WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumption survey nbecs

  1. Survey on food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1979-01-01

    Critical pathway approach is one of the methods for estimating discharge limits of radioactive nuclides into an environment. In connection with this it is presented that a term of 'critical group' is in danger of leading to the misunderstanding of 'dangerous group'. However, in fact, the present discharge is limited to a level as low as practicable. Therefore, on the evaluation of intermal radiation dose for such a low release, a term of 'reference group' should be recommended instead of critical group. In order to select reasonably 'the reference group', it was proposed to calculate 'effective whole body dose-equivalent limit', which was recommended by ICRP publication 26. It is a convenient method to sum up individual weighed dose of each critical organ by using the value of a ratio obtained from Wt as a weighing factor. Finally instructions for the survey on food consumption and the results were summarized on the basis of ten-years survey experiences in coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture. (author)

  2. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  3. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  4. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  5. Nutrient adequacy: assessment using food consumption surveys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    ... of Food Consumption Surveys Food and Nutrition Board Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1986 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  6. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Rice Consumption in the United States: New Evidence from Food Consumption Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    S. Patricia Batres-Marquez; Helen H. Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from recent U.S. food consumption surveys provides new information on the distribution of rice consumption, the characteristics of rice consumers, and the diets of people who consume rice. Recently available data from nationally representative surveys of food consumed by individuals in the United States allowed comparison of consumption today (2001-02) with consumption in the mid-1990s. Data come from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-96) and the National Hea...

  8. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Basic Survey Small-scale Natural Gas Consumption (BAK 1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.E.J.; Weegink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The annual title survey shows for 1995 that Dutch households consumed more than 120 million m 3 of natural gas, which is higher than in 1994. The average consumption per dwelling slightly decreased. Gas consumption for cooking and hot water remained the same. The slight decrease in the average consumption is caused by space heating. The decrease seemed to halt last year, but still continues for the time being. However, it is too early to refer to it as a trend. 3 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Survey Results on Fashion Consumption and Sustainability among Young Swedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Netter, Sarah; Bjartmarz, Thordis

    Sustainable choices and behaviours are becoming ever more important in our daily lives in all consumption domains. This report focuses specifically on the consumption of textile fashion of young Swedish consumers. The purpose of this report is twofold: a) To describe current fashion consumption...... of young consumers and sustainability related attitudes and knowledge and b) to compare attitudes, knowledge and behaviour between consumers with different levels of awareness and commitment towards sustainability. The survey was conducted among 1,175 young Swedish consumers (aged 16-30) in 2012....... The average age of respondents is 23.5 years, with 48.7% females and 51.3% males. The report focuses on three consumption phases: purchase (including pre-purchase), use & maintenance and discarding....

  11. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  12. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  13. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  15. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  16. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58...

  17. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  18. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  19. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  20. History of food consumption surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 6 entitled "History of Food Consumption Surveys Conducted by The U.S. Department of Agriculture” provides an overview of the surveys conducted by USDA to monitor food use and food consumption patterns in the U.S. population since the latter part of the 19th century to 2014. This chapter in ...

  1. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  2. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Survey of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Islamic religion, not being in marital union, consuming an alcoholic herbal brew and considering alcohol was beneficial to health were strong predictors of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the prevalence of alcohol consumption is high among this cohort of Ghanaian women. Women should be screened for ...

  4. Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1 to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2 to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3 to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall, occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys.

  5. Fructose consumption in the Netherlands: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Despite the worldwide scientific and media attention, the actual fructose consumption in many non-US populations is not clear. The aim of this study was to estimate the fructose consumption and its main food sources in a representative sample of the general Dutch population.

  6. Food survey of three areas of the lower Rhone valley: Codolet, Tresques, and the Camargue. Consumption/home consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, B.; Guillet, F.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 the IRSN studied the dosimetric impact of the Marcoule site on the inhabitants of reference village, Codolet. The ingestion-related impact highlighted by this study revealed the need for further familiarization with the eating habits of the villagers, and more precisely their home consumption habits (that is consumption of locally-produced foodstuffs, own personal production, however, supplied or purchased). Accordingly a food survey was carried out in May 1998 in the village of Codolet and also in the village of Tresques that acted as control village and in the area of the Camargue that was flooded when the Rhone burst its banks in October 1993 and January 1994. Knowledge of 'real and current' home consumption habits is important as in the 1996 study, it was taken that all consumption was of the home consumption type. The survey, comprising a 14-page survey questionnaire, covers some twenty selected households per site. A 'fictitious' unit was used to make allowance for the wide variations in household make-up for this type of week long survey. This unit is called a 'unit of consumption, uc' and is expressed in g or cl per uc, per day (g or cl uc -1 j -1 ). It differs very little from the more conventional unit expressed in g or ell per inhabitant, per day (g or cl h -1 j -1 ). The thirteen main home consumption foodstuffs in the three survey samples were (mean values in g or cl uc -1 j -1 ): potatoes (62), lettuces (42), tomatoes (18), carrots (16), leeks, French beans and strawberries (13), cherries and radishes (11) in the fruit and vegetable category; eggs and chicken (15) for produce of animal origin; wine and water (10) in the liquids category. As regards Codolet, the home consumption figures for foodstuffs included in the 1996 dosimetric study are all, with the exception of wine, much higher than those revealed by our food survey. Applying our figures to update this dosimetric study would cause the ingestion aspect of dosimetric impact to drop very

  7. Consumption of salmon. A survey of supermarkets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingling

    2003-01-01

    To keep up with the recent trends in consumer demand for salmon product in supermarkets, an understanding of the relationship between consumption and variation of lifestyle is needed. The present paper seeks to address this question by hypothesizing that consumption is strongly influenced by consumers’ sociodemograhic status, experience of salmon, beliefs with salmon’s attributes and preference for the preferred type of salmon. Understanding the main lifestyle factors influe...

  8. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  9. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the industry in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.; Mercanti, A.; Poggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the italian industry. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The energy intensive sectors and the great industries have represented the nucleus of survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  10. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993-1994, 1999-2001 and 2005-2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  11. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  12. Surveying the Environmental Footprint of Urban Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Fernandez, John

    2017-01-01

    Assessments of urban metabolism (UM) are well situated to identify the scale, components, and direction of urban and energy flows in cities and have been instrumental in benchmarking and monitoring the key levers of urban environmental pressure, such as transport, space conditioning......, and electricity. Hitherto, urban food consumption has garnered scant attention both in UM accounting (typically lumped with “biomass”) and on the urban policy agenda, despite its relevance to local and global environmental pressures. With future growth expected in urban population and wealth, an accounting...... of the environmental footprint from urban food demand (“foodprint”) is necessary. This article reviews 43 UM assessments including 100 cities, and a total of 132 foodprints in terms of mass, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint and situates it relative to other significant environmental drivers (transport...

  13. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Phimmasane, Maniphet; Rajaonarivo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insect consumption (entomophagy) is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species) though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors. We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years. A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups), and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8%) lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0%) daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1%) consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6%) the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year) and only 22 (2%) had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2%) and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%). Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0%) and change of life (29; 5.5%). Of 1059, 80 (7.5%) reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0%) reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  14. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  15. A Survey on Content Adaptation Systems towards Energy Consumption Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norasri Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of heterogeneous devices has rapidly changed the way people access the World Wide Web that includes rich content applications such as video streaming, 3D games, video conferencing, and mobile TV. However, most of these devices' (i.e., mobile phone, PDA, smartphone, and tablet capabilities differ in terms of built-in software and library (what they can display, display size (how the content appears, and battery supply (how long the content can be displayed. In order for the digital contents to fit the target device, content adaptation is required. There have been many projects focused on energy-aware-based content adaptation that have been designed with different goals and approaches. This paper reviews some of the representative content adaptation solutions that have been proposed during the last few years, in relation to energy consumption focusing on wireless multimedia streaming in mobile devices. Also, this paper categorizes the research work according to different classifications of multimedia content adaptation requirements. In addition, we discuss some energy-related challenges content adaptation systems.

  16. A survey of synthetic cannabinoid consumption by current cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Joshi, Amruta S; Hart, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing concern about the increased rates of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use and their effects, only limited data are available that addresses these issues. This study assessed the extent of SC product use and reported effects among a cohort of adult marijuana and tobacco users. A brief telephone interview was conducted with individuals who had given permission to be contacted for future research while screening for a cannabis/nicotine dependence medication development study (NCT01204723). Respondents (N = 42; 88% participation rate) were primarily young adults, male, racially diverse, and high school graduates. Nearly all currently smoked tobacco and cannabis, with 86% smoking cannabis on 5 or more days per week. Nearly all (91%) were familiar with SC products, half (50%) reported smoking SC products previously, and a substantial minority (24%) reported current use (i.e., past month). Despite a federal ban on 5 common SCs, which went into effect on March 1, 2011, a number of respondents reported continued SC product use. Common reasons reported for use included, but were not limited to, seeking a new "high" similar to that produced by marijuana and avoiding drug use detection via a positive urine screen. The primary side effects were trouble thinking clearly, headache, dry mouth, and anxiety. No significant differences were found between synthetic cannabinoid product users (ever or current) and nonusers by demographics or other characteristics. Among current marijuana and tobacco users, SC product consumption was common and persisted despite a federal ban. The primary reasons for the use of SC-containing products seem to be to evade drug detection and to experience a marijuana-like high.

  17. A FIELD SURVEY ON THE CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TRENDINTURKEY (CASE STUDY OF MUGLA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay HIZ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available People consume goods and services primarily in order to meet their physiologicalneeds (food, drink, shelter, etc. and safety needs(safety of life and property.However, some individuals in every society make consumption apart from thesekinds of needs in order to show off and influenceothers. For some individuals,the demand for goods and services leading to conspicuous consumption, comeahead of the physiological and security needs. Thisstudy examines psychologicalsatisfaction for the money spent on goods and services, which means"conspicuous consumption" and covers a field survey. In this survey that wasconducted in Muğla, survey method was chosen as a method of data collection.Survey forms were conducted in Muğla province, Bodrum, Marmaris and Fethiye.The datas that were collected were analyzed in SPSSprogram.In the case ofMugla which supports the work of pretentious natureof consumption, somejudgments about the behavior of consumption were made by consideringconsumption styles in influencing lifestyle, consumer behavior and attitudes aboutthe "status, prestige, luxury, rationality and theconscious consumer" variables.

  18. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  19. Alcohol consumption moderates the link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence in an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker Barnwell, Sara; Earleywine, Mitch; Gordis, Elana B

    2005-06-01

    The link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence remains poorly understood. Some people use cannabis regularly without signs of dependence; others show dependence despite using less. This study examined alcohol consumption as a moderator of this association. A sample of 476 people (primarily Caucasian men) who used cannabis at least once per week reported their alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms in an Internet survey. Regressions revealed significant interactions between measures of cannabis use and alcohol consumption when predicting cannabis dependence. Cannabis use covaried with cannabis dependence, particularly in people who consumed alcohol frequently or in large amounts per week. Despite limitations, these data suggest that alcohol may decrease the safety of cannabis consumption. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  1. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-28

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  2. Beverages consumption in Brazil: results from the first National Dietary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rosangela A; Souza, Amanda M; Duffey, Kiyah J; Sichieri, Rosely; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of beverage consumption patterns using the first nationally representative survey of dietary intake in Brazil. Design Beverage consumption data were obtained by 1-day food records in an individual dietary survey. Setting nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008–09. Subjects nationally representative sample of individuals ≥10 years (n=34,003). Results Beverages contributed to 17.1% of total energy consumption. Caloric coffee beverages provided the greatest level of energy overall (464 kJ or 111 kcal/d). Individuals from 10 to 18 (243 kJ or 58 kcal/d) and from 19 to 39 years old (230 kJ or 55 kcal/d consumed higher proportion of energy from sugar sweetened soft drinks than individuals over this age (142 kJ or 34 kcal/d for those 40–59 and 79 kJ or 19 kcal/d for those >60 years old). Conclusions Overall, the contribution of beverages, particularly sugary beverages, to total energy consumption in Brazil represents an important public health challenge and is comparable with those from other countries. PMID:25158687

  3. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive

  4. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diewertje Sluik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE, free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years, 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  5. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  6. The Impact of Public Pension on Household Consumption: Evidence from China’s Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is of vital importance to examine the relationship between pensions and household consumption/saving because this forms a link between social policy and economic development. Based on theories of absolute income, permanent income, and the life-cycle hypothesis, this paper constructs panel data models to investigate the effect of public pension participation and benefit level on household consumption. Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS 2011 and 2013 survey data shows that, compared with those not covered by any public pension program, individuals enrolled in the public pension system tend to consume more within respective income-quantile groups. Moreover, for the retired population, we found lower income groups have a higher marginal propensity to consume than higher income groups. In other words, lower income groups are likely to spend a higher proportion of any increase in pension benefit on consumption than higher income groups. To achieve a virtuous cycle between public pension, household consumption, and economic growth and, thus, a social-economically sustainable development, we suggest that China’s pension system should be extended to cover all in the lowest income group, and the benefit level should be increased gradually to secure a stable expectation for the future and motivate current consumption.

  7. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  10. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  11. Survey on the differentiation of consumption in various types of automatic wood burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, A.; Kistler, M.; Kessler, F.

    2006-01-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how statistics on wood-consumption can be differentiated to take various types of wood-fired heating systems into consideration. The approach used, which involved the taking of 1200 random samples from a total of 5200 installations, is described. Figures are presented on the return-quotients reached. The questionnaires returned were sorted according to the types of installation, such as industrial/commercial, farming, services and household. As a result of the high return-rate, the accuracy of the estimates based on the data is also considered to be high. The paper describes how the survey was made and how the results were obtained from the data collected. Details on operation, types of fuel, specific consumption and factors influencing operation are presented in graphical form. An appendix presents the data collected in tabular form

  12. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  13. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  14. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Age, period and cohort influences on beer, wine and spirits consumption trends in the US National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Bond, Jason; Ye, Yu; Rehm, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    To estimate the separate influences of age, period and cohort on the consumption of beer wine and spirits in the United States. Linear age-period-cohort models controlling for demographic change with extensive specification testing. Setting US general population 1979-2000. Monthly average of past-year consumption of beer, wine and spirits in five National Alcohol Surveys. Findings The strongest cohort effects are found for spirits; cohorts born before 1940 are found to have significantly higher consumption than those born after 1946, with especially high spirits consumption for men in the pre-1930s cohorts. Significant cohort effects are also found for beer with elevated consumption in the 1946-65 cohorts for men but in the pre-1940 cohorts for women. Significant negative effects of age are found for beer and spirits consumption, although not for wine. Significant period effects are found for men's beer and wine consumption and for women's spirits consumption. Increased educational attainment in the population over time is associated with reduced beer consumption and increased wine consumption. Changing cohort demographics are found to have significant effects on beverage-specific consumption, indicating the importance of controlling for these effects in the evaluation of alcohol policy effectiveness and the potential for substantial improvement in the forecasting of future beverage-specific consumption trends, alcohol dependence treatment demand and morbidity and mortality outcomes.

  16. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  17. A technique for reducing diverse habits survey data and its application to seafood consumption near Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Habits surveys provide basic information to enable doses to appropriate critical groups of members of the public to be assessed. In some cases, the relevant habits of those to be included in the critical group can be quite diverse, and a simplifying method may be needed. A technique for this is described, and exemplified in relation to liquid radioactive waste discharges from AEE Winfrith, an area where the range of seafoods and radionuclide concentrations in them result in a wide variation of doses. Weighted mean consumption rates are derived for the critical group, and an example of their application in setting a revised liquid discharge authorisation is given. (author)

  18. Statistical evaluation of Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Consumption Survey weather data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses an issue relating to energy consumption and conservation in the residential sector. BPA has obtained two meteorological data bases for use with its 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). One data base consists of temperature data from weather stations; these have been aggregated to form a second data base that covers the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climatic divisions. At BPA's request, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a household energy use model for both electricity and natural gas in order to determine whether the statistically estimated parameters of the model significantly differ when the two different meteorological data bases are used.

  19. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  20. Statistical survey of the consumption of the products from seminatural environment in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Tecl, J.

    2001-01-01

    The central aspect of the work in international project SAVEC (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Ecosystems in Central Europe) is the identification of vulnerable areas. These are areas which, by virtue of the processes governing the transfer of radionuclides through food- chains, deliver high radionuclide fluxes to man. Identification of vulnerable areas is essential in establishing where intervention levels are likely to be exceeded in the event of a nuclear accident. Vulnerable areas could be identified using many criteria, a.o. high production rates of certain foodstuffs which substantially accumulate specific radionuclide. In addition to environmental factors, social factors will also contribute to vulnerability, in particular, dietary preferences can lead to the ingestion of more contaminated foodstuffs. Since Chernobyl accident, it is well known fact that in the Czech Republic, the most contaminated foodstuff is coming from semi-natural ecosystem (mushroom, forest berries and game). However, critical group as to the size and composition was not quantitatively evaluated up to now. Therefore, in the frame of SAVEC project, a statistical survey with the aim of finding critical group of inhabitants in the Czech Republic was performed. The survey was performed by a specialised marketing agency AMASIA. It was aimed at the consumption of products from semi-natural environment -mushrooms, forest berries and game. Two independent sub-surveys were performed. The first one, aimed at randomly selected households from phone directory, had a goal to obtain 1500 interviews among the whole population. In individual regions, number of respondent was selected according to the number of inhabitants of the region. The second survey was aimed at the hunters and their households. Mostly members of the hunting association were included into survey as there is only small number of professional hunters in the Czech Republic. The criterion was chosen that the respondent has to be hunter

  1. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  2. [Alcohol Consumption in the Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo Andrés; Rodriguez, Viviana; Rincón, Carlos J; Morales, Diana Cabrera; Rodríguez, Sandy Johanna Pérez; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM) in 2015 in Colombia asks, among other conditions, about alcohol consumption in people 12-17 years old, and 18 and older. Data were presented by age and region, with no cross-references to other categories of mental health problems, disorders, access to services, and health status. To assess alcohol consumption in Colombia, taking into account sociodemographic and clinical screening categories included. Secondary database analysis, sample size: 15,231 people from 13,200 households of five regions (Atlantic, Bogotá, Central, Eastern, and Pacific), with an age range from 12 to 96 years. AUDIT and AUDIT-C were used and stratified according to score and other variables included in the survey analysis. The high-risk drinking category was observed in 2.7% of children studied, with the highest percentage of drinking risk lying in the range of 18 to 44 years, with a clear majority of men. The study finds that a positive AUDIT-C in adults is associated with a higher percentage of non-anxiety, less anxiety problems, and traumatic events and traumatic events related to armed conflict. This requires further studies. Adults with positive AUDIT-C have a greater perception of well-being, but also a higher percentage of households in poverty. The study of individual, social, family and environmental factors in specific populations should be developed in order to make more appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  3. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  4. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Some results of recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption by age and region of U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.; Baes, C.F. III; Miller, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since ingestion of foods is considered a major source of pollutant intake by man, the knowledge of detailed food consumption patterns is necessary to determine health risks and compliance with regulatory standards. As currently available literature lacks data necessary for complete evaluation of aquatic foods via human consumption of fish and shellfish, a review of recent surveys of fish consumption in the U.S. was performed. The data in these surveys were subjected to statistical analysis to determine percentage distributions of individuals eating different quantities of marine and freshwater fish and shellfish. Included are surveys on consumption of sportfish from the Columbia River and Lake Michigan areas and a comprehensive study of fish consumption in the nine census regions of the U.S. The results of these studies indicate that the quantity, as reported, of each type of fish eaten increases as a function of the age of consumers. Regional differences are most apparent in the use of shellfish and freshwater fish. About 94% of children and 96-100% of adults eat some kind of fish with a per capita average of 4.97 kg/yr. Since this quantity is on an actual consumption basis, as as opposed to 'as purchased', the per capita consumption rate is lower than usually reported in the literature. (author)

  6. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  8. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  9. Relative validity of a short qualitative food frequency questionnaire for use in food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dekkers, Arnold; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; Ottevaere, Charlene; Van Oyen, Herman; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relative validity of a self-administered qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) applied in the Belgian food consumption survey. Comparison of food consumption data from an FFQ with 7-day estimated diet records (EDR) was made in a sample of 100 participants (aged 15-90 years). The FFQ comprised a total of 50 foods. Both FFQ and EDR foods were categorized into 15 conventional food groups. De-attenuated Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the FFQ and the EDR ranged from -0.16 for potatoes and grains to 0.83 for alcoholic beverages, with a median of 0.40 for all 15 food groups. The proportion of participants classified in the same tertile of intake by the FFQ and EDR ranged from 32% for potatoes and grains to 76% for alcoholic beverages. Extreme classification into opposite tertiles was foods and fats. Notwithstanding the short nature and the absence of portion size questions, the FFQ appears to be reasonably valid in both genders and across different age categories for most food groups. However, for the food groups bread and cereals, potatoes and grains, and sauces, estimates should be interpreted with caution because of poor ranking agreement.

  10. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection.

  11. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  12. Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES): a primer for food and nutrition analysts in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I; Smitz, Marc-Francois

    2012-09-01

    The dearth of 24-hour recall and observed-weighed food record data--what most nutritionists regard as the gold standard source of food consumption data-has long been an obstacle to evidence-based food and nutrition policy. There have been a steadily growing number of studies using household food acquisition and consumption data from a variety of multipurpose, nationally representative household surveys as a proxy measure to overcome this fundamental information gap. To describe the key characteristics of these increasingly available Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) in order to help familiarize food and nutrition analysts with the strengths and shortcomings of these data and thus encourage their use in low- and middle-income countries; and to identify common shortcomings that can be readily addressed in the near term in a country-by-country approach, as new HCES are fielded, thereby beginning a process of improving the potential of these surveys as sources of useful data for better understanding food- and nutrition-related issues. Common characteristics of key food and nutrition information that is available in HCES and some basic common steps in processing HCES data for food and nutrition analyses are described. The common characteristics of these surveys are documented, and their usefulness in addressing major food and nutrition issues, as well as their shortcomings, is demonstrated. Despite their limitations, the use of HCES data constitutes a generally unexploited opportunity to address the food consumption information gap by using survey data that most countries are already routinely collecting.

  13. Socioeconomic status and tobacco consumption among adolescents: a multilevel analysis of Argentina's Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetzky, Bruno; Mejia, Raul; Ferrante, Daniel; De Maio, Fernando G; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors--such as school-level poverty--remains unclear. We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.54), whereas school poverty was significantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.58). This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk.

  14. Food Consumption According to the Days of the Week – National Food Survey, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the variations in energy, nutrients, and food groups intake between days of the week and weekend days in the Brazilian population. METHODS We used data from the first National Food Survey (2008-2009 of a one-day food log of a representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or older (n = 34,003. For the analyses, we considered the sample weights and the effect of the study design. The mean (and standard deviations and frequencies (% of energy, nutrients, and food groups consumption were estimated for weekdays (Monday to Friday and weekend (Saturday and Sunday, we then estimated the differences according to the days of the week for the population strata analyzed. RESULTS The average daily energy intake for the weekend was 8% higher than the one observed for weekdays. The average percentage contribution of carbohydrate to the daily energy intake was higher during the week compared to Saturday and Sunday (56.3% versus 54.1%, p < 0.01. The inverse was observed for averages of the contribution to the daily intake of energy from total fat (26.8% versus 28.4%, saturated fat (9.1% versus 9.9% and trans fat (1.4% versus 1.6%. The most significant changes between weekdays and weekend days were observed for eggs, sugar-added beverages, puff snacks and chips, beans, and pasta. During weekends, the frequency of beverage with added sugar consumption increased by 34%, the amount consumed increased by 42%, and the contribution to energy intake increased by 62% when compared to weekdays. CONCLUSIONS The Brazilian population increases energy intake and unhealthy food markers on weekends compared to weekdays.

  15. Questionnaire survey, indoor climate measurements and energy consumption: Concerto initiative. Class1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellemose Knudsen, H.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Bergsoee, N.C. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Moerck, O.; Holmegaard Andersen, K. [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as ''low-energy class 1'' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup .} Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m{sup }thermal solar system for hot water preparation. The dense low-rise housing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008. This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58 flats, and measurements, assessments, and a series of physical measurements of selected indoor climate parameters in 7 selected single-family houses during March 2012. (Author)

  16. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Macinko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and...

