnati, OH Dallas, TX Denver, CO Detroit, MI Houston, TX ...

  19. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  20. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  1. Gold--a controversial sensitizer. European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...... of clinical relevance, i.e., causing or aggravating a contact dermatitis. In this paper, these steps are discussed with regard to gold. With our present knowledge of contact allergy-allergic contact dermatitis, we do not recommend including gold sodium thiosulfate in the standard series. It should be applied...... for scientific purposes and when allergic contact dermatitis from gold is suspected....

  2. [Latex allergy in a population at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, M; Flores Sandoval, G; Orea Solano, M

    1999-01-01

    The allergy to latex is an illness whose prevalence has been increased in very significant form in the last years. To know the allergy incidence to latex in population of risk, as well as to identify the related sintomatology and the importance or paper that play the atopia antecedents and time of contact with latex for the development of the illness. We carry out a prospective, descriptive, experimental and traverse study in population of risk, in the service of Allergy and clinical Immunology of the Hospital Regional Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISSSTE. One hundred patients of both sexes were included, with age of 20 to 50 years, with the antecedent of being personal medical and paramedic and to have presented contact with latex material in a minimum period of one year. They were carried out clinical history with registration of sintomatology nasal, bronchial, cutaneous and associated to contact with latex. They were carried out cutaneous test for prick to latex with positive control with the help of histamine solution and negative control with solution of Evans and immediate reading of the same one. 22% of the patients in study, they presented positive skin test latex, with a time of exhibition 10 year-old average, 68% presented antecedent of atopy personal, family and, likewise the associate sintomatology was in a 33.3% dermatology, 54.5 nasal, nobody presented bronchial symptoms and a 9% asymptomatic was reported. We support that the immediate skin test latex for Prick is an important parameter of support diagnosis for allergy to type 1 latex.

  3. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  4. Nutritional implications of food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein-energy malnutrition secondary to food allergies having been described.4 A .... was reported in a 34-year-old man with a history of rhinitis and severe oral allergy ..... Summary and recommendations: classification of gastrointestinal.

  5. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  6. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  7. Characterizing Pairwise Social Relationships Quantitatively: Interest-Oriented Mobility Modeling for Human Contacts in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mobility modeling has increasingly drawn the attention of researchers working on wireless mobile networks such as delay tolerant networks (DTNs in the last few years. So far, a number of human mobility models have been proposed to reproduce people’s social relationships, which strongly affect people’s daily life movement behaviors. However, most of them are based on the granularity of community. This paper presents interest-oriented human contacts (IHC mobility model, which can reproduce social relationships on a pairwise granularity. As well, IHC provides two methods to generate input parameters (interest vectors based on the social interaction matrix of target scenarios. By comparing synthetic data generated by IHC with three different real traces, we validate our model as a good approximation for human mobility. Exhaustive experiments are also conducted to show that IHC can predict well the performance of routing protocols.

  8. Analysis of non-contact and contact probe-to-sample thermal exchange for quantitative measurements of thin film and nanostructure thermal conductivity by the scanning hot probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam A.

    The ability to measure thermal properties of thin films and nanostructured materials is an important aspect of many fields of academic study. A strategy especially well-suited for nanoscale investigations of these properties is the scanning hot probe technique, which is unique in its ability to non-destructively interrogate the thermal properties with high resolution, both laterally as well as through the thickness of the material. Strategies to quantitatively determine sample thermal conductivity depend on probe calibration. State of the art calibration strategies assume that the area of thermal exchange between probe and sample does not vary with sample thermal conductivity. However, little investigation has gone into determining whether or not that assumption is valid. This dissertation provides a rigorous study into the probe-to-sample heat transfer through the air gap at diffusive distances for a variety of values of sample thermal conductivity. It is demonstrated that the thermal exchange radius and gap/contact thermal resistance varies with sample thermal conductivity as well as tip-to-sample clearance in non-contact mode. In contact mode, it is demonstrated that higher thermal conductivity samples lead to a reduction in thermal exchange radius for Wollaston probe tips. Conversely, in non-contact mode and in contact mode for sharper probe tips where air contributes the most to probe-to-sample heat transfer, the opposite trend occurs. This may be attributed to the relatively strong solid-to-solid conduction occurring between probe and sample for the Wollaston probes. A three-dimensional finite element (3DFE) model was developed to investigate how the calibrated thermal exchange parameters vary with sample thermal conductivity when calibrating the probe via the intersection method in non-contact mode at diffusive distances. The 3DFE model was then used to explore the limits of sensitivity of the experiment for a range of simulated experimental conditions. It

  9. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  10. Quantitative visualization of molecular transport through porous membranes: enhanced resolution and contrast using intermittent contact-scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kim; Snowden, Michael E; Peruffo, Massimo; Unwin, Patrick R

