WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer protection lebensmitteltoxikologie

  1. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  2. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  3. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  4. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  5. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  6. Consumer Protection in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.

  7. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  8. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  9. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  10. Consumer protection in energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl

  11. Choisen problems of the consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    HUML, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.

  12. 75 FR 13471 - Telephone Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's...] Telephone Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In...

  13. A Consumer Protection Model for Regulating Lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfie, Deborah M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and critiques the "discipline model" of lawyer regulation from a consumer point of view and outlines an alternative model for regulating lawyers that is grounded in consumer protection principles. (JOW)

  14. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  15. Federal consumer protection regulation: disclosures and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2005-01-01

    On June 10, 2005, the Payment Cards Center hosted a symposium entitled “Federal Consumer Protection Regulation: Disclosures and Beyond.” The symposium brought together credit card industry leaders, legal scholars, consumer advocates, economists, and federal regulators to discuss standardized credit card disclosures and other means of protecting credit card consumers. This paper summarizes the day’s discussion and details the recommendations of symposium participants. In general, these recomme...

  16. [Legal development of consumer protection from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety standpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püster, M

    2010-06-01

    Ten years after publication of the White Paper on Food Safety, health consumer protection has made significant progress and, today, is a key field in politics at both the European and German levels. In addition to the protection of health and security of consumers, consumer information has become a core element of consumer protection for the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz and Lebensmittelsicherheit, BVL). State authorities are provided with new means of communication and interaction with consumers.

  17. PROBLEMS OF CONSUMER PROTECTION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the topic, its extent and importance, were strong arguments for writing this paper - Problems of consumer protection in tourism. To this, also the convergence of the fields that focus on the description of a image in deep of the topic is added, we are talking about economic, legal social features or features that belong to the specifics of tourism and of products and services consumed within it. The multiple dimensions of the approached topic transform it into an exciting topic which proves its usefulness when it is known since each individual can acquire the quality of a consumer, and his rights as a consumer are nothing else but the human rights of which every individual has to be aware. A process of education and information of the citizens regarding the rights they possess as consumers could reduce a part of the problems appearing in the process of consume of tourism products and services but it would contribute to the optimization of the protection of rights and interests of the consumers. In economic terms, democracy also implies ensuring the rights of the consumers and thus their protection, therefore the concept of protection of rights and interests of consumers exists.

  18. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  19. Free medical care and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aniket Deepak; Banerjee, Arunabha

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the question of whether patients, who receive free medical care, whether from private charitable or governmental hospitals, can claim rights as 'consumers' under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The issue will be discussed from a constitutional perspective as well as that of the law of torts.

  20. Consumer Protection in the Electronic Market Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed......This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed...

  1. Consumer protection and internet shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to the issue of online shopping. Its aim is to analyze internet shopping and see the rights and obligations of consumers and sellers, which are based on current legislation. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part deals with purchase over the internet and its regulations. There are explained the concepts internet, e-business and e-commerce and indicate the types of e-business and is mentioned certification of online stores. The practical part i...

  2. INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE OF INSURANCE SERVICES CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Khominitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the current compensationand guarantee mechanisms of policyholders’protection in the context of reforms inregulation and supervision of insurancecompanies. Models and fi nancing sourcesof insurance services consumer protectionfunds, their features in different countries as well as order and size of compensationpayments are identified in this article.

  3. The Role of Accreditation in Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W. Keith; Andersen, Kay J.

    1982-01-01

    Upper-level college administrators in the Western accreditation region were surveyed about how well the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) served its constituency. Questions concerned consumer protection as an objective of accreditation, emphasis on disseminating information about the accreditation process, and potential policy…

  4. Consumer Protection Strategies: A Literature Review and Synthesis. Improving the Consumer Protection Function in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Carolyn B.; Jung, Steven M.

    Summarized are the findings of an American Institutes for Research (AIR) project to field test a data capture and dissemination system that would provide information for improving consumer protection in postsecondary education. Presented is a discussion of the methodology used, examples of consumer abuses cited in the literature, an analysis of…

  5. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  6. Issue Papers To Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    This document is intended to present background information on the basic consumer protection issues in postsecondary education. Topics discussed are: (1) recruitment practices of postsecondary schools; (2) the role of a state agency in consumer protection; (3) consumer rights, responsibilities and redress of consumer protection; (4) advertising…

  7. Consumer Protection--Who Protects You? How Can You Protect Yourself? Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety In the Home, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The enormous and rapidly-increasing number of goods on the market makes it difficult to ensure that all consumer products are safe to use. Public concern about product safety has caused the enactment of a wide range of consumer protection laws. The result of this legislation has been that many agencies have been established to protect the public.…

  8. 77 FR 43135 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... second meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The second meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. By notice dated June 13...

  9. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection (ACACP) and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's...

  10. 77 FR 53961 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... third meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The third meeting of...)), established the Advisory Committee on Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as...

  11. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The first meeting of... recommendations to the Secretary for improving existing aviation consumer protection programs and for establishing...

  12. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's charter, drafted in...

  13. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or..., and international agencies and organizations in consumer protection enforcement and regulatory matters...

  14. 40 CFR 51.368 - Public information and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and consumer.../Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.368 Public information and consumer protection. (a) Public awareness... the test that were failed. (b) Consumer protection. The oversight agency shall institute procedures...

  15. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... enforce certain consumer protection provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) and related... bring civil actions in the U.S. district courts to enforce the consumer protection provisions that apply..., 386, and 387 State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  16. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    (g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.

  17. Protection for the Consumer; Business Education: 6463.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finora, Daniel

    This course is designed to acquaint the student with the functions, criticisms, costs, and consumer analysis of advertising; Federal and State regulations of industry operation and advertising; Federal, State, and city agencies for consumer protection; private and business-sponsored organizations for consumer protection; and rights and…

  18. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  19. Consumer protection: how much and who decides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: safety characteristics of electronic products such as color television sets and microwave ovens; impossibility of lay consumer determining frequency, severity, and probability of injury from radiation emissions; leakage of x radiation from color television sets; costs of safety standards to consumer; user habits and attitudes such as ignoring directions in instruction booklets; and consumer participation such as Consumers Union petition to amend the federal microwave standard and meetings of the technical electronic products radiation safety standards committee

  20. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015: (Lack of) Rights of the Consumer to Terminate Sale Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2015-01-01

    Consumer protection law rests on the foundations of contract law and the law of sale of goods. A consumer law has to conceptually express this foundation and the modifications it is bringing about in these laws. Without this, the law would become unclear, conflicting and confusing. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015 is not secured in its foundation and needs revision. The paper reviews the rights of the consumer to terminate the contract and makes suggestions for revision. The suggestions, wi...

  1. 77 FR 66935 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket No. 02-278; FCC 12-21] Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction...: Karen Johnson, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Consumer Policy Division, at (202) 418- 7706 or...

  2. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  3. Individual Licensing Models and Consumer Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Liu, K.-C.; Hilty, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Copyright law is not primarily directed at consumers. Their interests are therefore only marginally accounted for, as the copyright rules exempt specific uses of works from the right holder’s control. This chapter examines the impact of digital technology on the position of consumers of licensed

  4. Accreditation and Student Consumer Protection. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Steven M.

    The role of postsecondary accreditation and its relation to student consumer protection are discussed in this monograph. The importance of this concept is examined in light of increased marketing efforts on the part of higher education institutions. It is emphasized that students are consumers and their rights should be protected. Possible areas…

  5. The DCFR and consumer protection: an economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luth, H.A.; Cseres, K.; Larouche, P.; Chirico, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss consumer protection in the DCFR. It will screen the DCFR and its model of consumer protection through the lens of economic analysis. The assessment will examine the general role of mandatory rules, which justification grounds they are based on and how this general model is

  6. Multiple organ failure - death of consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, H A; Jobson, M R

    2010-07-15

    The enormously profitable complementary medicines, dietary supplements and traditional medicines markets are largely unregulated internationally and South Africa. Attempts to ensure that consumers are not exposed to harmful or ineffective products have met with varying success around the world.

  7. Consumer Handbook to Credit Protection Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    The five sections of this consumer handbook are The Cost of Credit, Applying for Credit, Credit Histories and Records, Correcting Credit Mistakes, and Complaining about Credit. Each section discusses relevant legislation: Truth in Lending, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Topics discussed in section I include…

  8. Social Innovation in Consumer Protection in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Hyánek, V.; Navrátil, J.; Placier, K.; Akinyi, E. A.; Figueroa, Maria; Alvarez Garcia, B.; Salido-Andres, N.; Sanzo Perez, M. J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, L. I.; Rey-Garcia, M.

    2017-01-01

    As a subject of this case work within the FP7 EU-funded project ITSSOIN, the growing industry of alternative financial services (AFS) has been selected. The considerably ambivalent phenomenon of AFS can be understood as both representing a socially more embedded and responsible alternative to the traditional banking system (which is during crisis less accessible for lower-income consumers), and as well as potentially threatening concept for those socially vulnerable groups. The field of AFS h...

  9. 77 FR 63240 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... organizations, companies with whom consumers have an established business relationship, and calls to persons... Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management...

  10. The Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Charles

    This guide for secondary teachers is designed to identify and illustrate specified illegal practices identified in the Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. The guide also explains procedures that a consumer or law-enforcement agency can take to enforce the provisions of this law. Since the act is a broad one, students learn not only about…

  11. Counseling Directory and Consumer's Guide: Implementing Professional Disclosure and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The publication of a "counseling directory" and "consumer's guide" is a new approach that can be used to respond to the current professional issues of professional disclosure and consumer protection. Reviews the purposes, format, and content of both the directory and guide. (Author)

  12. Consumer Protection and Behavioral Economics: To BE or Not to BE?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Beales

    2008-01-01

    The foundation of consumer protection policy is respect for consumer choice. Modern consumer protection recognizes the need to preserve information markets and to carefully structure interventions to ensure compatibility with how consumers actually process information.

  13. 78 FR 26101 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    .... Attendance is open to the public up to the room's capacity; however, since access to the FAA headquarters...) 894-6529, Centra Technology, Inc., [email protected] . For other information please contact... and enforcement initiatives affecting consumer protection in air travel. The meeting will also address...

  14. The impact of the Consumer Protection Act on pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, K; van Eeden, E

    2014-11-01

    The Consumer Protection Act of 2008 has had far-reaching consequences for suppliers of goods and services in South Africa. The implementation of the Act has important implications for all suppliers who enter into 'consumer transactions.' This article aims to stimulate awareness of the legal consequences of the Act arising from day-to-day situations occurring in the pharmacy, and to highlight the compliance obligations that the Act creates for pharmacists.

  15. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...... that the CJEU is open to the idea of regarding consumer protection provisions as (EU) public policy rules which seems to challenge the traditional principle of equivalence. Based on the findings, the author elaborates on the concept of an European public policy doctrine....

  16. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  17. Fundamental Consumer Rights Under the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: A Critical Overview and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van Niekerk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was in need of a comprehensive framework of legislation, policies and government authorities to regulate consumer-supplier interaction. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008, which was signed by the President of the Republic of South Africa on 29 April 2009 and published in the Government Gazette on 29 April 2009, now provides an extensive framework for consumer protection and aims to develop, enhance and protect the rights of consumers and to eliminate unethical suppliers and improper business practices. Certain areas of the common law regarding consumer rights have been codified by the Act and certain unfair business practices that were previously unregulated are now governed by the Act. The Act has a wide field of application. It applies to every transaction occurring within South Africa for the supply of goods or services or the promotion of goods or services and the goods or services themselves, unless the transaction is exempted from the application of the Act. The Act also specifically regulates aspects of franchise agreements. In terms of the Act, consumers obtain several new rights and some existing rights are broadened and reinforced. These rights are: the right to equality in the consumer market; privacy; choice; disclosure and information; fair and responsible marketing; fair and honest dealing; fair, just and reasonable terms and conditions; and fair value, good quality and safety. The last right in terms of the Act deals with a supplier's accountability to consumers. The authors critically analyse and discuss these rights. It is clear that the Act is written in favour of the consumer.

  18. Trademarks, consumer protection and domain names on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current problems of the conflict of domain names on the Internet with trade marks in relation to the consumer protection. The aim of the article is to refer to ways and means of protection against of the speculative registration of a domain name. In the Czech legal order these means represent legal regulation of the unfair competition in Commercial Code, regulation of liability for damage together with the Trademarks Act.

  19. The Development of Consumer Protection Policies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fazli Sabri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government envisions Malaysia as an inclusive and sustainable high-income nation by 2020. The definition of “high income” is per capita income of USD15, 000 or MYR48, 000, based on the World Bank’s current definition of “high income”. The objective is not merely a quantitative target; it is also about Malaysia being an advanced and developed nation with an economy having the characteristics of developed nations. Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT and globalization have resulted in the evolution of a more complex and challenging marketplace. As today’s consumers are constantly faced with a bewildering array of goods and services in the market, consumers must be equipped with an elevated level of consumerism knowledge and skills. Malaysian consumers thus need to be kept in touch with developments in the market, enabling them to act and decide effectively, to ensure that they develop as more empowered, savvy and resilient consumers now and after Malaysia transforms into a developed nation. However, without the government’s intervention to protect consumers through adequate legislations and enforcement, the aim of creating “empowered consumers” will not be realized. This paper aims to discuss the development of consumer protection policies in Malaysia.

  20. 76 FR 12817 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., from buying a home or car to paying off a loan or using a credit card. Consumer education is vital to... Week has encouraged Americans to make better-informed decisions about saving, buying, borrowing, and... information, families can both strengthen the economy and protect themselves from fraudulent behavior. For...

  1. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...

  2. Consumer Protection in Managed Care: A Third-Generation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses three generations of consumer protection issues related to managed care: (1) individual treatment decisions--individuals wanting treatment their plan does not cover or deems unnecessary; (2) insurance practices and risk selection--impact of health management organizations on the rest of the health insurance system; and (3) health plan…

  3. The Consumer Protection Clinical Course at UCLA School of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The Consumer Protection clinical course, in which case supervision is provided by government agency personnel, is described. Implications are considered regarding the necessity and emphasis of a seminar component, and the usefulness of clinical courses in teaching substantive law as well as lawyering skills. (LBH)

  4. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  5. 75 FR 29386 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository...: Consumer Protection for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance. OMB Number: 1550-0106. Regulation..., Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Office of Thrift Supervision to prescribe joint consumer...

  6. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Quest for Consumer Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Willis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that consumers understand financial products’ “costs, benefits, and risks,” the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has been redesigning mandated disclosures, primarily through iterative lab testing. But no matter how well these disclosures perform in experiments, firms will run circles around the disclosures when studies end and marketing begins. To meet the challenge of the dynamic twenty-first-century consumer financial marketplace, the bureau should require firms to demonstrate that a good proportion of their customers understand key pertinent facts about the financial products they buy. Comprehension rules would induce firms to inform consumers and simplify products, tasks that firms are better equipped than the bureau to perform.

  7. Students as Consumers: The Implications of the Consumer Protection Act for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act applies to HEIs. This article, firstly,…

  8. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  9. Can regulatory agencies protect consumers. Stigler-Cohen debate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, A.

    1983-01-01

    Stigler-Cohen debate, organized by the American Enterprise Institute, took place twelve years ago. Since then, the movement now known as consumerism has rapidly grown and its impact on public opinion and on political decision makers is of greatest importance to business - it cannot be simply wished away, it must be dealt with rationally and effectively. The paper recognizes the changed reality of the marketplace resulting in growing consumer impotence and a very real need for protection going beyond the general rules governing commercial transactions. At the same time, the author points out that regulation is not costless, that the cure is often worse than the disease. Public policy must be assessed in the light of its overall effects, it must not be based simply on a response to a single-minded call for redress however loudly articulated. There is a great inconsistency in piecemeal attempts at protecting the consumer from himself, while government-supplied goods and services, and government-controlled monopoly pricing afford little consumer protection. Finally, the paper reminds us that freedom itself is our most valuable possession and must not be thoughtlessly traded for perceived temporary advantages.

  10. Increased Transparency and Consumer Protections for 2016 Marketplace Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-LaSure, Chiquita

    2015-12-01

    The open enrollment period that ends in December 2015 for coverage begin­ning January 2016 marks the third year of the health care exchanges or marketplaces and of coverage through new qualified health plans. This issue brief investigates several key changes to the qualified health plans, with a focus on increased transparency and consumer protections. A new out-of-pocket costs calculator, requirements regarding provider networks, and prescription drug cost-sharing requirements should serve to better inform and improve consumer selection. In addition, several policy changes will help individuals with more severe health needs. These include: improved prescription drug coverage for HIV/ AIDS and other conditions, allowing prescription drugs that are obtained through the "exceptions" process to count toward the out-of-pocket spending cap, more comprehensive and consistent habilitative coverage, and an individual out-of-pocket spending cap within the family out-of-pocket maximum.