  17. Survey of the actual energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of the actual energy consumption in the business sector (schools, hotels/inns, hospitals, and other service business) in fiscal 1996, and was put together with the survey conducted in the past in order to clarify the structure and trend of energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector. The survey was aimed at making basic data for the development/introduction of the petroleum substituting energy including future new energy. The consumption unit requirement of a school total was 84.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, that of a hotel/inn total was 455.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of a hospital total was 400.2 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year. The energy consumption for business use was summarized. The consumption unit requirement of restaurants was the largest, 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year, and that of schools was the smallest. In office building business and wholesale/retailing business, electricity is largely used mostly for illumination, power, etc. In restaurants, gas is largely used mostly for its own use including cooking. In schools, energy use for space heating was the largest, but was almost the same as that in office buildings in terms of the amount. 179 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  19. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  20. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  1. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Tsorng-Chyi; Ye, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2004-12-14

    This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5%) reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT 3 dollars per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%). The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  2. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  3. Relationship between alcohol consumption and age at menopause: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Lee, Dae Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Yeon Joo; Lee, Hae Nam

    2017-08-01

    We used data from the 2011-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) to investigate whether the age at menopause is related to alcohol consumption in South Korean women. This was a cross-sectional study of the data for 940 women who became menopausal within the 3 years preceding the KNHANES. The numbers of nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers in this group were 345 (34.7%), 573 (62.2%), and 22 (3%). Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and exercise were adjusted in model 1 and age was additionally adjusted in model 2. The mean ages at menopause were 51.6 ± 0.2, 50.8 ± 0.1, and 50.4 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0025) in model 1 and 51.7 ± 0.2, 51.1 ± 0.1, and 50.1 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0018) in model 2 for nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. BMI, smoking, exercise, educational level, income, duration of menopause, age at menarche, age at first delivery, and gravidity were adjusted in model 3, and the respective mean ages at menopause were 51.3 ± 0.2, 50.7 ± 0.2, and 50.1 ± 0.8 years (p = 0.0402). The population was classified into groups using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of menopause according to AUDIT score were 51.3 ± 0.1, 50.5 ± 0.3, and 50.4 ± 0.4 years (p = 0.0222, model 1), 51.4 ± 0.1, 50.8 ± 0.3, and 50.8 ± 0.3 years (p = 0.0261, model 2), and 51.1 ± 0.1, 50.6 ± 0.4, and 49.5 ± 0.6 years (p = 0.0241, model 3) respectively. In Korean women, alcohol consumption was associated with younger age at menopause. A higher AUDIT score was also related to younger age at menopause. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  5. Trends in energy use in commercial buildings -- Sixteen years of EIA's commercial buildings energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Swenson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects basic statistical information on energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of commercial buildings in the US. The first CBECS was conducted in 1979 and the most recent was completed in 1995. Over that period, the number of commercial bindings and total amount of floorspace increased, total consumption remained flat, and total energy intensity declined. By 1995, there were 4.6 million commercial buildings and 58.8 billion square feet of floorspace. The buildings consumed a total of 5.3 quadrillion Btu (site energy), with a total intensity of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity consumption exceeded natural gas consumption (2.6 quadrillion and 1.9 quadrillion Btu, respectively). In 1995, the two major users of energy were space heating (1.7 quadrillion Btu) and lighting (1.2 quadrillion Btu). Over the period 1979 to 1995, natural gas intensity declined from 71.4 thousand to 51.0 thousand Btu per square foot per year. Electricity intensity did not show a similar decline (44.2 thousand Btu per square foot in 1979 and 45.7 thousand Btu per square foot in 1995). Two types of commercial buildings, office buildings and mercantile and service buildings, were the largest consumers of energy in 1995 (2.0 quadrillion Btu, 38% of total consumption). Three building types, health care, food service, and food sales, had significantly higher energy intensities. Buildings constructed since 1970 accounted for half of total consumption and a majority (59%) of total electricity consumption.

  6. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  7. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    also reports consumption frequency for wild versus farmed fish. However, it seems that many consumers are not aware if the fish they buy are wild or farmed. Secondly, this study also investigated similarities and differences in shopping habits. Supermarkets and fishmongers were the most often used......The objective of this paper is to explore eating and shopping habits related to fish across five European countries. A cross sectional consumer survey was carried out in Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A total sample of 4800 consumers was obtained, and the sample...... of fish across countries was 1.5 times a week. Spain had by far the highest frequency of fish consumption with almost three times a week, followed by Denmark with 1.4 times a week. The consumption of fish was lowest in the Netherlands. On average, about 80 % of all fish meals were consumed at home. While...

  8. [Factors associated with the consumption of school meals by Brazilian adolescents: results of the PeNSE survey 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Nathália Tarossi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2017-05-18

    The aim was to study the association between socio-demographic and routine dietary variables and consumption of school meals by adolescents enrolled in public schools in Brazil. The study used data used from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012. To assess differences between schoolchildren based on whether or not they ate school meals, the study used Pearson's chi-square test, and associations were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Of the 86,660 students included in the study, 22.8% eat school meals. Higher consumption of school meals is associated with male gender, brown skin color, residence outside state capitals, working, and low maternal schooling, for those that ate breakfast and lunch with their parents. The findings are relevant for planning strategies to encourage consumption of school meals.

  9. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  10. Changes in wine consumption are influenced most by health: results from a population survey of South Australians in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockley CS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Creina S Stockley,1 Anne W Taylor,2 Alicia Montgomerie,2 Eleonora Dal Grande2 1The Australian Wine Research Institute, 2Population Research & Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aims: Individuals change their wine consumption over their life course, and mean volume typically declines with increasing age. Research on the reasons individuals change their consumption has primarily focused on youth/the young, but not on older adults. This study’s aim was to ascertain changes in wine consumption over a 12-month period in Australians at different ages and what influenced these changes.Methods: As part of the Spring 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, persons (n=2,908 aged 15 years and over who had most recently had a birthday in the selected household were interviewed in their home by trained interviewers. Of these, 48.9% were males and their mean age was 46.3 (standard deviation 18.9 years.Results: Regular, light–moderate wine consumers were generally stable in the amount of wine they drank over a 12 month period, particularly those aged 55 years and older. They generally cited health (48.0% as a reason for decreasing their wine consumption. Those who usually consumed three to four standard drinks on days they drank wine were also more likely to give health (54.3% as a reason for decreasing their consumption, as were heavy wine consumers (57.7%. The 25- to 34-year age-group was more likely to have decreased (36% vs 26% their wine consumption in the last 12 months. The 15- to 24-year age-group was most likely to have increased (28% vs 10% their wine consumption in the last 12 months. Health was most cited as the reason for decreasing this consumption, while family and friends were most cited as the reason for increasing this consumption.Conclusion: In this representative population of South Australians, the wine consumption of previously identified at-risk groups for both short- and

  11. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption - the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Karol; Hamerla, Miłosz; Szulc, Jowita; Koczyk, Halina

    2017-11-01

    Occupants' attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants' behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants' behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey's respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants' behavior (e.g. the use of heating control) are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  12. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol.

  13. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR = 32.3, p < 0.001, whilst packaged (sachet or bottled water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001, compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  14. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  15. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  16. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  17. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies

  18. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Sandvik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435. Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as

  19. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-07-01

    Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate

  1. Comparison of two dietary assessment methods by food consumption: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Straßburg, Andrea; Ramünke, Josa; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    To further characterise the performance of the diet history method and the 24-h recalls method, both in an updated version, a comparison was conducted. The National Nutrition Survey II, representative for Germany, assessed food consumption with both methods. The comparison was conducted in a sample of 9,968 participants aged 14-80. Besides calculating mean differences, statistical agreement measurements encompass Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, ranking participants in quartiles and the Bland-Altman method. Mean consumption of 12 out of 18 food groups was higher assessed with the diet history method. Three of these 12 food groups had a medium to large effect size (e.g., raw vegetables) and seven showed at least a small strength while there was basically no difference for coffee/tea or ice cream. Intraclass correlations were strong only for beverages (>0.50) and revealed the least correlation for vegetables (diet history method to remember consumption of the past 4 weeks may be a source of inaccurateness, especially for inhomogeneous food groups. Additionally, social desirability gains significance. There is no assessment method without errors and attention to specific food groups is a critical issue with every method. Altogether, the 24-h recalls method applied in the presented study, offers advantages approximating food consumption as compared to the diet history method.

  2. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Luíza Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012. Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  3. Serum Lipid Levels in Relation to Consumption of Yogurt: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bong-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Eun; Park, Kyong-Min; Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum lipid levels in Korean adults after consumption of different types of yogurt. Methods Study subjects were 3,038 individuals (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yogurt intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire by using the 24-hour recall method. We conducted complex samples general linear analysis with adjustment for covariates. Results The serum triglyceride levels in the group consuming viscous yogurt were lower than those in the group consuming non-viscous yogurt. Conclusion Consumption of viscous yogurt is associated with low serum triglyceride levels in Korean adults. PMID:29026484

  4. Survey on the differentiation of consumption in various types of automatic wood burners; Erhebung Verbrauchssplitting bei automatischen Holzfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A.; Kistler, M.; Kessler, F.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how statistics on wood-consumption can be differentiated to take various types of wood-fired heating systems into consideration. The approach used, which involved the taking of 1200 random samples from a total of 5200 installations, is described. Figures are presented on the return-quotients reached. The questionnaires returned were sorted according to the types of installation, such as industrial/commercial, farming, services and household. As a result of the high return-rate, the accuracy of the estimates based on the data is also considered to be high. The paper describes how the survey was made and how the results were obtained from the data collected. Details on operation, types of fuel, specific consumption and factors influencing operation are presented in graphical form. An appendix presents the data collected in tabular form.

  5. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  6. Possible use of food consumption surveys to estimate exposure to additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several methods can be and are being used to assess individual food consumption. Four types, namely 24-h recall, dietary records, food frequency and dietary history are discussed. For assessing the exposure to additives it is concluded that the dietary history method is probably the best choice

  7. Selection of a food classification system and a food composition database for future food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ireland, J.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J.; Charrondière, U.R.; Moller, A.; Smithers, G.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To harmonize food classification and food composition databases, allowing comparability of consumption at both food and nutrient levels in Europe. Design: To establish the level of comparability at the food level, the EFCOSUM group benefited from the work already carried out within other

  8. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS Consumption frequencie...

  9. Water and Beverage Consumption: Analysis of the Australian 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Zheng, Miaobing; Zhang, Man; Rangan, Anna

    2016-10-26

    Water consumption as a vital component of the human diet is under-researched in dietary surveys and nutrition studies. To assess total water and fluid intakes and examine demographic, anthropometric, and dietary factors associated with water consumption in the Australian population. Dietary intake data from the 2011 to 2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Usual water, fluid and food and nutrient intakes were estimated from two days of dietary recalls. Total water includes plain drinking water and moisture from all food and beverage sources; total fluids include plain drinking water and other beverages, but not food moisture. The mean (SD) daily total water intakes for children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were 1.7 (0.6) L for males and 1.5 (0.4) L for females, and for adults aged 19 years and over were 2.6 (0.9) L for males and 2.3 (0.7) L for females. The majority of the population failed to meet the Adequate Intake (AI) values for total water intake (82%) and total fluids intake (78%) with the elderly at highest risk (90%-95%). The contributions of plain drinking water, other beverages and food moisture to total water intake were 44%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, among children and adolescents, and 37%, 37% and 25% among adults. The main sources of other beverages were full-fat plain milk and regular soft drinks for children and adolescents, and tea, coffee, and alcoholic drinks for adults. For adults, higher total water intake was associated with lower percent energy from fat, saturated fat, and free sugars, lower sodium and energy-dense nutrient poor food intakes but higher dietary fibre, fruit, vegetable, caffeine, and alcohol intakes. No associations were found between total water consumption and body mass index (BMI) for adults and BMI z -score for children and adolescents. Reported water consumption was below recommendations. Higher water intakes were suggestive of better diet quality.

  10. ‘The missing drink’: Nonresponse and data quality in mail surveys on alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.H.C.J. Lahaut

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSurvey research is often used by Dutch authorities and community health services to gain insight in the population’s general health situation. In survey research a random sample of the population is requested to answer a questionnaire, often sent by post. This kind of research is a

  11. A multicenter retrospective survey of poisoning after consumption of products containing novel psychoactive substances from 2013 to 2014 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Takai, Michiko; Fujita, Yuji; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    In Japan, fatalities among patients who experienced an acute reaction following self-administration of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have been more frequently reported since June 2014. This survey aimed to document and analyze trends in NPS consumption in emergency patients. We conducted a multicenter retrospective survey of patients who were transported to emergency facilities after consuming NPS-containing products between January 2013 and December 2014. Letters requesting participation were sent to 467 emergency facilities, and questionnaires were mailed to facilities that agreed to participate. We surveyed 589 patients from 85 (18.2%) facilities. Most patients were male (89.6%) and young (median age, 30 years), and inhaled (88%) NPS contained in herbal products (80.5%). Harmful behavior was observed at the scene of acute reaction, including violence (6.9%), traffic accidents (4.9%), and self-injury or suicidal attempts (1.1%). Other than neuropsychiatric and physical symptoms, many patients also had physical complications such as rhabdomyolysis (17.5%), liver injury (12.4%), acute kidney injury (9%), and physical injury (1.9%). Of the 256 patients (43.5%) admitted to hospitals, 35 (5.9%) were hospitalized for seven or more days. Most patients (93.2%) completely recovered, although a few (1.4%) died. However, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones were only detected in the blood of five patients. Consumption of NPS-containing products have been associated with harmful behaviors such as violence and traffic accidents, physical complications (e.g., rhabdomyolysis, liver injury), death, or physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to a previous survey (2006-2012), the present survey revealed more severe toxicity.

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-01-01

    Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. (1) To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2) to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue ® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Findings indicate that well over half (57.9%) of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Ghose

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. Objectives (1 To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2 to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Results Findings indicate that well over half (57.9% of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. Conclusion The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  14. [Surveys of the consumption of nutritional antioxidants in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnyei, Olga; Kovács, Agota; Székely, Edit; Dinya, Elek; Blászovics, Anna

    2006-06-11

    The redox homeostasis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease is not balanced because of malnutrition and malabsorption. The seriousness of this illness often hinders the intake and use of bioactive agents. We have just a small amount of knowledge about how patients can get access to these important materials. The authors' aim was to edit a questionnaire, which can estimate, with large precision, the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption among a random-chosen group of IBD patients. We also thought that the measuring of tea, fruit-juice and wine consumption is also important in order to see whether the intake of these can help the intake of natural polyphenol, vitamin and trace elements. For this study 50 IBD patients (25 male, 25 female, 35-67 years) and 50 healthy people (35 male, 15 female, 25-47 years) were asked. During the completion of the questionnaire in 8 cases (5 male, 3 female) the provided data could not be accepted, because of inaccuracy. During this study, it became obvious that the intake of polyphenols was not enough if we focus on the average daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Red wine cannot be considered efficient for replacing polyphenols, because more than the half of patients doesn't drink it at all, or drink it once or twice a month. From the aspect of drinking tea or eating fruits, the situation is much better. The participants' (92 people) consumption of vegetables and fruits is reduced to a small variety, which is not beneficial. Mostly used plants often caused different disorders, and that is why a controlled recommendation of polyphenol, vitamin, trace element and fiber would be favorable.

  15. The impact of informational feedback on energy consumption - A survey of the experimental evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Sergici, Sanem; Sharif, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In theory, In-Home Displays (IHDs) can revolutionize the way utilities communicate information to customers because they can induce changes in customer behavior even when they are not accompanied by a change in electric prices or rebates for purchasing efficient equipment. IHDs provide consumers with direct feedback - real-time information on energy consumption and costs - and turn a once opaque and static electric bill into a transparent, dynamic, and controllable process. However, to what extent do consumers actually respond to the direct feedback provided by IHDs? In this paper, we seek to empirically answer this question by reviewing a dozen utility pilot programs in North America and abroad that focus on the energy conservation impact of IHDs. We also review overall customer opinions and attitudes towards IHDs and direct feedback to the extent that this information is available from the pilot studies. Our review indicates that the direct feedback provided by IHDs encourages consumers to make more efficient use of energy. We find that consumers who actively use an IHD can reduce their consumption of electricity on average by about 7 percent when prepayment of electricity is not involved. When consumers both use an IHD and are on an electricity prepayment system, they can reduce their electricity consumption by about twice that amount. In regard to demand response impacts, we find that the impact of time-of-use rates is augmented by direct feedback from IHDs. (author)

  16. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and conditional paths of consumption: data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana T.S. Massaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate nationally representative prevalence rates of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS use and to identify consumption-associated factors, proposing a conditional model of direct and indirect consumption paths. Method: Using data from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, this cross-sectional study analyzed a subsample of 3,828 participants between 15 and 64 years old, gathering information on the use of psychoactive substances in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian household population. Results: Rates of lifetime and last-year ATS use were, respectively, 4.1 and 1.6%. Economically privileged individuals and users of other substances were more at risk for using ATS. The results suggest that higher education decreases the chances of ATS consumption. The conditional model showed that higher income increased ATS use, higher education lowered the odds of such an increase, and cocaine use cancelled that associative effect. Conclusion: Brazil presents high rates of ATS use. Prevention and treatment strategies should focus on the protective effect of higher education levels and should target polydrug use. Knowledge of ATS-associated factors and user profiles is the starting point for developing effective treatments and tailored prevention strategies.

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macinko

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986 to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD; as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society.

  18. Household dietary diversity and Animal Source Food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Belachew, Tefera; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Wondafrash, Beyene; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-11-25

    It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS. A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P < 0.001), literacy (P < 0.01), urban residence (P < 0.01), male headed household (P < 0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P < 0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS. Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

  19. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  20. Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa-a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287 was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Results Frequent (2 ≥ times/week street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ≥ times/week fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7% while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%. Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%. Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non-communicable diseases. These findings need

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on energy consumption in a residential sector; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    On energy consumption in a residential sector, the report reports the document survey result including new documents, and the result of the systematic national questionnaire survey carried out in small and medium cities to prepare the basic data for future development and introduction of petroleum substituting energy. The electric power consumption rate of detached houses (A) is larger by 0.6- 1.6Gcal/household/year than that of apartment houses (B) in every district. The gas consumption rate of A is smaller than that of B in Hokkaido, Kanto and Kyushu. The LPG consumption rate of Kinki district is largest in both A and B. The kerosene consumption rate of A is larger than that of B. In Hokkaido, the kerosene consumption is extremely large in heating, showing a ratio of 60% or more in A. In the other districts, the kerosene consumption is largest in hot water supply, showing 30% or more. Every consumption rate increases with annual household income. The average consumption rate of 4 districts is 11,137Mcal/household/year. (NEDO)

  2. Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Maddox, Ryan A; Harvey, Alexis R; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Belay, Ermias D

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to human beings and the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among cervids have prompted concerns about zoonotic transmission of prion diseases. Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network 2006-2007 population survey was used to assess the prevalence of these behaviors among residents of 10 catchment areas across the United States. Of 17,372 survey respondents, 19.4% reported travel to the United Kingdom since 1980, and 29.5% reported travel to any of the nine European countries considered to be BSE-endemic since 1980. The proportion of respondents who had ever hunted deer or elk was 18.5%, and 1.2% had hunted deer or elk in a CWD-endemic area. More than two thirds (67.4%) reported having ever eaten deer or elk meat. Respondents who traveled spent more time in the United Kingdom (median 14 days) than in any other BSE-endemic country. Of the 11,635 respondents who had consumed venison, 59.8% ate venison at most one to two times during their year of highest consumption, and 88.6% had obtained all of their meat from the wild. The survey results were useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Newens, K. J.; Walton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Government and health organisations worldwide have recently reviewed the evidence on the role of dietary sugars in relation to health outcomes. Hence, it is timely to review current intakes of dietary sugars with respect to this guidance and as a benchmark for future surveillance. Methods This review collates data from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world and reports estimates of intakes of total and added sugars, and sucrose in different population s...

  4. Alcohol consumption in patients with cardiovascular diseases (results of the survey of cardiac patients in outpatient practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the frequency and characteristics of alcohol use in outpatients with cardiovascular diseases and to determine their preferences regarding the help in limiting alcohol consumption.Material and methods. Voluntary and anonymous survey using AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires was conducted in 199 patients. The data of 182 patients (82 women and 100 men, mean age 56.4±5.8 years was included in the analysis.Results. Arterial hypertension (70%, heart rhythm disorders (25%, ischemic heart disease (20%, functional class I-II chronic heart failure (21% predominated among all clinical entities. Positive AUDIT-C test was found in 30% of men and 7.3% of women. 17% of men and 23.2% of women did not use alcohol at all. Positive responses to all 4 questions of the CAGE test were given by 3% of men and none of women, positive answers to 3 questions – by 15% of men and none of women, to 2 questions - by 17% of men and 11% of women. Positive answer to the question about the need to reduce alcohol consumption was given by 36% of men and 13.4% of women.Conclusion. Simultaneous testing using AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires in outpatients with cardiovascular diseases allows identifying a subgroup of patients (more in men who have a potential problem with an excessive alcohol consumption and need to reduce the intake of alcoholic beverages.

  5. The Consumption of Dairy and Its Association with Nutritional Status in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Bao, Khanh Le; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Sumedi, Edith; Aini, Jamil Nor; Senaprom, Sayamon; Deurenberg, Paul; Bragt, Marjolijn; Khouw, Ilse

    2018-06-13

    Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) ( p diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status.

  6. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  7. Misreporting and econometric modelling of zeros in survey data on social bads: An application to cannabis consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William; Harris, Mark N; Srivastava, Preety; Zhao, Xueyan

    2018-02-01

    When modelling "social bads," such as illegal drug consumption, researchers are often faced with a dependent variable characterised by a large number of zero observations. Building on the recent literature on hurdle and double-hurdle models, we propose a double-inflated modelling framework, where the zero observations are allowed to come from the following: nonparticipants; participant misreporters (who have larger loss functions associated with a truthful response); and infrequent consumers. Due to our empirical application, the model is derived for the case of an ordered discrete-dependent variable. However, it is similarly possible to augment other such zero-inflated models (e.g., zero-inflated count models, and double-hurdle models for continuous variables). The model is then applied to a consumer choice problem of cannabis consumption. We estimate that 17% of the reported zeros in the cannabis survey are from individuals who misreport their participation, 11% from infrequent users, and only 72% from true nonparticipants. © 2017 The Authors Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and health status of Mexican children from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Flores-Aldana, Mario

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the current consumption of fruits and vegetables based on the international recommendations, as well as its relationship to certain variables of interest in Mexican children aged 6 to 12 years. Adherence to the international recommendations for the consumption of fruits and vegetables was estimated based on data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012). Logistic regression models were developed. Only 34.4% of children met the recommendations. Their age (years) (OR:074; p< 0.01) and the fact that they lived in the Central (OR:2.48; p< 0.01) or Southern (OR:2.66; p< 0.01) regions of Mexico or in Mexico City (OR:2.37; p< 0.01) versus the Northern region were significantly associated with adherence. An interaction was observed between the educational level of the head of the family and his or her kinship with the child. Only 3 out of every 10 Mexican children meet the recommendations; therefore, the implementation of a public policy with the appropriate legislation, financing and regulation is required.

  9. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Giesbrecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A subsample (n = 2,550 of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse—family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property—all from another‘s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%. Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls.

  10. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  11. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  12. [Trends in tobacco consumption from 2006 to 2011 in Brazilian capitals according to the VIGITEL survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Sá, Naiza Nayla Bandeira de; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Luz, Micheline Gomes Campos da; Bernal, Regina Ivata Tomie

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in indicators of smoking in Brazilian State capitals, according to the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) in adults, from 2006 to 2011. A simple linear regression model was used (a = 5%). There was a decrease in the prevalence of smokers and heavy smokers among men and in individuals 35 to 54 years of age. Smoking also decreased among individuals with 9-11 years of schooling and in the Northeast, North, and Central West regions. For heavy smokers, the largest decline was in the Northeast. Brazil's regulatory policy has been responsible for the decline in tobacco prevalence.