    2011-09-01

    The use of intermittent contact-scanning electrochemical microscopy (IC-SECM) in diffusion-limited amperometric mode to visualize and quantify mass transport through multiporous membranes is described using dentin as a model example. The IC mode of SECM employs the damping of a vertically modulated ultramicroelectrode (UME) to achieve positioning close to the receptor side of a membrane. In this way the UME can detect electroactive species close to the pore exit. A key aspect of IC-SECM is that in addition to the direct current (dc) from the diffusion-limited detection of the analyte, an alternating current (ac) also develops due to the motion of the probe. It demonstrates that this ac signal enhances the spatial resolution of SECM detection and allows the hydrodynamic flow of species to be detected from individual closely spaced pores. The experimental deductions are supported by three-dimensional finite element modeling which allows IC-SECM current maps to be analyzed to reveal transport rates through individual pores. The method described should be widely applicable to multiporous membrane transport.

  11. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  12. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  13. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  14. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  15. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of themeeting. Name of Committee: AIDS Research... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  16. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the meeting. Name of.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  17. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. III. A quantitative study in asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Marinelli, F; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1987-12-01

    We characterized the mucus glycoconjugates produced by goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) wearers. We employed four lectins (proteins of vegetal origin which specifically recognize glycosidic residues: WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker, at Transmission Electron Microscopy. A computerized quantitative analysis was carried out in order to compare the results from the CL wearers to those from the control patients. Goblet cells produce different amount of glycosidic residues, in particular, a significant decrease in the distribution of sialic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and mannose was observed. The content of glycosidic residues in the mucus vesicles of the non-goblet epithelial cells appeared unchanged as to the normal situation. We speculate that the CL could possibly contribute to the failure of the tear film stability by altering the production of mucus.

  18. [Animals and fungi as allergy inducers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A

    2001-05-01

    Pets particularly dog and cat are the men's best friend. In the daily practice respiratory allergy to animal proteins are not uncommon and in some areas the frequency is even higher than allergy to house dust mites. In Switzerland nearly half of the households keeps some kind of a domestic animal with cats followed by dogs as the principal pets. Because the exposure to domestic animals is perennial, allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma usually are less acute than due to pollen or an occupational allergen. The best and most effective management of a domestic animal allergy is to avoid having contact with the relevant pet. Because of personal and emotional conflicts other strategies are employed to reduce allergen levels of the pet such as by washing or by restriction of the territory. For many years, fungal spores have been recognized as potential causes of respiratory allergies. Besides the more community recognized microfungi or molds such as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cladosporium herbarum the class of basidiomycetes--physically the largest and morphologically the most complex fungi--are known to produce allergic symptoms. This class consists of about 14,000 species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs, toad stools and jelly fungi, as well as the plant-pathogenic rusts and smuts. Clinically, symptoms due to fungal allergens are not distinguishable from those due to pollen, however, in recent years asthma attacks particularly in young people have been associated with high spore counts in the air. Upon contact fungal components may cause eczema or trigger inflammatory skin eruptions in a subgroup of patients with atopic eczema. Though food allergies to mushrooms are largely anecdotal, a few well documented cases mainly due to Boletus edulis (king bolete or cepe) have been published recently. Since fungal spores are ubiquitous atmospheric components avoidance measures are often not achievable. Nevertheless, some

  19. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-

  20. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  1. Allergy and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This review of the major milestones in the history of ocular allergy and immunology shows how significantly this subdiscipline has contributed to the tremendous progress in the understanding of mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases, as well as in their better management. It also indicates unmet needs and priority areas for future research.

  2. Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as the symptoms of IgE-mediated immediate allergy localized in the oral mucosa, and the characteristics depend on the lability of the antigen. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy (PFS; the patient is sensitized with pollen via the airways and exhibits an allergic reaction to food antigen with a structural similarity to the pollen (class 2 food allergy. In addition to PFS, latex-fruit syndrome is also well-known as the disease exhibiting OAS. In treating the condition, it must be noted that most but not all symptoms of PFS are those of OAS. In many cases, antigens become edible by heating, but some are resistant to heating. Also, since the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis is occasionally observed after the intake of cooked antigens in asymptomatic individuals, careful inquiry of the history is important in designing the treatment. Immunotherapy against the cross-reacting pollen has also been attempted in PFS.

  3. Kiwifruit allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value. Commercial plantings of kiwifruit started a few decades ago and in the last 30 years, it has become a widely consumed fruit. Nowadays, it is one of the most common causes of food allergy. Symptoms vary between mild symptoms in the oral cavity to sever

  4. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The only definitive test for allergy in a patient with a history of previous .... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... for rapid mast cell activation and degranulation. ; ..... sporin reaction,27,2. for which there are no validated skin tests.I'.