  11. Adding A2K Principles to the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adding A2K Principles to the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection ... of standards for good practices in consumer protection, particularly for developing countries. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  12. Board certification in professional psychology: promoting competency and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David R

    2010-04-01

    Board certification in psychology provides an opportunity for increased assessment of and demonstration of competence in the profession. In addition to serving as a means of consumer protection, it can serve the professional psychologist by providing the opportunity for increased income, professional satisfaction, facilitated mobility, and professional development. Jurisdictional and organizational recognition of the importance of board certification is increasing. This article uses the model and experience of the American Board of Professional Psychology, with particular attention to the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, to illustrate these benefits. Recent developments regarding board certification are described, as well as how to become involved in the process.

  13. Unscientific health practice and disciplinary and consumer protection litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care is expected of their practitioners by contemporary health professions. This requires health care to have a foundation in scholarly literature and to have a scientifically valid methodology. However, there are many instances of registered and unregistered practitioners either providing assessment and treatment that does not conform to such requirements or making representations about likely efficacy that are unjustifiable by reference to peer-reviewed clinical knowledge. Sometimes such conduct is predatory and deliberately exploitative; other times it is simply misconceived on the part of practitioners who regard themselves as medical pioneers. This editorial situates such conduct within unscientific and unorthodox health practice. It surveys recent consumer protection and disciplinary decisions to evaluate the role of the law in regulating such conduct. It argues in favour of an assertive legal response to protect vulnerable patients or potential patients against forms of treatment and promises of outcomes that are unscientific and deceptive.

  14. Electronic Contracts and the Personal data Protection of the Consumer: Sources Dialogue Between the Consumer Protection Code and the Internet Civil Mark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Leal Da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the personal data protection of the consumer and your vulnerability in interactive electronic contracts, aiming to point means of defense. For this, uses the deductive approach and starts of the electronic contracting to discuss the legal protection of the consumer in light of the capturing and processing of personal data by the furnisher. Considering the absence of law about personal data, concludes that electronic contracting expands the consumer vulnerability, which requires the principles application of the Consumer Protection Code, adding the Internet Civil Mark in relation to the privacy protection.

  15. 77 FR 41699 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... regulations to require HHG brokers to comply with certain consumer protection requirements. As a part of that... that rule, if an individual shipper elects to waive physical receipt of the consumer protection... receipts documenting an individual shipper's waiver of physical receipt of the consumer protection...

  16. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... protection to consumers. Such determinations shall be published in the Federal Register and shall operate...

  17. 3 CFR 8347 - Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009. National Consumer Protection Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Protection Week, “Nuts & Bolts: Tools for Today’s Economy,” focuses on the basic information consumers need... Consumer Protection Week, 2009 8347 Proclamation 8347 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009 Proc. 8347 National Consumer Protection Week, 2009By the President of the...

  18. The protection of a consumer during the providing of banking services in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Haasová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis describes and analyses the protection of a bank client. In the beginning I discuss the necessity of the institution of consumer's protection define the basic terms and describe the structure of the system of consumer's protection. Then, I depict the basic elements of the consumer's protection, the requirements to banks, the duty to provide information, the protection of personal data, the bank secret and the deposit insurance. After these I concentrate on the analysis of...

  19. The role of regulatory council in the energy sector from the aspect of consumers' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, E.; Pavlovic, D.; Boljesic, K.

    2003-01-01

    The consumers' protection legal base, with few factors of new legislative consumers' protection legislation in European Union, in the Law on Consumers' Protection, and in the set of the Croatian Energy Laws is shown in this paper. Special attention in this paper is paid on five factors of regulatory body's orientation to the consumers' protection field, which energy regulatory body's policy should be included. The model of consumers' protection in the energy sector is shown, with the scheme of Three-component interactive subsystems: basic legislation which is determined consumers' protection policy, planning activities for consumers' protection (short and long time plans), and performing activities for consumers' protection. Furthermore, the approach of consumers' protection in the energy sectors in European Union are described. The paper gives the model of consumers' protection in the Croatian energy sector, and Croatian Energy Regulatory Council' approach to this issue. The table, with the data of specific consumers' protection problems in practice, those the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council as a regulatory body have been settled, is shown.(author)

  20. Electro smog. Health risks, limiting values, consumer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karus, M.; Ebert, L.; Schneider, W.; Koehnecke, W.; Loefflad, H.; Plotzke, O.; Niessen, P.

    1994-01-01

    At first, the popular book describes physical facts. All terms and units being necessary for the comprehension of electro smog are presented and referred to practice: Which electric and magnetic fields of natural and technical origin appear in everyday life? The main part of the book occupies physical effects. The current scientific state of the research is presented: Are electric and magnetic fields a physical risk factor? In the chapter 'limiting values', the valid limiting values and their conceptional and political basis are discussed. The last part of the book addresses consumer protection: How can the own load be reduced through electric and magnetic fields of electric devices and installations, computers and mobile telephones without renouncing of electric comfort. (VHE) [de

  1. Litigation against dermatosurgeons and cosmetologists and consumer protection act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of beauty has acquired new dimensions due to the increasing awareness in general public about the aesthetic procedures. The problems between the patient and the cosmetologists arise when the patients expectations become very high and unrealistic. The classical concept of doctor – patient relationship born in the golden days of family physicians has undergone drastic change due to dramatic advancement in medical technology, availability of sophisticated imaging system, high tech electronics and preponderance of new diseases. However, the accountability of the doctors under the law of professional negligence has emerged as a debatable issue among the medical fraternity all over the country after the enactment of the consumer protection act, 1986, which has not only changed the law of medical negligence1, but created an inexpensive and speedy remedy against medical malpractice.

  2. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  3. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... waiver of receipt of printed copies of consumer protection materials. The direct final rule harmonized... receipt of the consumer protection publications ``Your Rights and Responsibilities When You Move,'' and... No. FMCSA-2011-0313] RIN 2126-AB41 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  4. 77 FR 36932 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... use of energy. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 375 Advertising, Arbitration, Consumer protection...--TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  5. 14 CFR 374.3 - Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601-1693r. Any violation of the following... PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS § 374.3 Compliance with the Consumer... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with the Consumer Credit...

  6. Protecting consumer interests in Alberta's deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains why the province of Alberta decided to deregulate its electricity sector. In the early 1990s, electricity rates were reasonable in Alberta, there was no utility debt, and electricity costs were low. In 1994 California's open access transmission system suggested that open markets would result in lower electricity rates and attract new economic activity. The government of Alberta also believed that competitive markets would set prices with no need for economic regulation. In the initial transition to competition, regulated electricity rates were offered to customers who were not ready to switch to the new competitive market. The RRO rate was set by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The rates included the forecasted cost of purchasing energy from markets, cost of system access, and retail service costs. The end of the RRO rate was scheduled for 2005 when the market was expected be well developed. This paper also describes other protection mechanisms for consumers. Alberta's new electricity policy (NEP) eliminates generator participant costs related to transmission. EUB's zonal interconnection charges are also overruled along with the EUB-approved 50/50 division of transmission costs. Under the NEP, the ISO is to build transmission in anticipation of new generation. Consumers will fund the total cost to build new transmission capacity for exports and imports. This new transmission policy is a complete change from the original government policy which allocated some transmission costs to generators. The sudden change in policy was due to pressure from oil sands producers and oil sands co-generation developers. The claimed benefit to Albertans is a 25 per cent reduction in pool price and greater system reliability. However, the author cautioned that government interference with competitive electricity markets will cripple the electric power industry in the foreseeable future because it interferes with market prices

  7. 77 FR 25371 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Released Rates Order. FMCSA redesignates old paragraphs (g) and (h) as new paragraphs (h) and (i... CFR Part 375 Advertising, Arbitration, Consumer protection, Freight, Highways and roads, Insurance...

  8. CONSUMER PROTECTION: Federal Actions Are Needed to Improve Oversight of the Household Goods Moving Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 directed that we assess the effectiveness of the Department of Transportation s consumer protection activities for the interstate household goods...

  9. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  10. A History of Drug Advertising: The Evolving Roles of Consumers and Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system. PMID:17096638

  11. A history of drug advertising: the evolving roles of consumers and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system.

  12. PROTECTION OF CONSUMERS THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE OMBUDSMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gjorgonoska Manevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In chain production - trade appear more entities: manufacturers, distributors, retailers and direct consumers. If relations between them simplify, we can conclude that the most important link in this chain are consumers. We could say that everything happens precisely to meet the needs of consumers (although for certain types of production or ranking military industry for example, the arms trade and so on. This certainly can not say. Consumer is every one for you or your family supply certain products or using certain services. This broad definition allows each of us can put ourselves in the category of consumer. Consumers are the largest group in the world. Using the principle of deduction, we can conclude - when a group is considered most important and is the most numerous, it should be the most powerful in certain social relations.

  13. 77 FR 48460 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ..., direct final rule concerning household goods consumer protection. The direct final rule amended the... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final...

  14. Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education: A National Invitational Conference. Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Frank N.; And Others

    Twelve preconference papers and background articles that identify issues in consumer protection in postsecondary education are presented. The papers and articles include "Recruitment Practices of Postsecondary Schools" (Frank N. Albanese); "The Role of a State Agency in Consumer Protection" (Philip F. Ashler); "The Three R's of Postsecondary…

  15. Unpacking the right to plain and understandable language in the consumer protection act 68 of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Philip N; Chürr, Chrizell

    2013-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and gener...

  16. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  17. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  18. Financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction. A relationship study by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu SELVAKUMAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make an attempt to study the relationship between the financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The main objectives of the study are to analyze the financial consumer protection in commercial banks, to examine the customer satisfaction of commercial banks and to identify the factors of financial consumer protection lead customer satisfaction. There are many research work carried out on financial consumer protection in financial literacy, but the identification of factors which lead the financial consumer protection and the relationship between financial consumer protection and the customer satisfaction is very important, Particularly for banks to improve its quality and increase the customer satisfaction. Therefore this study is carried out with the aim of identifying the factors of financial consumer protection and its influence on customer satisfaction. This study is both descriptive and analytical in nature. It covers both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from the customers of commercial banks using pre-tested interview schedule and the secondary data has been collected from standard books, journals, magazines, websites and so on.

  19. Effective methods of consumer protection in Brazil. An analysis in the context of property development contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Alcici Salomão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer protection in arbitration, especially under the example of property development contract disputes in Brazil. This is a very current issue in light of the presidential veto of consumer arbitration on May 26, 2015. The article discusses the arbitrability of these disputes based on Brazilian legislation and relevant case law. It also analyzes of the advantages, disadvantages and trends of consumer arbitration in the context of real estate contracts. The paper concludes by providing suggestions specific to consumer protection in arbitration based on this analysis.

  20. Arbitrability limitation in consumer (B2C disputes? : Consumers´ protection as legal and economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Bělohlávek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of consumers became a phenomenon of many governmental politics. Retrieval of a balance between privat autonomy and protection of a weaker party is very sensitive. The particular degree of consumers protection through limitation of contractual autonomy (in B2C contracts as well as procedural autonomy (regarding B2C dispute resolution mechanisms, as chosen by particular governments, has both legal and economic effects, in positive and negative sense. The European Court of Human Rights adjudicated repeatedly that traditional court litigation is not capable to grant effective protection to contractual claims in many countries. Arbitration is therefore one of possible tools for B2C dispute resolution, even if many countries and obviously the EU Commission followe rather an opposite strategy (keeping down arbitrability of B2C disputes in the opposite to US trends. Arbitration is not a cure-all and definitely not a method suitable for the resolution of any and all types of disputes. It has its proponents as well as opponents. Indeed, it is hard to claim that a particular type (class of disputes is a priori fit to be resolved in arbitration, rather than litigation, or vice versa. This also applies to consumer disputes (disputes from consumer contracts. It is fairly undisputable that consumers deserve a certain degree of specific protection in cases in which they are forced to enter into a particular contract and have no other option than to accept the conditions stipulated by the other party (the professional. But we cannot principally claim that the resolution of these disputes in court would be more suitable than arbitration or any other, the so-called alternative, dispute resolution method (ADR. Despite the basically undisputed importance of and the need for special consumer protection (whether provided by special laws, typically in Europe, or on the basis of general legal principles and the application of general contract law, like in the

  1. 77 FR 13959 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... States of America A Proclamation Millions of Americans use financial products, including credit cards... family. Yet, irresponsible lending and deceptive practices pose serious risks to consumers and our... clear and concise information they need to make financial decisions, and to encouraging open and honest...

  2. 77 FR 34233 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... initiator of the message, to be a nuisance and an invasion of privacy; and (3) individuals' privacy rights... are made by the consumer's loan servicer, because the primary motivation of the calling party is to... challenged as TCPA violations because the primary motivation appears to be sending a telephone solicitation...

  3. A Stealth Drug Recall: Who Protects Consumers and Shareholders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Susanna; Lasher, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In September 2010, William Weldon, chief executive officer (CEO) and chairman of Johnson & Johnson (J&J), was called to testify in front of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform to explain the largest product recall in the 125-year history of the well-known pharmaceutical and consumer products company. This article presents a…

  4. 78 FR 14625 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Security Proclamation 8939--100th Anniversary of the United States Department of Labor Order of March 1..., we established a new unit to combat fraud and investigate the abusive lending and mortgage packaging... across the Federal Government joined with consumer advocates to launch www.NCPW.gov , an online resource...

  5. LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CONSUMER OF UNLICENCED VAPOR FROM DRUG AND FOOD SUPERVISORY AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedhi Bima Samudra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research begins with the number of liquid vapor that is not licensed BPOM spread in Indonesia, and there is no clear law for liquid vapor, so there is no clarity from legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed from  BPOM. Therefore, in this research, there is the formulation of the problem as follows: Is there a legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed from BPOM?. The purpose of this research to determine whether there is legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed BPOM. So this research can be useful for subsequent research that has the same theme and beneficial to researchers, liquid vapor consumers and also for the government. The research method used is the normative method. Normative research methods using statute approach. The result of the research shows that there is legal protection for liquid vapor consumer who is not licensed by BPOM, which is reviewed from the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 36 Year on concerning the health of Article 113 paragraph (1 and Article 114, Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 8 Year 1999 on Consumer protection Article 8 paragraph (1 c and paragraph (1 i, Regulation of the Head of the Food and Drug Supervisory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia Number 4 Year 2017 on the Supervision of the Importation of Drugs into the Territory of Indonesia Article 4 paragraph (1. Keywords: Legal Protection, Consumer, Liquid-Vapor

  6. CONSUMER PROTECTION: Federal Actions Are Needed to Improve Oversight of the Household Goods Moving Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The ICC Termination Act of 1995 transferred federal responsibilities for protecting consumers who move their household goods across state lines using commercial moving companies to the Department of Transportation...

  7. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    fair. In a South African context, procedural fairness and substantive fairness are therefore of equal importance. 5. The Consumer Protection Act and procedural fairness. In the discussion below, the special ..... actually read the terms, but standardisation in presentation may make it slightly easier for a consumer to understand ...

  8. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  9. Your Credit Rights: An Instructional Unit on Consumer Credit Protection. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Barbara J.; And Others

    This instructional guide adds two new sections to the original guide published in May 1982. The guide was designed to assist educators in teaching the topics of consumer credit and consumer credit protection to secondary and postsecondary students in various economics and business courses, as well as in adult and community education courses. The…

  10. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer...

  11. The Misunderstood Problem of Consumer Protection in Japan: The Roles of Lawyers and the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Michael Peter

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the role of law and government in consumer protection in Japan. Suggests that recognition of cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese societies can provide insights that will stimulate the U.S. consumer movement to confront the anticonsumer structures in Japan while respecting their internal values. (Author/JOW)

  12. Federal Republic of Nigeria Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection : Key Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    While only 44 percent of adults in Nigeria have an account at a formal financial institution, and only 2.5 percent have a mobile account, there are rapid innovations in both traditional and digital financial services that promote financial inclusion but also add complexity and risks for inexperienced consumers. Strengthening financial consumer protection (FCP) in Nigeria is therefore criti...

  13. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... have a choice of health plans to fit their needs. Exchanges will give individuals and small businesses... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program... implement the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which provides loans to foster the...

  14. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  15. 75 FR 52512 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Consumer Protection Act and the Rulemakings That Will Be Proposed by the Commission AGENCY...-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') was enacted on July 21, 2010... Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), Public Law 111-203, was enacted. The Dodd-Frank Act will...

  16. 75 FR 51429 - Definitions Contained in Title VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... comments. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act... requirements. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public Law No. 111-203, 124 Stat...

  17. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.