  13. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  14. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  15. The relation between price and daily consumption of cigarettes and bidis: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P S; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Shang, C; Quah, A C K; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    In India, 14% of the population use smoked tobacco products. Increasing prices of these products is one of the measures to curb their consumption. This study analyzes "unit price" and "daily consumption" of cigarettes and bidis and investigates their relation with each other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four states of India (Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) as a part of the International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) Evaluation Project (the TCP India Project) during 2010-2011. Information was collected from adult (aged ≥ 15) daily exclusive smokers of cigarette/bidi regarding (a) last purchase (purchase in pack/loose, brand and price) and (b) daily consumption. Average unit price and daily consumption was calculated for different brands and states. Regression model was used to assess the impact of price on daily consumption. Bidis were much less expensive ([symbol in text]0.39) than cigarettes ([symbol in text]3.1). The daily consumption was higher (14) among bidi smokers than cigarette smokers (8). The prices and daily consumption of bidis ([symbol in text]0.33-0.43; 12-15) and cigarettes ([symbol in text]2.9-3.6; 5-9) varied across the four states. The unit prices of bidis and cigarettes did not influence their daily consumption. Smokers purchasing bidis in packs paid substantially less per unit and purchase of bidis and cigarettes in packs influenced their consumption positively. Cigarettes although more expensive than bidis, seem very cheap if compared internationally. Hence, prices of both cigarettes and bidis do not influence their consumption.

  16. Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity-frequency, graduated-frequency and recent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Donath, Susan; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Catalano, Paul; Mateo, Cid

    2004-08-01

    To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 21,674 Australians aged 14 years and older. A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption 'yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed 'yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed 'yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking 'standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys.

  18. Analysis of consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents based on Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey (2006, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young

    2015-08-01

    This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits more than once a day significantly decreased in 2011 compared to 2006 based on Chi-square test conducted for every factor employed in the study. Analysis of factors showed that consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits were reduced in both study years as subjective income decreased, whereas intake frequencies increased with mother's education level and reduction of adolescent stress level. In general, consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits decreased in 2011 compared to those in 2006. Thus, future research needs to improve dietary guidelines for nutrition education in order for students to recognize the importance of food consumption and necessity of increasing daily serving sizes of vegetables and fruits for their balanced consumption.

  19. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Penny A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Morleo, Michela; Harkins, Corinne; Briant, Linford; Bellis, Mark A

    2011-08-23

    A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years) of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'). Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking); 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect); and 'price inelastic' (no change for either). Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect) the most common outcome (62%). Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30) or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41) were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57%) while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve public support for policy change. Such policy should also recognise that alcohol is an addictive drug, and the population may be prepared to pay more to drink the amount they now feel they need.

  20. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that i...

  1. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, and chronic disease risk factors: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoussé Luc

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively.

  2. Basic survey project of advanced efficiency of energy consumption in developing countries. Cooperation survey of efficient consumption of petroleum (survey of industrial foundation in the Philippines); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo sekiyu shohi koritsuka kyoryoku chosa. Philippine koku sangyo kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of the survey is to promote the international research cooperation projects from the survey stage, via demonstration research stage to the diffusion stage. Field surveys have been conducted to find out the needs of energy saving and environmental technology for the efficient consumption of petroleum in the developing countries with mass-consumption of petroleum in the future. The survey was conducted in the Philippines in the FY 1996. Next developing themes were proposed. The first theme was developing method of sugar plant. The magnesia method has been developed as a basic technology for cleaning sugar solution process instead of using lime. By the recycling method, the waste cake amount can be remarkably reduced. The second theme was electron beam exhaust gas treatment by a dry method of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of high concentration SOx and NOx in the fertilizer production plants. The third theme was the energy saving technology for SOx reduction of heating furnace for iron-steel by using an ultra energy saving-type regenerative burner. The last theme was chlorine bypass technology in cement industry, which would become an advanced technology development for the use of chlorine containing fuels in the near future. 40 refs., 36 figs., 79 tabs.

  3. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However,

  4. [Sedentary leisure time and food consumption among Brazilian adolescents: the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE), 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (95%CI) were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color, school administration (public versus private), household assets index, and household composition. The results indicate the need for integrated interventions to promote healthy leisure-time activities and healthy eating habits among young people.

  5. Do information, price, or morals influence ethical consumption? A natural field experiment and customer survey on the purchase of Fair Trade coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorfer, Veronika A; Liebe, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    We address ethical consumption using a natural field experiment on the actual purchase of Fair Trade (FT) coffee in three supermarkets in Germany. Based on a quasi-experimental before-and-after design the effects of three different treatments - information, 20% price reduction, and a moral appeal - are analyzed. Sales data cover actual ethical purchase behavior and avoid problems of social desirability. But they offer only limited insights into the motivations of individual consumers. We therefore complemented the field experiment with a customer survey that allows us to contrast observed (ethical) buying behavior with self-reported FT consumption. Results from the experiment suggest that only the price reduction had the expected positive and statistically significant effect on FT consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the industry in Italy in 1999; Indagine sugli impieghi delle fonti energetiche nel settore industria in Italia. Anno 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, G. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Perrella, G. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ballin, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Dipt. Statistiche Economiche, Rome (Italy); Mercanti, A.; Poggi, A. [Ministero delle Attivita' Produttive, Direzione Generale dell' Energia e delle Risorse Minerarie, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the italian industry. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The energy intensive sectors and the great industries have represented the nucleus of survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat. [Italian] Il presente rapporto ha l'obiettivo di presentare i risultati dell'indagine campionaria effettuata per determinare il consumo di fonti energetiche (energia elettrica, gas naturale, olio combustibile, gasolio, ecc.) nell'industria italiana. I consumi energetici si riferiscono al 1999 e sono disaggregati per tipologia di utilizzo: consumi energetici per usi produttivi, per produzione di energia e per trazione. I settori ad alta intensita' energetica e le grandi imprese hanno rappresentato il nucleo dell'indagine. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata alla produzione di energia e al consumo di calore.

  7. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999; Indagine sui consumi di fonti energetiche nel settore terziario in Italia. Anno 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, G. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Perrella, G. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ballin, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Dipt. Statistiche Economiche, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat. [Italian] Il presente rapporto ha l'obiettivo di presentare i risultati dell'indagine campionaria effettuata per determinare il consumo di fonti energetiche (energia elettrica, gas naturale, olio combustibile, gasolio, ecc.) nel settore terziario. I consumi energetici si riferiscono al 1999 e sono disaggregati per tipologia di utilizzo: consumi energetici per usi produttivi, per produzione di energia e per trazione. Le attivita' economiche ad alta intensita' energetica hanno rappresentato il nucleo dell'indagine. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata alla produzione di energia e al consumo di calore.

  8. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999; Indagine sui consumi di fonti energetiche nel settore terziario in Italia. Anno 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, G [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Perrella, G [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ballin, M [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Dipt. Statistiche Economiche, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat. [Italian] Il presente rapporto ha l'obiettivo di presentare i risultati dell'indagine campionaria effettuata per determinare il consumo di fonti energetiche (energia elettrica, gas naturale, olio combustibile, gasolio, ecc.) nel settore terziario. I consumi energetici si riferiscono al 1999 e sono disaggregati per tipologia di utilizzo: consumi energetici per usi produttivi, per produzione di energia e per trazione. Le attivita' economiche ad alta intensita' energetica hanno rappresentato il nucleo dell'indagine. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata alla produzione di energia e al consumo di calore.

  9. Tobacco consumption by the portuguese population. Data from the 2005–2006 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausenda Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the epidemiological portrayal of tobacco consumption in Portugal 2005–2006, using data from the National Health Survey.In this analysis the Portuguese population is characterised according to smoking patterns, exposure to smoke and attitudes to smoking in general. Data is presented by gender, age groups, regions of residence and other social characteristics. Frequencies results are estimated values for the Portuguese population in 2005. Logistic binary regression models are used to study regular smoking-related characteristics.Results show that 20.9% of the Portuguese population (including Madeira and the Azores aged 15 or more were smokers (male: 30.9%; female: 11.8%, and that 18.7% smoked regularly. More than one half of men were smokers or ex-smokers (56.9% whereas the great majority of women had never smoked (81.3%.After removing the effect of the different age structures among regions, the highest rate of males who smoked regularly was observed in the Azores region (31.0%, followed by the Alentejo region (29.9%. The highest rate of women who smoked regularly occurred in the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region (15.4%, followed by the Algarve region (12.8%.Daily average cigarette consumption was higher among male (20 cigarettes than female smokers (13 cigarettes. The Azores population presented the highest daily average consumption (male: 23 cigarettes; female: 16 cigarettes. Resumo: O presente estudo visa contribuir para o conhecimento da epidemiologia da exposição ao tabaco na população portuguesa, através da análise de dados do Inquérito Nacional de Saúde realizado entre 2005 e 2006.Neste trabalho, a população portuguesa é caracterizada quanto à prevalência de fumadores, ex-fumadores e não fumadores e quanto à exposição e atitudes face ao fumo do tabaco. Algumas destas características são desagregadas por variáveis sociodemográficas, como o sexo

  10. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  11. Perceptions of Food Advertising and Association With Consumption of Energy-Dense Nutrient-Poor Foods Among Adolescents in the United States: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chan L; Serrano, Katrina J; Yaroch, Amy L; Nebeling, Linda; Oh, April

    2017-08-01

    The advertising and marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and drink has been cited as one contributor to unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. The present study examines perceptions about and trust in food advertising and their association with consumption of EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents in the United States. Data (n = 1,384) come from the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Survey. One way ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between population subgroups in advertising perceptions. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the associations between perceptions toward and trust in food advertising and consumption of EDNP foods and drinks, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results show that there are significant differences between racial/ethnic groups on advertising perceptions (F = 16.32, p = advertising increase among adolescents, there is an associated increase in daily frequency of consumption of EDNP foods and drinks (β = 0.10, p advertising, the higher the reported daily frequency of EDNP food and drink consumption (β = 0.08, p = .01). Targeting perceptions about food advertising may be a worthy intervention strategy to reduce the impact of food marketing and the consumption of heavily advertised EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents.

  12. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Hidenobu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Juta, Tomoya; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of coffee and green tea is associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 554 adults who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Consumption of coffee and green tea was assessed using a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between consumption of coffee and green tea and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounders, greater coffee consumption was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria (P for trend = 0.03). Participants who drank more coffee had a lower odds ratio (OR) for high serum triglycerides (P for trend = 0.02), but not for increased waist circumference or high blood pressure. Using JASSO criteria, moderate coffee consumption (1.5 to inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome diagnosed using NCEP ATP III criteria, mainly because it was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels. This association highlights the need for further prospective studies of the causality of these relationships.

  13. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  14. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey to analyze the effect of staple food consumption on undernourishment in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Amaral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015, documents that, since 1990, the number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 33% even though it has fallen in all other world regions. Recognizing this, in 2011 the Government of Uganda implemented a 5-year Nutrition Action Plan. One important tenet of the Plan is to lessen malnutrition in young children by discouraging over-consumption of nutritionally deficient, but plentiful, staple foods, which it defines as a type of food insecurity. Methods We use a sample of 6101 observations on 3427 children age five or less compiled from three annual waves of the Uganda National Panel Survey to measure undernourishment. We also use the World Health Organization’s Child Growth Standards to create a binary variable indicating stunting and another indicating wasting for each child in each year. We then use random effects to estimate binary logistic regressions that show that greater staple food concentrations affect the probability of stunting and wasting. Results The estimated coefficients are used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR that estimate the effect of greater staple food concentration on the likelihood of stunting and the likelihood of wasting. Controlling for other relevant covariates, these odds ratios show that a greater proportion of staple foods in a child’s diet increases the likelihood of stunting (OR = 1.007, p = 0.005 as well as wasting (OR = 1.011, p = 0.034. Stunting is confirmed with subsamples of males only (OR = 1.006, p = 0.05 and females only (OR = 1.008, p = 0.027, suggesting that the finding is not gender specific. Another subsample of children aged 12 months or less, most of whom do not yet consume solid food, shows no statistically significant relationship, thus supporting the validity of the other findings. Conclusion Diets containing larger proportions of staple foods are associated with greater

  15. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  16. Taxes and the economy: A survey of the impact of taxes on growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeend, W.; van der Ploeg, R.; Timmer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the impact of taxation on economic growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment. The public finance literature commonly distinguishes between three major functions of taxation: the traditional function of raising revenue to finance government expenditure; the

  17. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  18. The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998-1999 12-state survey of women age 18-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Smith, A.; Draheim, L.; Kanarek, M.; Olsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In 2002, in the United States, 48 states issued advisories for sport-fish consumers that included 39 chemical contaminants. The most commonly identified chemical was methyl mercury, which is linked to reproductive and developmental effects. Advisories to reduce consumption of contaminated fish have been issued by states since the early 1970s. Advisories are being integrated to include both sport and commercial fish. Methods: As part of a comprehensive risk-communication project, from December 1998 through August 1999 the Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health conducted a 12-state random-digit-dial telephone survey of 3015 women of childbearing age (ages 18-45). The goal was to assess the prevalence of fish consumption, understanding of mercury toxicity, and awareness of state sport-fish consumption advisories for mercury. We gathered information concerning respondents' demographic characteristics, understanding of mercury toxicity, fish consumption during the preceding 12 months, and sport-fish consumption advisory awareness. Results: The overall survey completion rate was 57% with a Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO)-calculated response rate of 50%. Completion rates varied from 37% in New Jersey to 73% in Minnesota. Fish consumption during the previous 12 months was reported by 87% of respondents (range by state of 82-90%). Nearly 10% of women reported consuming two or more fish-meals per week over the prior 12 months. Twenty-nine percent reported sport-fish consumption during the same time period, with a greater state-to-state variability (14-43%). Most women (71%) were aware of mercury's toxicity to a developing child (87% among those aware of an advisory and 67% among those unaware of an advisory). However, awareness of state advisories was only 20%, ranging by state from 8% to 32%. Women who were older, had more than a high school education, and had a household member with a fishing

  19. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background : An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective : The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design : A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results : This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants' opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion : Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour.

  20. Heavy Alcohol Consumption with Alcoholic Liver Disease Accelerates Sarcopenia in Elderly Korean Males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Seon Song

    Full Text Available Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population.This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI more than 1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults; SMI was calculated as the appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht2. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as consuming at least 210 g/week, and elevated liver enzymes were defined as alanine aminotransferase levels of at least 32 U/L or aspartate aminotransferase levels of at least 34 U/L. ALD was defined as heavy alcohol consumption and elevated liver enzymes.The mean age of the 1,151 elderly males was 71.6 ± 0.2 years, and the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 11.8% (136 subjects. SMI did not differ between the non-heavy and heavy alcohol consumer groups (7.1 ± 0.0 kg/m2 vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.145. However, after stratifying by the presence of liver disease and heavy alcohol consumption and adjusting for other confounders in the multivariate logistic regression, SMI was significantly lower among heavy alcohol consumers with ALD (all P < 0.05. Additionally, two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between heavy alcohol consumption and liver disease (P = 0.011.Sarcopenia was accelerated in the elderly male ALD group, with a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and liver disease.

  1. The price sensitivity of cigarette consumption in Bangladesh: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Ruthbah, Ummul H; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T; Huq, Iftekharul; Ashiquzzaman, S M

    2014-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the average excise tax on cigarettes accounted for just 38% of the average retail price of cigarettes in 2009, and 45% in 2010. Both these rates are well below the WHO recommended share of 70% of the retail price at a minimum. There is thus ample room for raising taxes on cigarettes in Bangladesh. The objective of the present work was therefore to estimate the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and the effect of tax increases on the consumption of cigarettes and on tax revenue in Bangladesh. Based on data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh Survey, we estimated the overall impact of a price change on cigarette demand using a two-part model. The total price elasticity of cigarettes was measured by the sum of the elasticity of smoking prevalence and the elasticity of average daily consumption conditional on smoking participation. The price elasticity estimates were used in a simulation model to predict changes in cigarette consumption and tax revenue from tax and price increases. The total price elasticity of demand for cigarettes was estimated at -0.49. The elasticity of smoking prevalence accounted for 59% of the total price elasticity. The price elasticity of cigarette consumption is higher for people belonging to lower socioeconomic status. Increases in taxes would result in a significant reduction in cigarette consumption while increasing tax revenue. Raising cigarette prices through increased taxation could lead to a win-win-win situation in Bangladesh: it would reduce cigarette consumption, increase tobacco tax revenue and potentially decrease socioeconomic inequities.

  2. The French national survey on food consumption of children under 3 years of age - Nutri-Bébé 2013: design, methodology, population sampling and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, Jean-Pierre; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Emery, Yves; Francou, Aurée; Hébel, Pascale; Bocquet, Magali; Hankard, Régis; Turck, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    To update the data on food consumption and practices in children under 3 years of age in metropolitan France. The Nutri-Bébé 2013 cross-sectional study selected a random sample, according to the quota sampling method. After giving their informed consent, parents had to record the food consumption during three non-consecutive days framed by two face-to-face interviews, using for quantitative information different portion size measurement aids. One thousand one hundred and eighty-four children were enrolled. Mothers' mean age was 30·8 (sd 5·4) years; 38 % were primiparous; 89 % lived with a partner; 60 % had an occupation. Of the infants younger than 4 months, 31 % were breast-fed. One thousand and thirty-five children consumed infant formula followed by growing-up milk in 63 % of them; solid foods were introduced at a mean age of 5·4 (sd 2·13) months. From 8 months onwards, 25 % of children consumed the same foods as their parents on a more or less regular basis; 29 % ate in front of a screen, with a daily average screen time of 43·0 (sd 40·4) min. This robust survey highlights the low prevalence and duration of breast-feeding in France and shows a modest improvement since the previous survey of 2005 in the observance of recommendations concerning other feeding practices. The frequent consumption of adult foods and the screen time are of concern.

  3. Relationship between mean daily energy intake and frequency of consumption of out-of-home meals in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffe, Louis; Rushton, Stephen; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley; Adams, Jean

    2017-09-22

    Out-of-home meals have been characterised as delivering excessively large portions that can lead to high energy intake. Regular consumption is linked to weight gain and diet related diseases. Consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors, but the relationship between habitual consumption of such meals and mean daily energy intake has not been studied in both adults and children in the UK. We analysed adult and child data from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey using generalized linear modelling. We investigated whether individuals who report a higher habitual consumption of meals out in a restaurant or café, or takeaway meals at home had a higher mean daily energy intake, as estimated by a four-day food diary, whilst adjusting for key socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Adults who ate meals out at least weekly had a higher mean daily energy intake consuming 75-104 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. The equivalent figures for takeaway meals at home were 63-87 kcal. There was no association between energy intake and frequency of consumption of meals out in children. Children who ate takeaway meals at home at least weekly consumed 55-168 kcal more per day than those who ate these meals rarely. Additionally, in children, there was an interaction with socio-economic position, where greater frequency of consumption of takeaway meals was associated with higher mean daily energy intake in those from less affluent households than those from more affluent households. Higher habitual consumption of out-of-home meals is associated with greater mean daily energy intake in the UK. More frequent takeaway meal consumption in adults and children is associated with greater daily energy intake and this effect is greater in children from less affluent households. Interventions seeking to reduce energy content through reformulation or reduction of portion sizes in restaurants

  4. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, B...

  5. Patients' perceptions on the impact of coffee consumption in inflammatory bowel disease: friend or foe?--a patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Christiane; Wiegand, Sandra; Scharl, Sylvie; Scharl, Michael; Frei, Pascal; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fried, Michael; Sulz, Michael Christian; Wiegand, Nico; Rogler, Gerhard; Biedermann, Luc

    2015-08-12

    Environmental factors are an integral component in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is an increasing interest in nutritive components. While the potential disease-modifying role of coffee has been intensively investigated in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, the data on the potential impact on IBD is very limited. We aimed to determine the patients' perspective on coffee consumption in IBD. We conducted a questionnaire among IBD patients in Switzerland, assessing key questions regarding coffee consumption. Descriptive statistics including chi square testing were used for analysis of questionnaire data. Among a total of 442 patients 73% regularly consume coffee. 96% of patients attributing a positive and 91% of patients attributing no impact of coffee intake on IBD regularly drink coffee and surprisingly even 49% of those patients that assign a negative impact on disease symptoms. Among those patients refraining from regular coffee intake 62% are convinced that coffee adversely influences intestinal symptoms, significantly more in Crohn's disease (CD) than in ulcerative colitis (UC) (76% vs. 44%, p = 0.002). In total, 38% of all study subjects suppose that coffee has an effect on their symptoms of disease, significantly more in CD (54%) compared to UC patients (22%, p coffee has a detrimental influence, only 20% of UC patients share this impression (p coffee. More than twice as many CD compared to UC patients attribute a symptom-modifying effect of coffee consumption, the majority a detrimental one. However, this negative perception does not result in abstinence from coffee consumption.

  6. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands.

  7. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  8. Early consumption of liquids different to breast milk in Mexican infants under 1 year: results of the probabilistic National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia

    2016-02-16

    Introduction: Studies on infant dietary intake do not generally focus on the types of liquids consumed. Objective: To document by age and breastfeeding status, the types of liquids present in the diet of Mexican children under 1 year of age (ENSANUT-2012). Methods: Analysis of the infant ENSANUT-2012 survey in non-breastfed (non-BF) and breastfed (BF) infants by status quo for the consumption of liquids grouped in: water, formula, fortified LICONSA milk, nutritive liquids (NL; thin cereal-based gruel with water or milk and coffee with milk) and non-nutritive liquids (non-NL) as sugared water, water-based drinks, tea, beans or chicken broth, aguamieland coffee. In this infants < 1 y we analyzed the not grouped consumption of liquids in the first three days of life (newborns) from the mother’s recall. Percentage and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for survey design. Statistical differences were analyzed by Z test. Results: We observed a high consumption of human milk followed by formula (56.7%) and water (51.1%) in infants under 6 months of age (< 6 mo). The proportion of non-BF infants consuming non-NL was higher than for BF infants (p < 0.05). More than 60% of older infants (6 mo and < 1 y) consumed formula and were non-BF. In newborns formula consumption was predominant, followed by tea or infusion and water. Conclusions: Non-breast milk liquids are present undesirably in Mexican infants’ diet and non-NL are consumed earlier than NL, revealing inadequate early dietary practices.

  9. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume II. Survey of available energy use data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A compilation of data on energy consumption in the commercial sector that have been published elsewhere is presented. Readily available information was collected on the structural, equipment, and energy use characteristics of the following: store and other mercantile buildings; warehouses; finance, insurance, real estate, and services industries; schools and colleges; hospitals and nursing homes; and government buildings. Energy data are shown in terms of Btu/ft/sup 2/. (MCW)

  10. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  11. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  12. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Basic survey project on international cooperation for energy consumption efficiency improvement (Project on cooperation for oil consumption efficiency improvement - Fiscal 1999 survey report on Indonesia); Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso chosa jigyo / sekiyu shohi koritsuka kyoryoku chosa jigyo. 1999 nendo Indonesia chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The project aims to contribute to the promotion of international research cooperation ranging from the survey stage through the stages of verification study and popularization, and, for this purpose, it conducts on-site investigations for exploring needs for environmentally-friendly energy-saving technologies in developing countries where there will be massive-scale oil consumption in the future. In this report, surveys and deliberations are conducted to embody proposed measures, and findings are compiled, based on the surveys conducted in the preceding financial year relating to energy efficiency in and environmental technologies for the textile and chemical industries. Much is expected from the proposed measures as promising subjects of joint verification researches. A technology is proposed for energy saving in the textile industry of Indonesia. The technology aims to wash cloth using high-pressure water from a special nozzle, to continuously measure the level of contamination of the waste water, and to feed back the measured values to the water supply side for the automatic optimization of the amount of the washing water and for the utilization of warm waste water for the ultimate purpose of cascade-aided energy saving. As for the proposition for recovering chemicals mainly caustic soda, it achieves environmental improvement and energy saving in the chemical industry simultaneously. (NEDO)

  13. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Han Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day, weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week, monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month, and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries.