  5. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  6. Contact allergy to 2-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl benzylalcohol and 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4-tert-butylphenol, components of a phenolic resin used in marking pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Egsgaard, H; Carlsen, L

    1994-01-01

    2-hydroxy-5-tert-butyl benzylalcohol and 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4-tert-butylphenol were identified as contact allergens in a phenolic resin used as a tackifier in the ink of a marking pen, which, after being used directly on the skin, caused an acute contact dermatitis on the hand of a 13-year......-old boy. The patient also reacted to 4-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (BPF resin) 1% pet. included in the European standard series....

  7. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified...

  8. Occupational allergy due to seafood delivery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Axel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitization to fish or crustaceans requires intensive skin contact and/or airway exposition and therefore especially workers in the seafood processing industry may develop an occupational seafood allergy. However, even in jobs with limited direct exposure, individuals with atopic disposition not using appropriate skin protection are at risk for developing occupational seafood allergy which requires termination of employment. Case presentation Due to increasing workload and pressure of time a truck driver in charge of seafood deliveries for 10 years neglected preventive measures such as wearing protective cloths and gloves which resulted in increasing direct skin contact to seafood or mucosal contact to splashing storage ice. Despite his sensitization to fish and crustaceans he tried to remain in his job but with ongoing incidental allergen exposure his symptoms progressed from initial contact urticaria to generalized urticaria, anaphylaxis and finally occupational asthma. Conclusion Faulty knowledge and increased work load may impede time-consuming usage of preventive measures for occupational health and safety. In predisposed atopic individuals even minor allergen exposure during seafood distribution may lead to occupational seafood allergy. With ongoing allergen exposure progression to potentially life-threatening allergy symptoms may occur.

  9. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  10. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients....... Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  12. 6.1.Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930238 Preliminary observation on tubercu-lous allergy and cross reaction with atypical my-cobacteria PPD in BCG immunized babies.XUDaoan (徐道安),et al.Hangzhou Tubere Con-trol Clinic,Zhejiang,310014.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(6):328—330.In order to know the cross reaction betweenBCG and Atypical Myeobaeteria (AM) anti-.genieity,1150 BCG immunized babies aged 12—24 weeks,undertook a bilateral arm control testwith H-PPD type 11 AM-PPD and BCG-PPD.The results show that all the AM—PPDtested can bring about a delayed allergy in thesebabies,but the total positive rate (42.87%)and mean reactive diameter (3.87mm) are thelowest and smallest among the above mentionedthree types of PPD.The BCG—PPD derived al-

  13. [Occupational allergies to xylanases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2004-02-01

    The exposure against enzyme dusts have long been known to cause occupational allergies. In the 1960s an increasing number of occupational allergies in the detergent industry were observed. In this context the high sensitization potential of enzyme dusts attracted attention. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for xylanases. These frequently used industrial enzymes belong to the hemicellulases and are mostly of fungal origin. Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by xylanases or other hemicellulases are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  14. Allergy to cypress pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Lahoz, C; Pichot, C; Waisel, Y

    2005-03-01

    Although Cupressus sempervirens has been spread over southern Europe since antiquity, cypress pollen allergy has not been reported until 1945. In France, the very first case reports were published in 1962. Since then, the prevalence of cypress pollinosis seems to demonstrate an upward trend, concomitantly with the increased use of cypress trees as ornamental plants, as wind breaks and as hedges. Hyposensitization, using improved pollen extracts, is increasingly prescribed. Besides, prevention measures begin to be implemented. Such measures include avoidance of planting new cypress trees, especially near human populations' centres, trimming of cypress hedges before the pollination season and agronomical research for hypoallergenic trees. Altogether, such new developments in cypress allergy deserve an update review.

  15. Contact Dermatitis From Topical Application Of Mercurochrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Sib Shankar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury in its metallic from and its other salts may cause contact dermatitis and eczema; but contact allergy due to them is rather uncommon. A case of eczematous reaction due to topical application of mercurochrome developing within one day is being reported.

  16. Contact Dermatitis From Topical Application Of Mercurochrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Sib Shankar; Manjumdar Sabyasachi

    1995-01-01

    Mercury in its metallic from and its other salts may cause contact dermatitis and eczema; but contact allergy due to them is rather uncommon. A case of eczematous reaction due to topical application of mercurochrome developing within one day is being reported.