  18. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Protections for Charter Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), U.S. Department of... charter air transportation. First, this proposal would require air taxis and commuter air carriers that sell charter air transportation but rely on others to perform that air transportation to make certain...

  19. New Ontario power legislation aims to protect consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    New legislation designed to improve regulation of the electricity sector in Ontario was introduced by the provincial government in June 2000, the first such legislation since the government mandated an open electricity market with the Energy Competition Act of 1998. The new legislation is described as narrowly focused on putting limits on local power rate increases. The legislation was introduced in combination with a directive to the Ontario Energy Board, and is designed to ensure that the Board approves municipal electric utility rates only when certain conditions are met. The Energy Minister was at great pains to point out that the legislation should not be interpreted as the government interfering in the marketplace, it is merely to help the utility wires side of the business during a two-year transition period. Municipal authorities reacted unfavorably to the legislation because it appears to require them to return significant assets to their utilities, assets that they considered as theirs under municipal restructuring. Energy Probe, an environmental advocacy group, suggested an alternative to the legislation, i. e., the government should allow the price increases requested by the municipal utilities to go through, but to leave consumers whole, it should impose a windfall profits tax on municipal governments, use the proceeds to reduce debt retirement taxes in the electricity bill, a leftover from Ontario Hydro's debt and stranded nuclear waste liabilities, and eliminate the province's own electricity tax on consumers. No direct reaction has been received from the Minister to date. If the legislation is passed in its present form it will prevent municipalities from using windfall profits from their utilities to justify rate hikes.

  20. The Report of the Second National Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education. Report No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The second National Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education was a series of seminars on specific issues. The topics under discussion were (1) protecting the student financial interest; (2) student information needs and systems; (3) postsecondary education institutional responses; (4) regulations and safeguards; and (5) full…

  1. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Consumer Protection in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of consumer rights and consumer welfare are increasingly important, especially in the current economic climate in which the ability to make informed choices represents a real advantage in consumers’ daily life. In order to make their purchases with confidence, both in their country and abroad, consumers need easy access to precise information and to professional advice. Taking into account the fact that education and training are a strategic factor for a sustainable development through contribution to human capital development, within the Romania–Bulgaria Cross-Border Cooperation Program 2007–2013, the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svisthov, Bulgaria decided to collaborate in the field “Cooperation on human resources development – joint development of skills and knowledge”, through the development of cross-border liaisons and exchanges between the two universities. Our objective is to bring up new methods of training in the field of consumer protection in order to train and to supply the labour market with specialized experts in this field in charge with various issues regarding consumers in enterprises, in organizations in charge with elaborating consumer protection policies and in organizations in charge with market supervision and control and also in consumers’ associations. We consider that in this way we meet both consumers’ and employers’ needs because economic agents need professionals in the field as well, in order to advise them in their quest to protect the rights and interests of consumers. Also, Meglena Kuneva, the European Commissioner for Consumer Protection, noted that studies conducted at European level revealed that there is a high level of interest for recruiting qualified experts in the field of consumer protection shown by large companies, national governments, small and medium enterprises and consumers’ associations. In order to

  2. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  3. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Yahanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safety aviation in Indonesia and Malaysia from the Consumer Protection Law and the Aviation Law. As a result of the research shows that safety standard passenger for air transportation in airport covers information and safety facility in the shape of availability of the emergency safety tools (fires, accidents and natural disasters; information, area and health facility; and healthcare workers. Moreover, safety standards for passenger in an aircraft include information and safety facility in the shape of availability information and the emergency safety tools for passenger in an aircraft. The protection for consumer rights for safety flight in Indonesia as follows: aviation industry has obligation to fulfill minimum standard of safety and security; consumers must be safety from false information which raises concern; aircraft operation which endanger of the passenger; and consumer protection in operating the electronic device which endanger flight. On the other hand, the law of consumer rights in Malaysia relating to aviation are ruled under the Aviation Law as a result of the Warsaw Convention 1929. In conclusion, the verdict of consumer rights related to security aviation begins when the passenger enter to an aircraft, in the aircraft, and by the time they get off the plane.

  4. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Yahanan; Febrian Febrian; Rohani Abdul Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  5. The Protection of Consumer Rights for Aviation Safety and Security in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yahanan, Annalisa; Febrian, Febrian; Rahim, Rohani Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  6. Criminal Protection of the Consumer of Irradiated food and Consumer Protection Against Contaminated Food with Radioactive Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread peaceful applications of atomic energy in food and agriculture had various positive and negative impacts on the economies of food and its production. Food is positively affected through either its treatment by ionizing radiation to preserve and reduce losses in it or by using mutations treated by ionizing radiation for improving their productivity. On the other hand, negative effects of nuclear energy on food are caused by nuclear explosions in nuclear weapons testing as well as by different nuclear energy applications and the wastes formed as a result of it. These activities can cause different contamination levels of the environment and particularly, the arable land. This in turn leads to the production of contaminated food with radioactive isotopes. Consequently, the present work which is subdivided into two parts, involves a study of both the positive and negative effects of ionizing radiations and radioactive isotopes on food. The first part deals with the legal protection of food treated by ionizing radiations to preserve it, explaining the related different legal and regulatory aspects. Food irradiation processes should be carried out in a framework of the national control regulations and in a way that is consistent with the reference standards adopted internationally for the safety and hygiene of food

  7. THREE DECADES OF CONSUMER PROTECTION OF RIGHTS ACT: RURAL INDIA NEEDS FOCUSED ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Amrit Patel

    2017-01-01

    India has been observing December 24 each year since 1986 as “National Consumer Rights Day”, when the Consumer Protection Act [CPA], 1986 came into force on this day. Despite the implementation of the CPA has completed three decades in the country, the rural India has yet to understand the meaning of consumer’s rights & the procedure to protect the right enshrined in the CPA,1986. This has its significance because according to the National Council of Applied Economic Research survey report th...

  8. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T

    2014-01-01

    production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between health care professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used...

  9. AGREEMENT ON THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF HOUSES TO BE BUILT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In residential buying agreements, contracts governing default are usually common. Default is stated by expressing negligence in two respects, whether it is negligence in payment of instalment or negligence in the delay of settlement of house construction which will be delivered to the consumer. The developer's responsibility is usually related to the delay of the house construction and delivery to the consumer. In the execution of the sale and purchase transaction of the house to be built, consumers rarely gain consumer protection rights as regulated and mentioned in the article on consumer rights and business actor obligations contained in Article 4 and 7 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection. Furthermore, field practice reality shows that consumers and developers do not have the same bargaining position, where the consumer are usually required to follow the agreement that has been standardized by developers who are legally contrary to Article 18 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection.

  10. Poison politics: a contentious history of consumer protection against dangerous household chemicals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Benrubi, Isidore Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner.

  11. Regulations as a Tool to Increase Consumer Protection on the European Retail Payment Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Harasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify the main areas of customers' threats concerning using financial services and the in-depth review of European industry- -specific consumer regulations concerning current accounts and payments. Design/methodology/approach - Desk research including in-depth analysis of industry- specific consumer regulations referring to current accounts and payment services having the character of EU directives and regulations, European Commission reports, and documents. Findings - The paper shows that consumers' interests are threatened even when they use basic financial services as current account and combined payment instruments. The analysis based on of desk resources has revealed that the regulations give effect to customer protection only if they strictly correspond to defined areas of threats and particular types of risks. Research implications/limitations - The experience of the recent financial crisis proved that the asymmetry of knowledge and information was one of the crucial reasons disrupting customers' position on financial markets. Research findings will help to identify gaps in regulations and develop the quality of further initiatives aimed on informing customers about the implementation of regulations and improving their financial literacy level. Originality/value/contribution - The payment products are rarely discussed in the literature in the context of consumers' protection and financial regulations. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an overview of financial consumer protection issues concerning retail payments.(original abstract

  12. The Influence of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller's common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the ...

  13. The Report of the National Invitational Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education. Report No. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This report covers the background, major issues, major recommendations, and agencies and associations represented at the National Invitational Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education held at Denver, Colorado in June 1974. Major recommendations of the conference suggest that: (1) The states should provide by legislation or by…

  14. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  15. LA PROTECCIÓN DE LOS CONSUMIDORES FINANCIEROS. THE PROTECTION OF FINANCIAL CONSUMERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayda Soraya Marín Galeano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone contrastar las diferentes legislaciones de protección a los consumidores financieros, observando el panorama colombiano con relación a otros países. El estudio se desarrolla en cuatro fases: en la primera, se expondrá un panorama general de los derechos de los consumidores financieros; en la segunda, se presentarán los indicadores construidos; la tercera, constará de la medición y comparación de la protección del consumidor financiero en los cinco países seleccionados (Chile, Colombia, Reino Unido, España y Estados Unidos; y finalmente, se propondrán hipótesis causales que expliquen la protección del consumidor financiero. Abstract: This article intends to contrast the different laws of protection to financial consumers, in which the Colombian view is being compared with the one from other countries. This study is developed in four stages: in the first one, a comprehensive overview of the financial consumer rights will be set out; in the second one, the built indicators will be shown; in the third one, the measurement and comparison of the financial consumer protection will be carried out in the five following selected countries: Chile, Colombia, United Kingdom, Spain, and The United States; and in the last one, causal hypotheses explaining the financial consumer protection will be proposed.

  16. Historical study regarding the protection of consumers within the electric energy and natural gas markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Pîrvu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The supply of electric energy and natural gas is a service of general interest, with a vital importance in satisfying the consumer’s basic needs. The conducted research is descriptive and its main focus is on the study of the field literature, aiming at aspects such as identifying the historic evolution of the electric energy and natural gas markets in Romania, the behaviour of companies operating on these markets and their impact on the consumers’ rights. The research methodology has been established starting from a synthetic analysis of the most recent published studies on the observation of the European policy in the energy field and EU’s efforts to build up a single, competitive market, including two sectors that not long ago were dominated by monopolistic national actors: electric energy and gas. The research methods imply study monitoring and reports as well as forecast analyses regarding the capacity of the Three Energy Packages, once implemented, to support the creation of competitive, transparent and uniformly regulated energy markets within the EU countries, in order to ensure the protection of the consumers of these general interest services. The research has a dual approach, combining quantitative and qualitative elements as well as conducting the analysis of the correlations between the efforts and effects registered in the field of consumer protection. The first section of the article offers conceptual clarifications regarding both the European policy in the energy field and the consumers of general economic services. The second section gives an insight into the energy and gas markets in Romania as well as the main obstacles in the way of their liberalization. The third section presents the efforts made with respect to consumer protection in the field of energy, analyzing the European Directives’ fundamental ideas regarding the protection of consumers and the phase of their embedment into our legislation in order to achieve

  17. The Consumer Protection Act: No-fault liability of health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as suppliers' or retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision...

  18. Intentions to consume omega-3 fatty acids: a comparison of protection motivation theory and ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Samuel Christian; Davidson, Graham R; Ho, Robert

    2011-06-01

    There has been limited research to date into methods for increasing people's intentions to use omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which have been linked with decreased risk of suffering from numerous major diseases. The present study employed a cross-sectional design with 380 university students, employees, and visitors to investigate the efficacy of the protection motivation (PM) theory and the ordered protection motivation (OPM) theory, to predict behavioral intention to consume omega-3 rich foods and dietary supplements. Analysis of model fit indicated that both the PM model and the OPM model adequately represented the structural relationships between the cognitive variables and intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Further evaluation of relative fit of the two competing models suggested that the PM model might provide a better representation of decision-making following evaluation of the health threat of n-3 PUFA deficiency. Path analysis indicated that the component of coping appraisal was significantly associated with the behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Threat appraisal was found to be significantly associated with behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA only for the OPM model. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the roles that cognitive appraisal processes play in young and healthy individuals' protective health decision-making regarding consumption of n-3 PUFA. Implications of the findings and recommendations, which include (a) encouraging the consumption of n-3 PUFA as an effective barrier against the incidence of disease, and (b) effective health messaging that focuses on beliefs about the effectiveness of n-3 PUFA in reducing health risks, are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 1306 - Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [Docket ID OCC-2013-0001] Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY... Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) prohibits providing Federal...

  20. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Shetty, S; Bhat, N; Sharda, A; Agrawal, A; Chaudhary, H

    2010-01-01

    To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females) belonging to dental (222) and medical (226) categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22 questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA) and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student's t-test, ANOVA test, and Scheffe's test were used as tests of significance. The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector. Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  1. Strategic trade between two regions with partial local consumer protection - General setup and nash equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Iordan V.; Vassilev, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    We construct a model of the trade relations between two regions for the case when the trading entities (consumers) compete for a scarce good and there is an element of strategic interdependence in the trading process. Additionally, local consumers enjoy partial protection in the form of guaranteed access to a part of the locally-supplied quantity of the good. The model is formulated for the general asymmetric case, where the two regions differ in terms of parameters such as income, size of the local market supply, degree of protection and transportation costs. For this general model we establish the existence of Nash equilibria and obtain their form as a function of the model parameters, producing a typology of the equilibria. This is a required step in order to rigorously study various types of price dynamics for the model.

  2. The role of consumer protection in ensuring quality in the hotel services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacșu Andreea Nicoleta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, tourism is an attractive sector with high potential, but unfortunately not exploited enough, so it is not yet a source of attraction for investors and foreign tourists. Most tourists are not satisfied with the quality of the hotel services in Romania and complain about it. The existence of adequate legislation on the protection of the consumer of tourist services could lead to the provision of quality services on this market and to a higher degree of tourists’ satisfaction.In the first part, this paper presents the public organizations dealing with the protection of the consumer on the hotel services market in Romania. The second part of the paper analyzes the quality of hotel services in Romania from the tourists’ point of view. In this respect, the author made a quantitative marketing research. The results featured the opinions and attitudes of tourists regarding the quality of hotel services in Romania.

  3. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  4. Report on Workshop 'Radiation protection of the 'consumer' of medical irradiation applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geus, W.W.A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Main division Radioactivity and Applications of Radiation of the Dutch Department of Welfare, Public Health and Culture has organized a 'workshop' on the protection of the patient ( or consumer) in medical applications of radiation. The EG guideline of september 3rd 1984 'In behalf of assessment of fundamental measures with regard to radiation protection of persons who are examined or treated medically' and the advice of the National Council for Public Health brought out thereabout in april 1988, served as background of the contributions and discussions presented in this collection. (H.W.). Refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. The inadequacy of consumer protection in the UAE: the need for reform

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhafri, Abdulla MA

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis addresses the consumer protection regime in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against damages posed by defective industrial products, unfair business practices and misleading advertising. Nowadays, unfair and deceptive practices such as the selling of defective or sub-standard goods, the charging of exorbitant prices, misrepresentation of the efficacy or usefulness of goods, and negl...

  6. The Principles of the Consumer Right Protection in Electronic Trade: A Comparative Law Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Anatolyevna Kirillova, Elena Anatolyevna Shergunova1, Elena Stepanovna Ustinovich, Nikolay Nikolaevich Nadezhin, Lyubov Borisovna Sitdikova

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the speci嘜cs of electronic trade and the issues of protecting the rights of online-consumers, considers their rights and obligations, since we all face a radically new phenomenon in the sphere of trade – An unprecedented boom of electronic trade (e-commerce), based on the use of the Internet for concluding transactions and operations in the systems of wholesale and retail trade. The means of electronic communication provide broad opportunities for direct co...

  7. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive and challenging topic to be taken into consideration by all the stakeholders involved in the processing and employment of the consumers personal data. A key role in this respect is played by the public authorities acting as data controllers the Data Protection Authorities, that have to adopt a more proactive and efficient attitude in adopting and implementing policies and processes aiming to ensure a more effective protection of the personal data and private space, conduct privacy impact assessments and continuously improve the specific activities. Paper presents the opinions of the consumers through the results of an exploratory study regarding the importance given to the protection of the personal data, the area of protection of the specific laws, the need for laws regulating the personal data protection, the balance between the public and private entities in providing a proper protection of the personal data, and the relationship between the domestic, European, and international levels in ensuring the protection of the consumers personal data. Results regarding the role of the public authorities in the protection of the consumers personal data and private space in terms of the most appropriate institution to act as a data controller, the rights consumers consider important in relationship with the protection of their personal data and the risks faced in the context of a less effective protection are also presented.