  14. The European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC) point-prevalence survey of antibacterial use in 20 European hospitals in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faranak; Erntell, Mats; Goossens, Herman; Davey, Peter

    2009-11-15

    Point-prevalence surveys have been used to document antimicrobial use in hospitals for >20 years. However, published surveys are inconsistent with respect to population, indication, and the details of therapy that were included. We aimed to standardize a method for surveillance of antibacterial use in hospitals from different health care systems and to identify targets for quality improvement. We adapted a Web-based reporting system from STRAMA, the Swedish Strategic Programme against antibiotic resistance. One hospital from each of 20 countries took part in the survey, which was completed during 2 calendar weeks during 1 April 2006 through 31 May 2006. The survey included all inpatient beds for adults and children and identified all patients who were receiving systemic antibacterial treatments on the day of survey and all patients who had received antibacterial prophylaxis for surgery on the previous day. On the day of survey there were 11,571 inpatients in the 20 participating hospitals, of whom 30.1% were receiving antibacterial treatment (range, 19%-59%). The most common anatomic sites of infection for which antibacterials were prescribed were respiratory tract (24%); skin, bone, and joint (18%); intra-abdominal organs (16%); and urinary tract (11%). The following 3 quality indicators were identified: indication documented in case notes (64%), prophylaxis for surgery not continued for >24 h (60%), and therapy for community-acquired pneumonia not including third-generation cephalosporins or quinolones (78.5%). A Web-based method for a point-prevalence survey was successfully piloted in 20 hospitals across Europe and offers a standardized instrument that can identify targets for quality improvement.

  15. Do emotions related to alcohol consumption differ by alcohol type? An international cross-sectional survey of emotions associated with alcohol consumption and influence on drink choice in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kathryn; Bellis, Mark A; Davies, Alisha R; Hughes, Karen; Winstock, Adam

    2017-11-20

    To examine the emotions associated with drinking different types of alcohol, explore whether these emotions differ by sociodemographics and alcohol dependency and whether the emotions associated with different drink types influence people's choice of drinks in different settings. International cross-sectional opportunistic survey (Global Drug Survey) using an online anonymous questionnaire in 11 languages promoted through newspapers, magazines and social media from November 2015 to January 2016. Individuals aged 18-34 years who reported consumption of beer, spirits, red and white wine in the previous 12 months and were resident in countries with more than 200 respondents (n=21 countries; 29 836 respondents). Positive and negative emotions associated with consumption of different alcoholic beverages (energised, relaxed, sexy, confident, tired, aggressive, ill, restless and tearful) over the past 12 months in different settings. Alcoholic beverages vary in the types of emotions individuals report they elicit, with spirits more frequently eliciting emotional changes of all types. Overall 29.8% of respondents reported feeling aggressive when drinking spirits, compared with only 7.1% when drinking red wine (pfeeling all emotions when drinking alcohol, apart from feelings of aggression. Respondents' level of alcohol dependency was strongly associated with feeling all emotions, with the likelihood of aggression being significantly higher in possible dependent versus low risk drinkers (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% CI 5.79 to 7.09; pfeeling the majority of positive and negative emotions also remained highest among dependent drinkers irrespective of setting. Understanding emotions associated with alcohol consumption is imperative to addressing alcohol misuse, providing insight into what emotions influence drink choice between different groups in the population. The differences identified between sociodemographic groups and influences on drink choice within different settings will

  16. FY 2000 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective measures for enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region, survey was made of the state of study of measures against global warming in the 3rd IPCC report and the state of study of the incidental convenience. The survey was made in the following two fields: 1) research analysis in study of the 3rd IPCC report; 2) research analysis of the convenience incidental to measures against global warming. 1) is composed of IPCC activities and the 3rd assessment report, and the developmental state of global warming prevention technology and potential of greenhouse effect gas reduction. Subjects on the prevention technology are the technology for enhancement of energy consumption and development of non-fossil fuels. Physical/chemical CO2 fixation is also studied. 2) is composed of the introduction, economic/social/environmental effects, international flow, reasons for different conclusion in every study, and fields of further study. Considered were global warming prevention measures, for example, economic/social/environmental effects of creation of the carbon tax, reduction in subsidy in energy sector, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  18. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  19. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  20. Cross-sectional survey of daily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physical health and parenting style of British secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. 10 645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Global comparison of national individual food consumption surveys as a basis for health research and integration in national health surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Aglago, Elom K; Mullee, Amy; De Keyzer, Willem; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Balcerzak, Agnieszka; Zotor, Francis B; Gunter, Marc J

    2017-11-01

    Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e.g. Africa, Eastern Europe and several Asian countries). Few countries (n 9) have their national IFCS incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys, allowing the investigation of dietary-related disease outcomes. Of the integrated surveys, most have the advantage of being continuous/regular, contrary to other IFCS that are mostly erratic. This review serves as the basis to define gaps and needs in IFCS worldwide and assists in defining priorities for resource allocation. In addition, it can serve as a source of inspiration for countries that do not have an IFCS system in place yet and advocate for national IFCS to be incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys in order to create: (1) research opportunities for investigating diet-disease relationships and (2) a frame to plan and evaluate the effect of diet-related policies (e.g. promotion of local nutrient-rich foods) and of nutrition recommendations, such as food-based dietary guidelines. Countries that integrate their IFCS within their national health and nutrition survey can serve as proof-of-principle for other countries.

  2. Adjusting for unrecorded consumption in survey and per capita sales data: quantification of impact on gender- and age-specific alcohol-attributable fractions for oral and pharyngeal cancers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Baumberg, Ben; Purshouse, Robin; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Large discrepancies are typically found between per capita alcohol consumption estimated via survey data compared with sales, excise or production figures. This may lead to significant inaccuracies when calculating levels of alcohol-attributable harms. Using British data, we demonstrate an approach to adjusting survey data to give more accurate estimates of per capita alcohol consumption. First, sales and survey data are adjusted to account for potential biases (e.g. self-pouring, under-sampled populations) using evidence from external data sources. Secondly, survey and sales data are aligned using different implementations of Rehm et al.'s method [in (2010) Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example. Pop Health Metrics 8, 1-12]. Thirdly, the impact of our approaches is tested by using our revised survey dataset to calculate alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs) for oral and pharyngeal cancers. British sales data under-estimate per capita consumption by 8%, primarily due to illicit alcohol. Adjustments to survey data increase per capita consumption estimates by 35%, primarily due to under-sampling of dependent drinkers and under-estimation of home-poured spirits volumes. Before aligning sales and survey data, the revised survey estimate remains 22% lower than the revised sales estimate. Revised AAFs for oral and pharyngeal cancers are substantially larger with our preferred method for aligning data sources, yielding increases in an AAF from the original survey dataset of 0.47-0.60 (males) and 0.28-0.35 (females). It is possible to use external data sources to adjust survey data to reduce the under-estimation of alcohol consumption and then account for residual under-estimation using a statistical calibration technique. These revisions lead to markedly higher estimated levels of alcohol-attributable harm.

  3. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsø Karen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+ or without (CVD- medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  5. Usual Alcohol Consumption and Risks for Nonfatal Fall Injuries in the United States: Results From the 2004-2013 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yoon, Young-Hee

    2017-07-29

    Acute alcohol consumption is known to be a risk factor for fall injuries. The study sought to determine whether usual alcohol consumption increases the risk for nonfatal fall injuries. Data from 289,187 sample adults in the 2004-2013 U.S. National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed. Of these, 3,368 (∼1%) reported a total of 3,579 fall-injury episodes requiring medical consultation in the past 3 months. Latent class analysis based on four contextual indicators identified four ecological subtypes of fall injury within two age groups (18-49 and 50+). Five drinking patterns (i.e., lifetime abstainer, former drinker, low-risk drinker, increased-risk drinker, and highest-risk drinker) were categorized according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) low-risk drinking guidelines. Controlling for potential confounders, negative binomial regression estimated the adjusted rates of any type and subtypes of fall injury, by gender, for each drinking pattern relative to lifetime abstainer. Compared with lifetime abstainers, the adjusted rate of any fall injury for adults ages 18-49 was significantly higher among highest-risk drinkers (men: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.60, 4.20]; women: IRR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.24, 2.91]) and increased-risk drinkers (men: IRR = 1.94, 95% CI [1.25, 3.00]; women: IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]). Furthermore, highest-risk drinkers had higher adjusted rates of either leisure- or sports-related fall injuries than lifetime abstainers. Alcohol consumption exceeding NIAAA's low-risk drinking guidelines is associated with elevated rates of nonfatal fall injuries. Findings underscore the importance of adhering to these recommendations.

  6. Food group consumption in an Italian population using the updated food classification system FoodEx2: Results from the Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey (INHES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, G; Bonanni, A; Ruggiero, E; Di Castelnuovo, A; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Cerletti, C; Riccardi, G; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2017-04-01

    Dietary habits evolve over time, being influenced by many factors and complex interactions. This work aimed at evaluating the updated information on food group consumption in Italy. A total of 8944 (4768 women and 4176 men) participants aged >18 years from all over Italy recruited in 2010-13 (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) was analyzed. The recruitment was performed using computer-assisted-telephone-interviewing and one-day 24-h dietary recall retrieved from all participants. The updated, second version, of FoodEx2 food classification system was applied to extract data on food group consumption. The participation rate was 53%; 6.2% of the participants declared to follow a special diet, the most prevalent being hypo-caloric diets (55.7% of special diets). Men compared to women presented significantly higher intakes of "grains and grain-based products", "meat and meat products", "animal and vegetable fats and oils and primary derivatives" and "alcoholic beverages" (P for alldiets, food imitates and food supplements" (P for all<0.001). Differences in food group intake among age groups, geographical regions and educational level groups were also identified (P for all<0.05). Data on the consumption of more than 70 food groups and sub-groups were illustrated in different strata. The present analysis could be considered as an updated source of information for future nutrition research in Italy and in the EU. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-03-31

    This study examined the association of breakfast consumption, and the type of breakfast consumed, with body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and prevalence rates and odds ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity among Canadian adults. These associations were examined by age group and sex. We used data from non-pregnant, non-lactating participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 12,377) in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, a population-based, nationally-representative, cross-sectional study. Height and weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. Breakfast consumption was self-reported during a standardized 24-h recall; individuals were classified as breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts that included ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) or as other breakfast consumers. Mean BMI and prevalence and OR of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) were compared among breakfast groups, with adjustment for sociodemographic variables (including age, sex, race, marital status, food security, language spoken at home, physical activity category, smoking, education level and supplement use). For the entire sample, mean BMI was significantly lower among RTEC-breakfast consumers than other breakfast consumers (mean ± SE 26.5 ± 0.2 vs. 27.1 ± 0.1 kg/m(2)), but neither group differed significantly from breakfast non-consumers (27.1 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Similar results were seen in women only, but BMI of men did not differ by breakfast category. Overweight/obesity prevalence and OR did not differ among breakfast groups for the entire sample or for all men and women separately. When examined by sex and age group, differences were inconsistent, but tended to be more apparent in women than men. Among Canadian adults, breakfast consumption was not consistently associated with differences in BMI or overweight/obesity prevalence.

  8. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, Jose A; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Morgan, Celia J A

    2017-11-09

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs. Ayahuasca users (n = 527) reported greater well-being than both classic psychedelic users (n = 18,138) and non-psychedelic drug-using respondents (n = 78,236). Ayahuasca users reported less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users, although both groups reported greater problematic drinking than the other respondents. Ayahuasca's acute subjective effects usually lasted for six hours and were most strongly felt one hour after consumption. Within our online, self-selecting survey, ayahuasca users reported better well-being than comparison groups and less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users. Future longitudinal studies of international samples and randomised controlled trials are needed to dissect the effects of ayahuasca on these outcomes.

  11. Iodine deficiency status and iodised salt consumption in Malaysia: findings from a national iodine deficiency disorders survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rusidah; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Rahim, Nor Syamlina Che Abdul; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul; Aris, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to determine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing borderline adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UIMalaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.

  12. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  13. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-04-11

    It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965-1966 and 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007-2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001). US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990's. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given

  14. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. Results The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only

  15. Media Consumption and Creation in Attitudes Toward and Knowledge of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, Miles; Guo, Ling; Parker Ward, Sarah; Farraye, Francis A; Reich, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients. Objective The objective of this study was to explore and assess the public’s awareness and knowledge of IBD, as well as what relationship, if any, exists between the social stigma surrounding IBD, knowledge of the disease, and various media usage, including social media. Methods Utilizing a Web-based opt-in platform, we surveyed a nationally representative sample (n=1200) with demographics mirroring those of the US Census figures across baseline parameters. Using constructed indices based on factor analysis, we were able to build reliable measures of personal characteristics, media behaviors, and perceptions and knowledge of IBD. Results Among the American public, IBD is the most stigmatized of seven diseases, including genital herpes and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Additionally, IBD knowledge is generally low with 11.08% (133/1200) of the sample indicating no familiarity with the disease and 85.50% (1026/1200) of participants inaccurately answering two-thirds of the IBD index questions with which their knowledge was assessed. Increased knowledge of IBD is associated with lower levels of stigma. However, social media use is currently related to lower levels of IBD knowledge (Pcommunication solutions. PMID:29222081

  16. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  17. Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain using the General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    British alcohol consumption and abstinence rates have increased substantially in the last 3 decades. This study aims to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects to improve our understanding of these trends and suggest groups for targeted interventions to reduce resultant harms. Age, period, cohort analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys using separate logistic and negative binomial models for each gender. Great Britain 1984-2009. Annual nationally representative samples of approximately 20 000 adults (16+) within 13 000 households. Age (eight groups: 16-17 to 75+ years), period (six groups: 1980-84 to 2005-09) and birth cohorts (19 groups: 1900-04 to 1990-94). Outcome measures were abstinence and average weekly alcohol consumption. Controls were income, education, ethnicity and country. After accounting for period and cohort trends, 18-24-year-olds have the highest consumption levels (incident rate ratio = 1.18-1.15) and lower abstention rates (odds ratio = 0.67-0.87). Consumption generally decreases and abstention rates increase in later life. Until recently, successive birth cohorts' consumption levels were also increasing. However, for those born post-1985, abstention rates are increasing and male consumption is falling relative to preceding cohorts. In contrast, female drinking behaviours have polarized over the study period, with increasing abstention rates accompanying increases in drinkers' consumption levels. Rising female consumption of alcohol and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom. Recent declines in alcohol consumption appear to be attributable to reduced consumption and increased abstinence rates among the most recent birth cohorts, especially males, and general increased rates of abstention across the study period. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Media Consumption and Creation in Attitudes Toward and Knowledge of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshek, Jacob; Basil, Miles; Guo, Ling; Parker Ward, Sarah; Farraye, Francis A; Reich, Jason

    2017-12-08

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients. The objective of this study was to explore and assess the public's awareness and knowledge of IBD, as well as what relationship, if any, exists between the social stigma surrounding IBD, knowledge of the disease, and various media usage, including social media. Utilizing a Web-based opt-in platform, we surveyed a nationally representative sample (n=1200) with demographics mirroring those of the US Census figures across baseline parameters. Using constructed indices based on factor analysis, we were able to build reliable measures of personal characteristics, media behaviors, and perceptions and knowledge of IBD. Among the American public, IBD is the most stigmatized of seven diseases, including genital herpes and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Additionally, IBD knowledge is generally low with 11.08% (133/1200) of the sample indicating no familiarity with the disease and 85.50% (1026/1200) of participants inaccurately answering two-thirds of the IBD index questions with which their knowledge was assessed. Increased knowledge of IBD is associated with lower levels of stigma. However, social media use is currently related to lower levels of IBD knowledge (Psocial media content are less knowledgeable about IBD (Pmedia, but especially in social media channels, to increase IBD knowledge and reduce stigma surrounding IBD. These findings pave the way for further research qualitatively

  19. Impact of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors: using data in the 2015 (6th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Yun; Park, Jeong Seop

    2018-06-01

    The effects of fish consumption by subjects with prediabetes on the metabolic risk factors were examined based on the data from the 6 th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 2015. A total of 1,520 subjects who agreed to participate in a blood test and dietary intake survey were divided into a prediabetes group and normal blood glucose group, and the level of the subjects' fish consumption was divided into ≤ 17.0 g/day, 18.0-93.0 g/day, and ≥ 94 g/day. The correlation between the level of fish intake and the metabolic risk factors was evaluated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. A significant difference in the gender distribution was observed in the prediabetes group, which is a group with a high risk of non-communicable diseases, according to the fish intake, and there were significant differences in the total energy intake, protein intake, n-3 fatty acids intake, and the intakes of sodium and micro-nutrients according to the intake group ( P < 0.05). In addition, the blood total cholesterol (TC) decreased 0.422 fold in model 1 (unadjusted) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211-0.845] and 0.422 fold in model 2 (adjusted for sex) (95% CI: 0.210-0.846) in those with a fish intake of 18.0-93.0 g/day ( P < 0.05) compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day. The blood TC decreased 0.555 fold (95% CI: 0.311-0.989) in model 1 and 0.549 fold (95% CI: 0.302-0.997) in model 2 in those with a fish intake of ≥ 94 g/day compared to those with a fish intake of ≤ 17.0 g/day ( P < 0.05). Subjects with prediabetes or the metabolic risk factors can maintain their blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood TC concentrations at the optimal level by consuming fish (18.0-93.0 g/day).

  20. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  1. Survey Results on Fashion Consumption and Sustainability Among Young Consumers in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the US in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsang, Andrea; Gwozdz, Wencke; Mueller, Tina

    Sustainable choices and behaviours are becoming ever more important in our daily lives in all domains of consumption. This report focuses specifically on the consumption of textile fashion by young consumers in five different countries by focusing on two consumption phases, the purchase phase...

  2. The population impact of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes: Analysis of a health population survey in Chile, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglia, María P; Gormaz, Juan G; Libuy, Matías; Sanhueza, Dérgica; Gajardo, Abraham; Srur, Andrea; Wallbaum, Magdalena; Erazo, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the impact of tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in the Chilean population. The study-included 5,293 subjects with fasting glycaemia levels from the nationwide cross-sectional health survey in 2010, commissioned by the Ministry of Health, Chile. Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio to T2DM and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were estimated through logistic regressions. Attributable fractions and population attributable fractions were estimated. T2DM prevalence was 9.5%. Sedentary lifestyles and obesity were significant risk factors for T2DM. 52,4% of T2DM could be avoided if these individuals were not obese, and at a population level, 23% of T2DM could be preventable if obesity did not exist. A 64% of T2DM is explained by sedentariness, and if people would become active, a 62,2% of the cases of diabetes could be avoided. About 79% of T2DM cases in Chile could be prevented with cost-effective strategies focused on preventing sedentary lifestyle and obesity. It's therefore urgent to implement evidence-based public health polices, aimed to decrease the prevalence of T2DM, by controlling its risk factors and consequently, reducing the complications from T2DM.

  3. The population impact of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes: Analysis of a health population survey in Chile, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P Bertoglia

    Full Text Available To estimate the impact of tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence in the Chilean population.The study-included 5,293 subjects with fasting glycaemia levels from the nationwide cross-sectional health survey in 2010, commissioned by the Ministry of Health, Chile. Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio to T2DM and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were estimated through logistic regressions. Attributable fractions and population attributable fractions were estimated.T2DM prevalence was 9.5%. Sedentary lifestyles and obesity were significant risk factors for T2DM. 52,4% of T2DM could be avoided if these individuals were not obese, and at a population level, 23% of T2DM could be preventable if obesity did not exist. A 64% of T2DM is explained by sedentariness, and if people would become active, a 62,2% of the cases of diabetes could be avoided.About 79% of T2DM cases in Chile could be prevented with cost-effective strategies focused on preventing sedentary lifestyle and obesity. It's therefore urgent to implement evidence-based public health polices, aimed to decrease the prevalence of T2DM, by controlling its risk factors and consequently, reducing the complications from T2DM.

  4. Availability and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables Among Non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in the USA: Findings from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Adult Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaipeng

    2017-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption have been widely studied in the USA. While previous studies focused on the differences of fruit and vegetable availability between racial groups, the equivalence of the association between consumption and availability across racial groups has been rarely examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between availability of fruits and vegetables and their consumption across racial groups. The 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data (N = 36,302) were used for the study. Results of negative binomial regression show that the association between perceived availability of fruits and vegetables on consumption differs significantly between non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians: (1) the association between fruit consumption and availability is only significant for non-Hispanic Whites (IRR = 1.303, 95 % CI 1.188, 1.429), and (2) the association between vegetable consumption and availability is only significant for non-Hispanic Whites (IRR = 1.242, 95 % CI 1.152, 1.340) and Hispanics (IRR = 1.141, 95 % CI 1.025, 1.271). This study highlights the importance of interventions that emphasize not only potential access but also social and cultural factors that relate to realized access to healthy food.

  5. Is nutritional quality of food-at-home purchases improving? 1969-2010: 40 years of household consumption surveys in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillavet, France; Darmon, Nicole; Létoile, Flavie; Nichèle, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    The rise of nutrition-related diseases in developed countries prompts investigation into the role played by changing food patterns. Our aim was to observe changes in food-at-home purchases by French households and their impacts on nutritional quality over the past 40 years (1969-2010). Time-series of food-at-home purchases from representative samples of French households were built based on two sources of data: the INSEE National Food Survey (1969-1991) and the Kantar Food Consumption Panel (1989-2010). Food-at-home purchases were converted into energy and nutrients using the French CIQUAL food composition table. The nutritional quality of food-at-home purchases was estimated using the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for 15 key nutrients. MAR was expressed per 2000 kcal to assess the nutrient density of food-at-home purchases. Between 1969 and 2010, food-at-home purchases showed dramatic changes in many food groups, with increasing processed vs raw products. The purchase of calories increased (+6.7%) and nutrient density improved (MAR per 2000 kcal + 12.9 points). However, this overall trend harbors heterogeneous patterns: food-at-home calories decreased and nutrient density improved up to 2002, but then calories increased while nutrient density stabilized. The nutritional quality of French households' food-at-home purchases improved over the last 40 years, as shown by increasing nutrient density. However, during the last decade, nutrient density ceased to increase and the purchase of calories increased, advocating a need for public action to promote healthier food purchasing patterns.

  6. Accounting for the multidimensional nature of the relationship between adult obesity and socio-economic status: the French second National Individual Survey on Food Consumption (INCA 2) dietary survey (2006-07).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillol, F; Dubuisson, C; Lafay, L; Dufour, A; Bertin, M; Touvier, M; Maire, B; Volatier, J-L; Lioret, S

    2011-11-01

    The objective was to study the multidimensional nature of the relationship between adult obesity (OB) and socio-economic status (SES), using comprehensive indices of SES taken separately or synthesised in an overall index. A nationally representative sample of adults aged 18-79 years was taken from the French second National Individual Survey on Food Consumption (INCA 2) dietary survey (2006-07). Weight and height were measured and OB defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. SES variables were reported in questionnaires and included occupation, education and characteristics of household wealth. Composite indices of SES (household wealth and overall SES indices) were computed by correspondence analysis, and relationships with OB were investigated with logistic regression analysis. In total, 11·8 (95 % CI 10·1, 13·4) % of French adults were obese, without significant difference by sex. While no significant relationship was observed in men, all SES indicators were inversely correlated to OB in women. Both education and the household wealth index were retained in the stepwise multivariate model, confirming that different socio-economic variables are not necessarily proxies of each other regarding the OB issue. On the other hand, 'controlling for SES' while including several measures of SES in multivariate models may lead to collinearity, and thus over-adjustment. A more integrative approach may be to derive a synthetic index by including the SES factors available in a given study. Beyond this methodological perspective, understanding how OB is related to the different dimensions of SES should help to target the more vulnerable groups and increase the effectiveness of prevention.