  17. Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafilan, Lena; James, Charis

    2015-12-01

    Urticaria is a common condition that involves pruritic, raised skin wheals. Although urticaria is a benign, self-limiting condition, it may cause frustration for patients, often because of its chronicity and its tendency to recur. It can also be a life-threatening allergic reaction. Diagnosis is made clinically. It affects 20% of the general population. The first-line treatment for nonremitting cases includes H-1anti-histamines. However, other therapies may be employed. Other allergy-mediated skin conditions include angioedema, contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis is clinical, and management focuses on prevention, avoiding triggers, and treating the itching and inflammation that accompany these conditions.

  18. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  19. Food Allergies: The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic ...

  20. Probiotics and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  1. [Stress and allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  2. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  3. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  4. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  5. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  6. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  7. Gastrointestinal Food Allergy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Morita

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation.

  8. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. OBJECTIVES: To determine...... the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  9. The management of food allergy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiarti, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy. PMID:23403763

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis pattern in Kuwait: nickel leads the pack. In-depth analysis of nickel allergy based on the results from a large prospective patch test series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Almutairi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Contact dermatitis is a relatively common dermatosis reported among several population groups from all around the globe. However, the data from Kuwait is unavailable. Patch tests are essential for the diagnosis of contact sensitization. Aim : To determine a relative frequency and pattern of sensitizers to different allergens in patients of suspected contact dermatitis in Kuwait and, also to study the role of the commonest sensitizer in detail. Material and methods: Patch tests were performed in 2461 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of contact dermatitis seen at our hospital between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Out of the total of 1381 (56.1% patients with positive patch test results to at least one allergen, 546 (22.2% patients with a single positive reaction to nickel only (single largest sensitizer were selected as the study population for further detailed analysis. Results : At least one positive patch test reaction was found in 1381 (56.12% patients. Nickel was found to be the most common sensitizer seen in 546 (40% patients. The mean age was 37.3 ±13.8 years and the mean duration of disease was 27.3 ±13.8 months. Most (387/546 patients sensitized were females. The forearms/hands and wrists were the most prevalent sites (52.56% of the participants. In 58.91% of women, dermatitis was more often confined to other sites, mostly ears and the neck due to earrings and necklaces. Just more than half of the number (51.09% of nickel allergic patients were found in the age group of 15–25 years. Hairdressers/beauticians were the most affected group followed by house workers (housewives, cleaners, housekeepers. Conclusions : Nickel is the single most common sensitizer found in our patients, and female sex, young age, occupation with long hours of contact to nickel are high risk factors. We recommend that a directive, which limits the release of nickel from products with extended skin contact, be approved in

  11. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  12. Metal allergen of the 21st century--a review on exposure, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of palladium allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D;

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are mainly exposed to palladium from jewellery and dental restorations. Palladium contact allergy is nearly always seen together with nickel allergy, as palladium and nickel tend to cross-react. We aimed to analyse the available palladium patch test data and case reports to determine wh...

  13. Fragrance allergy and quality of life - development and validation of a disease-specific quality of life instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance allergy is a lifelong condition that may give rise to permanent or recurrent contact dermatitis and may affect quality of life (QoL). The effect on QoL has not yet been investigated, and no disease-specific QoL instrument for fragrance allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: To develop a...

  14. Allergy to uncommon pets: new allergies but the same allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eDiaz-Perales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are 3 main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies.

  15. Is nickel allergy an occupational disease? Discussion of the occupational relevance of a type IV allergy to nickel (II) sulfate using case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2008-05-01

    Type IV sensitization to nickel (II) sulfate is common in the general population. Nickel can be found in different metals leading to occupational exposition in industrial professions. The individual clinical relevance of nickel allergy can easily be identified but it can be difficult to assess if nickel allergy was acquired privately or occupationally. The problem if nickel allergy fulfills the criteria of an occupational skin disease is presented in three case reports. The occupational relevance of a type IV sensitization to nickel in a chemical laboratory assistant, a flight attendant and a cashier are discussed. Important conditions for acquiring nickel allergy are contact with nickel-plated and nickel-releasing materials, the kind of skin contact, the status of the epidermal barrier, and the individual working conditions with an increased bioavailability of nickel. In cases of type IV sensitization to nickel, the affected person cannot continue to work in metal plating or with contact to nickel-plated metals. The causal relationship between the type IV sensitization to nickel and the occupation needs to be clarified in each individual case. In general, occupationally caused nickel allergy is rare and the occupational relevance of nickel allergy is often overestimated.

  16. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  17. Fragrance contact allergic patients: strategies for use of cosmetic products and perceived impact on life situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrance ingredients are a common cause of contact allergy. Very little is known about these patients' strategies to manage their disease and the effect on their daily lives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if patients with diagnosed fragrance contact allergy used scented products, how th...

  18. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2011-01-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions...

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by iodopropynyl butylcarbamate in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Gorgojo, Alejandro; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2013-01-01

    Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) is a preservative that may cause contact allergy. The first cases were reported in 1997, and IPBC is currently included in our extended European baseline series in Denmark....