  8. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  9. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  10. Ethical Issues for Direct-to-Consumer Digital Psychotherapy Apps: Addressing Accountability, Data Protection, and Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, Nicole; Kreitmair, Karola

    2018-04-23

    This paper focuses on the ethical challenges presented by direct-to-consumer (DTC) digital psychotherapy services that do not involve oversight by a professional mental health provider. DTC digital psychotherapy services can potentially assist in improving access to mental health care for the many people who would otherwise not have the resources or ability to connect with a therapist. However, the lack of adequate regulation in this area exacerbates concerns over how safety, privacy, accountability, and other ethical obligations to protect an individual in therapy are addressed within these services. In the traditional therapeutic relationship, there are ethical obligations that serve to protect the interests of the client and provide warnings. In contrast, in a DTC therapy app, there are no clear lines of accountability or associated ethical obligations to protect the user seeking mental health services. The types of DTC services that present ethical challenges include apps that use a digital platform to connect users to minimally trained nonprofessional counselors, as well as services that provide counseling steered by artificial intelligence and conversational agents. There is a need for adequate oversight of DTC nonprofessional psychotherapy services and additional empirical research to inform policy that will provide protection to the consumer. ©Nicole Martinez-Martin, Karola Kreitmair. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.04.2018.

  11. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysing the components of attitude in a function of improving consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are the starting point and the focus of all activities of companies that want to survive in the long term and do business profitably on the market. However, even in the most developed economies in the world do not have all the companies awareness about the importance of social responsible business and ethical marketing. Therefore there is a need for institutional protection of consumers from unfer and unethical business of companies, on the one hand, but on the other hand, they have to encourage themselves to be more involved in the protection of their rights. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the components of consumer attitude about the degree of protection of consumer rights in the Republic of Serbia in order to conclude on which way consumers can be encouraged to participate more actively in the exercise of rights. The aim of this study is to determine whether the cognitive, affective and behavioral component of the attitude are intercorelated and to what extent, and whether cognitive or affective component has dominant influence on forming behavioral component of the consumer attitude. Based on the results of the research about the corelation and influence of the analyzed components of the attitude we draw conclusions on which way it can be possible to affect on the consumer intention to be more engaged in its rights protection as well as on which way it can be possible to improve the consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia, generally speaking.

  13. Consumer protection : Federal actions are needed to improve oversight of the household goods moving industry : report to congressional committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The ICC Termination Act of 1995 transferred federal responsibilities for protecting consumers who move their household goods across state lines using commercial moving companies to the Department of Transportation. A 1998 congressional hearing brough...

  14. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  15. Radiation protection of the public in respect of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The use of consumer goods containing radioactive substances makes a contribution to the total exposure of man to ionizing radiation. This contribution is explicitly recognized in Section II of the Basic Safety Standards established pursuant to Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, first published in 1959 and most recently revised 15 July 1980. Nevertheless, the Standards are of a general nature and need to be expanded on to be of practical application in this field. National authorities must have additional information in order to attain in full the objectives stated in them. This guide has been prepared with these considerations in mind. The guide is not a set of regulations but is better described as a code of practice, drawn up by specialists and approved by the scientific experts in the field of radiological protection and public health appointed under Article 31 of the Euratom Treaty

  16. Tools for Consumer Rights Protection in the Prediction of Electronic Virtual Market and Technological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Gangur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic virtual markets can serve as an alternative tool for collecting information that is spread among numerous experts. This is the principal market functionality from the operators’ point of view. On the other hand it is profits that are the main interest of the market participants. What they expect from the market is liquidity as high as possible and the opportunity for unrestricted trading. Both the operator and the electronic market participant can be considered consumers of this particular market with reference to the requirements for the accuracy of its outputs but also for the market liquidity. Both the above mentioned groups of consumers (the operators and the participants themselves expect protection of their specific consumer rights, i.e. securing the two above mentioned functionalities of the market. These functionalities of the electronic market are, however, influenced by many factors, among others by participants’ activity. The article deals with the motivation tools that may improve the quality of the prediction market. In the prediction electronic virtual market there may be situations in which the commonly used tools for increasing business activities described in the published literature are not significantly effective. For such situations we suggest a new type of motivation incentive consisting in penalizing the individual market participants whose funds are not placed in the market. The functionality of the proposed motivation incentive is presented on the example of the existing data gained from the electronic virtual prediction market which is actively operated.

  17. The Essences of Halal Labeling of the Consumer Protection within Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijrah Lahaling

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halal labeling is not simply a means of meeting the bodily needs. Simultaneously, it serves to satisfy the spiritual needs. Both Halal and haram foods are easy to identify when still in its fresh state. But as it underwent processing, it might be difficult to determine its halal status. The objectives of this paper are to determine the aspects of legal protection available for the consumers to be able to conveniently trade any food product they desired, to illustrate the MUI Authority as the competent authority with sole power to issue a fatwa to decide halal or haram status of food products around Indonesia; and finally to identify the extent of control held by the Government, LPKSM, and society as the parties playing important roles in monitoring the products or goods on the market. The results showed that the legal protection for the consumers remains weak. Furthermore, there is no maximum supervision carried out by the government, LPKSM, or through society. The presence of JPH Law No. 33 of 2014 still incites polemic, one of which related to the monopoly of authority by MUI.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  19. Financial Consumer Protection in the EU : Towards a Self-Sufficient European Contract Law for Consumer Financial Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of European contract law in the field of consumer financial services gives rise to the question to what extent it is self-sufficient. A self-sufficient European contract law presupposes the existence of an EU-made and EU-enforced contract-related legal order which is largely

  20. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  1. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  2. The Consumer Protection Act: no-fault liability of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a 'consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as 'suppliers' or 'retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision, which places the health care practitioner who delivered the care in a very difficult position, as he or she is the most easily and often only identifiable person in the supply chain. Although the causal link between the harm suffered by the complainant will still need to be established on a balance of probabilities, the traditional common law obstacle requiring proof of negligence no longer applies. The article argues that this situation is unsatisfactory, as it places an increasingly onerous burden on certain health care practitioners.

  3. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  4. Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2014-07-01

    The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  5. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Anand, Samir; Bhardwaj, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Consumer Protection Act (CPA) aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. 54.7% (145) of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62) had a medium score and 21.8% (58) had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05). The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  6. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumer Protection Act (CPA aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. Results: 54.7% (145 of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62 had a medium score and 21.8% (58 had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  7. [Infection prevention in animal husbandry. A contribution to the improvement of the sanitary consumer protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossklaus, D

    1985-02-01

    The scientific and organizational development of an effective prophylaxis against infections in animal husbandry results from the fact that many zoonoses, like salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, rickettsiosis (Q-Fever) and cysticercosis as well as certain important virus infections with regard to meat hygiene cannot be detected during official ante- and postmortem inspection. The cause of these infections is clinically inapparent and leaves no pathologic-anatomical lesions. Partly responsible for these latent infections is mass production with its specific forms of husbandry, particularly in poultry and pigs. The development of these animal production methods as well as the spread of the aforementioned zoonoses in man and animal is being discussed in this paper. The information on zoonoses is based on cases reported in accordance with the Federal Communicable Diseases Act and/or the regulations on notifiable animal diseases. The potential harmfulness to the consumer's health, especially in view of his food habits, is discussed in the light of the increase of foodborne infections and intoxications caused by Salmonella. Up until now, several regulations exist to keep causative agents of zoonoses away from animal farms. In view of the successful eradication of tuberculosis in cattle and brucellosis, it is recommended on a longterm basis, to eliminate those zoonoses from animal farms, which are of special importance from the meat-hygienic point of view. On a medium-term basis, examination of farm animals should be introduced voluntarily prior to the official ante- and postmortem inspection. It is of vital importance to establish the necessary diagnostic and practical conditions for the herd-tests. A recommendation worked out by the European Community for the examination of broiler-farms is welcomed as an example of prophylactic measures suitable for the improvement of consumer protection.

  8. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  9. Diet pills and the cataract outbreak of 1935: reflections on the evolution of consumer protection legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cataracts in 1935 caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), the active ingredient of popular diet pills, highlighted the inability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent harmful drugs from entering the marketplace. Just two years earlier, the FDA used horrific images of ocular surface injury caused by cosmetics at the World's Fair in Chicago to garner public support for legislative reform. The FDA had to walk a fine line between a public awareness campaign and lobbying Congress while lawmakers debated the need for consumer protection. The cataract outbreak of 1935 was conspicuous in the medical literature during the height of New Deal legislation, but questions persist as to how much it affected passage of the proposed Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (of 1938). The legislation languished in committee for years. The cataract outbreak probably had little impact on the eventual outcome, but medical opinion concerning the safety of DNP may have contributed to the voluntary withdrawal of the diet drug from the market. We review the DNP cataract outbreak and examine it in context of the challenges facing regulatory reform at that time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Structural Features of Sports and Race Betting Inducements: Issues for Harm Minimisation and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Sproston, Kerry; Brook, Kate; Brading, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting, despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising. This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling. A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located 223 separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. These comprised sign-up offers, refer-a-friend offers, happy hours, mobile betting bonuses, multi-bet offers, refund/stake-back offers, matching stakes/deposits, winnings paid for 'close calls', bonus or better odds, bonus or better winnings, competitions, reduced commission, free bets to selected punters, cash rebates and other free bets. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language. Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message. The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area.

  11. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  12. Assuring consumer information and protection in the solar market: need, status, strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    In this report the Consumer Energy Council has examined a number of basic issues affecting consumer assurance in the solar market. A general framework has been established to specify the role of consumer assurance as it relates both to government activity and a new consumer product industry. The available empirical evidence has been reviewed to identify the actual needs for consumer assurance in the solar market. By synthesizing the work of the SOLCAN Planning Project participants we have identified both the general thrust of existing consumer assurance mechanisms in the states and the direction that efforts to improve and expand those mechanisms are likely to take. Finally, several brief recommendations for combining the pieces of consumer assurance into an effective overall framework have been put forward.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SUPERVISION OF PERPETRATORS OF EFFORT IN PRODUCING QUALITY PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Haris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was explain how the substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products contained in the legislation in the field of consumer protection, explain how the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products, explain how the form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violates the provisions of the legislation in making products that are not qualified. Research conducted in the framework of this dissertation outlines is of type socio-juridical, because in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products and its implications for consumer protection This is the case, the form of the application sanctions. The results showed that 1. The substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products that are found in a wide range of legislation in the field of consumer protection is basically adequate. 2. surveillance of implementation against the perpetrators of the work done by the three main pillars of supervision: the Government, communities and non-governmental Consumer Protection Agency (LPKSM is not yet effective due to still having a lot of constraints. 3. The form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violated regulations in making a quality product, it is still better to put forward sanctions administrative compared to criminal sanctions and civil penalties.

  14. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    's right to communicate with their customers. Considering privacy risks associated with advances in computer technology, the complexities of modern information processing and evolving mobile advertising (m-advertising) practices, privacy regulations should not be equated with unwarranted speech regulations...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...... to support the growth of the global mobile advertising (m-advertising) industry....

  15. Awareness about medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T; Nadeem, J; Arthi, R; Nithya, S

    2017-07-01

    The practice of medicine in India has undergone considerable change affecting delivery of health in both positive and negative directions. As a result, there was a growing feeling that medical treatment should be made accountable and this led to doctors and dentists becoming subject to the process of law. Patients have become more aware of their right to compensation and as a consequence doctors and dentists should be knowledgeable about the laws that govern them. To assess the awareness about Medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act [CPA] among Dental professionals. A self-structured validated questionnaire comprising of 20 questions related to medico legal aspects and CPA was designed. A total of 450 dental professionals were surveyed from 4 prime dental institutions in Chennai, India. Of the 450 professionals that were surveyed 150 were MDS faculty, 150 were BDS faculty and 150 were PG students. The data was subjected to SPSS, version 16 and statistically analysed using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. A- p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. BDS faculty, MDS faculty and PG students were found to possess similar level of understanding and there was no significant difference between the groups. Knowledge was found to be equal between male and female dentists. The young practitioners were found to be more informed about CPA than the senior practitioners. It was found that most of the participants were aware of relevant Medico legal aspects, but were less aware of CPA. This study emphasises the need for education relevant to Medico legal aspects and CPA for dental professionals.

  16. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  17. Food allergen law and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004: falling short of true protection for food allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, Congress mandated labeling of food allergens on packaged foods for the first time by passing the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). FALCPA requires that manufacturers of foods containing one of the eight major allergens responsible for 90 percent of food allergies either state on the food's packaging that the food contains the allergen, or refers to the allergen by a name easily understandable by consumers in the ingredients listing. Despite this important first step in protecting consumers with food allergies, FALCPA left unregulated the use of conditional precautionary statements (e.g., "may contain [allergen]"), which many manufacturers have used as a low-cost shield to liability. Further, FALCPA applies only to packaged foods, and does not mandate listing of food allergen ingredients in restaurants. This article discusses the history of food allergen litigation in the United States, highlighting the problems plaintiffs have faced in seeking recovery for allergic reactions to a defendants' food product, and some of the practical difficulties still extant due to the lack of regulation of precautionary statements. Also presented is a review of the Massachusetts Food Allergy Awareness Act, the first state legislation requiring restaurants to take an active role in educating employees and consumers about the presence and dangers of food allergens.

  18. The System of the Geographical Indication – Important Component of the Politics of the Consumers` Protection in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use and diffusion of the geographical indication in the European Union countries, having as objective the protection of the products’ names, which are registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO labels. The reason for treating this theme started from the fact that the level of knowledge of the system and its symbols by the consumers is very low. In the introductory part, specification of surveyed topic is given and importance of consumer education and information is highlighted. Empirical research is based on two approaches. First, 1114 product names from DOOR database (Database for agricultural products and foodstuffs in EU countries were analysed in order to investigate the frequency of labels utilization by country and product classes, cluster analysis was applied to show the labels distribution by countries. Dominant countries in number of labels are Italy, France and Spain having registered over 50 % of all products. The most frequent product class is Fruits, vegetables and cereals for PGI and Cheeses for PDO. The second approach reflects consumer view on the issue; survey of 250 consumers in the Czech Republic was carried out with the purpose to identify awareness and perceived credibility of labels. Findings reveal a low awareness of labels, credibility of labels is influenced by their low familiarity. The main problem is lack of information. Respondents show interest in getting information regarding this topic. Quality labels have potential to communicate with consumers and facilitate their food purchases, but it is necessary to improve their promotion.

  19. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    telecommunication carriers' personal data sharing practices in order to protect their customers' data privacy when the regulation restricts use of the data for marketing purposes. In this case National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA) challenged a new Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule...... requiring carriers to obtain customers' advance approval before releasing their telephone record information for marketing purposes. NCTA claimed the FCC's new opt-in rule violates companies' First Amendment right to engage in commercial speech. At stake in this appeal was the constitutionally required...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 ON THE COMMON LAW WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Barnard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller’s common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of Goods Act of 1979 – is investigated.

  1. Implementation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted on October 15, 2008, amended the Controlled Substances Act and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by adding several new provisions to prevent the illegal distribution and dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet. DEA is hereby issuing an interim rule to amend its regulations to implement the legislation and is requesting comments on the interim rule.

  2. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... categories of motor vehicle dealers (i.e. ``franchise,'' ``independent,'' and/or ``buy here, pay here'' \\15... ``buy here, pay here'' dealers. The Dodd-Frank Act also authorizes the FTC to prescribe rules using APA... terms, of credit or leasing to consumers? If so, in what manner and under what terms? \\15\\ ``Buy here...

  3. 76 FR 14010 - Public Workshop: Debt Collection 2.0: Protecting Consumers as Technologies Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ....html ; Global Debt Registry Recognized As Visa PCI DSS Validated Service Provider, Business Wire (Jan... benefit consumers and debt collectors alike by streamlining the payment process and, in some cases... being unable to interact with each other? 7. What is the prevalence and feasibility of outsourcing the...

  4. Claims settlement in insurance contracts from a consumer protection perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Fuah Kwanga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyone in the society is faced with the possibility of one or more hazards that are part of life will sooner or later befall him and may occasion some loss. This misfortune is uncertain as to the time and period when it will occur and this amongst others include: fire outbreak, accident, and even death. This necessitates the need for people to go for insurance policies which suit their various needs in order to permit compensation in case of loss. Most consumers of insurance products are “short changed” in the process because very few take the trouble to read through their insurance policies in order to ascertain and understand the terms and conditions. The result is that most often when a claim arises and it is discovered that the loss is not covered by the terms of the insurance contract, there is the tendency of blaming the insurance companies. This paper posits that: there are of course some “bad eggs” in the industry who manipulate consumers. However, the paper holds that this unpleasant quagmire is often due to lack of understanding of the terms of insurance contracts in general and consumer apathy in particular. The essence of this study is to re-iterate the need to communicate the rules of the insurance game, thereby minimizing some of the misunderstanding and problems faced by consumers.