  7. FY1998 survey report on the site surveys on regional situations in improvement in energy consumption (Cambodia and Bangladesh); 1998 nendo energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa hokokusho (Cambodia, Bangladesh) chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to promote technical cooperation of Japan with Asia in the energy aspect, site surveys were carried out on improvement in energy consumption efficiency. Electric power supply in Cambodia is made mostly from EDC, whose power generation amount in 1997 was 310 million kwh, while the power sold was 230 million kwh, with 26.1% of the total generation amount, or 80 million kwh being wasted as the loss. Existing power generation facilities are old and small in scale, made by the former Soviet Union making the repair difficult. The loss is enormous because of aging in power distribution facilities, overload operation, and power stealing. The efficiency is extremely poor, whereas improvement in efficiency of the existing facilities is indispensable to cope with the anticipated increase in the demand. In Bangladesh, 90% of the power is generated by using natural gas produced in the eastern part of the country. Many power plants are experiencing decreased efficiency due to the facility aging and insufficient and improper maintenance. The power transmission and distribution departments have had a large loss in power, which has become one of the most important issues. The loss exceeds 30%. The government is trying to achieve efficiency improvement in the electric power business through introducing the principle of competition by establishing new private companies. However, this approach is facing severe objection from the governmental and public labor unions, making the future development opaque. (NEDO)

  8. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  9. Fiscal 2000 research report on the energy consumption survey for popularizing stationary fuel cell systems; 2000 nendo teichiyo nenryo denchi no fukyu wo mokutekito shita energy no shohi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted about the current state of domestic energy consumption for studying the feasibility of a stationary energy system using the polymer electrolyte fuel cell. A study relative to domestic energy consumption dealt with transition in the energy consumption rate, dependence on locality, and the effect of the makeup of residences. The monthly and hourly patterns of demand for heat for hot-water supply were referred to power consumption data broken down by time zone, and it was found that approximately 1kW output would be suitable for this purpose. A study was made about the pattern of operation that such a fuel cell system should follow, and it was learned that a pattern in which 'the system operates according to the imposed load starting at seven o'clock in the morning when the electricity rate switches to the higher and the output does not exceed what is necessary to meet the daily demand for heat.' This method was found to assure the most efficient way of operation covering more than 80% of the need for hot water and electricity. In a study of consumption of energy for business, feasibility was suggested to exist in the installation of systems of 30kW or less at small hotels, barber shops and beauty parlors, restaurants, schools equipped with minor-scale food service, small hospitals, clinics, and the like. (NEDO)

  10. Breakfast consumption and nutrient intakes in 4-18-year-olds : UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulthard, Janine D.; Palla, Luigi; Pot, Gerda K.

    2017-01-01

    Although breakfast consumption is widely considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle, few UK studies have examined differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers among children and adolescents. We investigated associations between breakfast

  11. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  12. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  13. estimating consumption-based poverty in the ethiopia demographic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    compares consumption with poverty lines, but consumption surveys often do not collect detailed health .... One or more electric mitads. 0.23539 ...... was greater for the asset index than for predicted consumption from a scorecard. In the end ...

  14. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  15. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption – the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandurski Karol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupants’ attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants’ behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants’ behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey’s respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants’ behavior (e.g. the use of heating control are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  16. Trends in consumption of fats and oils among Indian tribal population over a period of 30 years: Findings of National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Laxmaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In several randomized control trials, it was observed that the dietary fat content has a little, but a significant effect on energy consumption and body weight. The purpose of this communication was to assess fat consumption among tribals, time trends and its association with obesity and hypertension. Methods: These were community based cross-sectional studies, adopted multistage random sampling procedure. The subjects were covered from 120 randomly selected villages each from 9 states in India. Information on household socio-economic & demographic and food intakes were collected. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured by using standard equipment and procedures. Results: The mean intake of food and nutrients were assessed in 14,324, 32,023, and 41507 tribal subjects in 1985-87, 1998-99 and 2008-09, respectively. The mean consumption of visible fats was 10g/CU/day, as against requirement of 20g and increased from 7g in 1985-87 to 10g in 2008-09. The percentage of energy obtained from total fat (20.8g/day was 10% as against safe limit of 20%. The consumption of total dietary fats was increased significantly over a period of 3 decades in all the age groups, but it is less than recommended levels of ICMR. The fat intake was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. Conclusions: Even though fat consumption was increased in all the age groups, but less than the recommended levels of ICMR. The consumption of fat was significantly associated with obesity and hypertension. There is an urgent need to create awareness among tribal population to consume adequate and quality of fats.

  17. The prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk alcohol consumption in Korean adults: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Hong

    Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 23.7%, with the highest prevalence found in middle-aged adults. In women, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 4.2%, with the highest prevalence found in younger adults. Men had higher weighted mean AUDIT scores than women (10.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001, and age was negatively associated with the AUDIT score (P<0.001. Elementary school graduates had higher mean AUDIT scores than senior high school (P = 0.003 or college (P<0.001 graduates. Regarding occupation, clerical support workers (P = 0.002 and service and sales workers (P<0.001 had higher mean AUDIT scores than managers and professionals. Logistic regression analyses of high-risk alcohol drinking using sex, age, education level, number of family members, household income, and occupation as covariates was performed. Women had a lower risk of high-risk alcohol drinking (odds ratio (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.13-0.16, P<0.001 than men. Regarding age, compared to control

  18. Assessment of prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric inmates residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

  19. Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados contain a beneficial lipid profile, including a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals. However, little epidemiologic data exist on the effect that consumption of avocados has on overall nutrient intake, diet quality, adi...

  20. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  1. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  2. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  3. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  4. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplemetary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of familiy expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N=641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  5. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuelwood consumption increased in Newfoundland in the 1970's, but although cutting permits were issued for Crown land, most forests were privately leased and no overall figures were available on the annual cut for domestic use. A personal interview telephone survey was therefore implemented in which householders were questioned on how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of stove and wood used, expected consumption in 1978-79, other sources of heat, employment, and distance travelled to obtain wood. Survey methods and results obtained are presented. Woodburning households increased from about 22,000 before 1973 to about 32,000 in 1977-78 and a further increase to about 39,500 was expected in 1978-79. In 1977-78, 462,571 stacked cubic metres of roundwood were burned on the island. Softwood comprised 69% of this total.

  6. Yogurt consumption is associated with higher nutrient intake, diet quality and favourable metabolic profile in children: a cross-sectional analysis using data from years 1-4 of the National diet and Nutrition Survey, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2018-01-12

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with higher nutrient intakes, better diet quality and improved metabolic profiles in adults. Few studies have investigated these associations in children. This study investigated the association of yogurt consumption with nutrient intakes, diet quality and metabolic profile in British children. Data from  1687 children aged 4-10 and 11-18 years of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 were analysed. Yogurt consumption was determined using a 4-day diet diary. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, pulse pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-and low-density cholesterol from NDNS were used. The highest tertile of yogurt consumption (T3) was associated with higher nutrient intakes, particularly for calcium (children 4-10 years: P consumption was associated with significantly lower pulse pressure in children aged 4-10 years and lower HbA1c concentration, being shorter and having a larger hip circumference in children aged 11-18 years, compared with non-yogurt consumers. This study suggests that British children who are yogurt consumers (> 60 g/day) have higher overall diet quality, nutrient intakes and adequacy, lower pulse pressure (children aged 4-10 years) and HbA1c concentrations (children aged 11-18 years), were shorter and had a smaller hip circumference (children aged 11-18 years).

  7. Basic project on the cooperation in enhancement of the international energy consumption efficiency. Survey of energy conservation potential by industry; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo hokokusho. Gyoshubetsu sho energy potential chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of looking for measures to promote the effective energy conservation in China, the potential energy conservation amount in general plants was surveyed and analyzed by industry. Activities were made in the following fields: 1) survey of the actual state of energy in main industries; 2) energy conservation potential in the cement industry in China; 3) energy conservation potential in thermal power plants in China. In 1), survey was made on 8 industries including the iron/steel industry and oil refining industry. In 2), survey was made of the actual state of the Liulihe cement plant and Shitou cement plant. The subjects extracted were the arrangement of instrumentation equipment such as the exhaust gas analyzer needed for combustion management, improvement of the air/fuel ratio of kiln, enhancement of cooling efficiency of clinker cooler, etc. In 3), the actual state of the Qinling power plant was surveyed, and it was made clear that high efficiency of 38% or more can be maintained if the appropriate use/maintenance management is made (coal unit consumption: 383g/kWh in Qinling and 309g/kWh). (NEDO)

  8. International measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). List of errata; 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seigohyo. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The list of errata was prepared for the data book of the international measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). Corrected pages of the data book 1 (1990) are as follows: 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295- 298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. Corrected pages of the data book 2 (1985) are as follows: 102-105 on Chinese data, 154 on common data, and 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295-298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. (NEDO)

  9. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  10. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  11. Factors associated with consumption of caffeinated-beverage among Siriraj pre-clinical year medical students, A 2-year consecutive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandejpong, Denla; Paisansudhi, Supalerg; Udompunthurak, Suthipol

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies showed that significant proportion of medical students consumed caffeine to face sleep-deprived daily schedules. To monitor the trend of caffeinated-beverage consumption among Siriraj medical students as well as to study possible factors associated with caffeine dependency. The questionnaire was distributed to a class of medical students for 2 consecutive years. Statistical analysis was performed for descriptive purpose. 269 (89.7%) and 225 (74.5%) questionnaires were returned in year 1 and year 2, respectively 16.2% refused to take caffeine-beverages totally. 13% of those who consumed caffeinated-beverages developed caffeine dependence. From logistical analysis, positive history of smoking-family member and female sex were the only other two factors associated with caffeine dependency (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.04-4.61 and 1.76, 95% CI 1.01-3.07, respectively). Other investigated factors included: exercise (p = 0.08); sleep hours (p = 0.24); reading beverage labels (p = 0.87); alcohol consumption (p = 0.59); class performance (p = 0.87); family member coffee-drinking habits (p = 0.66);family member alcohol-drinking habits (p = 0.18); and family income (p = 0.06). Caffeinated-beverage consumption was common among Siriraj medical students. No significant change was detected in the pattern of caffeinated-beverage consumption within the study period. Positive history of smoking family members and female sex were found as the only other two factors correlated with caffeine dependency.

  12. Survey about the potential effects of economic downturn on alcohol consumption, smoking and quality of life in a sample of Central Italy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fabio; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Peroni, Annalisa; Kracmarova, Lenka; Scuri, Stefania

    2018-03-27

    Negative health effects have been associated with the changes in lifestyles in relation with the low income of population. Consequently, in our study we investigated the frequency changes of alcohol and smoke consumption, physical activity, and quality of life in families of Marche Region in Central Italy. In the period 2016-2017, an anonymous questionnaire has been distributed to junior highschool students of Camerino, Fabriano, and Civitanova Marche of Marche Region. The Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used to assess subjective quality of life. Data obtained in this research were used to analyze lifestyle changes, specifically those involving alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity, and to assess perceived general quality of life. In all categories of population, an increase of frequency in alcohol consumption was observed. On the contrary, for the tobacco smoke we observed a reduction in particular in the parents category. The MANSA mean value was 4.5 with a Standard Deviation of 1.3. As underlighted, also, by results of the MANSA test we can hypothesize a reduction in the family income produces a change of lifestyles.

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  14. 100% orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rampersaud, Gail C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-12-12

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower (p diet.

  15. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  16. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  17. Consumption of 100% Pure Fruit Juice and Dietary Quality in French Adults: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey in the Context of the WHO Recommended Limitation of Free Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bellisle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-containing beverages are often seen as a negative influence on diet quality and body weight control. The present study examines the consumption of 100% fruit juice (FJ based on a seven-day dietary survey in a representative sample of French adults (n = 1607. About a half of the participants (44% consumed FJ, most often at breakfast time (60%. Average intake in FJ consumers was 115.6 ± 4.0 mL/day (46.3 ± 1.7 kcal/day. Prevalence of consumption increased with education and income and decreased with age, but no association was observed with body mass index (BMI, physical activity, or smoking. In consumers, FJ brought 2% daily energy and contributed larger proportions of vitamins (B1 7%, B2 3%, B5 5%, B6 6%, B9 10%, C 32%, E 9%, beta-carotene 5%, minerals (magnesium 4%, potassium 7%, and free sugars (19%. FJ consumers ingested more whole fruits, vegetables, and many other foods than non-consumers did. Free sugars represented 11.2% of the daily energy in FJ consumers versus 8.6% in non-consumers. This cross-sectional survey reveals that FJ contributes to diet quality without association with excess body weight. These observations should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. They support the view that contribution to diet quality should be specifically recognized in the context of the World Health Organization (WHO recommended decrease of free sugar intake.

  18. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Yoo-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis. The prevalence of rhinitis decreased with increasing kimchi consumption. The quintile 4 (range of kimchi intake: 108.0-180.0 g) groups, compared with the reference of quintile 1 (0-23.7 g), showed a decrease of 18.9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.672-0.979) in Model 4. In conclusion, consumption of kimchi lowers the risk of rhinitis, suggesting that its use should be encouraged among the Korean population.

  19. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  20. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neil Carol E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  1. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  2. Association between home food preparation skills and behaviour, and consumption of ultra-processed foods: Cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and nutrition survey (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Matthew Chak Leung; Adams, Jean

    2017-05-23

    'Ultra-processed foods' (UPF) have been industrially processed and tend to be higher in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than other foods. There is some evidence that consumption of UPF is associated with overweight, obesity and related diseases. In developed countries more than half of dietary energy is attributed to UPF. One reason for reliance on UPF may be poor home food preparation skills or infrequent use of these. This relationship has been previously proposed but not tested. We examined the relationship between home food preparation skills and behaviour and consumption of UPF. We used data from adults in the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey 2008-09. Home food preparation skills and behaviours of adults (n = 509) were assessed using questions on confidence using eight cooking techniques, confidence cooking 10 foods, ability to prepare a cake or biscuits without help, and whether or not participants prepared a main meal five or more days per week. Individuals' UPF consumption was determined from four-day estimated diet diaries. Associations were adjusted for age, gender, occupational social class and household composition. In fully adjusted models, individuals who were confident with all 10 foods (adjusted beta (95% CI) = -3.76 (-6.02 to -1.50)), able to bake cakes or biscuits without help (-3.87 (-6.62 to -1.12)), and cooked a main meal at least five days a week (-2.84 (-5.43 to -0.24)) consumed a lower percentage of dietary energy from UPF. In UK adults better home food preparation skills and more frequent use of these skills tended to be cross-sectionally associated with lower UPF consumption. Greater encouragement of these skills may help reduce reliance on UPF.

  3. Fuel- and wood consumption surveys in developing countries: a proposal of an efficient low-cost method and the results of its application in eastern Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschen, P.; Eiche, G.

    1986-01-01

    The method involves a preliminary survey to establish areas homogeneous for temperature and rainfall regime, natural vegetation, agricultural systems, wood fuel substitutes, housing and cooking habits. Locations are sampled within such areas to reflect variability in presence of forests and other fuel and wood resources, population density, and access to markets. Households are sampled within a location to cover variation in social structure. Results from a survey in the Hararghe highlands differ markedly from previous Ethiopia-wide estimates and show that remaining wood resources supply less than half of the fuel requirements. An effective community forestry programme is urgently required. (Refs. 9).

  4. FY 2000 report on information exchanges/analytical survey for improvement of energy consumption efficiency; 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka joho kokan bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of surveying the situation of the arrangement of methods of energy conservation promotion and the emissions trading system in developing countries by Japan having the effectiveness or in cooperation with developed countries, information was collected through the participation in international conferences related to energy conservation promotion, etc. and by visits at governmental organizations in charge in developed countries and developing countries. The results of the survey were classified into the following four items: 1) survey method; 2) exchanges of information on energy conservation in main 3 developing counties; 3) exchanges of information of energy conservation in the main developed countries; 4) exchanges of information of the emissions trading system (international trading system of energy conservation values (greenhouse effect gas emission right)). In 4), survey was made on the following: the emissions trading system for the inside of company group (BP-Amoco), the details of the emissions trading system for one country (the U.K.), the grapple with the emissions trading by a private trading organization (NATSOURCE Co.), and the handle with the emissions trading system by each of the OECD countries. (NEDO)

  5. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  6. Dietary exposure to PCBs based on food consumption survey and food basket analysis at Taizhou, China--the world's major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2010-11-01

    The levels of PCBs in different types of food (fish, shellfish, meat, rice, vegetables, and fruits) were analyzed to determine the dietary intake of 37 PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers (all lactating mothers) at Taizhou (China), a major electronic waste scrapping center, in particular for recycling transformers. The exposure to PCBs through dietary intake in Taizhou was estimated at 92.79 ngkg(-1)d(-1), contributed by consumption of freshwater fish (28%), rice (28%), meat (17%), shellfish (9%), vegetables (8%), egg (4%) and marine fish (2%). With regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values, freshwater fish (40%), shellfish (24%), duck liver (18%) and rice (12%) were the main dietary sources with total daily intake (9.78 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ kg(-1)d(-1)), exceeding the FAO/WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (70 pg TEQkg(-1)body(-1)wt(-1)month(-1)). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  8. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a first estimate of fuelwood consumption for the island of Newfoundland for the period April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978. Available literature was reviewed and an assessment made on the existing data collection systems on fuelwood consumption used by the various forestry agencies in the province. A personal interview telephone survey on fuelwood use was conducted for most parts of the Island that had access to wood supplies. Householders were asked how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of wood burning unit used, other sources of heat used, reasons for burning wood, employment, distance travelled to obtain wood, and expected consumption in 1978-79 compared to 1977-78. It was found that the estimated number of households burning wood increased to ca 32,000 in 1977-78. There was a further estimated increase to about 39,500 in 1978-79. In 1977-78, it was estimated that 461,571 stacked cubic metres of fuelwood were consumed on the Island. This was broken down into 318,916 m/sup 3/ of softwood and 142,655 m/sup 3/ of hardwood. Although the statistical methodology used may have led to an overestimate of the volume of wood consumed, the criteria used in the selection of households had the opposite effect in that the volume consumed by a large number of casual wood burners (less than 3 stacked m/sup 3/) was omitted from the estimate. Fuelwood consumption accounted for anywhere from 1% to 77% of the calculated allowable annual cut for the various forest management units on the Island for 1977-78. Overall, fuelwood consumption estimated by the survey accounted for 8% of the estimated allowable annual cut. Use of wood as a fuel is expected to continue increasing and it is recommended that estimates of consumption be periodically updated so that forest management plans can make adequate provision for this demand in future. 5 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  10. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E.; Crippa, Jose A.; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J.; Ferris, Jason A.; Winstock, Adam R.; Morgan, Celia J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  11. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. Methods 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females from Germany (n = 654, Poland (n = 561, Bulgaria (n = 688, the UK (n = 311 and Slovakia (n = 315 completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen’s perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Results Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week, but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. Conclusion The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress.

  12. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  14. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  15. A survey on lifestyle and attitudes on fruit and vegetable consumption and participation in physical activity in a sample of secondary school and university students from Palermo, Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and physical activity (PA, are thought to be some of the most important protective factors that can improve long-term health quality of life. Many epidemiological studies indicate, in fact, that F&V consumption and PA are health-promoting and are correlated with the beneficial effects and positive outcomes such as preventing some chronic diseases. Evidence, however, indicates that large proportions of adolescents are not consuming the minimum servings of F&V as recommended by experts and a high percentage of them have sedentary habits.

    Objective and method: The purpose of this research was to investigate knowledge and behaviors in a sample of secondary school, (250, and university students, (200, referred to F&V consumption and PA. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 19 items with multiple choice answers. Data were codified, descriptive analysis and ÷2 tests were computed through Openstat and Statistica software.

    Results: Only 24,2% of the individuals identified welfare as including healthy eating, and this attitude seemed to be associated with the students’ families educational level. Educational level was also positively associated with the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet for well-being and with PA practice. The percentage of students having knowledge of the expert recommendations on PA and eating guidelines about F&V consumption was about one third of the entire population. Students who met the expert recommendation for daily servings of fruit and vegetables were 27,8%, while only 17,8% practiced regular PA. The principal source of information was university/school, (48,0% and 57,0%.

    Conclusions: Healthy dietary and PA habits are far from the optimal in our sample of students. Because of the importance for the prevention of many diseases and long term health

  16. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  17. Survey report for fiscal 1993 on basic survey project for energy consumption efficiency improvement in developing countries. Database development project 5 (The Philippines); 1993 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo (database kochiku jigyo). 5. Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Volume 5 covers the Philippines. The database development project has two goals. One is to collect basic data for joint projects for preparing energy conservation master plans for China and Indonesia, and the other is to build a comprehensive database for 8 countries including the said 2 countries (China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan) for contribution to the enhancement of energy conservation in the region involved. This Volume 5, dealing with 5 countries out of the 8 excluding China, Indonesia, and Japan, accommodates data on the Philippines, with whom a data collecting contract has just been signed in this fiscal year, which cannot be appropriately accommodated in Volume 1. The data referred to just above include the progress marked in this fiscal year in the preparation for the collection of actual data about energy consumption in Filipino factories scheduled to be carried out in and after the next fiscal year. (NEDO)

  18. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Ju, Se-Young

    2014-12-01

    Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention.

  19. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Basic survey for energy consumption rationalization and cooperative project on energy conservation seminar; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa oyobi sho energy seminar kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    A survey was conducted of Myanmar's energy-consuming industries for exploring the feasibility of introducing practical energy conservation techniques and facilities to this country and for collecting basic data for the implementation of the project in the future. On the other hand, some lecturers were dispatched to an energy conservation seminar which was held in cooperation with the Government of Myanmar. Visited during the basic survey were (1) the Kyan Gin plant of Myanmar Ceramic Enterprise representing Myanmar's cement making industry, (2) the Thanlyin plant of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's oil refining industry, and (3) the Siftong plant of Myanmar Paper and Chemical Enterprise representing Myanmar's paper making industry. In the study of energy conservation measures for which stabilization of operation through reinforced facility maintenance and management were required, it was concluded that much time was necessary before Japan's advanced energy conservation technologies might be introduced into Myanmar. Three to six propositions were presented to each of the three plants. At the seminar, the importance of energy conservation promoting measures and the results of the basic survey were introduced to the audience. A lecture meeting was also held to familiarize some participants with NEDO-DB (Database of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). (NEDO)

  20. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  1. Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in adult hospital inpatients in 53 countries: results of an internet-based global point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Versporten, MPH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. Methods: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015. Hospitals were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary (including infectious diseases hospitals, and paediatric hospitals. Five main ward types were defined: medical wards, surgical wards, intensive-care units, haematology oncology wards, and medical transplantation (bone marrow or solid transplants wards. Data recorded included patient characteristics, antimicrobials received, diagnosis, therapeutic indication according to predefined lists, and markers of prescribing quality (eg, whether a stop or review date were recorded, and whether local prescribing guidelines existed and were adhered to. We report findings for adult inpatients. Findings: The Global-PPS for 2015 included adult data from 303 hospitals in 53 countries, including eight lower-middle-income and 17 upper-middle-income countries. 86 776 inpatients were admitted to 3315 adult wards, of whom 29 891 (34·4% received at least one antimicrobial. 41 213 antimicrobial prescriptions were issued, of which 36 792 (89·3% were antibacterial agents for systemic use. The top three antibiotics prescribed worldwide were penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems were most frequently prescribed in Latin America and west and central Asia. Of patients who received at least one antimicrobial

  2. Sustainable food consumption in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; Juarez Tijerino, Andrea Maria; Spiller, Achim

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sustainable food consumption in China and India, based on online consumer survey data. It explores which factors influence sustainable food consumption in these countries, based upon a model related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Structural equation modelling is used for the analysis and comparison of both countries. Among the similarities found are the significant influence of subjective norms on intention towards sustainable food consumption and the influence of per...

  3. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  5. Children's media consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at providing an insight into media consumption among children in Serbia. A consumer survey was conducted to examine differences in children's consumption of various advertising media based on their age, gender and hometown. The research findings revealed significant differences between the two age cohorts in the three out of four tested media categories (TV, print, radio and Internet. On the other hand, the research findings also revealed variations in consumption of radio and print media, and no difference in the consumption of television and Internet between boys and girls. Finally, the research findings suggested significant differences in the consumption of Internet among children living in five cities in Serbia. Though the sample included more than 700 children it cannot be considered strictly representative for the whole country since the survey was conducted in urban areas only. However, the greatest value of this study comes from the fact that the research was placed in Serbia as a transitional society of the Western Balkans which has been seriously underrepresented in the main body of contemporary marketing theory and research studies. Therefore, one of the main goals of this paper was to make a contribution to better understanding of local conditions that might influence marketing decisions when communicating with children as a specific target group on Serbian market.