  20. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  1. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  2. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  3. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S

    1996-08-01

    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  4. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  5. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  6. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  7. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  8. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2007-03-01

    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  9. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  11. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available.

  12. Stress and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An;

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  14. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  15. Treatment of respiratory allergy with allergy immunotherapy tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachert, C

    2011-07-01

    Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food...... allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established...... instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated foo...... instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....... allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established...

  18. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  19. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  20. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  1. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  2. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  3. [Occupational allergies to phytase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2008-12-01

    Phytases are phosphatases that can break down the undigestible phytic acid (phytate). They are frequently used as an animal feed supplement - often in poultry and swine - to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytate. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to phytases. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by phytases could be shown clearly by the presented studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific challenge tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  4. Contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , ...

  5. Epidemiological data on consumer allergy to p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, J.M.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    Many women and men now dye their hair. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent and important component of permanent hair dye products; exposure to it may cause allergic contact sensitization, acute dermatitis, and severe facial oedema. To increase our understanding of PPD allergy, we reviewed...... published literature containing PPD patch test data from dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. This was performed to estimate the median prevalence and the weighted average of PPD sensitization and thereby assess the burden of PPD-containing hair care products on health. Literature...... in the 1970s was replaced by a plateau with steady, high prevalences ranging between 2% and 6%. The prevalence remained high in North America, although a decreasing tendency was observed. Contact allergy to PPD is an important health issue for both women and men. More stringent regulation and enforcement...

  6. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... food group . Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  7. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, soy, and wheat. Cow's milk (or cow's milk protein). Between 2% and 3% of children younger than ... on the market are cow's milk-based. Cow's milk protein allergy means that someone has an abnormal immune ...

  8. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... action for patients who have had inadequate symptom relief with antihistamines and topical nasal steroids. Through injection ...

  9. Latex allergy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dermatitis, or in a more serious whole body reaction, anaphylaxis. The term "dermatitis" describes an inflammatory response of the skin, caused by contact with allergens or irritants such as the latex ...

  10. Understanding Food Allergy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue contents Understanding Food Allergy Follow us Understanding Food Allergy Latest Updates from NIH Food allergies are ... ways to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.” Food allergy studies With so many unanswered questions surrounding ...

  11. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M.; Ale, I.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2...

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  13. Allergy to latex in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Zapata, Álvaro L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A common and growing problem in hospitals is hypersensitivity to rubber latex antigens, since many products, including gloves, are manufactured from this material, with the consequent possibility of producing allergy in persons who use them. Objective: To find out if health workers at a fourth level clinic in Bogotá, Colombia, are allergic to rubber latex, in relation to the use of gloves. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic intentional-type sample in each one of four hospital units. A survey was applied to participants. Results: 16 of the 26 persons (61.5% with history of allergic processes manifested some kind of reaction when they had contact with latex gloves; the problem was more significant in the nursing personnel compared to physicians. Conclusions: The exposure to latex gloves may be generating the appearance of allergic occupational disease in health workers.

  14. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  15. Isoeugenol is an important contact allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, I R; Johansen, J D; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy to the fragrance mix in individuals with eczema is up to 10%. Within the mix, isoeugenol (CAS 97-54-1) is an important individual allergen. Until May 1998, the IFRA (International Fragrance Association) guidelines suggested that isoeugenol could safely be used at...

  16. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. FOOD ALLERGY AND ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME. Part I. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.

  19. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  20. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  1. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  2. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rhea A; Tadros, Susan; Bansal, Amolak S

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  3. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products. PMID:28396809

  4. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  5. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea A. Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient’s additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient’s symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient’s ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  6. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  7. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Kidney Disease Oral and Dental Health Respiratory and Allergies Allergies and Hay Fever Asthma ... Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography Pap ...

  8. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  9. [Current contact allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  10. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 2-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Line; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring; Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen

    2016-01-01

    results and the results of natural rubber latex protein allergy after 2 years. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-nine patients diagnosed with relevant occupational epoxy or rubber chemical contact allergy, or allergy to natural rubber latex protein, were invited to participate in a questionnaire study about...... >60 years (p natural rubber latex proteins, 50% remembered this correctly. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of patch testing depends on the patients' ability to understand and remember the results...... their knowledge of contact allergies after 2 years. RESULTS: The response rate was 75%. Of the respondents, 13% did not remember their occupational contact allergy to rubber chemicals or epoxy. Ability to remember was not significantly influenced by sex or Dermatology Life Quality Index, but was decreased by age...

  11. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...... the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals...