  5. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  6. [Plant protection products and their residues : Aspects of consumer safety in context of the new EU regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, U; Michalski, B; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2010-06-01

    The law regulating plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union (EU) was fundamentally revised through the introduction of Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 which is due to enter into force on 14 June 2011. EU-wide harmonized maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the active substances of PPP in foods are laid down in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 and apply since entry into force of the regulation on 1 September 2008. The goal of both regulations is to strengthen the level of consumer protection. PPP are subject to a strict assessment of active substances, which is regulated at the EU level as well as an authorization procedure in the EU Member States. Prior to application for authorization of a PPP, the active substance(s) it contains must be included in a positive list. Tests regarding the toxicity and residue behavior of PPP must be conducted by the applicant, and the respective documents must be submitted to the authorities for evaluation. Following review of the required data, toxicological threshold values are derived, consumer exposure is assessed, and the risk to health is evaluated. The goal of this evaluation is to ensure that the use of PPP according to good plant protection practice does not have any harmful effects on human health.

  7. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  8. THE GOOD HOUSEKEEPING SEAL OF APPROVAL: FROM INNOVATIVE CONSUMER PROTECTION TO POPULAR BADGE OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Strach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By providing information through factual content, editorial comments, and advertising, the great magazine expansion of the late 19th century reduced market imperfections for many consumer goods. Given the virtual absence of government and non-profit sources of information, some magazines even took the initiative to prohibit misleading advertising. However, in the early 20th century Good Housekeeping surpassed normal practices and created both a guaranty for advertised products and a Seal of Approval from the Good Housekeeping Institute.

  9. THE GOOD HOUSEKEEPING SEAL OF APPROVAL: FROM INNOVATIVE CONSUMER PROTECTION TO POPULAR BADGE OF QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Strach; Malcolm Russell

    2003-01-01

    By providing information through factual content, editorial comments, and advertising, the great magazine expansion of the late 19th century reduced market imperfections for many consumer goods. Given the virtual absence of government and non-profit sources of information, some magazines even took the initiative to prohibit misleading advertising. However, in the early 20th century Good Housekeeping surpassed normal practices and created both a guaranty for advertised products and a Seal of A...

  10. Marketing Strategies Based on Consumer Preferences of Karnavas Mullberry Molasses with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the integrated marketing tactic and strategies based on the main factors affecting the preferences and purchase patterns related to Karnavas Mullberry Molasses with PDO of the consumers dwelling in Erzurum. The main material of the study was provided by the primary data obtained from a survey conducted on 401 households residing in Erzurum during 2015, and consuming Karnavas Mullberry Molasses. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Two-step Cluster Analysis were used to determine the main factors impacting on their purchase decisions, and then to segment homogenous clusters according to their purchase frequencies by taking into consideration the data, respectively. The results of the study indicated that the heavy and medium users who consume Karnavas Mullberry Molasses pointed out the necessity of the augmented and actual product image positioning at retail level under local individual brands considering the attributes of the holistic quality with PDO label and those of the sensory quality obtained from traditional production methods to contribute to rural development under the direct marketing approaches, respectively. On the other hand, the light users also focused on the increase of market penetration effect via promotion mix and the product positioning under the local branded actual product image implementing traditional production method and hedonic quality approaches. It could be applied the positioning and promotion strategies according to the consumers’ utility expectation and the product images, therefore, by considering their requirements and desires in each segment.

  11. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  12. The Control of Food Contaminants - Improving Food Safety, Protecting Consumers and Facilitating Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanya, James

    2014-01-01

    People need safe and wholesome food and the joint FAO/IAEA Division recognizes this basic requirement in its work with Member Countries. This feature article discusses this issue in terms of the Food and Environmental Protection (FEP) section and laboratory in the area of food contaminants, using examples from our work with countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region

  13. An Overview: Consumer Protection in Higher Education. Why? For Whom? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Sandra L.

    The protection of the student and prospective student at the postsecondary level is examined. Twenty-five possible educational abuses and concerns, such as discriminatory refund policies and misrepresentation, identified by the Federal Interagency on Education are listed. Ten issues selected as the thrust of the first National Conference on…

  14. Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum), Juice in Rats Consuming Aspartame Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M.M.; Osman, N.N.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) has been traditionally used as medicine in many countries due to its high antioxidant activity, which has been related to beneficial health properties. Aspartame (ASP) is a widely used artificial sweetener that may be harmful at abuse levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) in protecting tissues from the possible damage induced by aspartame. ASP treated rats were given ASP, by gavages, at a dose of 250 mg/kg /day for 28 days. PJ-ASP treated rats were given PI at a dose of 1ml /kg body weight/day along with ASP. The data obtained indicate that ASP administration results in no significant change in the concentration of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Tc), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and glucose while significant decreases have been recorded for insulin. The results demonstrated also that aspartame promotes lipid peroxidation and decreases the level of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in serum and liver tissues. Significant elevations in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (AL T) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also observed. Administration of PI in parallel with aspartame protected rats from aspartame-induced oxidative injury and ameliorated liver function

  15. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. To be or not to be an auctioneer: Some thoughts on the legal nature of online eBay auctions and the protection of consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Riefa, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the legal classification of online “eBay” auctions. The discussion has key implications on the scope of consumer protection law as sale by auctions are, for example, excluded from the scope of the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000. The paper uncovers that online “eBay” auctions cannot always be considered as traditional auctions and that eBay, as an intermediary, is not to be considered as an auctioneer. This creates difficulties associated with a di...

  17. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  18. E-Learning Quality Standards for Consumer Protection and Consumer Confidence: A Canadian Case Study in E-Learning Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kathryn Chang

    2007-01-01

    Emerging concerns about quality of e-learning products and services animated a project in Canada to create quality standards that derived primarily from the needs of consumer, that could be used to guide the development and choice of e-learning at all levels of education and training, and that could be implemented in a simple manner. A set of…

  19. Water-resistant sunscreens for skin protection: an in vivo approach to the two sources of sunscreen failure to maintain UV protection on consumer skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, G

    2015-12-01

    The water resistance of sunscreen products has taken more importance for the UV protection of consumers involved in water activities and sports. The present work introduces a new in vivo approach to measure the water resistance of sunscreens on the actual skin of subjects, which can be easily applied to salt, chlorine and tap waters. The stress sources of sunscreen films on skin originate from two phenomena: high surface tension stress as the skin transits through the air/water interface and water diffusion into the film immersed in bulk water. The water resistance of sunscreen products is measured on the forearms of subjects by means of a new layered water bath approach that physically separates both stresses. Tape strips are subsequently taken and analysed for UV-A and UV-B optical densities via (1) imaging for remaining filters and (2) in vitro SPF absorption spectra. Water-resistant sunscreens generally perform well when immersed in bulk water even subjected to agitation, but they show a wide range of performances when considering their behaviour at the air/water interface. The differences are more pronounced in salt water than tap water. The results confirm 2 stress origins in sunscreen exposure to water: interfacial surface tension and bulk water diffusion. Polymers bring improvements to the resistance of sunscreens to bulk water but show wide latitude in performances when subject to the water surface tension stress. Globally, a higher loss of filters is observed in the UV-A than in the UV-B, which is attributed to more UV-A filter loss or degradation and thus resulting in a decreased protection in the UV-A. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Telemarketing - Consumer Protection Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    insists on an immediate decision to guarantee your participation in this wonderful opportunity or limited to purchase a subscription through a promotional mail/telephone order, stop and carefully review the solicitation. Compare the price you have been offered with what it actually costs to purchase a subscription

  1. 網路購物契約與消費者保護 Online Shopping Contract and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉姿汝 Tsu-Zu Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 在網際網路發達的今日,透過網路購物已是一個很普遍的消費方式。網路購物可以不受時間、空間的設限,可謂十分便利,但卻產生與到實體店鋪購物方式所沒有的風險。本文將討論網路購物的特殊性,例如:1.交易相對人的不確定性。2.無法事前檢視交易標的。3.契約成立的時點。4.透過電子傳輸方式締結契約,或行使契約解除權,是否等同書面為之?5.意思表示有錯誤等瑕疵是否能撤銷?6.定型化契約型態對消費者權益的影響等等。另外,進一步則將探討以消費者保護法為主的現行法對於網路購物的規範,並佐以實務上案例,以瞭解相關規範對於上述的網路購物特性,對消費 者保護不足之處,並討論日本對於網路購物規範之現狀,以供比較與參考。最後試論可能改進之方案。 Today’s advancement in internet implies the change in consumer behavior. Shopping online has now become a common form for the purchase of goods. Though internet shopping is convenient with no restriction of time and space, it also possess hidden risks in comparison with the traditional way of shopping through solid shops. This article will discuss the uniqueness of online shopping such as under the circumstance of which face to face trade is not possible, the following factors should be considered: 1. The uncertainty of trade parties; 2. The condition of trade object cannot be examined prior to trade; 3. Unable to establish the time and place of the trade; 4. Are concluded/discharged contracts through method of electronic transmission equivalent to the actual written contracts? 5. If statement mistakes in statement and descriptions should occur, are cancellations possible? 6. The effects of form contract on consumer rights. Furthermore, current regulations on internet shopping with focus on Consumer Protection Act along with actual cases in practice will

  2. Scientific-methodological approaches to designing risk-oriented model of control and surveillance activities in the sphere of consumer rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present scientific-methodological approaches to defining risk categories of economic entities which are subject to surveillance in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Risk is suggested to be assessed as a product of violations frequency comprising violations of separate provisions of the law on consumer rights protection detected in the course of scheduled and unscheduled inspections; a number of claims per one detected violation which were satisfied by courts in favor of consumers; each separate case of harm accepted by court in money terms (as a sum of physical and moral damage to health and damage to property; and coefficient of a potential impact scope which differentiates risks for economic entities belonging to micro-, small, medium-sized and large business. Our information sources are official statistic data obtained due to realization of state control in the sphere of consumer rights protection and court practice collected in all the RF regions over 2012–2016. It is shown that a share of economic entities with extremely high risk potential which can cause total material damage to consumers in sums greater than 10 million rubles per year amounts to about 0.15 % of the total number of economic entities (both juridical persons and private entrepreneurs; economic entities with high risk potential account for about 2 %. Such groups are made of companies involved in financial markets, share construction services, insurance and tourism. About 23 % of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs can be classified as having low risk potential and they can be excluded from scheduled inspections. Economic entities structure in general corresponds to world practices. It is shown that risk-oriented surveillance model development requires improvements in keeping registers of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs as such registers should contain comprehensive information; it is necessary for correct risk category (or hazard category

  3. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  4. Food irradiation, will it bring more preventive consumer protection or rather threaten compliance with hygiene standards in food production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, B.; Stolle, A.; Eisgruber, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses consumer acceptance of irradiated food in Germany, where acceptance is particularly low compared to other countries, and examines the reasons for this attitude. One reason ascertained is the poor information of the consumers about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. Problems involved and available, proven irradiation techniques for enhanced safety of food are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Indicators of Consumer Protection and Empowerment in the Digital World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorun, Christian; Vetter, Max; Reisch, Lucia A.

    The process of digitalisation has changed the lives of consumers around the world. Digitalisation makes it easier for consumers to access and process information, potentially increases choice and competition, as well as encouraging innovation. At the same time, however, consumers also face barriers...... of the digital economy: When consumers mistrust businesses, they are discouraged from using new digital products and services. Hence, growth on the supply-side of the digital market presupposes consumer trust on the demand-side of the market. As a result, governments around the world have put the task...... confidence and trust. The G20 Initiative also encourages efforts to develop better metrics, inter alia, for important policy issues like trust in the digital economy. The objective of the present study is to contribute to such a development of better metrics. It aims at testing the feasibility and making...

  6. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  7. Balancing consumer protection and scientific integrity in the face of uncertainty: the example of gluten-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Margaret Sova

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, gluten-free foods were not only "hot" in the marketplace, several countries, including the United States, continued efforts to define gluten-free and appropriate labeling parameters. The regulatory process illuminates how difficult regulations based on safe scientific thresholds can be for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. This article analyzes the gluten-free regulatory landscape, challenges to defining a safe gluten threshold, and how consumers might need more label information beyond the term "gluten-free." The article includes an overview of international gluten-free regulations, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulemaking process, and issues for consumers.

  8. [THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF ORGANS OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SUPERVISION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELFARE IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B; Romanov, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Iarushin, S V; Malykh, O L

    2015-01-01

    In the Sverdlovsk region there have developed and implemented methodological approaches to the optimization oj the activity of the Directorate and the Centre directed to the improvement of the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and in the sphere of the protection of the rights of consumers in the framework of the development of an comprehensive regional system of risk management for the population's health in the Sverdlovsk region.

  9. 互联网金融消费者权益保护问题研究%The Research on Internet Financial Consumer Rights and Interests Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2015-01-01

    如何在支持互联网金融创新发展的同时,有效保护互联网金融消费者的合法权益,是一个亟待研究的重要课题。本文在总结互联网金融概念、模式的基础上,深入分析了互联网金融消费者权益受侵害的表现形式和当前互联网金融消费者权益保护面临的困境,提出了完善互联网金融消费者权益保护的政策建议。%It is an important subject to be studied how to support the development of Internet financial innovation, and at the same time, protect the lawful rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers effectively. The paper, on the basis of summarizing the concept and mode of the Internet finance, deeply analyzes the forms of the infraction of the Internet financial consumers’ rights and interests and the current plight of the Internet financial consumers' rights and interests protection. Finally, the paper proposes the policy suggestions on perfecting the protection of the rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers.

  10. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  11. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  12. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  13. Researching the Gap between Foodstuff’s Attractiveness and Real Nutritional Profile – Prerequisite for Strengthening Nutrition Education and Consumer Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristian Onete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer`s health protection has become a major concern of global public policies, given that overweight and obesity have alarmingly increased, particularly among children and teens. The paper addresses one of the current problems caused by globalization, namely the obvious tendency of young people to choose food products based on organoleptic features and to disregard nutritional quality, with negative consequences on health. An exploratory marketing research was conducted among students for identifying the perceived importance of the sensorial dimension of food products and understanding key dimensions of buying decision process among youth. SAIN–LIM method was used to determine the nutritional profile of foodstuffs with special organoleptic features. Research results clearly show that in industrial foodstuff there is a gap between product attractiveness, which is based on exceptional sensorial properties, perceived by young consumers and real nutritional value of foods, which frequently translates into unbalanced nutritional profiles. To have a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, young consumers need to be informed that a tasty and good looking foodstuff is not necessarily healthy. Youth need to be properly educated in order to understand the close relationship between diet, weight and health and to develop a responsible food consumption behavior.

  14. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  15. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  16. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  17. [Effectiveness of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region in 2007 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Ivanova, L K; Iagudin, B I; Turbinskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    A system for monitoring and analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of the Board of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region was introduced into its activities to estimate the provision of the Novosibirsk Region's population with sanitary epidemiological wellbeing in 2007-2009. The introduction of monitoring was ascertained to increase the effectiveness of budgetary fund surveillance and spending, by predicting the effectiveness and choice of priority lines of activities, by increasing the quality of budgetary services rendered in the provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being to the population.

  18. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  19. A Bill to Amend the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 to Improve . . . Strengthening of State and Local Offices of Consumer Protection. H.R. 2198. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2198), to be cited, if enacted, as the Intergovernmental Consumer Assistance Act, would add a new title to the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968: Title VII-Intergovernmental Cooperation with Respect to Consumer Assistance and Protection. The objective is to establish greater cooperation among…

  20. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  1. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  2. The Malaysian Telehealth Flagship Application: a national approach to health data protection and utilisation and consumer rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Jai; Razali Raja Yaacob, Raja

    2004-03-31

    Telehealth refers to the integration of information, telecommunication, human-machine interface technologies and health technologies to deliver health care, to promote the heath status of the people and to create health. The Malaysian Telehealth Application will, on completion, provide every resident of the country an electronic Lifetime Health Record (LHR) and Lifetime Health Plan (LHP). He or she will also hold a smart card that will contain a subset of the data in the Lifetime Health Record. These will be the means by which Malaysians will receive "seamless continuous quality care" across a range of health facilities and health care providers, and by which Malaysia's health goal of a nation of "healthy individuals, families and communities" is achieved. The challenges to security and privacy in providing access to an electronic Lifetime Health Record at private and government health facilities and to the electronic Lifetime Health Plan at homes of consumers require not only technical mechanisms but also national policies and practices addressing threats while facilitating access to health data during health encounters in different care settings. Organisational policies establish the goals that technical mechanisms serve. They should outline appropriate uses and access to information, create mechanisms for preventing and detecting violations, and set sanctions for violations. Some interesting innovations have been used to address these issues against the background of the launching of the multimedia supercorridor (MSC) in Malaysia.

  3. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 [Docket No. CFPB-2011-0026] RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final rule... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial...

  4. 網路購物契約與消費者保護 Online Shopping Contract and Consumer Protection

    OpenAIRE

    劉姿汝 Tsu-Zu Liu

    2010-01-01

    在網際網路發達的今日,透過網路購物已是一個很普遍的消費方式。網路購物可以不受時間、空間的設限,可謂十分便利,但卻產生與到實體店鋪購物方式所沒有的風險。本文將討論網路購物的特殊性,例如:1.交易相對人的不確定性。2.無法事前檢視交易標的。3.契約成立的時點。4.透過電子傳輸方式締結契約,或行使契約解除權,是否等同書面為之?5.意思表示有錯誤等瑕疵是否能撤銷?6.定型化契約型態對消費者權益的影響等等。另外,進一步則將探討以消費者保護法為主的現行法對於網路購物的規範,並佐以實務上案例,以瞭解相關規範對於上述的網路購物特性,對消費 者保護不足之處,並討論日本對於網路購物規範之現狀,以供比較與參考。最後試論可能改進之方案。 Today’s advancement in internet implies the change in consumer behavior. Shopping online has now become a common form for the purchase of goods. Though internet shopping is conveni...

  5. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  6. 论微商交易中消费者隐私权的保护%On protection of privacy right of consumer in transaction of Wechat business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董润芸; 魏冬妮

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the emergence of Wechat has gradually changed the mode of traditional social interaction, and Wechat has become a mainstream platform of daily communication of people.Meanwhile, by utilizinging the large audience of Wechat friend circle, the rapid development of Wechat business attracts more and more attention.However, the lack of unified supervision of Wechat business which is in its initial stage leads to market disorder and the great difficulty for consumers to protect their own rights.The goods with inferior quality flooded in this market not only violate the rights for consumers to know and to claim, but also threat the protection of privacy rights of consumers seriously by the behaviors of some illegal merchants who steal and trade personal information for their expansion of product propaganda.Due to the difficulty and the complex procedure of legislation, there are no laws regulating Wechat business and other internet shopping.To perfect the supervision mechanism of Wechat business and other internet shopping platforms, promote the improvement of technology and management, and promote the establishment of trade self-discipline associations are effective means to regulate the infringement of Wechat business and protect the legal rights and interests of consumers nowadays.%近年来,微信的出现逐渐改变了传统的社交模式,成为人们日常沟通的主流平台。与此同时,借助微信朋友圈庞大的受众群,微商的迅猛发展也受到越来越多的关注。然而,正处于起步阶段的微商缺乏统一的监管,导致市场混乱,消费者维权困难。这一市场充斥的劣质商品不仅侵害消费者的知情权与求偿权,一些不法商家为扩大产品宣传盗取买卖个人信息的行为,也对消费者隐私权保护构成严重威胁。由于立法难度大、程序复杂,目前尚没有专门规制微商等网络购物平台的法律。完善对微商等网络购物平台的监

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  8. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  9. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  10. A Study on the Developmental Issues of Consumer Protection in Turkey = Türkiye'de Tüketicinin Korunması Hakkındaki Gelişimle İlgili Konular Üzerine bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül AYGEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share the findings of a study concerned with the developmental issues of consumer protection in our country from the perspective of consumers. Views and opinions of consumers with respect to the general subject of consumer protection are believed to reveal future expectations related to the subject and also opportunities and limitations we are likely to be confronted with, as a nation, in reaching a better life.

  11. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  12. 77 FR 10725 - Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... the Bureau's functions under the Federal consumer financial protection laws, and which will provide... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Intercollegiate Sports (Part 2). Hearings before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session (June 23 and August 4, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The House of Representatives Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness met to hear testimony on sex discrimination in secondary and college level athletic programs. The witnesses on the first panel were all current or former college students and plaintiffs in four recent and significant Title IX cases. Title IX was part of…

  14. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 213 [Docket No. R-1469] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board); and Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amended the CLA by requiring that the dollar threshold for exempt consumer...

  15. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  16. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heattreated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphitoreducting Clostridia were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Results. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8% samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1% out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely

  17. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  18. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  19. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  20. Discussion on Consumer Rights and Interests Protection in the Era of Internet Finance%互联网金融领域消费者权益保护问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝平

    2015-01-01

    互联网金融领域消费者权益保护方面的挑战,主要集中于信息安全隐患大、资金安全难保障、消费者维权意识淡薄且维权成本高三方面。为不断加大互联网金融领域消费者权益保护力度,需加强信息安全立法,规范准入门槛,在提升风控要求基础上充分发挥市场力量提升市场主体保护消费者权益的自觉性和主动性,唤醒消费者维权意识并降低消费者维权成本。%The challenges for these problems mainly focus on huge hidden risk from information security, the safety of funds hardly to be guaranteed, weak awareness of consumer rights and high cost of rights protection. It’ s neces-sary for constantly enhancing the strength for protecting Internet financial consumer rights and interests to highlight information security legislation, to regulate access thresholds, to exert the role of market forces into full play based on promoting risk control requirement, so as to enhance the consciousness and initiative of market participants in terms of protecting consumer interests and awaken the awareness of consumers to protect their rights and reduce the cost of rights protection.

  1. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  4. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  5. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Rapports. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Rapports. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector : consumer rights - an African perspective. Rapports. Consumer protection : CRREA Rwanda. Rapports. Customer Service by MTML : CRREA Mauritius workshop ...

  6. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  7. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  8. Is the soil quality monitoring an effective tool in consumers' protection of agricultural crops from cadmium soil contamination?-a case of the Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekut, Agata; Baranowska, Renata; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Ćwieląg-Drabek, Małgorzata; Hajok, Ilona; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta

    2017-12-16

    The monitoring of soil quality should be a control tool used to reduce the adverse health effects arising from exposure to toxic chemicals in soil through cultivated crop absorption. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring and control system of soil quality in Poland, in terms of consumer safety, for agricultural plants cultivated in areas with known serious cadmium contamination, such as Silesia Province. To achieve the objective, the contents of cadmium in soils and vegetables in the Silesia administrative area were examined. The obtained results were compared with the results of soil contamination from the quality monitoring of arable soil in Poland. The studies show a significant exceedance of the permissible values of cadmium in soil samples and the vegetables cultivated on that soil. The threat to consumer health is a valid concern, although this threat was not indicated by the results of the national monitoring of soil quality. The results indicated an unequal distribution of risk to consumers resulting from contaminated soil. Moreover, the monitoring systems should be designed at the local or regional scale to guarantee the safety of consumers of edible plants cultivated in the areas contaminated with cadmium.

  9. Service quality in consumer's credit branch

    OpenAIRE

    Blechová, Věra

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and comparison of their service quality. The first part of research is dedicated to consumer's knowledge of credit issues. Second describes main difficulties of consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and proves their use of unfair manners. The final part of thesis propose improvements, which will boost consumer's protection on field of consumer's credits.

  10. Bureau of Radiological Health...a look at Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) program to protect the American consumer from radiaton. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, R.C.; Barnett, M.H.

    1977-04-01

    The report provides a brief overview of the FDA's major regulatory and voluntary efforts in the area of radiation control, and examines the impact of the Agency's programs to eliminate unproductive radiation exposure to the American consumer. It concludes with a summary of present and future concerns about newly emerging radiation-emitting products and uses, and the potential public health problems which they may engender

  11. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  12. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  13. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-01-01

    Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ) the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries dur...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  15. ACTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMANWELL-BEING IN KAMCHATSKY KRAI AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION"CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGYIN THE KAMCHATSKY KRAI" FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION IN CONNECTION WITH THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Zhdanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes actions of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in KamchatskyKrai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kamchatsky Krai" to ensure radiation protection of the population in conditions of the radiation accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant and their co-operation with other regional administrations in solution of this problem. The article also presents results of radiation monitoring in the region and shows absence of any significant radiation exposure to the population of the region resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

  16. 论消费者保护规制的理据--在经济和伦理之间%On Consumer Protection Regulation Basis:Between Economics and Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟瑞华

    2016-01-01

    The economics and ethics theoretical basis concerning the consumer protection and the relationship between them worth reflection. For the consumer protection law and its enforcement, on one hand the cost-benefit analysis should be used more to enhance the efficiency, whilst on the other more attention should be paid to community value cultivation to promote non-utilitarian targets such as social justice, narrowing wealth gap, etc.%消费者保护的的经济性理据和理论性理据及二者的关系值得反思。消费者保护法及其实施,一方面应该更多地利用成本收益分析来提高效率,另一方面应该更多地关注培育共同体价值,促进社会正义、缩小贫富差距等非功利性目标。

  17. 论网络购物中的消费者权益保护%Protection of consumer rights and interests in online shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何如; 俞华娟; 施燕飞

    2016-01-01

    随着互联网的发展和电子科技的进步,网络购物已经成为了当今社会新兴的购物方式。由于网络购物的便捷高效,商品多样,吸引着越来越多的人加入网络购物中来。消费者通过网络购物带给自身便利,但由于网络购物的高速发展和关于这个领域的立法空缺,网络购物存在的客观问题也开始显现。如何保障网络购物消费者的合法权益成为社会的热点。%With the development of internet and the advancement of electronic science and technology, online shopping has become a new way of shopping in today's society. Due to the convenience and efficiency of online shopping, goods are diverse, attracting more and more people to join online shopping. Consumers through online shopping to bring their own convenience, but because of the rapid development of online shopping and the legislative vacancy on this field, the existence of the objective problems of online shopping also began to show. How to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the consumers of online shopping has become a hot spot of society.

  18. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; loans in the nature of overdraft protection; and credit extended in connection with credit cards. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended...

  19. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  20. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  1. Characteristics and consequences of consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafilović Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's aim is studying the term of consumer society and its characteristics as well as its consequences on the community as a whole. Nowadays, a consumer is no longer a passive observer but an active participant. As the consumer's role has changed in the modern market, a new approach to marketing is required by companies. The term 'consumer society' entails defining consumerism in more detail as it has been used refer to the consumerists movement or movement for consumer rights protection. In another context, consumerism refers to the so-called consumer mentality.

  2. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  3. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  4. Utility shopping: are consumers ready?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrados, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of public readiness to deal with deregulation of the electric power industry , based on an analysis of public reaction to the deregulation of the transportation, telecommunications and natural gas industries which already have taken place. The report also examines the reasons why residential consumers have reason to be wary of deregulation. These include the likelihood of slow development of the intended competition, the consequent limits on consumer choices, the possibility of increased prices, decreased quality of service and erosion of social values such as affordability and accessibility. The report concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring the existence of workable competition for residential consumers, that reliable and meaningful information is available as competition in deregulated markets gets underway, that independent sources of information are widely available, and that basic consumer protection against deceptive and borderline marketing practices, a regulatory oversight mechanism and public reporting mechanisms are in place before competition begins. 33 refs

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  7. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  8. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  9. Consumer Economics and Consumer Mathematics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…

  10. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  11. Foodstuff monitoring. To protect the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles describes the activities of the IRSN in the field of foodstuff monitoring about nuclear plants, in order to assess the exposure of population by food. Simulation codes have been developed to model the deposit of radionuclides on grass and their transfer to cows and milk, but also to local vegetable productions. In case of accidental release, it would be possible to forbid the consumption of some products. The IRSN performs a continuous monitoring of the environment at the local, regional and national levels. For each of these levels, a sampling plan is defined in terms of sampling location and frequency. These controls are different according to the region. The radiological quality of water is monitored and several actors are involved in this process (regional and national agencies, producers and distributors, laboratories). The case of the region of Chinon is more particularly addressed. Local production and consumption habits are studied for a better assessment of their health impact. Some projects are finally evoked: inclusion of children in food-habit survey, investigations in different regions, analysis of bottled waters, widening of the area for the study of post-accidental consequences

  12. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0040] RIN 3170-AA30... Protection. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) amends the... issuing the final rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. That law...

  13. Who speaks for the health consumer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael H

    2008-08-01

    Although consumer-directed health care has become a fashionable concept in recent years, stories abound asking whether the so-called free market in health care can provide adequate access to quality health care at an affordable price. In spite of these concerns, consumer-directed health care continues as the face of legitimacy behind an industry-driven campaign to limit regulatory protections of the consumer in the market and encourage the growth of health insurance products that place spending options closer to the consumer, whether or not these options are available, affordable, or easily understood. Understanding whether this empowerment is real begins with first asking what it now means to be a health consumer. This commentary offers perspective on the dilemma faced by millions of Americans in navigating our health care system under the assumption that market-driven choices foster consumer empowerment in health care, and suggests approaches for expanding the true consumer voice.

  14. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  15. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Vulnerable Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    the economic behaviour of consumers ‘below 1 average’ even though the practice does not meet the requirements of professional diligence. The Directive’s adoption of the European Court of Justice’s ‘average consumer’ entails that protection is generally provided only for those who are far from vulnerable......Consumer protection is deeply anchored in EU law, including the Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. This article discusses the concept of consumer vulnerability and how vulnerable consumers are protected in the context of commercial practices which is fully harmonised by the Unfair....... The Directive’s Article 5(3) concerning vulnerable consumers protects only—and to a limited extent—groups who are vulnerable due to mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity. Even though consumers make many good choices, all consumers are vulnerable in certain situations—often due to time constraints...

  16. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  17. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  18. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  19. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Études. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Études. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector : consumer rights - an African perspective. Études. Consumer protection : CRREA Rwanda. Études. Customer Service by MTML : CRREA Mauritius workshop ...

  20. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  1. Legislative changes in the field of consumer collective redress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is the comparative analysis of the system of collective redress in the field of consumer protection contained in the Law on Consumer Protection from 2010 and the new Law on Consumer Protection from 2014. While the previous Law on Consumer Protection contained the provisions on collective redress in litigation proceedings, the new Law on Consumer Protection provided for collective redress in administrative proceedings. Therefore, analysis of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is provided, limited to: (i meaning of the collective interest, (ii dispersion of the motion for collective redress in Serbian law and (iii analysis of requests which could have been raised in the litigation proceedings and scope of protection granted in administrative proceedings.

  2. A Consumer's Guide to the Federal Trade Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth

    This publication presents consumer information designed to encourage and facilitate active citizen involvement in Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proceedings. Nine chapters are included, covering (1) the FTC and its impact on consumers (discusses the authority of FTC, the Bureau of Competition, the Bureau of Consumer Protection, and lists FTC…

  3. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  4. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  5. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  6. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  7. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  8. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  9. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  10. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  11. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  12. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  13. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  14. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  16. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  17. Consumer Profile Of Hunting Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage

  18. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  19. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2018; Amendments to Special Enrollment Periods and the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final rule sets forth payment parameters and provisions related to the risk adjustment program; cost-sharing parameters and cost-sharing reductions; and user fees for Federally-facilitated Exchanges and State-based Exchanges on the Federal platform. It also provides additional guidance relating to standardized options; qualified health plans; consumer assistance tools; network adequacy; the Small Business Health Options Programs; stand-alone dental plans; fair health insurance premiums; guaranteed availability and guaranteed renewability; the medical loss ratio program; eligibility and enrollment; appeals; consumer-operated and oriented plans; special enrollment periods; and other related topics.

  20. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  1. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  2. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  3. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  4. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  5. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  6. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  7. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  8. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  9. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  10. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  11. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  12. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  13. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowering regulators to protect consumer rights in the ICT sector : qualitative research for Rwanda; December 2010, PSCBS meeting room. Download PDF. Studies. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Download PDF. Studies. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector ...

  14. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  15. Tourism law: from traveller to consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casanovas Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law on tourism – “tourism law” for some authors – is the instrument that has been used to turn the tourist into a consumer. Travellers are increasingly aware of the rights they can exercise. Incorporating the regulation of combined travel contracts (separate tourist services sold for an overall price into the body of consumer regulation and air passenger protection has made a definitive contribution to establishing this condition. Tourist contracts involving consumers have ended up in the courts, which have already had the opportunity to interpret the regulations and orient them towards the most protectionist positions for consumers. With the addition of new consumption habits and new types of contracting the future of this field looks far from static.

  16. The rights of patients as consumers: An ancient view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Nishant Bhimraj; Joglekar, Vishnu Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    As far as the rights of consumers are concerned, the International Organization of Consumer's Union (IOCU) in 1983 has specified about the eight rights of a consumer. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 1986 then prescribed six "Rights of Consumers," which are protected under the act. However, these rights can be observed in the ancient Indian texts such as Brihat-trayee , Narad Smruti , and Kautilya Arthashastra ., in the form of rights given to patients. For the purpose of present study, the implemented methodology includes - (1) study of the consumer rights described by IOCU and CPA, (2) detailed review of literature for observance of replication of these consumer rights in the ancient Indian texts and (3) a comparative study of the present consumer rights with the rights of patients observed in ancient Indian texts. This study shows that the substance of consumer rights is not a recent evolution, but the foundation of these rights has been laid well beforehand in the ancient times, which were provided to the patients by medical profession as well as by the rulers. The current scenario of protection of consumer rights is the replication of this ancient practice only.

  17. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  18. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  19. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  20. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  1. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  2. A garland for consumers: Will the Garland case provide safeguards for vulnerable consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Garland versus Consumer Gas, the Supreme Court of Canada in October 1998 ruled that the late payment penalties (LPP) charged by Consumer Gas constitute a criminal interest rate, contrary to Section 347 of the Criminal Code. The decision was unexpected in as much as the LPP had been continuously approved by the Ontario Energy Board since its adoption in 1975. This case is used here as an illustration of how consumers, who possess little bargaining power, may be protected from usurious penalties and charges for late payment. An examination of the legislative history surrounding the adoption of Section 347 of the Criminal Code, and a review of relevant Canadian case law with emphasis on the Supreme Court's reasoning with respect to the LPP in the Garland case, is followed by a comparison of Canadian experience with consumer protection in the United States and the United Kingdom. Policy implications of the Garland case from a consumer perspective are examined in general, and in terms of various industries as may be found in policy statements of specific companies. Recommendations are offered suggesting actions that may be taken to further protect consumers from exploitative credit arrangements.48 refs

  3. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  4. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  5. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  7. Consumer Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Consumer Finance Act by making short-term advances to customers who write personal checks in return for substantially smaller amounts of on-the-spot case...practices lawsuit with H&R Block, Inc. forcing tax return company to advertise its "Rapid Refund" program is actually a loan program charging customers ...home equity loans/lines of credit/home improvement loans, etc.) 2. A consumer can have only 9M principal dwelling at a time (includes mobile homes

  8. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  9. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  10. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  11. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  12. Allergens in law - European legislation assessed against the preferences of food allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.J.; Frewer, L.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current European legislation concerning allergens and their labelling, in particular in relation to the need to optimise consumer protection and improve the quality of life of food allergic consumers. Adequate communication concerning the presence of (potentially) allergenic

  13. Consumer Product Chemical Weight Fractions from Ingredient Lists

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data and model predictions supporting the manuscript: Isaacs K.K., Phillips K.A., Biryol D., Dionisio K.L., and Price P. Consumer product chemical weight fractions...

  14. 77 FR 37616 - Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Protection Bureau, at (202) 435-7700. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. Credit Card Policy... disclosure of data from consumer complaints about financial products and services other than credit cards... Statement'') describing its plans to disclose consumer credit card complaint data. The present notice (the...

  15. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  16. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  17. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  18. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  19. Medicalization, markets and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.

  20. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... scoring highly on both issue-relevant knowledge and motivation are the most likely innovators and early adopters. Their high level of expertise means that they do not need a lot of explanation for understanding the label and its self-relevance and their strong motivation means that they will search...

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of elastomeric respirator masks and protective eyewear such as goggles may be reused if the ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  2. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  3. 78 FR 36134 - Limitations on Terms of Consumer Credit Extended to Service Members and Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... vigilant to eliminate continuing, evolving predatory lending practices targeting service members and their... predatory marketing practices, and other abuses identified by consumer protection advocates, including the...

  4. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  5. The Legal Framework of the Consumer Associations in the Romanian Consumer Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita GOICOVICI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of the main legalaspects related to the activity of consumerassociations, seen as promoters of collectiveinterests of their members, in the RomanianConsumer Law. As a social partner of the publicadministration’ organisms, these associations playthree kinds of roles: (1 representing the consumersin the organisms of public administration;(2 informing and advising their members inquestions related to the purchase of products orthe supply of services; (3 taking legal actionsin order to obtain the protection of a collectiveinterest of consumers or the cessation of a illegalcommercial practice. This article also stresses theimportance of non governmental organizations ofconsumers’ right to be consulted by the PublicAdministration’ representatives, in the process ofelaborating legal norms and procedures relatedto consumers’ protection. The non governmentalorganizations of consumers are entitled to betreated as social partners, while representing theirmembers in the specialized organisms, at a nationalor local level, in which the Public Administrationauthorities are represented.

  6. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  7. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  8. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  9. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  10. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  11. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  12. Hermeneutics and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

  13. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  14. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  15. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  16. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  17. Consuming the Exotic Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalvani, Suren

    1995-01-01

    Explores the multiple and heterogeneous deployment of the Other within discourses that intersect and contest each other. Shows how the 19th century discourse of "le femme orientale," which informed the Romantic critique of capitalism, was recuperated in a hegemonic manner to promote an expanding consumer culture. Discusses the colonial…

  18. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  19. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  20. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange functions: standards for Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel; consumer assistance tools and programs of an Exchange and certified application counselors. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel in Federally-facilitated Exchanges, including State Partnership Exchanges, and to non-Navigator assistance personnel in State Exchanges that are funded through federal Exchange Establishment grants. It finalizes the requirement that Exchanges must have a certified application counselor program. It creates conflict-of-interest, training and certification, and meaningful access standards; clarifies that any licensing, certification, or other standards prescribed by a state or Exchange must not prevent application of the provisions of title I of the Affordable Care Act; adds entities with relationships to issuers of stop loss insurance to the list of entities that are ineligible to become Navigators; and clarifies that the same ineligibility criteria that apply to Navigators apply to certain non-Navigator assistance personnel. The final rule also directs that each Exchange designate organizations which will then certify their staff members and volunteers to be application counselors that assist consumers and facilitate enrollment in qualified health plans and insurance affordability programs, and provides standards for that designation.

  1. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...... firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  2. Consumer Right to Information before Purchase: Research on the Romanian Online Stores for Technical Consumer Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Balan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to evaluate the status of the protection of consumer right to information before the purchase from Romanian online stores. The perspective focuses on technical consumer goods. The research pursued two major objectives. The former consisted in analysing the compliance of the online stores with the provisions of article 6 paragraph 1 of the Directive 2011/83/EU on consumer rights, relative to the information provided to potential buyers before the purchase. The latter was to identify the consumer awareness of the rights stipulated by article 6 of the directive, as well as to study the opinions of consumers relative to the information that online stores are compelled to supply before purchase. The first objective was accomplished by applying the content analysis method to the information available on the Web for a sample of 100 online stores. The second objective was achieved through the survey method on a sample of 351 persons from the 25 to 34 age group, residing in Bucharest. Compared to other studies, the major contributions of the present research approach are the following: the investigation of an extensive sample of online stores; the wider range of products; the focus on both online stores and consumers. The results show that improvements are needed in the level of compliance and in the consumer awareness of own rights.

  3. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  5. Ethics in the Institution of Consumers’ Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at emphasizing the level of institutional ethics for the needs of an organization, which is the consumersř protection. By the means of this marketing research which has as a starting point the Fishbein- Rosenberg model, we wish to point out the importance of the main attributes specified by the Law of the Public Servant, whether these can be the basis of the relationship between consumers and economic operators. The institution of consumersř protection acts as an arbitrer in this case and we wish to find out whether these attributes follow the requirements of the relationship between consumer and the institution which protects them.

  6. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  7. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  8. Emotions and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...

  9. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  10. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  11. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  12. Teaching Consumers To Use the Internet To Make Consumer Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An adult-education course familiarized participants with online consumer resources. Beyond teaching the mechanics of Internet use, it showed how to use the Internet as a tool for consumer decision making. (SK)

  13. Some perspectives on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85 Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

  14. How to make the best of mandatory information requirements in consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2017-01-01

    EU consumer protection relies inter alia on information requirements imposing on traders the duty to provide specific and mandatory information to consumers before the conclusion of a contract. If consumers make well informed choices this can serve their individual interest, but it is also thought

  15. Workshop report. Children as a special subpopulation: focus on immunotoxicity. Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), 15-16 November 2001, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter-Reichhelm, H.-B.; Schulte, A.; Ewe, S.; Gundert-Remy, U. [Bundesinstitut fuer gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinaermedizin (BgVV), 14191 Berlin (Germany); Althoff, J.

    2002-07-01

    relevant aspects into existing test guidelines for testing developmental immunotoxicity. In this context, it is recommended that animals culled otherwise in one- and two-generation studies be examined for developmental immunotoxicity according to the valid methods and parameters discussed. The majority of participants agreed that a safety factor of 10 is too low in risk assessment and management to protect a sensitive subpopulation of children against man-made environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCER AND CONSUMER ON FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADALINA DINU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps one of the largest legislative climbing in recent years is shaped by the instruments that Romanian legislator puts at hand in order to protect its consumers from potential abuses of the producer. The importance of rules of such liability producer is justified primarily by the fact that a modern democratic society, consumer protection has become an essential part of the whole system of social protection. Moreover, the consumer's right to health and safety of its community is a constitutional principle, a consumer is considered by the Community forums as a new form of citizenship.

  17. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....

  18. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  19. Consumer networks and firm reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....

  20. Gloves-off Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)

  1. PRE-CONTRACTUAL INFORMATION IN CREDIT AGREEMENTS FOR CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Irina IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an image to the point on information provided to consumers before the conclusion of a credit contract, starting with the importance of information and ending with the legal framework. A high consumer protection may be achieved primarily through consumer information. The complexity of banking services but also the vulnerability of consumers in relation to the banks and the unbalanced relationship led to the need to develop specific legislation that clearly establishes the rights and obligations of the parties of a credit agreement for consumers. In this regard, in 2008, after many debates, Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on credit agreements for consumers was adopted. At national level, the Directive was transposed by the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 50/2010 on credit agreements for consumers. Taking into account national specificities, such as lack of experience of consumers in financial products, the irresponsible lending and the unfair practices of creditors, the national act includes wider provisions than the European Directive, such as those relating to fees limitations or those related to the calculation of the variable interest rate. Also the GEO no 50/2010 applies to all credit agreements concluded by consumers and creditors. As regards the advertising, any advertisement shall include a series of standard information. Also, pre-contractual information is standard information, is provided to consumers 15 days before the contract is concluded and is transmitted through the “European Consumer Credit Information sheet Standard”. The article presents when, how and what information should be given to consumers and insists on the importance of annual percentage rate and to what consumers should pay attention in order to be able to compare different offers.

  2. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  4. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  5. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... The new threshold for exempt consumer leases in the CLA goes into effect on July 21, 2011. Accordingly... and 213.4) and when the availability of consumer leases on particular terms is advertised (Sec. 213.7... regulation also contain rules about advertising consumer leases. The information collection pursuant to...

  6. Energy Report. State of the art in the market for consumers. First six months of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    Based on a number of key indicators, the market outcomes and market structure of the consumer market for energy are mapped, including the behavior of consumers. This report is limited to displaying a number of figures and facts, relating to the demand for products, prices, concentrations, switching, satisfaction and confidence of consumers in the energy market and information from ConsuWijzer, a Dutch governmental consumer protection organization. [nl

  7. Making or buying environmental public goods: do consumers care?

    OpenAIRE

    Bougherara, Douadia; Costa, Sandrine; Teisl, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Firms may voluntary abate pollution using one of two options: internalizing its own external effects and incuring abatement costs ("making") or delegating environmental protection by purchasing offsets ("buying"). We aim to elicit consumers' WTP for producers' use of the "making" option as compared to the "buying" option, controlling for spatial effects (joint local public goods) and level of GHG emissions. Using a stated choice survey with 722 respondents, we find consumers are more willing ...

  8. The safety of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the arguments used in the formulation of proposals which have been incorporated into a consultative document published by the National Radiological Protection Board (Criteria Relating to the Approval of Consumer Goods Containing Radioactive Substances: A Consultative Document, HMSO, London). The proposals are summarized. They were based on the classification of these consumer goods into different categories, and details are given of the suggested dose limits for these categories. Comments on the proposals are invited. (U.K.)

  9. Food quality and the consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. Consumers and professionals in the food sector will differ in the way they view food quality. Professionals have knowledge and resources to establish quality based on objective criteria. Consumers lack both, and they are typically concerned with many different products...... resources, of means of transportation, of time, of knowledge. Consumers' shopping behaviour is therefore an imperfect indicator of the quality consumers want, insufficient way of communicating consumer wishes to the food sector. 3. The fact that the food producer may be separated from the consumer...... certain attributes of food products or materials which may contradict consumer intentions. Economic pressure to reduce costs may lead to deteriorating quality. 5. While the information supplied by the market may be enough to give feed back on products launched based on the trial-and-error method...

  10. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  11. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  12. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  13. Harmonization: A Need for EU Action on Consumer Credit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    seem small, there is still a need for EU action, but with a different approach that considers the nature of consumer credit. This means a focus on preventing overindebtedness and ensuring financial stability as well as a high level of consumer protection in a financialized and thereby more complex......As in the consumer area in general, the objective of the internal market has been applied as a reason why there is a EU need for action regarding consumer credit. Even though it is more than 25 years ago since the first Consumer Credit Directive harmonized aspects of the legislation in the Member...... States, cross-border activities are still extremely low. The achievement of the internal market depends on the consumers’ and the creditors’ overall incentives to cross-border activities, where harmonized aspects of the legislation are only an insignificant motivation. Despite a need for EU action may...

  14. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  15. Consumer Generated Advertising and Brand Trust in The Consumer Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, C

    2010-01-01

    Increasing media clutter now exposes consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten, 2007). The advent of the internet and technology over the past twenty years now means consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites are a further source (Gritten, 2007). Building brand trust remains, now more than ever, crucial to corporate marketers, in a world where consumers are losing faith in traditional marketing strategies. Social media has give...

  16. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, Willem

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers to know how transparent pricing is in reality. Commercial practices involving price intransparency can be detrimental to consumer decision making and may be associated with marke...

  17. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  18. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  19. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density......Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...

  20. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  2. Do attitudes predict consumer's behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelošević Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.

  3. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  4. Analysis of the Romanian Insurance Market Based on Ensuring and Exercising Consumers` Right to Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the financial market of insurance, consumer protection represents an important component contributing to the stability, discipline and efficiency of the market. In this respect, the activity of educating and informing insurance consumers on ensuring and exercising their right to claim plays a leading role in the mechanism of consumer protection. This study aims to improve the decision-making capacity of the financial services consumers from the Romanian insurance market through better information on ensuring and exercising their right to claim under the legislation. Thus, by applying three data analysis techniques – principal components analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis – to the data regarding the petitions that were registered by the 41 insurance companies which operated in the Romanian market in 2012, a classification that assesses the insurance market transparency is achieved, resulting in a better information for consumers and, hence, the improvement of their protection through reducing the level of transactions that are harmful to consumers

  5. Women as Video Game Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...

  6. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  7. Cognitive style and consumer innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Haskins, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    The identification of consumer innovators offers marketing managers the opportunity to tailor new products to the buyers who initiate the diffusion of innovations. Progress has been made in identifying such consumers in economic and social terms, but there are advantages of cost and convenience in isolating the personality profiles of innovators, especially during prelaunch product testing. But innovative consumers' distinctive personality traits have proved elusive. This paper reports an inv...

  8. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  9. Antibodies 'green' against aflatoxins for consumer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capodicasa, Cristina; Catellani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Among the natural toxins that can contaminate products food or feed intended for animal, a particular concern is aroused by mycotoxins. They are toxic substances produced as secondary metabolites, in appropriate conditions micro climate, mainly by members of fungi the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The attention paid to these contaminants is justified from the serious effects (teratogenic, carcinogenic, estrogen, neurotoxic and immunosuppression) on health of humans and animals resulting from their intake through food. The Laboratory of Biotechnology Biotechnology Division and agro-industry, at the Research Center Casaccia, has been engaged for years in antibody production in alternative systems to animal cells, such as plants for various applications, the biomedical field to the food industry. Me.Di.T.A. the project under (Methodologies Diagnostic and Advanced Technologies for the quality and the safety of food of the South of Italy), in particular, they have been isolated antibody to develop a diagnostic assay for quantification of aflatoxins in food matrices. [it

  10. Seafood Safety: Seriousness of Problems and Efforts to Protect Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    contaminated mollusks are eaten raw or undercooked, they may inflict humans with vibrio cholerae , hepatitis, or other serious illnesses, which in some cases...such as vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio cholerae , and vibrio vulnificus. Vibrio vulnificus infection causes high fever, chills, and, in some cases...Gulf of Mexico waters. Of these cases six fatalities were associated with the consumption of raw oysters contaminated with vibrio vulnificus. Vibrio

  11. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always ... Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  12. 75 FR 10991 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... and avoid frauds and scams, we must help them understand the marketplace. Parents and educators can... marketing and business, whether they are shopping at their local store or in the global online marketplace...

  13. General principles of advertising practices and consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Slánská, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Diploma thesis provides an overview of legal and ethical regulation of advertising, defines the basic concepts in advertising, summarizes the functions and objectives of advertising and characterized various forms of advertising by the communication media. Through the questionnaire survey detects and analyzes the general attitudes towards advertising as specific views on ethically problematic advertisements.

  14. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for marketing, standards for marketing, appropriateness of recommended purchase, standard format...) or 4980C. The principles of paragraph (b)(3) of this section apply to any case in which a State...

  15. THE AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY OF FOOD – CONSUMERS PROTECTION FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCU EMILIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of food is closely related with food safety, highlighted by their authenticity and traceability. Essentially the food it is a carrier of information, his quality reflecting off the capability of the body to decode them and so to provide a healthy lifestyle. Each individual, as well as the community, is preoccupied by the great problems of food, eating and the food behaviour, seeking the right solutions to the questions: what, how, when, and where do we eat to satisfy our physiological necessities. Food and food behaviour are essential determinants of our numerous pathologies, appreciating that many of the severe diseases may be prevented by lifestyle changes where the food is playing a key role. For authentic products, in this article there are presented information regarding benefits of traceability of products. The traceability of food products can be obtained by registering the ups and downs of the physical flux obtained during the production process. The objective of traceability is to obtain total control on products by individual and group identification to intervene in case of post-processing defects or any inconvenience. In traceability the "one step back, one step ahead" principle is applied. This means that any company has the obligation to have all the necessary information regarding the product, including the nature of raw and auxiliary materials and to possess information regarding the date and delivery destination. For the accomplishment of this wish, the individual identification of the goods, products, locations and place is indispensable. The traceability of the product is based on the identification code. It is monitored the changes that have occurred during the production processes, transport, storage and distribution flux.

  16. Non-legislative means of consumer protection: The Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report approaches the new spheres of self-regulation, soft law and deregulation in the Netherlands from both a factual and historical point of view. Using the Dutch Advertising Code as an example, the article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of self-regulation, thereby illustrating

  17. Misplaced hope: misleading health service practitioner representations and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-09-01

    A series of court and tribunal decisions in the course of 2012 in Australia has highlighted the vulnerability of seriously ill patients to overtures and advertising by charismatic health practitioners offering panaceas of unproven efficacy. Drawing upon the findings of the Victorian Court of Appeal in relation to Noel Campbell, the Deputy State Coroner of Western Australia in relation to Helfried Sartori, and the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal in relation to Reza Ghaffurian, it is argued that there is a strong public interest in the capacity for effective early intervention by government in relation to unscrupulous and unethical conduct by health practitioners, whether they are registered or unregistered. For Australia a constructive reform would be nationally consistent legislation to regulate unregistered health practitioners.

  18. Consumer Protection and Premium Rate Services In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of the telecommunication industry in Denmark is quite liberal. There are no requirements to register with national authorities when providing telecommunication services or Premium Rate Services. Only Network Operators, who want to make use of the scarce frequency resources, must re...... active in securing compliance with the law....

  19. Consumer Protection in HE: Complacency and Complaints, Compliance and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, David

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that a Higher Education Bill will be lacking in the future, as promised in the 2011 White Paper on HE; and hence the regulatory framework for English HE will, for the immediate future at least, have to evolve within the law as it is rather than via new legal powers. The essential issue is how to extract the benefits of market…

  20. Connecting the Dots between Consumer Protection, Skepticism, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The concept of relevance is an obvious component in the success of classroom science investigations, but it is also one of the tenets behind the numerous media advertisements that bombard our senses on a daily basis. The authors decided to capitalize on the similarities between process-based science and the world of advertising by initiating…

  1. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  2. Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisite for environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Carl Folke; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    En del af de miljømæssige problemer, som truer vore omgivelser, er mere eller mindre forårsaget af forbrugernes livsstil. En mere miljøbevidst livsstil kan ikke opnås, uden der sker markante ændringer i forbrugernes indstilling og adfærd. For at nå frem til en syntese om, hvad man ved, og hvad de...

  3. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  4. Consumer viewpoints on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, A.

    1985-01-01

    The International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), a non-profit, non-party political foundation that represents the interests of consumers worldwide. It consists of some 1,140 organizations in over 50 countries of the world in the North, South, East and West. IOCU also represents the interest of the consumers in the U N system and enjoys consultative status with many of its various organs and agencies. This paper also speaks from the additional perspective of a Third World person who active in consumer public affairs issues over the last two decades

  5. Consumer behavior and energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A conference was convened to provide an overview of major empirical studies in the area of behavioral research related to energy consumption and conservation. Papers were presented in the areas of national and international perspectives of consumer energy behaviors, methodological issues in consumer behavior research, consumers and travel, energy conservation programs implemented by governments and electric utilities, household energy decision making, financial incentives and disincentives, energy information and its relation to product purchase decisions, solar energy and the consumer, and the impact of conservation programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 29 papers from this conference.

  6. Summary report on the Solar Consumer Assurance Network (SOLCAN) Program Planning Task in the southern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, M. B. [comp.

    1981-03-15

    The goal of the SOLCAN Program Planning Task is to assist in the development, at the state and local levels, of consumer assurance approaches that will support the accelerated adoption and effective use of new products promoted by government incentives to consumers to meet our nation's energy needs. The task includes state-conducted evaluations and state SOLCAN meetings to identify consumer assurance mechanisms, assess their effectiveness, and identify and describe alternative means for strengthening consumer and industry assurance in each state. Results of the SOLCAN process are presented, including: a Solar Consumer Protection State Assessment Guide; State Solar Consumer Assurance Resources for Selected States; State Solar Consumer Protection Assessment Interviews for Florida; and state SOLCAN meeting summaries and participants. (LEW)

  7. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  8. Consumer Behavior: Developing Skills for Assertiveness. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Lou

    The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…

  9. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  10. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is

  11. Consumer@Protection. EU. An analysis of European consumer legislation in the information society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock Buning, M. de; Hondius, E.H.; Prins, C.; Vries, Marc de

    2001-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce have emerged as the emblems of a worldwide virtual economy. Although it is yet difficult to grasp all the repercussions of the borderless world of the Internet, it is certain that to shop in this world is different from shopping in the world as we knew it ten

  12. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  13. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual......'s striving for sustainability. The relevant external conditions are an extremely diverse set of factors, perhaps their only commonality being that, unless making an organized effort, consumers can do nothing about them. Because external conditions influence all or many consumers, making them more...... facilitating for sustainable consumption can be much more effective than anything an individual consumer can do. Many of the external constraints facing consumers who want to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle are of a relative nature and their impact depends on the individual's resources. For instance...

  14. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  15. The capacity of the consumer to process information and make informed choices in the digital internal market (Deliverable 5.4)

    OpenAIRE

    Sybe de Vries; Marie-Pierre Granger; Silvia Adamo; Andrea Bianculli; Anne-Marie van den Bossche

    2016-01-01

    If we assume that market integration serves the interest of citizens in their capacity as consumers and optimizes consumer welfare, then the EU rules on free movement and competition could, according to Weatherill, be seen as a form of consumer policy.[1] Since national consumer protection law may impede free movement, which in itself is thus designed to advance the consumer interest, the European Court of Justice (hereafter: ECJ or Court), has developed its own notion of consumer interest.[2...

  16. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  17. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying

  18. Attention, motivation, and consumer judgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...

  19. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  20. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  1. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  2. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  3. Profile of organic food consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranjac Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prove that profile of organic food consumers is dependent on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as to shape universal organic food consumer profile. The survey included 398 consumers in Serbia. Results indicate existence of typical consumer's profile. The findings could be generalized proving that socio-demographic profiles in a larger population are strictly related to the decision to utilize organic food. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes can help all of them to play more active role in this supply chain. It should stimulate the personalized approach to the particular groups of consumers based on socio-demographic characteristics in order to intensify consumption of organic food and to create different marketing plans dependent on the particular countries or areas.

  4. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  5. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  6. The Role of Consumer's Identification in Consumer Behavior and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Razeghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between congruity of consumer and brand values, brand identification, brand commitment, and word of mouth. In order to test the relationships between variables 600 questionnaire were distributed in Dubai Malls (Sun and Sand Sports and 334 of questionnaires were received and analyzed. To verify the validity of the questionnaire and to test the significance of observer variables (questionnaire and latent variables (factors, confirmatory factor analysis was used, and Cronbach's alpha was employed to test the reliability. To evaluate the association between variables, the Pearson correlation test is used, and then to verify the conceptual model test the structural equation modeling (SEM and LISREL software are deployed. The result shows that Value congruity positively influences consumers' identification with a brand and Value congruity positively influences consumers ‘commitment to brand. The result also shows that Consumer identification has a positive influence on brand commitment and mediating variable between value congruity and brand commitment and Consumers commitment to a brand has a positive influence on positive WOM and mediating variable between consumers' identification and WOM. The results also demonstrate that Consumer identification positively influences positive WOM.

  7. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  8. Consumer and media viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, S.

    1988-01-01

    The future of the nuclear community will not resemble the past. Suddenly gone are the years of blind public trust, cheers for building the bomb that ended a world war, and the unquestioned alliance of patriotism and Pu. Awakened by the radioactivity cloud from Chernobyl and recent revelations of major releases during Hanford's early years, the public is demanding to play a part in its own future in suddenly jam-packed hearings. After four decades, nuclear pioneers should consider that a technology fashioned largely in the vacuum of war-driven secrecy is now being judged--fairly or not--alongside the rather unforgiving measures of present-day politics, economics and morality. The spiral of distrust may continue without a semblance of the following remedies. (1) The press and the public need to become better educated in radiation basics to start making more informed decisions on multi-billion-dollar issues. (2) Because reasoned public discussions of anything nuclear is at an impasse, supporters and critics of nuclear activities should spend less time trying to discredit their opponents and more time trying to understand why they think as they do. (3) The radiation-protection community should welcome scrutiny for one simple reason: no other way exists to regain public trust and respect

  9. Competition and Consumer Behavior in the Context of the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mădălina Vătămănescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to investigate the relation between competition and online purchasing decision-making, integrating consumer protection awareness and the corresponding consumer behavior as mediators. The focus is on both subjective and objective measures related to the level of consumer awareness and action in a fast-growing competition, potentiated by the digital economy. In order to investigate the relations between the aforementioned concepts, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted, using a sample of 257 students from three top Romanian universities. Based upon the theoretical directions presented in the literature review, a conceptual model was elaborated and tested by employing a partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. As the examination of the structural model indicated, online purchasing decision-making is indirectly influenced by the high competition in the digital economy, by means of consumer protection awareness and consumer protection behavior. At this level, the analyzed factors, namely the competition in the digital economy, the consumer protection awareness and the consumer behavior with respect to the consumer protection policies, explain over 16% in the variance of the online purchasing decision-making.

  10. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  11. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  12. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  13. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  14. Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Economy: Availing Sustainable Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital economy and, implicitly, of competition in the online marketplace has triggered new challenges in terms of consumer protection approaches. Online, consumer skills are expected to be improved and the level of consumer awareness and engagement increased. These are the baseline prerequisites of the sustainable purchasing decision and, thus, should be considered as pillars of responsible online consumption. Consistent with the novel consumption challenges, the current paper is intended to advance and test a research model integrating five main constructs, namely, competition in the online marketplace, online consumer skills, online consumer awareness, online consumer engagement and sustainable purchasing decision. A total of 318 college students—a representative population of the new Millennials generation—accepted the invitation to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. In order to pertinently analyze the collected data, a structural equation modeling technique based on partial least squares was employed for the assessment of the measurement and the structural model. The findings indicated that the model explained 24.4 percent of the variance of sustainable purchasing decisions, while the highest influence was exerted by the improvement of online consumer skills. This implies that online providers should revisit their products sustainability standards on purpose to preserve a competitive advantage.

  15. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  16. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  17. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  18. Marketing research of consumer perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception involves the collection, processing and interpretation of information through sensory receptors and represents the reality of an individual. Collecting customer information is imperative for marketing, because consumers are in the focus of defining all its objectives, strategies and plans. The result of the perception depends on a number of factors and that is why people do not experience stimuli in the same way. A marketing research of consumer perceptions has been carried out in order to identify the habits and understand the behavior of consumers when choosing products with special emphasis on the influence of perception, stimuli from the environment and perceptions of risk in their decision. .

  19. Drivers of high-involvement consumers' intention to buy PDO wines: Valpolicella PDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitello, Roberta; Agnoli, Lara; Begalli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers' intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance tests, principal component analysis and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated: (1) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; (2) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; (3) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouthfeel hedonic dimensions; and (4) consumers' liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers' intentions to buy more than the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers. The analysis of the drivers of consumers' intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers' subjective characteristics in market segmentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  1. Consumer Education in Any Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  2. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  3. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  4. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  5. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  6. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Up With Kids' Apps infographic Kids and Computer Security Kids and Mobile Phones Kids and Socializing Online ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  7. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying process by focusing their marketing efforts on elements shaping the customer's virtual experience, the Web experience. Identifying the Web experience components and understanding their role as inpu...

  8. Consumer Behavior dan Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Pura A, Agus Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Marketing concept emerged since business philosophy shifted to a customer-centered, the job is to find the right products for your choosen target markets. The reason for customer orientation in which all functions work together to respond to, Serve, and satisfy customer. To satisfy consumer (end user) the marketing concept use integrated marketing, that is segmenting, Targeting, positioning, and marketing mix (4p/7p). And to.be success, marketer have to understand the behavior of consumers of...

  9. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  10. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  11. Consumer Behaviour in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hasslinger, Anders; Hodzic, Selma; Opazo, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how the consumer perceives online purchases. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad. Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was ...

  12. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  13. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  14. Consumer perceptions of free will

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Joseph W.; Vanhouche, Wouter; van Osselaer, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    The topic of free will has a long and distinguished history in philosophy and psychology. Consumer research has implicitly confronted the issue through empirical investigation of psychological processes that speak to the existence of free will; more recently, consumer psychologists have explicitly debated the question and its implications for decision making. The present research takes a different approach by investigating consumers’ perceptions of their free will. Our results suggest that...

  15. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  17. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  18. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brand placement disclosure effects on persuasion: The moderating role of consumer self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Fransen, M.L.; Wulff, R.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of branded products in media entertainment has become a popular marketing strategy, because viewers are less likely to recognize the persuasive intent of sponsored content as compared with traditional advertising. To guarantee fair communication and protect consumers against

  20. Quick Tips for Buying Medicines Over the Internet: A Consumer Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Protecting Yourself Counterfeit Medicine Medication Health Fraud For Consumers For Health Professionals Page Last Updated: ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  2. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  3. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  4. Consumers' perceptions of biocidal products in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions. The questions focussed on the comprehension of the term 'biocide', pest control habits, sources of information, risk perception of different product groups and possible emission reduction measures. Only 21% of the respondents understood the term 'biocide' correctly, whereas 29% thought of 'something that had to do with organic pest control', and 28% were not able to think of a possible meaning. The risk perception of biocidal products compared to plant protection products varied depending on the living conditions. In the urban neighbourhood, biocidal products were perceived as more dangerous than in the rural area. The main pests to be fought were ants, mould and fruit fly. The results of the study indicate that there is a considerable difference between the types of biocidal products that interviewees claimed to own and those that they actually did have in their households. Most notably, respondents did not realise that they owned surface disinfectants. This result indicates that consumers often seem not to be aware of using specific biocidal products. Also, this shows the limitations of collecting data on products owned with only one method, as the results from products inventories of the households deviate from the data collected in interviews. Our results show that the term 'biocide' is not fully understood by many people. To communicate possible risks of biocidal products

  5. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0394; EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0786; FRL-9786-1] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and... consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to approve language to clarify...

  6. Website quality indicators for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2005-11-15

    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  7. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.

  8. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  10. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  11. Consumer engagement in social networks brand community

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakovas, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...

  12. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  13. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  14. The impact of the credit legislation on consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine two South Africa legislations dealing with over indebtedness of a consumer. It is clear that in terms of the South African law, section 129 (1 and 130 (3 of the National Credit Act provide that a creditor provider who wishes to enforce a debt under a credit agreement must first issue a section 129 (1 (a notice to the consumer (the purpose of the notice is to notify the consumer of his/her arrears. On the other hand, the South African National Credit Act encourages the consumers to fulfil the financial obligations for which they are responsible. The second legislation to be examined which serve or appear to serve same purpose as the National Credit Act is the Insolvency Act. It therefore, postulated that the compulsory sequestration of a consumer in terms of the Insolvency Act would stand as an alternative remedy for a credit provider before she/he can have recourse mechanisms, such as debt review that are focused on satisfaction of the consumer’s financial obligation , in terms of the provisions of the National Credit Act. The paper determines to what extend these measures comply with the constitutional consumer protection demands. The legislature had been pertinently cognizant of the Insolvency Act when it lately enacted the National Credit Act. This is much apparent from the express amendment of section 84 of the Insolvency Act to the extent set out in schedule 2 of the National Credit Act

  15. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors.

  16. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  17. Secondary School Student's Attitude towards Consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.

  18. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  19. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  20. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test