  6. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  7. [Food consumption patterns among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela Paniagua, S M; Pérez Milena, A; Pérula de Torres, L A; Fernández García, J A; Maldonado Alconada, J

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for the establishment of healthy eating habits. The objective was to analyze food consumption patterns among adolescents and their relationship with family and social factors. Multicentre observational cross-sectional descriptive study using a food frequency questionnaire for the last week. It was answered anonymously. The adolescent's age/gender, parents' studies/occupation and school's location/type were included. The population sample was composed of 1,095 adolescents in sixth grade at primary schools from an Andalusian region. They were chosen by polietapic random sampling that distinguished between public/private and capital/provincial schools. 1,005 surveys were analyzed. The mean age is 11.45 (SD: 0.59). Fifty-three percent were male. The intake of dairy products (only two-thirds taken daily), pasta, fruit and vegetables (daily consumption of 30%) is deficient. Sixty-four point five percent consume legumes weekly. Fish consumption is equal to meat, with a preference for poultry. More than half consume red meat daily. Olive oil is preferred. The intake of "empty calories" (fast food, candies, soft drink) is high. Through multivariate analysis the existence of clusters of healthy and unhealthy foods, related to the social status of the parents and the type of school, is proved. A healthy diet based on the nutritional pyramid is not the consumption pattern in the adolescents surveyed. There is a low consumption of diary products, legumes, fruits and vegetables. There is a relationship between the social class of the family and consumption patterns (healthy and unhealthy). Health strategies are needed to modify such inappropriate consumption.

  8. Association between junk food consumption and fast-food outlet access near school among Quebec secondary-school children: findings from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Traoré, Issouf; Paquette, Marie-Claude; Cazale, Linda; Camirand, Hélène; Lalonde, Benoit; Robitaille, Eric

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the association between junk food consumption at lunchtime (JCL) and fast-food outlet access near school among secondary-school children in Quebec. A geographic information system database was used to characterize the food environment around a sub-sample of 374 public schools in which 26 655 students were enrolled. The outcome variable was JCL during the previous week, dichotomized into low JCL (none or once) v. high JCL (twice or more). Access to fast-food outlets near school was assessed using an existing database of fast-food outlets in Quebec. Covariates included student (age, sex and self-rated perceived health), family (familial status and parental education) and school (urban/rural status and deprivation) variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were employed for analyses using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS version 9.3. Province of Quebec, Canada. We used data from the Quebec Health Survey of High School Students (QHSHSS) 2010-11, a survey of secondary-school Quebec students. Exposure to two or more fast-food outlets within a radius of 750 m around schools was associated with a higher likelihood of excess JCL (OR=1·50; 95 % CI 1·28, 1·75), controlling for the characteristics of the students, their families and their schools. The food environment surrounding schools can constitute a target for interventions to improve food choices among secondary-school children living in the province of Quebec. Transforming environments around schools to promote healthy eating includes modifying zoning regulations that restrict access to fast-food outlets around schools.

  9. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  10. Associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihyun E; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    To examine the associations of food consumption, serum vitamins and metabolic syndrome risk with physical activity level in middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. Adults aged 40-70 years were divided into three groups by tertile of accelerometer-determined steps/d (in men and women, respectively): tertile 1 (sedentary), active), ≥10699, ≥9226. The active men consumed more grain products, fruits and vegetables, whereas the active women consumed more legumes and vegetables, compared with the sedentary group. Serum vitamin concentrations were associated with daily steps in both men and women. Vitamin C, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, γ-tocopherol and vitamin D were significantly associated with daily steps. OR (Pmen and women, respectively. Those with the highest steps taken showed a more healthful eating profile and a better serum vitamin profile compared with less active adults. Those with the lowest steps taken had greater odds of having metabolic syndrome and its risk components. Probably, daily walking is a marker of a healthful eating profile and increasing daily walking is one of the healthful ways to decrease the metabolic syndrome and its risk components.

  11. Survey of the energy market in Germany in 2000. Primary energy consumption - carbon dioxide emissions - mineral oil - lignite - coal - natural gas - electricity - energy prices - import bill; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2000. Primaerenergie - Treibhausgas-Emissionen - Mineraloel - Braunkohle - Steinkohle - Erdgas - Elektrizitaet - Energiepreise - Importrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.W. [RWE Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Primary energy consumption in Germany in 2000 amounted to 483.6m tonnes of coal equivalent and thus decreased by 0.2%, as compared to 1999. The comprehensive survey consists of tabulated data and explanatory comments relating to the developments linked to the various energy sources, change of energy mix, generation technologies and systems, demand factors and consumer behavior, carbon dioxide emissions, renewable energies and cogeneration and the government policies, imports and prices. (orig./CB) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland belief sich im Jahr 2000 auf 483,6 Millionen Tonnen Steinkohleneinheiten (Mio. t SKE), d.h. er war 0,2% niedriger als im Vorjahr. Hinsichtlich der Entwicklung in 2000 im Vergleich zu 1999 wurden u.a. folgende Tendenzen festgestellt: 1. Wandel im Energiemix. 2. Rueckgang der CO2-Emissionen, ausser im Verkehrssektor. 3. Gestiegenes Mineraloelaufkommen, aber veraenderte Zusammensetzung. 4. Anstieg bei Gewinnung und Einsatz von Braunkohle, Verringerung bei Steinkohle. Die Daten werden erlaeutert, wobei auch auf geaenderte rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und die neuere Energiepolitik hingewiesen wird. (orig./CB)

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the state of studying the measures against global warming in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and made analyses of the trends of preventive measures for global warming in other countries, aiming at presenting data for studying the future enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region. In the U.S., a report was taken up from Executive Office of the President which is entitled `the federal government R and D of energy for solution to problems in the 21st century.` The report made analyses of the federal government R and D of energy and at the same time recommended an increase in R and D budget and reinforcement of the organization of the Department of Energy. In Europe, the carbon tax, CO2 tax, energy tax, etc. are introduced or studied for reduction of CO2 emissions. OECD made public a report approved in May 1997 which is entitled `the environmental tax and green tax reform.` Also studied were the introduction and effects of the carbon tax aiming at reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries. More attention is being paid to economic effects predicted in case developed countries reinforce various kinds of measures for targeted reduction of greenhouse gases. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  16. Habit-based Asset Pricing with Limited Participation Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Møller, Stig Vinther

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  17. Habit-based asset pricing with limited participation consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther; Bach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1996. International energy usage rationalization project (project to survey energy consumption efficiency improvement analyzing tools for Asia/data edition); 1996 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho shiryohen. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This paper is a collection of data on surveys for energy consumption efficiency improvement, taking Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines as the object countries. I. Industry related various value tables consist of the following: basic transaction table, throw-in coefficient table, final demand converter table, import coefficient table, added value coefficient table, inverse matrix coefficient table, sensitivity coefficient table, influence coefficient table, production inducing amount, production induction dependence, import inducing amount, import induction coefficient, import induction dependence, and inverse matrix coefficient table. II. Energy related various coefficient tables consist of the following: inherent unit quantity table, energy consumption table, CO2 table (1), CO2 table (2), unit requirement table, energy consumption induction table, energy consumption induction coefficient table, energy consumption induction dependence table, CO2 induction table (1), CO2 induction coefficient table (1), CO2 induction dependence table (1), CO2 induction table (2), CO2 induction coefficient table (2), and CO2 induction dependence table (2). Industries are classified into 34 kinds. III. The energy consumption table, CO2 table (1) and CO2 table (2) are shown as the simulation results for the four countries: Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines. (NEDO)

  19. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  1. Report on the site surveys in fiscal 1999 on the regional situations such as energy consumption efficiency improvement. The north-western part of China; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa hokokusho. Chugoku seihokubu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the site surveys in fiscal 1999 on the energy consumption efficiency improvement in the north-western part of China. Although blessed with affluent natural resources, the regional development is delayed because of geographical restrictions and harsh climate conditions. Power generation facilities include hydroelectric power plants with output of 7.81 million kW, thermal power plants with 13.89 million kW, and power wind power plants with 70 thousand kW. The demand is estimated to increase by 4.6% annually in average. Thermal power plants are those made by the former Soviet Union, having poor power generation efficiency, which is scheduled to be improved by facility modification. Automation is also behind the times. These situations have brought about low reliability, delay in building electric power network in agricultural districts, and transmission wire loss (reducing 8.1% loss to 6% is planned). The electric power charge systems also have various problems. Environmental measures are also an issue. Dissolution of energy shortage as a result of developing the north-western area can be said a key to the future development of China. Xinjiang Electric Power Company is considering wind power generation as the center of new energy utilization. Representative facilities utilize affluent wind power available in the topography of the Tenzan mountain range in the suburb of Urumqi, the facilities being made of Denmark. Photovoltaic power generation is exiguous in realizability for the time being in terms of cost. Expectation is placed on fuel cells. (NEDO)

  2. Associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity) with type 2 diabetes among American adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Kesheng; Maisonet, Mildred; Wang, Liang; Zheng, Shimin

    2017-09-01

    Over the long term, unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine associations between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet) and T2D in American adults (aged ≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample. Data for 12 987 American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 were evaluated. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the four lifestyle factors and T2D after adjusting for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence trends for T2D were examined using Cochran-Armitage tests. There was a significant increasing prevalence trend for T2D among American adults. Smokers and individuals consuming >12 alcoholic drinks in the past year were less likely to report having T2D than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.48) and those consuming diet were more likely to report having T2D than those eating an excellent diet (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02-1.41). All these relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographics and SES. All four lifestyle factors were significantly associated with T2D among American adults. The findings of the present study provide useful information for healthcare providers that may help them promote specific lifestyle modifications. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  4. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  5. Fast-Food Consumption and Obesity Among Michigan Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline; Rafferty, Ann P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. Methods We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adul...

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  7. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  8. Investigation of Fish Consumption in Giresun City

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Türkmen; Aysun Türkmen; Köksal Duran

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fish consumption in Giresun by survey method. Fish meat was compared with other meat types according to education, level of income, consumption rate and quantity. In research carried out according to the random sampling method. Questions were asked face to face a total of 433 persons. A total 428 participants (98.9%) stated that they consumed fish. However, the most consumed meat type is chicken, second is fish. A total 91% participant preferred marine fish...

  9. Fiscal 1999 survey report on basic feasibility in implementing model project for efficient consumption of energy by fiber dyeing and processing plant in Indonesia; 1999 nendo Indonesia ni okeru senshoku kako kojo energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo kihonteki jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The basic feasibility of a model project was investigated for the purpose of introducing energy saving technology in dyeing and processing by the textile industry, which consumes a great deal of energy in Indonesia. This paper explains the result of fiscal 1999. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 40 companies having a continuous processing plant from spinning to finishing, while seven companies among them were visited for the survey on the status of energy consumption and conservation. Meantime, a survey was also made on the related policies and the state of their implementation in Indonesia as well as on the status of investment on equipment. As energy saving measures for the processing, proposals were made for energy saving in the washing process (exhaust-heat recovery system, monitoring system, and optimization of steam usage in drying process), for introduction of a heat pump system, and for reduced energy consumption in a jet dyeing machine. As energy conservation measures for utilities, reduced energy consumption of boilers was proposed, as was introduction of co-generation system. Essential for the dissemination of the measures are guidance, enlightenment and mentality reform for the entrepreneurs. Needed for the policy are the establishment of a core organization for energy conservation, plans, analyses, model projects, and introduction of an economic support system (e.g., low-interest loan). (NEDO)

  10. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey of preparation of energy consumption index for Asian region and of prediction of amount of new energy to be introduced; 2000 nendo Asia chiiki no energy shohi koritsu shihyo no sakusei to shin energy donyuryo no yosoku ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For Japan whose domestic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is but limited, an approach to the problem with emission tradings and CDMs (clean development mechanisms) taken into consideration is necessary, and improvement on energy consumption in the Asian region as a whole is indispensable. From this viewpoint, countries in Asia who might be candidate importers of Japan's technical assistance were selected, and their energy conservation potential and farming village electrification potential were investigated. Covered by the survey were China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. Investigations were conducted into the fields named below, and the results were grouped into the same. The fields were (1) economic growth and energy supply/demand in the Asian region, (2) energy conservation in the Asian region, (3) electrification of farm villages in the Asian region, (4) cost analysis for farm village electrification in the Asian region, and (5) simulation of new energy introduction. The results show that there is a great difference between the seven countries in all the five fields. (NEDO)

  12. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  13. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  14. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L; Larsen, Julie R; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week. RESULTS: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes...... a problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86, palcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  15. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Awareness of Associated Neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated alcohol consumption and awareness of associated neuropsychological implications in foetal and early childhood development in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The design was descriptive survey and the sample was 300 expectant women who were drawn through ...

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  18. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  19. Children's participation in family food consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for researching children and food consumption in the family. The proposed framework draws on contemporary social science approaches to the study of family decision making, food consumption patterns and routines, and consumer competence and food......-related lifestyle in order to understand children and families through their everyday practices. It suggest a new emphasis on children as active agents in the formation of family food consumption patterns and looks at children's food choices as embedded in everyday family life. We focus especially on the construct...... of the "Consumer Competence" of the child as one important aspect determining the way a child is involved in and gains influence over family food consumption. The paper also demonstrates how a mixed methods design, employing ethnographic and survey techniques, involves advances in methodological and analytical...

  20. Energy consumptions of households in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denjean, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Based on results of a survey, this publication comments data presented under the form of tables and graphs and related to the energy consumption by French households during 2012. It addresses expenses and consumptions for individual housing and for a flat in collective building, analyses the energy consumption with respect to surface in the case of individual housing, discusses the influence of dwelling age on consumption, the influence of geographical location in France, the influence o the residence status (owner or renter), and the influence of dwelling occupation (hours per day), and the distribution of the type of consumed energy (electricity, gas, oil, LPG, wood, other) and the money spent on these different energies. The type of energy is also related to the residence status, to the housing type (house or flat), to the flat surface, to the housing type and age, to the geographical location

  1. Social and cultural dimensions of electricity consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikgohar, A. H.; Rafatjah, M.; Fazeli, M.; Kolahi, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Human actions are not affected mainly by their needs or the reflection of their actions, but also with various environmental factors which are not formed just by the human needs or by the rational calculation of behavior consequences. We can divide the human environment by two types: p hysical vironment a nd s ocial environment . In this article e lectricity consumption i s considered as a human action. The aim of this article which is based on a survey is introducing some of the most important factors that affect on household e lectricity consumption . Here s ocial class a nd e nergy consciousness h ave been two important factors which we have studied their effects on electricity consumption and consumption behavior

  2. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  3. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  4. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2014-01-01

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  5. Value Creation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taillard, Marie; Voyer, Benjamin; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    An effect of the digital economy has been to provide consumers with almost unlimited ways to customize their consumption activities. They can craft each consumption experience to fit specific contexts, needs, emotions and other factors. A teenager’s night out is documented and shared with her...

  6. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  7. The Effect of Household Debt on Consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thitima Chucherd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative influence of household debt and wealth on total consumption in Thailand during the recession and recovery periods after the 1997 financial crisis. The analysis of the consumption function was based on the Life-Cycle and Permanent Income Hypotheses and used household survey data in Thailand. This empirical study found that debt positively influences consumption similar to wealth effect with greater impact of the latter. Moreover, positive debt effect can b...

  8. Employer Subsidized Meals and FAFH Consumption in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Zhijing; Seale, James Jr.; Bai, Junfei; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates factors influencing household decisions on food away from home (FAFH) consumption with special interest given to the effects of employer subsidized meals on FAFH consumption. Using data from a new urban food consumption survey and collected by the Center for Chinese Agriculture Policy from 2009 to 2012 in 10 cities, a double-hurdle model is utilized to estimate the demand for FAFH as a whole and by type of facility (restaurant, fast-food outlet, and other facilities). ...

  9. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  10. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  11. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  12. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  13. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...

  14. Green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Viciunaite, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to finding out how to encourage an increase in green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors. The analysis was based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected in Kaunas, Lithuania. The quantitative analysis was based on data collected from 112 surveys; the information gathered from the surveys was used for a logistic regression in order to find predictors of green consumption and for Pearson’s chi-square tests to see if the differences between green and ...

  15. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  17. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgoni Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM. Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults  ≥ 19 years of age (49% female, including 347 avocado consumers (50% female, examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p  Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  18. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Dreher, Mark; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-02

    Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ≥ 19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001-2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (pavocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on project for international energy consumption rationalization. Survey on analysis tool for improving efficiency of Asian energy consumption (data book 2 for 1985); 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo (shiryoshu 2 1985 nen data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The data book is compiled, based on common industrial classifications, as the tool for analyzing, e.g., the mutual ripple effects of economic growth and increased efficiency of energy consumption throughout the Asia-Pacific region. This book summarizes the industrial-related and energy-related tables for 8 Asian countries and Japan. The book II is for the 1985 data (1987 data for China), comparing with the book I for the 1990 data. The industry-related tables are composed of the tables for transaction bases, input coefficients, final demand converters, importation coefficients, inverse matrices, sensitivity/influence coefficients, production inducement levels, production inducement coefficients, degrees of dependence on production inducement, importation inducement levels, importation inducement coefficients, and degrees of dependence on importation inducement. Energy-related tables are composed of the tables for, e.g., energy input, energy consumption, emissions, and CO2 emissions. (NEDO)

  20. The Consumption of Poultry Products in Sivas Province and Factors Affecting on the Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Bircan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, face-to-face surveys were conducted with 461 families in order to determine the consumption values of poultry products in Sivas city centre and the factors affecting them. 85.5% of the participants are in the age range of 18-54, which is considered as the active age group. The sum of high school and college graduates was found to be 68.7%. In terms of monthly food intake, the difference between the income groups was significant and the average monthly food intake was calculated as TL 595.44. In terms of the proportion of poultry products among monthly food expenditures, significant differences were determined among the income groups and the average of the participants was determined as 10.49%. The difference observed in the monthly income of the household income groups was significant, average monthly egg consumption is calculated as 34.47 Units/Month and annual egg consumption per person is calculated as 123.40 Units/year. The difference in monthly household chicken’s consumption values between income groups was found to be significant, monthly household average consumption of chicken meat is 4.13 Kg/Month, average monthly consumption of chicken meat per person is 14.89 Kg/Year. On the consumption of poultry meet, family income level, number of family members and occupational groups were effective, but these factors as well as education levels were effective on egg consumption.

  1. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  2. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  3. Alcohol consumption and gender in rural Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shawn S Barnes1,4, Christian R Small2,4, Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue1, Jillian Bennett3, Seiji Yamada11University of Hawaii John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA; 4Outbound Eye Health International, Honolulu, HI, USAIntroduction and aims: There are significant gender differences in alcohol consumption throughout the world. Here we report the results of an alcohol consumption survey on the rural island of Savaii, in the Pacific nation of Samoa.Design and methods: Eleven villages were selected for sampling using a randomized stratified cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1049 inhabitants over the age of 40 years (485 males and 564 females were surveyed about alcohol consumption over the past year, and a 72.2% participation rate was achieved.Results: A significant gender difference in alcohol consumption was found: 97.3% of women and 59.4% of men reported no alcohol consumption over the past year. This is one of the most significant gender differences in alcohol consumption in the world. No significant difference between genders was seen in those who consume only 1–5 alcoholic drinks per week (P=0.8454. However, significantly more males than females consumed 6–25 drinks per week (P<0.0001, 26–75 drinks per week (P<0.0001, and 75+ drinks per week (P<0.0001.Discussion and conclusion: This extreme gender difference in alcohol consumption is attributed to several factors, both general (alcoholic metabolism rates, risk-taking behaviors, general cultural taboos, etc and specific to Samoa (church influence, financial disempowerment, and Samoan gender roles.Keywords: Pacific, Samoa, gender, alcohol, behavior 

  4. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  5. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  6. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  7. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  8. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  9. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  10. [Tobacco consumption, mortality and fiscal policy in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos Manuel; Muños-Hernández, José Alberto; Sáenz de Miera-Juárez, Belén; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To analyze tobacco consumption in the last 12 years, its impact on chronic diseases mortality and the potential benefits of fiscal policy in Mexico. Through the analysis of national health surveys (ENSA, ENSANUT), records of mortality and economic surveys between 2000 and 2012, smoking prevalence, chronic diseases mortality and consumption were estimated. In 2012, 9.2% and 19% of Mexican youths and adults were current smokers. Between 2000 and 2012, smoking prevalence did not change. However, the average consumption among adolescents and adults declined whilst the special tobacco tax has being increased. Mortality attributable to tobacco consumption for four diseases was estimated in 60 000 in 2010. Tobacco consumption remains the leading cause of preventable death. Increasing taxes on tobacco products could deter the tobacco epidemic and consequently chronic diseases mortality in Mexico.

  11. ICT in a straight flow. Survey on electricity consumption of the ICT-sector and ICT equipment; ICT stroomt door. Inventariserend onderzoek naar het elektriciteitsverbruik van de ICT-sector en ICT-apparatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevers, S.H.; Verweij, R.

    2007-10-25

    The use of ICT equipment and ICT services in the past ten years shows a huge development. However, there are little or no current data on the total consumption of electricity. Therefore, in this study an outline is given of the current electricity consumption of ICT equipment in households, the ICT equipment in offices, and the ICT infrastructure (data centers, mobile and fixed networks). There is also a forecast for the year 2010 and a forecast is made for use of electricity in the year 2020. [Dutch] Het gebruik van ICT-apparatuur en ICT-diensten heeft in de afgelopen tien jaar een enorme ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. Er zijn echter weinig tot geen actuele gegevens van het totale elektriciteitsverbruik beschikbaar. In deze studie is daarom het actuele elektriciteitsverbruik in kaart gebracht van de ICT-apparatuur in de huishoudens; de ICT-apparatuur in de kantoren; en de ICT-infrastructuur (datacenters, mobiel- en vastnetwerk). Daarnaast is er een prognose gegeven voor het jaar 2010 en is een verwachting gegeven voor het verbruik in het jaar 2020.

  12. Meat consumption patterns in Vietnam: effects of household characteristics on pork and poultry consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Van Phuong; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010 (VHLSS 2010). The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that the meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and geographic factors.

  13. Self-perceived effects of pornography consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M

    2007-01-01

    The self-perceived effects of "hardcore" pornography consumption were studied in a large representative sample of young adult Danish men and women aged 18-30. Using a survey that included the newly developed Pornography Consumption Effect Scale, we assessed participants' reports of how pornography...... and negative effects of pornography consumption. Although the proportion of variance in positive effects accounted for by sexual background factors was substantial, it was small for negative effects. We discuss how the findings may be interpreted differently by supporters and opponents of pornography due...... to the reliance in this study on reported self-perceptions of effects. Nonetheless, we conclude that the overall findings suggest that many young Danish adults believe that pornography has had primarily a positive effect on various aspects of their lives....

  14. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...... aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes...

  15. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  16. Seafood Consumption and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Atar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed relationship between healthy life and seafood consumption. Seafood consumption provide with predicting some chronic diseases, regular diet and a healthy eating habit. Fish and seafood have been promoted as healthy eating by health organizations in many countries all over the world. Seafood includes many important fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. These have been shown to cause significant biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Especially omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids have been prevented some major diseases; such as CHD, cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 173-176

  17. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  18. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.

  19. Gas consumption for water heating in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, R.; Weegink, R.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 the total gas consumption of Dutch households increased slightly. This is mainly due to an increase in the number of occupied homes by about 75,000, an advancing penetration of gas-fired tap water heaters and a marginal increase in gas consumption for space heating. Another striking feature is the stabilisation of gas consumption of an average household for hot water purposes, since it decreased in 1992 and 1993 by 3% and 4,5% respectively. The so-called Dutch BAK (basic survey of the small-scale gas consumption) study also shows that the penetration of gas appliances with higher outputs and changing water tapping behaviour, the major reasons for consumption increases in the previous years, have changed only moderately. Gas consumption for cooking purposes remained almost stable, though. 7 tabs., 1 ill

  20. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  1. A cross-sectional national survey assessing self-reported drug intake behavior, contact with the primary sector and drug treatment among service users of Danish drug consumption rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toth, Eva Charlotte; Tegner, Jette; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge...... building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user’s reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust...... care took place in the DCR. Conclusions Staff of Danish DCRs educate service users on health related issues and harm-reducing interventions. A subgroup who smoke and a subgroup of nationality other than Danish are underserved and have less likely been in OST. More research on these groups is needed....