  12. Allergy vaccines: dreams and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Reto

    2007-12-01

    Allergy, extrinsic asthma and atopic eczema derive from deregulated immune responses against innocuous antigens. The incidence of atopic diseases is actually affecting approximately 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of efficient symptomatic treatments for allergic diseases, the only curative treatment remains allergen-specific immunotherapy. In contrast to classical vaccines, which elicit strong host immune responses after one or a few injections, allergen-specific immunotherapy might require a long treatment time of 3-5 years with up to 80 injections to confer some protection. The reality is that 'allergy vaccines' achieve beneficial effects through immunomodulation, which takes a long time to establish. The dream would be to develop highly efficient allergy vaccines able to cure the disease with a few injections.

  13. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  14. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  15. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  16. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  17. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  18. Ketoprofen-induced formation of amino acid photoadducts: possible explanation for photocontact allergy to ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Isabella; Persson, Elin; Ekebergh, Andreas; Mårtensson, Jerker; Börje, Anna

    2014-07-21

    Photocontact allergy is a well-known side effect of topical preparations of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. Photocontact allergy to ketoprofen appears to induce a large number of photocross allergies to both structurally similar and structurally unrelated compounds. Contact and photocontact allergies are explained by structural modification of skin proteins by the allergen. This complex is recognized by the immune system, which initiates an immune response. We have studied ketoprofen's interaction with amino acids to better understand ketoprofen's photoallergenic ability. Irradiation of ketoprofen and amino acid analogues resulted in four different ketoprofen photodecarboxylation products (6-9) together with a fifth photoproduct (5). Dihydroquinazoline 5 was shown to be a reaction product between the indole moiety of 3-methylindole (Trp analogue) and the primary amine benzylamine (Lys analogue). In presence of air, dihydroquinazoline 5 quickly degrades into stable quinazolinone 12. The corresponding quinazolinone (17) was formed upon irradiation of ketoprofen and the amino acids N-acetyl-l-Trp ethyl ester and l-Lys ethyl ester. The formation of these models of an immunogenic complex starts with the ketoprofen-sensitized formation of singlet oxygen, which reacts with the indole moiety of Trp. The formed intermediate subsequently reacts with the primary amino functionality of Lys, or its analogue, to form a Trp-Lys adduct or a mimic thereof. The formation of a specific immunogenic complex that does not contain the allergen but that can still induce photocontact allergy would explain the large number of photocross allergies with ketoprofen. These allergens do not have to be structurally similar as long as they can generate singlet oxygen. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other suggested explanation for ketoprofen's photoallergenic properties that can account for the observed photocross allergies. The formation of a specific immunogenic

  19. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...

  1. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  2. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    by extracting epidermal proteins from human surgical waste samples and stratum corneum scrapings followed by binding studies using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Results As suggested by Kaplan-Meier event history analyses, FLG null mutations lowered the age of onset of nickel dermatitis, when ear...

  3. Contact allergy and respiratory/mucosal complaints from heroin (diacetylmorphine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, AJH; van der Heide, S; van den Brink, W; van Ree, JM; Bruynzeel, DP; Coenraads, PJ

    2006-01-01

    After the start of heroin (diacetylmorphine)-assisted treatment to a selected group of chronic treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients in the Netherlands, we reported about work-related eczema and positive patch tests to heroin in some nurses and nasal and respiratory complaints. To investigat

  4. Nickel and cobalt allergy before and after nickel regulation--evaluation of a public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2011-09-01

    Over the 20th century, the frequent use of nickel in consumer products resulted in an increasing prevalence of nickel allergy. Risk items included suspenders in the 1950s-1960s; buttons, zippers and rivets in the 1970s; and ear-piercing jewellery in the 1980s. When subjects allergic to nickel were exposed to nickel in high concentrations, it often resulted in allergic nickel contact dermatitis and hand eczema. In 1990, the Danish government began to regulate consumer nickel exposure as a response to the increasing nickel allergy problem. In 1994, the EU Nickel Directive was passed, a regulation that was based on the Danish and Swedish nickel regulations. These major public health interventions were expected to change the epidemiology of nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europe. Furthermore, it was debated whether nickel would be replaced by cobalt in inexpensive jewellery and result in higher prevalence of cobalt allergy. An evaluation of the possible effects of the European nickel regulations is of importance to ensure protection of consumers and dermatitis patients. This doctoral thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory interventions on nickel exposure by investigating the development of nickel allergy and dermatitis before and after nickel regulation. Furthermore, a change in the association between nickel allergy and hand eczema was evaluated. The nickel spot test was validated to determine its value when used for screening purposes. Possible explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy were explored including genetic predisposition and consumer nickel exposure from jewellery and accessories. A cobalt spot test was developed and validated. Finally, it was evaluated whether a cobalt allergy epidemic had replaced the nickel allergy epidemic after nickel regulation in terms of increasing cobalt sensitization and cobalt exposure. The thesis showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly after nickel regulation in young Danish

  5. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Atopic dermatitis and skin allergies - update and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, A; Feichtner, K

    2013-12-01

    During the last few years, an impressive amount of experimental studies and clinical trials have dealt with a variety of distinct topics in allergic skin diseases - especially atopic dermatitis. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide relevant insights into clinical and pathophysiological aspects of allergic skin diseases or discuss promising targets and strategies for the future treatment of skin allergy. This includes aspects of barrier malfunction and inflammation as well as the interaction of the cutaneous immune system with the skin microbiome and diagnostic procedures for working up atopic dermatitis patients. Additionally, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and drug reactions are addressed in this review. This update summarizes novel evidence, highlighting current areas of uncertainties and debates that will stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field of atopic dermatitis and skin allergies in the future.

  7. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  8. The critical review of methodologies and approaches to assess the inherent skin sensitization potential (skin allergies) of chemicals. Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    For those chemicals identified in point 2 above, to collect and critically analyse clinical and statistical evidence on the incidence and morbidity (clinical picture) of skin contact allergy (contact dermatitis) cases in the EU before (at least 3 years) and after the limits were set, so as to allow...

  9. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  10. Dutch guideline on food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, M. S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy is established in cases where an immediate allergic reaction has occurred in the last year to a clearly identifiable allergenic food combined with sensitisation to this allergenic food. In all other cases, a food challenge test is required to establish or reject the dia

  11. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  12. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  13. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  14. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it until you check with your doctor. Although gluten intolerance is different from a food allergy, it can cause serious health problems in people who have celiac disease, a chronic digestive disorder. Gluten is a protein that occurs in grains such ...

  15. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dano, D.; Remington, B.C.; Astier, C.; Baumert, J.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Bihain, B.E.; Taylor, S.L.; Kanny, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge metho

  16. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dano, D.; Remington, B.C.; Astier, C.; Baumert, J.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Bihain, B.E.; Taylor, S.L.; Kanny, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge

  17. Food allergy and atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Allison; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-06-01

    To review recent developments on the inter-relationship between food allergy and atopic eczema, with a particular focus on understanding the role of filaggrin gene defects. Filaggrin gene defects have recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of atopic eczema. These skin barrier defects increase the risk of early onset, severe and persistent forms of atopic eczema. They also increase the risk of allergic sensitization, and asthma and allergic rhinitis in those with co-existent eczema. These skin barrier defects are also likely to increase the risk of food allergy. Atopic dermatitis and food allergy are frequently herald conditions for other manifestations of 'the allergic march'. They commonly co-exist, particularly in those with early onset, severe and persistent atopic eczema. Filaggrin gene defects substantially increase the risk of atopic eczema. The increased skin permeability may increase the risk of sensitization to food and other allergens, this pointing to the possible role of cutaneous allergen avoidance in early life to prevent the onset of atopic eczema and food allergy. Emerging evidence also indicates that oral exposure to potentially allergenic foods may be important for inducing immunological tolerance.

  18. Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatty Ravitasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cheilitis is a common problem of unknown etiology. A possible cause of cheilitis is contact allergy. Drugs, lipsticks, sunblock and toothpaste are the most common implicated allergens. Allergic contact cheilitis is a chronic superficial inflammatory disorder of the vermilion borders characterized by desquamation due to delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Purpose: We report a management of Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipsticks. Case: A 21-year-old woman had a history of atopic allergy to eggs, milk, and chicken presented with sore, dry, fissured, scaled and sometimes bleeding lip, over a 3-month period after application of a lipstick. Her symptoms persisted despite treatments with hydrocortisone cream. The patient provided a detailed history and underwent physical examination and patch tests to cosmetic components and patch test to her own lipstick. The patient had strongly-positive result to the tested lipstick. A diagnosis of allergic contact cheilitis was made based on the history and clinical findings. Case management: Patient was advised to avoid wearing lipstick. To relieve symptoms, treatment was initiated with combined topical corticosteroid, antibiotic, and moisturizer. Conclusion: Contact allergy patients should be tested for both cosmetic component series and their own lipsticks to exclude exfolliative cheilitis, infection, or light actinic cheilitis as causal agents.

  19. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda;

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the liter...... reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin....

  20. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literatu

  1. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literatu

  2. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the

  3. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy.

  4. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... Diseases Council; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: February 7, 2011. Closed: 8:30 a... . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology...

  5. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Contact Person listed belowin advance of the meeting. The meetings will be closed to the public in....gov . Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Microbiology and...; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: June 2, 2014. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m....