  2. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  3. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  4. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  5. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  7. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  8. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  9. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  10. The Ideology of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article opts for a return to a critique of the ideology of consumption. Following Slavoj Žižek it argues that what must be addressed in present-day consumer-capitalism is the level of the superego. Superego is not about living up to certain norms/standards; rather, superego fits consumerism...

  11. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  12. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  13. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  14. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  15. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...... from both ecology and economics with focus on some important predecessors for ecological economics. I conclude with reflections on how to proceed with consumption studies to provide the basis for promoting more sustainable life patterns....

  16. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  17. Apparent Consumption vs. Total Consumption--A Lead-Acid Battery Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Buckingham, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report compares estimates of U.S. apparent consumption of lead with estimates of total U.S. consumption of this mineral commodity from a materials flow perspective. The difference, attributed to the amount of lead contained in imported and exported products, was found to be significant for this sector. The study also assesses the effects of including mineral commodities incorporated in manufactured products on the interpretation of observed trends in minerals consumption and trade. Materials flow is a systems approach to understanding what happens to the materials we use from the time a material is extracted, through its processing and manufacturing, to its ultimate disposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides accurate and detailed mineral production and mineral commodity consumption statistics that are essential for government, nongovernment organizations, and the public to gain a better understanding of how and where materials are used and their effect on the environment and society. Published statistics on mineral apparent consumption are limited to estimates of consumption of raw material forms (ore, concentrate, and [or] refined metal). For this study, apparent consumption is defined as mine production + secondary refined production + imports (concentrates and refined metal) ? exports (concentrates and refined metal) + adjustments for government and industry stock changes. These estimates do not account for the amount of mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are imported to the United States, nor do they deduct the amount of these mineral commodities contained in manufactured products that are exported from the United States. When imports or exports of manufactured products contribute significantly to the total use of a particular raw material, an estimate of consumption that does not consider the incorporated forms of these mineral commodities within imported or exported manufactured products can be either

  18. Web survey-based selection of controls for epidemiological analyses of a multi-prefectural outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in Japan associated with consumption of self-grilled beef hanging tender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Y; Ohshima, N; Odaira, F; Nakamura, N; Ichikawa, H; Matsuno, K; Shuri, J; Toyozawa, T; Terajima, J; Watanabe, H; Nakashima, K; Sunagawa, T; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2018-03-01

    An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.

  19. Surprisingly low natural gas consumption for hot water in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerse, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch use hot water more efficient than previously expected. This conclusion is drawn from a recent study of hot water consumption in Dutch households and the corresponding natural gas consumption. Based on that (once-only) hot water use survey the hot water use models, as applied in the annual Basic Survey of Natural Gas Consumption of Small-scale Consumers in the Netherlands (BAK), will be modified. 6 tabs

  20. Videogames, consumption and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ETXEBERRIA VALERDI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing success and use of videogames is a reality in our current society, being 54% of the total consumption of audiovisual or interactive entertainment in Spain in 2007. One of the aspects to be taken into consideration, with respect to the education of children, is the implication for consumption in relation to videogames. The violence portrayed in these games is one of the main topics of debate in the literature about and studies on the effects of videogames on children’s behaviour. However, it is not just a question of protecting minors against the risks of videogames use without control and care exercised by parents or educators. For many years now, despite the risks involved in their use, videogames have been used as another medium in education itself.

  1. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some of the cu...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design.......The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some...

  2. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  3. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  4. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  5. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  6. Fiscal 1996 research report. Basic research on energy consumption efficiency improvement for developing countries (Industry related survey for energy analysis); 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo hokokusho. Energy bunsekiyo sangyo renkan chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Inter-industry relations tables and energy statistics are combined for Asian countries for the preparation of energy analysis oriented inter-industry relations tables, which are used to metrically analyze Aisan nations' industrial structures and energy consumption structures for the ultimate purpose of grasping the magnitude of each industry's demand for energy. The tables prepared this year cover Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. In Korea, the self-sufficiency rate of mineral fuels is low at 23.1%, which is due to its import of crude oil from abroad. It consumes 177.92-million tons (in terms of oil) of energy for its economic activities, with energy saving measures expected to work effectively here. Indonesia's mineral fuel self-sufficiency rate is high at 84.3% because it is an oil producing country. The energy it consumes for its economic activities is 179.37-million tons (in terms of oil), and energy saving measures will work effectively here. Thailand is a crude oil importing country. Its mineral fuel self-sufficiency rate is 33.4% and the energy its economic activities consume is 53.08-million tons (in terms of oil), and energy saving measures will work effectively in this country. The Philippines is a crude oil importing country and its mineral fuel self-sufficiency rate is as low as 4.8%. It consumes 22.71-million tons of energy (in terms of oil) for its economic activities, and energy-saving measures are expected to take effect here. (NEDO)

  7. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dermience

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R., and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD. However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013. Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.

  8. Development and changes in consumption expenditures of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Toufarová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development and changes in consumption expenditures of population. It uses secondary data to analyze consumption expenditures of EU-25 and the Czech Republic and concetrates on changes in the expenditure groups over the period of past years. Other part of this paper is devoted to primary data analysis. Primary data were obtained in a questionnaire survey. Primary data analysis is based on statistical methods and it investigates changes in the structure of consumption expenditures of households in relation to changes in household income. By using dependency analysis the paper verifies dependency of surveyed groups of consumption expenditures and groups of households sorted by identification characteristics. Additionally, also based on the primary research, the paper tries to find out the way households allocate money surplus remaining after covering all the adequate expenses.

  9. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  11. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  12. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  14. [Consumption pattern and recommended intakes of sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles i Izquierdo, Joan

    2013-07-01

    Sugars are sweet-flavored carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. The adult brain uses about 140 g of glucose per day, amount which can represent up to 50 of the total number of carbohydrates consumed. In our country the sugar in food consumption pattern remains constant, while the consumption of soft drinks has increased in the past four years. The national survey of dietary intake of Spain (ENIDE, 2010-11) estimated that 20% of calories intake comes from carbohydrates called sugars. Sugar consumption has been associated with various pathologies (diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, cardiovascular disease) but these relationships are not consistent enough. Food information through nutritional labeling, including sugars present in food, pretend to protect the consumer health and to guarantee their right to information so they can make their own decisions with criterion. In view of different appraisals and existing studies, and above all, in the absence of a solid scientific evidence that concrete data on which make recommendations, the best nutritional advice for the general population could be a diet varied and balanced with food and nutrients from different sources, combining such a diet with exercise and physical activity. More specifically in terms of moderate consumption of sugar in the previous context of varied and balanced diet is perfectly compatible. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of the Epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Schmidt, Henrik; Damsgaard, Tine E

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the extent of ulceration and the presence of epidermal involvement that theoretically precede ulceration (consumption of epidermis, COE) or seen subsequent to inflammation (reactive epidermal hyperplasia or re-epithelialization) allowed better prognostic...... supports that the proliferation drive is noninflammatory. In contrast, the presence of re-epithelialization and/or reactive epidermal hyperplasia demonstrated an 18% (95% CI: 6–53, P = 0.0021) increased density of neutrophils compared with tumor with no evidence of these possibly prolonged late......, effacement, or reactive hyperplasia of the surrounding epidermis....

  16. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    mobile, religiously committed communities to the opportunities and perils presented by modernisation. It also tells us something about the debates concerning the meanings and practices of Islam within an aggressive, globalised, secularised modernity. In Malaysia this is an especially intriguing issue...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  17. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike

    to be tackled, including climate change water pollution and water scarcity, soil degradation,eutrophication of water bodies, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. With respect to a growing world population and demographic change, problems are predicted to become more serious in the future; for example...... on a variety of issues, including agriculture and the food supply, the availability of and access to food, physical activity, welfare and social benefits, sound environmental production and consumption, fiscal policies, the role of individual consumer decision-making, public procurement and public provision...

  18. Energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    -demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...

  19. A Theory on Fashion Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ma; Huijing Shi; Lihua Chen; Yiping Luo

    2012-01-01

    Both the theory of top-down penetration of fashion consumption (Veblen - Simmel model) and the theory of bottom-up fashion consumption have been found consistent with the consumer behavior in the China¡¯s fashion consumer market and the trend of such behavior keeps growing. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a study on fashion consumption to meet the needs of the development of real life and fashion consumption. Firstly, we describe the content of fashion consumption, discuss the connota...

  20. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Masoomi, Mohammad; Shahesmaeili, Armita; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Afshari, Mahdi; Nasri, Hamid Reza; Kahnooji, Masoomeh; Samadi, Sadra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors. We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant. Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile. Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  1. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  2. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Understanding Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    using partial least squares path modelling and survey data collected from a car-sharing website. The results suggest that consumer intentions to rent are driven primarily by perceived economic, environmental and social benefits through the mediator of perceived usefulness, and enjoyment, in turn driven...

  4. Consumption of Caffeinated Products and Cardiac Ectopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shalini; Stein, Phyllis K; Dewland, Thomas A; Dukes, Jonathan W; Vittinghoff, Eric; Heckbert, Susan R; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-26

    Premature cardiac contractions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Though experts associate premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with caffeine, there are no data to support this relationship in the general population. As certain caffeinated products may have cardiovascular benefits, recommendations against them may be detrimental. We studied Cardiovascular Health Study participants with a baseline food frequency assessment, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (Holter) monitoring, and without persistent atrial fibrillation. Frequencies of habitual coffee, tea, and chocolate consumption were assessed using a picture-sort food frequency survey. The main outcomes were PACs/h and PVCs/hour. Among 1388 participants (46% male, mean age 72 years), 840 (61%) consumed ≥1 caffeinated product per day. The median numbers of PACs and PVCs/h and interquartile ranges were 3 (1-12) and 1 (0-7), respectively. There were no differences in the number of PACs or PVCs/h across levels of coffee, tea, and chocolate consumption. After adjustment for potential confounders, more frequent consumption of these products was not associated with ectopy. In examining combined dietary intake of coffee, tea, and chocolate as a continuous measure, no relationships were observed after multivariable adjustment: 0.48% fewer PACs/h (95% CI -4.60 to 3.64) and 2.87% fewer PVCs/h (95% CI -8.18 to 2.43) per 1-serving/week increase in consumption. In the largest study to evaluate dietary patterns and quantify cardiac ectopy using 24-hour Holter monitoring, we found no relationship between chronic consumption of caffeinated products and ectopy. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  6. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Heavy antibiotic users are those individuals with the highest exposure to antibiotics. They play an important role as contributors to the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance. We applied different methods to identify and characterize the group of heavy antibiotic users in Spain as well...... as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages...... purchased per year. Heavy antibiotic users were identified according to Lorenz curves and characterized by age, gender, and their antimicrobial prescription profile. Lorenz curves demonstrated substantial differences in the individual use of antimicrobials. Heavy antibiotic users (5% of individuals...

  7. RCA : resource consumptions accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Rodriguez Lucas de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Devido à grande concorrência do mercado o controle de custos passa a ser peça fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão quanto à redução dos custos, visando uma lucratividade maior por parte das empresas. Essa dissertação trata sobre um novo modelo de custos, o RCA – Resource Consumption Accounting, que ainda não foi adotado por nenhuma empresa. Esse novo método de custeio foi aplicado como modelo piloto em uma empresa Americana onde os resultados foram favoráveis a ele em relação aos modelo...

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and BMI in Mexican adolescents: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de bebidas azucaradas y su relación con el IMC en adolescentes mexicanos: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Jiménez-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and body mass index (BMI in Mexican adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the data of 10 689 adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years old who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. Consumption of SSBs (i.e. sodas, fruit beverages and sugar beverages was evaluated by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated (kg/m². RESULTS: Mean age was 13.8 ± 2.7 years. Fifty percent were females. Mean BMI was 21.7 ± 4.5. Thirty percent of adolescents were overweight or obese. Ninety percent of adolescents consumed at least one SSB during the 7 days before the interview. The median consumption of SSBs was 0.89 portion per day. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that for each portion of sodas consumed, a 0.17-point increase in BMI was observed in boys after adjusting for confounders (95% CI; 0.02-0.32, p 0.03. Positive interactions of SSB consumption with age and time watching TV were observed in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of sodas was positively associated with BMI in Mexican boys.OBJETIVO: Examinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas refrescantes azucaradas (BRA y el índice de masa corporal (IMC en adolescentes mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de 10 689 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. El consumo de bebidas refrescantes azucaradas (BRA: refrescos, bebidas de fruta y bebidas endulzadas se evaluó con un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal (kg/m². RESULTADOS: La media de edad fue de 13.8 ± 2.7 años. El 50.4% fueron mujeres. La media de IMC fue de 21.7 ± 4.5. Un 30% de los adolescentes presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. El 90% de los adolescentes consumieron al menos una BRA en los 7 días previos a la

  9. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  10. Lazer sedentário e consumo de alimentos entre adolescentes brasileiros: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, 2009 Sedentary leisure time and food consumption among Brazilian adolescents: the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidyane do Valle Camelo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se o lazer sedentário está associado a um maior consumo regular de alimentos não saudáveis independentemente de indicadores sociodemográficos e de contexto familiar. A análise envolveu 59.809 escolares da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE conduzida em 2009. A variável resposta foi o lazer sedentário, definido como o tempo diário em frente à TV superior a duas horas/dia. As variáveis explicativas de interesse foram o consumo regular de refrigerantes, guloseimas, biscoitos doces e embutidos. Odds ratios (OR e intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram obtidos por regressão logística múltipla. A prevalência de lazer sedentário foi de 65%. O consumo regular de alimentos não saudáveis foi estatisticamente maior entre os que relataram lazer sedentário, antes e após ajuste por sexo, idade, cor da pele autorreferida, dependência administrativa da escola, índice de bens no domicílio e composição familiar. Esses resultados apontam a necessidade de intervenções que promovam, de forma integrada, lazer e dieta saudável entre os jovens.The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence limits (95%CI were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color

  11. Understanding the spectrum of domestic energy consumption: Empirical evidence from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaïd, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on residential energy consumption in France. Using a bottom-up statistical approach, this analysis explores determinants of household energy consumption using data from the most recent National Housing Survey. The primary objective is to tease out the impacts of various factors on the domestic energy consumption spectrum across different population groups. The aim of this approach is to neutralize conventional factors affecting energy consumption (age of house, total area, etc.) to finely analyze the impact of other determinants including those relating to household characteristics and other control variables. First, we define homogeneous consumption groups of households by using multivariate statistical techniques, namely the Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Ascending Hierarchical Classification. Second, we use standard OLS regression to explore the effects of various factors on domestic energy consumption among homogeneous groups of households. This multivariate analysis exercise has led us to identify four main consumption typologies. Results revealed that energy prices were the most important factors determining domestic energy consumption. In addition, this study showed that occupant characteristics significantly affect domestic energy use. Results of this research call for combine all efforts, multiple strategies and smart policies, to incorporate household and consumption behaviors in managing domestic energy consumption. - Highlights: •Survey data of 36,000 occupiers from France is analyzed. •Bottom-up statistical approach is used to analyze domestic energy consumption. •Occupant characteristics significantly affect domestic energy use. •The impact of households attributes varies markedly across consumption groups.

  12. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  13. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  14. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  15. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  16. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  17. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  18. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  19. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-05-30

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  20. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption. PMID:28556795

  1. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  2. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  3. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  4. Social interactions, trust and risky alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdu Kedir

    2016-12-01

    The association of social capital and alcohol consumption is one of the most robust empirical findings in health economics of the past decade. However, the direction of the relationship between the two is heavily dependent on which dimension of social capital is studied and which alcohol measure is used. In this paper, we examine the effect of social interactions and generalised trust on drinking in the general Danish population survey. Participants (n = 2569) were recruited as part of a larger study. The double-hurdle model for the volume of alcohol consumption and the multivariate logistic model for heavy episodic drinking were estimated. We found evidence that social networking with male friends, membership in voluntary organisations, and generalised trust were significantly associated with the mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking. We also observed that social support at the community level had a buffering effect against heavy episodic drinking. The findings support previous findings in which social interactions and generalised trust were found to predict individuals' volume of drinking and heavy episodic drinking. However, the results varied across the indicators.

  5. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Petrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  6. [Profile of psychoactive substances consumption in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bœuf-Cazou, Olivia; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Niezborala, Michel; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify profiles of psychoactive substances consumers among workers according to their professional characteristics. In 2006, 2213 workers participated in "Mode de Vie et Travail" (Drugs and Work) cross-sectional survey. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire concerning general and professional characteristics and the consumption of psychoactive substances (psychoactive drugs, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) during the professional medical visit. We identified consumer profiles with a hierarchical ascendant classification as statistical method. We underlined five profiles associated with psychoactive substance consumption: (1) alcohol consumers in the workplace were sales engineers satisfied with their employment, (2) alcohol consumers after their work were not satisfied with their lives, (3) cannabis consumers were men professionally satisfied but suffering from job insecurity, (4) smokers were workers with professional responsibilities under time pressure, and finally (5) poly-consumers had strong professional constraints. This study guides occupational physicians on psychoactive substances consumption among a worker population. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  8. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  9. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... soft drinks on a daily basis in the past one week preceding the survey. Conclusion: The study revealed that meal skipping, snacking and soft drink consumption were common among this adolescent population. Public enlightenment campaign and school food policies that promote healthy eating habits are recommended.

  10. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  11. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  12. Excessive recreational computer use and food consumption behaviour among adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Shi (Lu); Y. Mao (Yuping)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. METHOD: The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the

  13. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  14. Biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.; Perrella, G.

    1999-01-01

    The report shows the results of a sampling survey performed to determine the biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector. In particular, the methodology and sampling plan adopted to get a result with an error, at national level, of ±2.4%. are illustrated. Data are described and discusses [it

  15. Exploring consumption- and asset-based poverty dynamics in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the dynamics of wellbeing in Ethiopia by assessing changes in poverty status based on consumption and asset ownership. Using panel data from the first two waves of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey (ESS), we discover that although the cross-sectional poverty remains relatively unchanged ...

  16. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  17. Correlates of heavy alcohol consumption at Rhodes University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the extent to which students typically overestimate normative drinking and to determine whether these estimates are uniquely implicated in alcohol consumption over and above the role of the various demographic and family variables. Method: An online survey was used to obtain a sample of 2 177 ...

  18. The impact of household consumption patterns on emissions in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo; Sanchez-Choliz, Julio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between household consumption patterns and pollution in the Spanish economy. The analysis was carried using a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the Spanish economy prepared for 1999. Taking the final demand of households as the exogenous account in the SAM framework and combining this with the information provided by the Household Budget Continuous Survey on income and consumption (INE, 1999), we analyse the pollution produced by both the economy and households in order to satisfy consumption requirements. We also consider the effects of income inequality on expenditure levels, establishing a link between income level, consumption patterns, propensity to consume and CO 2 emissions. (author)

  19. Prevalência do consumo de álcool e drogas entre adolescentes: análise dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Escolar Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption among adolescents: data analysis of the National Survey of School Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência do consumo de álcool e outras drogas entre estudantes adolescentes. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com amostra de conglomerados de 60.973 estudantes do nono ano do Ensino Fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal, em 2009. Foram analisadas as prevalências e os intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95% do consumo de álcool e drogas. RESULTADOS: Para o conjunto dos alunos entrevistados, identificou-se o seguinte: experimentação de bebida alcoólica (71,4%; IC95% 70,8-72,0; consumo regular de álcool (27,3%; IC95% 26,7-28,0; embriaguez na vida (22,1%; IC95% 21,6-22,7; preocupação da família se chegasse bêbado em casa (93,8%; IC95% 93,3-94,2; problemas com uso de álcool (9,0%; IC95% 8,6-9,4 e experimentação de outras drogas (8,7%; IC95% 8,3-9,1. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstra a extensão do problema do uso de álcool e drogas entre adolescentes brasileiros, destacando a facilidade com que os jovens entrevistados tiveram acesso ao álcool em festas, bares, lojas e até em suas próprias casas.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol and other drugs consumption, among adolescent students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with conglomerate samples of 60,973 students at freshman year high school in public and private schools in capitals and the Federal District in Brazil, in 2009. The 95% confidence interval and the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: For the set of surveyed students, the following were identified: experimenting alcoholic beverages (71.4%; 95%CI 70.8-72.0; regular alcoholic beverage consumption (27.3%; 95%CI 26.7-28.0; drunkenness in lifetime (22.1%; 95%CI 21.6-22.7; family is worried when the student gets home drunk (93.8%; 95%CI 93.3-94.2; problems with alcohol use (9.0%; 95%CI 8.6-9.4; consumption of other drugs (8.7%; 95%CI 8.3-9.1. CONCLUSION: This study shows the extension of the alcohol and

  20. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-24

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required, however, this was lacking for the Netherlands. In the current study, the consumption of PFS was investigated for several subgroups in the Dutch population, including children. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys were used to get a first impression on the consumption of PFS. To obtain more detailed information, a specific PFS consumption survey was performed using online questionnaires. First, a screening survey was performed among a representative sample of 75 100 adults and children of the Dutch population, followed by a main survey among 739 selected PFS users in eight different age and gender subgroups. The prevalence of PFS users in the Dutch population was approximately 10% for men, 17% for women and 13% for children. A wide variety of PFS was used, with around 600 different PFS reported, containing 345 different botanicals. The most frequently used botanicals were echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), ginseng (Panax ginseng) and algae (such as species belonging to the genus Spirulina or Chlorella). Because PFS are widely used in the Dutch population, it is important to evaluate the potential risks associated with PFS consumption in the Netherlands, including potential herb-drug interactions. The data collected in this study are of great value to assess these risks.

  1. Frontiers in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...

  2. Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders and sur...

  3. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  4. Second-home electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Christensen, M.S.; Jensen, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more...

  5. Second-home electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Risoe, Systems Analysis Department, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, Morten S.; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik [Esbensen Consulting Engineers, Carl Jacobsens Vej 25D, DK-2500 Valby (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Danish Building Research Institute, Department of Energy and Environment, University of Aalborg, P.O. Box 119, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark)

    2008-01-15

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes. (author)

  6. Second-home electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Christensen, Morten S.; Jensen, Ole Michael; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes

  7. Lifestyle factors in U.S. residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather; Shui Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed ∼1% unique variance to the models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns better account for consumption differences than income. Geographic segmentation of factor scores shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues. - Highlights: ► Illustrates lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption. ► Lifestyle factors based on social and behavioral decisions and equipment use. ► Regression models using lifestyle factors account for 40% of consumption variance. ► Lifestyle factors are stable over time when applied to other data sets. ► Energy reduction opportunities are identified by segmentation analysis.

  8. Investigation and Analysis on Sports Consumption of Urban Residents of Henan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wu Lan

    With economic development, urban residents' in levels rises gradually and their daily consumption structure tends to be demands of development and enjoyment. Sport consumption, as a social and cultural consumption, with a high level of enjoyment and development of consumer properties, has been gradually recognized by the general population and an important reference for the measure of quality of residents' life. In this paper, questionnaire survey, literature, expert interviews and mathematical statistics methods are used to analyze the awareness, motivation, level of consumption, survey structure and constraints of sports consumption of urban residents of Henan Province. The results are: the proportion of sports participants of urban residents' of Henan Province is small, there is a large space for sports consumption development; sports consumer awareness is relatively backward, sports consumption values are gradually formed; the overall level of sports consumption is low and the consumption structure is single. Therefore, the advocacy of sports consumption should be strengthened, attention should be paid to physical infrastructure, strengthening the sports industry structure optimization, put emphasis on the introduction and training of sports talents, target to develop sports tourism and minority sports resources, and create a good environment of csports consumption.

  9. Pornography consumption among adolescent girls in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe patterns of pornography consumption, investigate differences between consumers and non-consumers of pornography regarding sexual experiences, health and lifestyle and determine associations between pornography consumption and sexual experiences, health and lifestyle among adolescent girls. The hypotheses were that adolescent girls categorised as pornography consumers would report sexual experiences to a greater extent, and a riskier lifestyle and poorer health, compared with non-consumers. A classroom survey was conducted among 16-year-old girls (N = 393). One-third (30%) consumed pornography. In this group, almost half (43%) had fantasies about trying to copy sexual acts seen in pornography and 39% had tried to copy sexual activities seen in pornography. A higher proportion of pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences compared with peers. A third (30%) reported experience of anal sex compared with 15% among non-consuming peers (p = 0.001). Furthermore, peer-relationship problems (17% vs 9%; p = 0.015), use of alcohol (85% vs 69%; p = 0.001) and daily smoking (27% vs 14%; p = 0.002) were reported to a greater extent than in non-consuming peers. Pornography consumption, use of alcohol and daily smoking were associated with experience of casual sex. Pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences and a risky lifestyle to a greater extent compared with non-consuming girls. This indicates that pornography consumption may influence sexualisation and lifestyle. This is important to acknowledge when designing and implementing sexual health programmes for adolescents.

  10. Preliminary Survey on Consumption of Moringa Products for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics, Binary Logistic Regression and non-parametric correlation analyses were employed to achieve the study's objectives. The results indicated that a fairly high proportion of the respondents (48%) had used Moringa products for its claimed Nutraceutical benefits. Lack of awareness was a major barrier to ...

  11. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Survey of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    intellectual deficiency in childhood7,11 and fetal alcohol exposure .... learning disabilities, behavioural problems and attention deficit ..... angry (24.1%). The intensity of feelings were high .... mellitus20. Through risky behaviour such as unsafe.

  12. An Empirical Exploration of Relationships Between Personal Values and Spectator Sport Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Shiue Gau; Jeffrey D. James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships between personal life values and spectator sport consumption. From Kahle (1983), Rokeach (1973), and Schwartz (1992, 1996) value systems, twenty-eight personal values were identified probably relevant to spectator sport consumption for inclusion in a survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of each value and the frequency of spectator sport consumption. The questionnaires were administered through which 384 participants rated the importan...

  13. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18?65?years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using ...

  14. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the United ... Survey How frequently do children and adolescents drink milk? During the preceding 30 days, girls reported daily ...

  15. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  16. Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lincoln, Rebecca A; Shine, James P; Chesney, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the U.S. may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives: We examined relationships between fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake......, and measured Hg exposure among one such potentially highly-exposed group, recreational anglers in Louisiana USA. Methods: We surveyed 534 anglers in 2006 using interviews at boat launches and fishing tournaments combined with an internet-based survey method. Hair samples from 402 of these anglers were...... collected and analyzed for total Hg. Questionnaires provided information on species-specific fish consumption over 3 months prior to the survey. Results: Anglers' median hair-Hg concentration was 0.81 µg/g (n=398; range: 0.02-10.7 µg/g), with 40% of participants above 1 µg/g, the level that approximately...

  17. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  18. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  19. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  20. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  1. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  2. Muslim consumption and anti-consumption in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    in Malaysia became the subject of increasing consumer activism and I explore how Malaysian federal state institutions, Islamic organizations and consumers respond to and are affected by calls to boycott (anti-consumption) and boycott (consumption) a range of products. More specifically, this article examines...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....

  3. The intersubjectivity of family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    identity and family scape, I analyze how family members negotiate purchase decisions, and relate to each other’s preferences and desires, as well as those of other families. I consider how family members' interrelations as consumers and long-term negotiations over symbolic meanings of consumption......This study of everyday consumption is based on an ethnographic fieldwork conducted among four Danish middle-class families in Copenhagen, from which an illustrative example of family car purchase is drawn. By introducing two new concepts to the study of family consumption; intra-family consumer...

  4. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  5. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  6. Potential in-class strategies to increase children's vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Pettigrew, Simone; Wright, Shannon; Pratt, Iain S; Blane, Sally; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The Crunch&Sip programme is a school-based nutrition initiative designed to increase the fruit, vegetable and water intakes of primary-school children. In recognition of the notable deficits in children's vegetable consumption, the present study explored the receptivity of school staff to a realignment of the Crunch&Sip programme to feature a primary focus on vegetable consumption. This involved investigating school staff members' perceptions of relevant barriers, motivators and facilitators. A multi-method approach was adopted that involved four focus groups and a survey (administered in paper and online formats) containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended items. Western Australia. Staff from Western Australian schools participated in the focus groups (n 37) and survey (n 620). School staff were strongly supportive of modifying the Crunch&Sip programme to focus primarily on children's vegetable consumption and this was generally considered to be a feasible change to implement. Possible barriers identified included children's taste preferences and a perceived lack of parental support. Suggested strategies to overcome these barriers were education sessions for parents and children, teachers modelling vegetable consumption for their students and integrating vegetable-related topics into the school curriculum. School staff are likely to support the introduction of school-based nutrition programmes that specifically encourage the consumption of vegetables. Potential barriers may be overcome through strategies to engage parents and children.

  7. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  8. Understanding Determinants of Organic Food Consumption: Turkey Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu İlter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for organic products is growing, however in Turkey although the interest to organic products has grown; the growth of demand is relatively low. So it is important for producers of organic products to understand who the organic customers are, and what are their attitudes and behaviors regarding organic food products as well as why people do not prefer them. This is the main aim of this article. This study presents the results of a survey regarding consumer perceptions of organic foods in Turkey. The survey was conducted to determine consumer attitudes towards organic foods and the reasons for consumption or non-consumption of organic foods. A total of 882 consumers that makes food shopping for their families, living in İzmir participated the research. The results of the survey revealed that health issue is an important consideration in the consumption of organic products, however respondents stated that they find organic products expensive and hard to find everywhere, and they have some doubts about the reliability of the organic foods. Also five types of behaviour regarding organic food consumption behavior have been identified. The findings have practical implications especially for governments. More support and education should be given to organic producers so that supply of organic food products would increase, and there should be strict control on those products as to reduce consumers’ negative attitudes.

  9. Food Consumption Pattern of People in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhayati, S; Indrawati, I; Lubis, M

    1996-01-01

    A survey on daily consumption pattern, i.e. carbohydrate, animal and plant proteins, vegetables, and fruits for people in Java Island has been done. The survey was conducted by interviewing using a questionare and food models. The results showed that the daily consumption of carbohydrates, animal protein, plant protein, vegetables and fruits sources are 631.34 + 38.42 g, 136.96 + 3.36 g, 107.46 + 7.15 g, 124.33 + 11.29 and 136.76 + 33.8 g, respectively. The average amount of daily food consumption for man is higher than women. The analysis of nutrition content showed that animal protein is higher consumed by man than women, whereas plant protein is higher consumed by women than men. The highest daily consumption for women is in sub-urban area and those for men is in agricultural area. If it is related to upper arm circumference and body weight, the nutrition grade for all respondences is in normal range. From this survey the rate of intake of radionuclides contained in foodstuff can also be determined and the sensitivity of people to radiation effect that could be resulted the health consequences can be estimated

  10. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  11. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  12. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  13. CREATING VALUE WITHIN CONSUMPTION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gârdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of culture consumption is a particular concern within the modern marketing theory. Culture can be seen as representing a body of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, symbols etc, developed in a certain period of time by a group of individuals, items transmitted with the help of a social learning process to other generations within the group. Thus, the consumption of culture will identify itself with the consumption of any product, service or a combination of them, directly resulted as manifestation of culture, expressions of artistic creativity specific for a certain cultural space. The present paper proposes the analysis of the phenomenon referring to the culture consumption in terms of specific characteristics. The paper reviews the features specific to the modern consumer of culture, the relationship that exists between the individuals’ level of education and the culture consumption and value creation process or augmentation of the intrinsic value of an artistic product as a result of the contribution that the culture consumer can bring himself. The authors highlight the fact that within extremely complex processes which are defining the culture consumption, consumers can assume an active role, becoming on their turn co-participants in the cultural goods and services value creation and transmission. The modern consumer benefits more than ever from the advantages offered by the information technology, being called to respond to major challenges of the postmodernism paradigm in terms of culture consumption. Globalization and other social economic and politic phenomena have profoundly changed the reports between individual and culture, between self and other members of the society, causing synthesis and essential transformations of culture consumption, of culture consumers typologies, and not least of the very forms of artistic expression related to cultural goods and services.

  14. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  15. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  16. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  17. Determinants of Organic Products Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased environmental awareness and the growing desire for safer foods to health made the organic products category one of the most growing in the food sector. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most significant socioeconomic variables that influence the frequency of organic products consumption, and for that, it was based on a quantitative-descriptive study with a probability sample of 400 individuals, residing of the urban area of Campo Grande/MS, Brazil, responsible, alone or not, for food purchasing in family. As a tool for data collection, was used a structured questionnaire developed from socioeconomic variables and frequency of consumption of organic products. For the data analysis was performed statistical/econometric tests with the STATA 11.0 statistical software, using Multinomial Logit model (MNL, addition to verification of the explanatory variables effect on the probability of the consumption frequency levels of organic products through the Relative Risk Ratio (RRR, and was analyzed the Marginal Effect (ME exercised by the explanatory variables in each frequency level of organic products consumption. The results showed that the explanatory variables gender, education and economic class were statistically significant in the probability of an individual belong to some of the levels of consumption (rare, occasional and frequent over never having consumed organic products, being higher frequency of consumption when the consumer is female, have higher education or is of higher economic class.

  18. Association of alcohol consumption with lipid profile in hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to be closely related with alterations in blood lipid levels as well as in blood pressure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and blood lipid levels in hypertensive men. A cross-sectional study involving participants (n = 2014) aged 20-69 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009. Demographic characteristics, dietary intake and medical history were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, alcohol consumption was negatively associated with risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C; odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-0.40 in heavy (≥30 g/day) drinkers; P for trend consumption (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53-2.72 in heavy drinkers; P for trend consumption. These data suggest that alcohol consumption differentially affected lipid measures according to the amount of alcohol intake in hypertensive men.

  19. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  20. Food consumption data needs for food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L H

    1994-09-01

    Food and agricultural policy strives to provide stable, safe, nutritional, and affordable food supplies with policies on farm income, low-income food security, food safety (including nutritional risk), and nutrition education. For each policy area, comparisons are made between food consumption data needs and information currently collected with four human nutrition monitoring system components administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Identified data gaps become the basis for recommendations for future data needs. Food consumption data are essential to management of programs. However, many food safety and nutritional well-being issues require specific food product consumption data for high risk groups. Sampling procedures are often too aggregate to meet these needs. Food consumed away-from-home is not well measured, yet this market segment now accounts for about half of all consumer food expenditures. Surveys should be designed to provide complementary and additive data. A premium should be placed on standardizing household description variables to enable "splicing" together data from different surveys. Survey continuity across time is essential. Data collection should be planned with funding limitations and respondent burden in mind so that a balance is achieved between survey objectives and the practical constraints of obtaining accurate data.

  1. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  2. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  3. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all

  4. The Consumption of New Psychoactive Substances and Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Elena Gomes; Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia; Atzendorf, Josefine; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela

    2018-01-26

    The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and methamphetamine has severe adverse effects. Here we provide the first report of regional patterns in NPS and methamphetamine consumption in Germany, on the basis of epidemiologic data from six federal states (Bavaria, Hamburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony, and Thuringia). Data were derived from the 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (Epidemiologischer Suchtsurvey) and supplemented with additional cases from the federal states that were studied. The numbers of persons included in the representative samples of persons aged 18 to 64 in each state were 1916 (Bavaria), 1125 (Hamburg), 1151 (Hesse), 2008 (North Rhine-Westphalia), 1897 (Saxony), and 1543 (Thuringia). Potential risk factors for the lifetime prevalence of consumption were studied by logistic regression. The lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine consumption in the individual states ranged from 0.3% (North Rhine-Westphalia) to 2.0% (Saxony). Thuringia and Saxony displayed values that were significantly higher than average. For NPS, the figures ranged from 2.2% (Bavaria) to 3.9% (Hamburg), but multivariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the states. Higher age and higher educational level were associated with lower consumption of NPS and methamphetamine, while smoking and cannabis use were each associated with higher consumption. NPS consumption is equally widespread in all of the federal states studied. Methamphetamine is rarely consumed; its consumption appears to be higher in Saxony and Thuringia. The risk factor analysis reported here should be interpreted cautiously in view of the low case numbers with respect to consumption.

  5. Fiscal 1998 research report. International measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo (Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This project aims to prepare the inter-industry relations table and analysis model for energy analysis for every Asian country, and analyze the relation between energy consumption and industrial structure or final demand structure. The 1985 and 1990 inter-industry relations tables of each country were prepared in cooperation with the governmental organizations of China, Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and India. However, the 1987 and 1990 tables were prepared for China. In fiscal 1998, the project invited the representatives of each concerned organization, and held the international workshop together with Japanese specialists to discuss various issues related to not only table preparation but also data analysis. The following items were analyzed for every country: a change in final energy consumption, a dependence on coal in primary energy consumption, transfer of energy consumption to other energy resources, and an energy consumption rate in the whole industry. (NEDO)

  6. Basic study natural gas small-scale consumption 1991 in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weegink, R.J.; Abbing, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    The consumption of natural gas by Dutch households and underlying trends influencing the natural gas consumption are investigated annually by means of a survey involving more than 2,700 households. The small-scale consumption totals some 11,65 billion m 3 in 1991 of which 79% was used for space heating and 18% for hot water production. Data are presented on types of residential buildings, the penetration of several forms of thermal insulation, the penetration of cooking appliances, heating systems, and fireplaces per building type, and natural gas consumption for space heating, also per type of building. 7 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Levels and Consumption Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas

    We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell...... of unemployment after six months. For this group we find large consumption falls, averaging about 16% of total expenditure. The actual fall depends on a variety of factors of which the most important is the pre-job loss ratio of the respondent's income to household income. The effects of varying the replacement...... within the household and hence on other facets of behaviour such as job search, unemployment duration and the quality of any new job taken...

  8. Do changes in per capita consumption mirror changes in drinking patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R G; Suurvali, H M; Mann, R E

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how well per capita alcohol consumption figures derived from beverage sales data relate to changes over time in survey-based measures of drinking patterns. It was expected that strong associations would be found among these various measures of consumption. Data from 12 household surveys conducted in Ontario between 1977 and 1997 provided information on: percentages of drinkers; daily drinkers; those drinking five or more drinks at a sitting weekly; those reporting two or more alcohol-related harms; and average number of drinks per week. These variables were then correlated with per capita consumption. Significant correlations were found only between per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers, and between percentage of drinkers and average number of drinks per week. The relationship of per capita consumption to survey measures of drinking is weak. The absence of consistent associations over time between per capita consumption and survey measures may be attributable to the small number of available data points or to increases in unrecorded consumption. Further research is needed to verify and explain these results.

  9. Estimating changes in unrecorded alcohol consumption in Norway using indicators of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, T

    1998-10-01

    To assess the value of using indicators of alcohol-related harm to estimate changes in unrecorded per capita consumption of alcohol. Unrecorded consumption was estimated from the discrepancy between the observed changes in a number of alcohol-related harm indicators and the changes that would be expected from changes in recorded consumption. The results were compared with estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data. Four indicators of alcohol-related harm were used: alcohol-related mortality, assaults, drunken driving, and suicide. Estimates of unrecorded consumption from survey data for five different years were used as benchmarks. The best performing indicators were alcohol-related mortality, suicide and assaults, in that order. Combining these indicators yielded a prediction error averaging 12% in comparison with the benchmarks. The method seems worthy of further applications, but it should be regarded as a supplement rather than as a substitute for other approaches.

  10. Prediction of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Walton, D.J.; Hoskins, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Distributors of natural gas need to predict future consumption in order to purchase a sufficient supply on contract. Distributors that offer their customers equal payment plans need to predict the consumption of each customer 12 months in advance. Estimates of previous consumption are often used for months when meters are inaccessible, or bimonthly-read meters. Existing methods of predicting natural gas consumption, and a proposed new method for each local region are discussed. The proposed model distinguishes the consumption load factors from summer to other seasons by attempting to adjust them by introducing two parameters. The problem is then reduced to a quadratic programming problem. However, since it is not necessary to use both parameters simultaneously, the problem can be solved with a simple iterative procedure. Results show that the new model can improve the two-equation model to a certain scale. The adjustment to heat load factor can reduce the error of prediction markedly while that to base load factor influences the error marginally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  12. Association between perceived stress, alcohol consumption levels and obesity in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Jin; Kim, Hae-Joon; Doo, Miae

    2016-01-01

    Coping with stress often leads to unhealthy behaviors that can have an impact on the development of obesity. Therefore, this study is investigate the effect of perceived stress level on alcohol consumption habits, as well as the effect of the interaction between alcohol consumption habits and stress level on obesity in Koreans. We analyzed perceived stress, alcohol consumption habits (alcohol consumption status, quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test) and the anthropometrics of 6,229 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender-based differences of the effect of the perceived level of stress on alcohol consumption habits and anthropometric measurements, as well as the interaction of the perceived level of stress and alcohol consumption habits on prevalence or ORs of obesity were analyzed. The subjects with high perceived stress showed higher proportions for unhealthy alcohol consumption habits than those with low perceived stress [ORs (95% CIs)=1.35 (1.19-1.54), 1.95 (1.68-2.26), and 1.87 (1.60-2.19) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Men showed significant interactions between the perceived stress and all alcohol consumption habits with respect to obesity [ORs (95% CIs)=1.28 (1.06-1.55), 1.81 (1.52-2.16), and 1.40 (1.17-1.68) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Among women, interactions between the perceived stress and alcohol consumption status [ORs (95% CIs)=0.70 (0.60-0.83)] and alcohol consumption quantity [ORs (95% CIs)=0.93 (0.54-1.36)] in relation to obesity were found to be significant. Our study demonstrated that the perceived stress influenced alcohol consumption habits that may have impacted obesity.

  13. Nationwide tobacco surveys and sales data in Denmark from 1920 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim K B; Lynge, Elsebeth; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys.......Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys....

  14. From Promotion to Cessation: Masculinity, Race, and Style in the Consumption of Cigarettes, 1962–1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L.; Bottorff, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions. PMID:23409887

  15. From promotion to cessation: masculinity, race, and style in the consumption of cigarettes, 1962-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cameron; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions.

  16. European consumers’ perception of moderate wine consumption on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Vecchio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the perceptions that French, Italian and Spanish consumers have about the possible health effects of what they consider to be a moderate wine consumption. Furthermore, it identifies whether the following factors positively or negatively influence consumer opinion – wine appreciation, environmental awareness, environmental labels, local legislation and media coverage. Perceptions were identified through an online survey of 1183 respondents. The respondents perceive wine as a rather healthy product if consumed moderately. Wine appreciation positively influences the perception of a healthy effect of moderate wine consumption. French policies advising constraints on wine consumption indirectly influence consumer opinion about the unhealthy effects caused by wine. French and Spanish consumers with high environmental awareness perceive a wine with an eco-label to be healthier than a conventional one.

  17. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total...... variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...

  18. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  20. Palatable Food Consumption in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘external eating’). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘food responsiveness’), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home...

  1. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  2. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  3. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  4. Changing practices of energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  5. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  6. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  7. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  8. Stochastic estimation of electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanovic, I.; Konjic, T.; Zahirovic, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Electricity consumption forecasting represents a part of the stable functioning of the power system. It is very important because of rationality and increase of control process efficiency and development planning of all aspects of society. On a scientific basis, forecasting is a possible way to solve problems. Among different models that have been used in the area of forecasting, the stochastic aspect of forecasting as a part of quantitative models takes a very important place in applications. ARIMA models and Kalman filter as stochastic estimators have been treated together for electricity consumption forecasting. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present the stochastic forecasting aspect using short time series. (author)

  9. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  10. "Conscious Consumption": Ecocapitalism as Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.

  11. Poverty Is Low Consumption and Low Wealth, Not Just Low Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an improved measure of financial poverty, based on household consumption and wealth as well as income. Data come from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey, which appears to be the first national socio-economic panel survey to provide longitudinal data on all three measures of…

  12. California Adults Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption from 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Sharon; Foerster, Susan B.; Gregson, Jennifer; Linares, Amanda; Hudes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption among California adults significantly increased from 1997-2007. Design: Biennial telephone surveillance surveys of California adults' dietary practices. Participants: California adults (n = 9,105 total all 6 surveys). Intervention: Surveillance data reporting. Main Outcome Measures:…

  13. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  15. [Trends in food consumption of university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Piero, Alexia; Bassett, Natalia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma

    2015-04-01

    The university students need to consolidate good dietary habits based on an adequate selection of food, which is a factor of fundamental importance to maintain good health and prevent disease. to evaluate the food intake and diet profile of university students from Tucumán and its variation over time. Analyse if they accomplish current dietary recommendations. Data collection was carried out during the years 1998-1999 (G1) and 2012-2013 (G2); was performed by a self-survey and food frequency questionnaire of food consumption. It was applied to 329 university students selected randomly. The dietary pattern was described by frequency of usual consumption of principal food groups. Students were 25.2% male and 74.8% female, mean age 23 ± 3 years. In general, in both groups most of the students had a normal BMI, but had a high percentage of men with overweight (18.2%) and obesity (12.1%) and women with underweight (11.6%). According to the groups and sex analysis some significant statistically differences in macronutrient composition of the diet were observed: the G1 was higher carbohydrate intake than proteins and lipids; also differences in the intake of some micronutrients were found, with a higher intake of iron and less intake of vitamins B1, B2, niacin and C in G2. The diet was monotonous for both groups and with differences in the profile of nutrients. The most notable was the gradual increase consumption of sugary products, processed foods, snacks and decrease consumption of dairy, fish, fruits and vegetables in G2. In both groups, adequacy of dietary intake of the university students did not cover the recommendations of iron, calcium and vitamin A. Given the food profile observed in the student population, is warned the need to promote changes to prevent the development of obesity and cardiovascular disease in adulthood; it should be convenient to carrying out food and nutrition education. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All

  16. [Mass media consumption in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N

    2005-12-01

    To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health

  17. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of foods away from home in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-02-01

    To describe foods consumed away from home and associated factors in Brazil. The study was based on the National Dietary Survey which was conducted among residents aged over 10 years old in 24% of households participating in the Household Budget Survey in 2008-2009 (n = 34,003). The consumption of food and beverages was collected through records of foods consumed, type of preparation, quantity, time and food source (inside or outside home). The frequency with which individuals consumed food away from home was calculated according to age, gender, income, household area location, family size, presence of children at home and age of head of household in Brazil and in each Brazilian region. Specific sampling weight and effect of the sampling design were considered in the analyses. Consumption of food away from home in Brazil was reported by 40% of respondents, varying from 13% among the elderly in the Midwest Region to 51% among adolescents in the Southeast. This percentage decreased with age and increased with income in all regions of Brazil and was higher among men and in urban areas. Foods with the highest percentage of consumption outside home were alcoholic beverages, baked and fried snacks, pizza, soft drinks and sandwiches. Foods consumed away from home showed a predominance of high energy content and poor nutritional content, indicating that the consumption of foods away from home should be considered in public health campaigns aimed at improving Brazilians' diet.

  19. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  20. Consumption of whole grains in French children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Hébel, Pascale; Colin, Justine; Reyé, Béatrice; Hopkins, Sinead

    2014-11-28

    The consumption of whole grain foods is associated with many nutritional, health and weight control benefits. The present study assessed whole grain intake in France on the basis of a 7 d dietary survey in a representative sample of children, adolescents and adults (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2010 survey). Special care was taken to identify and assess the intake of all whole grains. All foods consumed were considered, with no lower limit on whole grain content. For the majority of foods, details regarding the whole grain contents were obtained from brand information and quantitative nutrient declarations on food labels. Over half of the respondents reported never consuming any whole grain. In participants who did, consumption levels were very low (about 9·1 g/d in children and 14·4 g/d in adults). The main food sources of whole grains were breakfast cereals in children and adolescents and bread in adults. Consumers of whole grains had higher daily intakes of fibre and several vitamins and minerals than non-consumers. In adults but not in children, the OR for overweight/obesity decreased significantly as the level of whole grain consumption increased. Although a majority of French consumers comply with the national recommendation to consume a starchy food with each meal, they do so with minimal consumption of whole grain foods.