  6. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the Contact Person listed below in advance of the... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date... Council, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Subcommittee. Date: May 14, 2012. Closed: 8:30 a.m. to...

  7. Respiratory infections in infants : Interaction of parental allergy, child care, and siblings - The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Smit, HA; Heijnen, MLA; Wijga, A; van Strien, RT; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Brunekreef, B; de Jongste, JC; Neijens, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between contacts with other children and the development of respiratory infections in the first year of life in children with or without genetic predisposition for allergy. Methods. Children (n = 4146) who participate in a prospective birth cohort study (Pre

  8. KEYNOTE LECTURES-KL2 Chemical allergy: new science,new understanding and new opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian KIMBER

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chemical allergy can take a variety of forms. Those of greatest relevance to toxicology are skin sensitisation resulting in allergic contact dermatitis, and sensitisation of the respiratory tract associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Both represent important health issues and there is a need for effective hazard characterisation and risk assessment.

  9. Determinants of epoxy allergy in the construction industry : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Ton; Timmerman, Johan G; Rühl, Reinhold; Kersting, Klaus; Heederik, Dick J J; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers exposed to epoxy products are at risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To compare workers throughout the German construction industry with and without skin allergy to epoxy resins, hardeners, and/or reactive diluents, and to investigate which determinants

  10. Avoiding Cross-Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Children About Your Allergies Managing at Work Healthcare Providers Child Care Facilities Americans with Disabilities Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  11. The Self-Potential Anomaly Produced by a Subsurface Flow at the Contact of Two Horizontal Layers and Its Quantitative Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Aim. Skianis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the problem of a polarized cylinder with a small cross-section, which is located at the contact of two horizontal layers with different resistivities, is studied. Such a polarization geometry simulates the self-potential (SP field produced by a horizontal flow at the contact between the two layers. First, the expression of the self potential at the space domain is derived, applying the image technique. Then, the expression for the Fourier transform of the SP anomaly is found and the behavior of the amplitude spectrum is studied. Based on this study, a direct interpretation method at the spatial frequency domain is proposed, in order to calculate the depth of the flow and the reflection coefficient of the stratified medium. Experimentation with a synthetic model shows that the method works well (small deviations between true and calculated values. When the SP curve contains noise, deviations between calculated and true depths are smaller than those between calculated and true reflection coefficients. The proposed method, which is also applied on SP data from a geothermal system (Mauri et al., 2010, may be useful in detecting underground water or heat flows.

  12. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by isocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, A; Detienne, T; Bruze, M

    2002-11-01

    Between 1978 and 2001, 22 patients were diagnosed with occupation-related allergic contact dermatitis from isocyanates and/or polyurethanes in our clinic. 13 had a positive reaction to the isocyanates, of whom 10 also reacted to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), which is used in the production or processing of isocyanates and polyurethanes; 9 reacted only to MDA. The object of the present study was to identify the trades and industries responsible for the development of contact allergy to these resins. Such patients must be patch tested with the isocyanates contacted at work, and account must be taken of positive reactions to MDA as a marker for isocyanate sensitivity.

  13. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  14. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.

  15. Food Allergy 101 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current issue contents Food Allergy 101 Follow us Food Allergy 101 What is a food allergy? In a person with a food allergy, ... Sometimes the response can be life-threatening. What foods commonly cause an allergy? Foods that often cause ...

  16. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    strategies for preventing food allergy development, and possibly, for reversing established food allergy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Food allergy, asthma...studies can suggest improved strategies for preventing food allergy development, and possibly, for reversing established food allergy. 2. Key Words...professors. In addtion, Mr. Gudimetla takes didactic courses in Immunology and Molecular Biology at the University of Cincinnati. Result Dissemination

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects : Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments...... from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme...

  18. ACA-Pro: calibration protocol for quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Validation on contact and noncontact probe- and CCD-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgato, Veronica; Berger, Michel; Emain, Charlotte; Vever-Bizet, Christine; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Bourg-Heckly, Geneviève; Planat-Chrétien, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an adaptive calibration algorithm and protocol (ACA-Pro) that corrects from the instrumental response of various spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRSsr) systems to enable the quantification of absorption and scattering properties based on a Monte Carlo-based look-up-table approach. The protocol involves the use of a calibration reference base built with measurements of a range of different diffusive intralipid phantoms. Moreover, an advanced strategy was established to take into account the experimental variations with an additional measurement of a common solid material, allowing the use of a single calibration reference base for all experiments. The ACA-Pro is validated in contact and noncontact probe-based DRSsr systems. Furthermore, the first results of a setup replacing the probe with a CCD detector are shown to confirm the robustness of the approach.

  19. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...... appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk. This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including......Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...

  20. Titanium allergy: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium.