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Sample records for consumer protection lebensmitteltoxikologie

  1. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  2. Consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrbová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    77 Resumé This thesis is dedicated to the consumer protection. My reason for the choice of this topic was following. A field of consumer protection is being continually developed. It is complicated for a layman to be well informed about all his rights and duties not only because the Czech legal regulation suffers from a immense fragmentation. Moreover, the implementation of EC directives ( as a source of many provisions protecting a consumer in the Civil Code) into our legal system was carrie...

  3. Consumer protection and grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Sklář, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with consumer protection and grocery section regulations. It's objective is to evaluate whether grocery stores stick to law while selling food and to analyze attitudes and behavior of consumers. The theoretical part deals with definition of consumer and other related concepts and with obligations of food sellers and consumer rights. The practical part consists of three parts that contain expert commentary, own research performed through grocery stores and survey tak...

  4. Specified problems of consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    KRCHOVÁ, Ladislava

    2009-01-01

    Problems of consumer protection are always on the surface and they concern all of us. Consumer protection should not only be important for consumers, but for all of society as well. The aim of consumer protection is the existence of convenient consumer rights, supervisory institutions and consumer organizations. The task of these consumer organizations is giving information, advising and educating consumers. The well-educated and informed consumer will be equal partners with sellers, who are ...

  5. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  6. Consumer Protection: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman CHATTERJEE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is marked as the era of consumers. No country can knowingly or unknowingly disregard the interest of the consumers. This can be argued on the basis of fast enactment of consumer protection laws in almost all part of the world. Apart from the consumer protection laws in developed world, we could find the accelerated rate of lawmaking for consumers in developing countries like Thailand, Sri Lanka, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Mauritius, China, Taiwan, Nepal, Indonesia, Malaysia and other countries. India is not an exception to this rule. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, is one of the examples that is to be treated as a milestone in the history of socio-economic legislation to protect the interests of the consumers in India. The main objective of the Consumer Protection Act is to ensure the better protection of consumers. Unlike existing laws which are punitive or preventive in nature, the provisions of this Act are compensatory in nature. The Act is also intended to provide simple, speedy and inexpensive redressal to the consumers’ grievances, and relief of a pecific nature and award of compensation wherever appropriate to the consumer. The act has been amended in 1993 both to extend its coverage and scope and to enhance the powers of the redressal machinery.

  7. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  8. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more. Find answers to common questions Reach your financial goals For the big financial decisions in your life, we offer free tools ... 2016 Events Field hearing on consumer access to financial records in Salt Lake City, Utah NOV 03, ...

  9. Choisen problems of the consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    HUML, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.

  10. Choisen problems of the consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    HUML, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.

  11. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  12. Free medical care and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aniket Deepak; Banerjee, Arunabha

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the question of whether patients, who receive free medical care, whether from private charitable or governmental hospitals, can claim rights as 'consumers' under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The issue will be discussed from a constitutional perspective as well as that of the law of torts.

  13. Consumer Protection in the Electronic Market Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed......This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed...

  14. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... regulatory authorities and State attorneys general the right to enforce certain consumer protection... Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... goods regulatory authorities and State attorneys general may enforce certain consumer protection...

  15. Consumer Protection in Colombian Housing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villalba Cuéllar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to highline the fundamental aspects of the legal framework of protection to consumers according to the traditional rules of private law. The context is the Colombian housing industry. To fulfill its objective, the author will review the regulation in order to identify the main features of this area of protection as duty of information, misleading advertising, the warranty liability, unfair terms and product liability.

  16. Consumer Protection Policies and Rational Behavior Consumer Protection Policies and Rational Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Engel

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available How consumers behave has important consequences when assessing the effectiveness of particular consumer protection policies. In this paper it is argued that policies that rely strongly on consumer rationality, such as information provision requirements, are considerable less effective in practice than what is foreseen under the usual assumptions of economic models. The relation between consumer behavior and a variety of consumer protection issues, such as unfair business practices, the benefits of standardization. informatioll regulation, education campaigne, large scale scams and advertising, is analyzed. How consumers behave has important consequences when assessing the effectiveness of particular consumer protection policies. In this paper it is argued that policies that rely strongly on consumer rationality, such as information provision requirements, are considerable less effective in practice than what is foreseen under the usual assumptions of economic models. The relation between consumer behavior and a variety of consumer protection issues, such as unfair business practices, the benefits of standardization. informatioll regulation, education campaigne, large scale scams and advertising, is analyzed.

  17. Consumer Protection Strategies: A Literature Review and Synthesis. Improving the Consumer Protection Function in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Carolyn B.; Jung, Steven M.

    Summarized are the findings of an American Institutes for Research (AIR) project to field test a data capture and dissemination system that would provide information for improving consumer protection in postsecondary education. Presented is a discussion of the methodology used, examples of consumer abuses cited in the literature, an analysis of…

  18. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  19. Issue Papers To Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    This document is intended to present background information on the basic consumer protection issues in postsecondary education. Topics discussed are: (1) recruitment practices of postsecondary schools; (2) the role of a state agency in consumer protection; (3) consumer rights, responsibilities and redress of consumer protection; (4) advertising…

  20. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    research and to propose policies relating to consumer issues to the Minister. 16 .... ability or financial means to institute action against a supplier. However ..... business to members of a club, trade union, association, society or an incorporated.

  1. Protection for the Consumer; Business Education: 6463.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finora, Daniel

    This course is designed to acquaint the student with the functions, criticisms, costs, and consumer analysis of advertising; Federal and State regulations of industry operation and advertising; Federal, State, and city agencies for consumer protection; private and business-sponsored organizations for consumer protection; and rights and…

  2. Risk Analysis and Consumer Protection in B2C Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-zheng; SHI Qi-liang; Gary Millar; Ruhul A. Sarker

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the perceived lack of security is a major obstacle to the wider acceptance of e-commerce. To overcome this barrier, businesses need to implement comprehensive consumer protection systems that protect consumers during every stage of the purchasing process. This paper used the consumer behaviour model as the basis for analysing risks in Bussiness-to-Consumer (B2C) transactions. Four categories of risks were identified: information, agreement, payment and delivery risk. By combining these risk categories with the three dimensions of management, technology and legislation, a comprehensive B2C consumer protection framework is developed.

  3. Financial Regulatory Reform: Consumer Financial Protection Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    decisions subject to judicial review.40 Any generally applicable state consumer law would apply to national banks and thrifts unless it discriminates...provided by existing powers that the bill would transfer from another regulator to the CFPA or an enumerated consumer law , such as the Truth in Lending Act...against them (presumably to the benefit of state-chartered financial institutions) or conflicts with the Act.41 Additionally, any state consumer

  4. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanković Ljiljana; Đukić Suzana; Popović Ana

    2013-01-01

    ... is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising...

  5. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  6. Individual Licensing Models and Consumer Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Liu, K.-C.; Hilty, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Copyright law is not primarily directed at consumers. Their interests are therefore only marginally accounted for, as the copyright rules exempt specific uses of works from the right holder’s control. This chapter examines the impact of digital technology on the position of consumers of licensed

  7. Accreditation and Student Consumer Protection. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Steven M.

    The role of postsecondary accreditation and its relation to student consumer protection are discussed in this monograph. The importance of this concept is examined in light of increased marketing efforts on the part of higher education institutions. It is emphasized that students are consumers and their rights should be protected. Possible areas…

  8. Protection of consumer rights and interests. Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdi BEKTASHI

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the strategy and process of protection of customer rights and interests in Kosovo. The rights and interests of consumers in the domestic market are still not adequately protected, in a manner and form as is done in most countries of the European Union. The origin of the protection of the rights and interests of consumers in Kosovo began in 2004, with the approval of Consumer Protection Law (Law no. 2004/17) by the Kosovo Assembly. After the declar...

  9. Problems of the consumer rights protection in education: Topical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zivarts J.

    2014-01-01

    Several issues are absorbed in practice and research of law applying, concerning the protection of consumers in “traditional” business and services. But issues concerning customer protection in specific fields of individual and legal persons-education, health, science are not investigated and therefore create difficulties in practice. The aim of the paper is to study theoretical and practical issues concerning customer protection in education in Latvia with an emphasis on gaps of consumer pro...

  10. Rethinking Consumer Protection Policy in Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Haim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA HE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-language:HE;} Financial products for consumers usually are characterized by complexity and incomprehensibility. Consumers typically find themselves defeated when attempting to control their financial destiny by understanding these products. This Article explores the economic and social factors that lead to this reality, analyzes its highly negative private and social ramifications and proposes an appropriate policy response. I argue that the current market structure creates a reality in which financial institutions are motivated to produce complex financial products for consumers in order to maximize their profits. This market structure, combined with inadequate policy, induces inefficiency by allocating the comprehension costs of financial products to the consumer.   My thesis is that a fundamental change in risk allocation policy will steer the market toward consumer comprehension of financial products and, therefore, will reduce private and social costs, increase consumer trust in financial institutions and promote social cohesion. I propose a new default liability rule under which financial institutions would be required to introduce internal procedures and mechanisms to ensure product comprehension among all of their consumers. To encourage maximum compliance with my proposal, I suggest implementing a reputation-based incentives method that

  11. Consumer protection... the realities of medical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R

    1979-08-10

    The concept of medical audit is an extension of consumer philosophy, writes Ron McKay, but if you are paying for someone else's treatment how do you ensure your money has been spent correctly? In the United States the answer was auditing treatment and medical competence. In the light of the Royal Commission's recommendation for a greater degree of urgency in implementing medical audit here he asks how much can be learned from the US?

  12. 77 FR 63240 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... organizations, companies with whom consumers have an established business relationship, and calls to persons... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has approved, for a period of three years,...

  13. Your Credit Rights: An Instructional Unit on Consumer Credit Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Jean A.; And Others

    This instructional guide was designed to assist educators in teaching the topics of consumer credit and consumer credit protection to secondary and postsecondary students in various economics and business courses, as well as for use in adult and community education courses. The guide contains four sections, which can be used singly or in…

  14. The Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Charles

    This guide for secondary teachers is designed to identify and illustrate specified illegal practices identified in the Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. The guide also explains procedures that a consumer or law-enforcement agency can take to enforce the provisions of this law. Since the act is a broad one, students learn not only about…

  15. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... Organization Headquarters Building, Washington, DC AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection....

  16. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  17. Fundamental Consumer Rights Under the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: A Critical Overview and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van Niekerk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was in need of a comprehensive framework of legislation, policies and government authorities to regulate consumer-supplier interaction. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008, which was signed by the President of the Republic of South Africa on 29 April 2009 and published in the Government Gazette on 29 April 2009, now provides an extensive framework for consumer protection and aims to develop, enhance and protect the rights of consumers and to eliminate unethical suppliers and improper business practices. Certain areas of the common law regarding consumer rights have been codified by the Act and certain unfair business practices that were previously unregulated are now governed by the Act. The Act has a wide field of application. It applies to every transaction occurring within South Africa for the supply of goods or services or the promotion of goods or services and the goods or services themselves, unless the transaction is exempted from the application of the Act. The Act also specifically regulates aspects of franchise agreements. In terms of the Act, consumers obtain several new rights and some existing rights are broadened and reinforced. These rights are: the right to equality in the consumer market; privacy; choice; disclosure and information; fair and responsible marketing; fair and honest dealing; fair, just and reasonable terms and conditions; and fair value, good quality and safety. The last right in terms of the Act deals with a supplier's accountability to consumers. The authors critically analyse and discuss these rights. It is clear that the Act is written in favour of the consumer.

  18. Trademarks, consumer protection and domain names on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current problems of the conflict of domain names on the Internet with trade marks in relation to the consumer protection. The aim of the article is to refer to ways and means of protection against of the speculative registration of a domain name. In the Czech legal order these means represent legal regulation of the unfair competition in Commercial Code, regulation of liability for damage together with the Trademarks Act.

  19. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-Term Care Insurance Model Act (Model Act) and Long-Term Care Insurance Model Regulation...

  20. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents a...

  1. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps that i...

  2. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Quest for Consumer Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Willis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that consumers understand financial products’ “costs, benefits, and risks,” the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has been redesigning mandated disclosures, primarily through iterative lab testing. But no matter how well these disclosures perform in experiments, firms will run circles around the disclosures when studies end and marketing begins. To meet the challenge of the dynamic twenty-first-century consumer financial marketplace, the bureau should require firms to demonstrate that a good proportion of their customers understand key pertinent facts about the financial products they buy. Comprehension rules would induce firms to inform consumers and simplify products, tasks that firms are better equipped than the bureau to perform.

  3. Students as Consumers: The Implications of the Consumer Protection Act for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act applies to HEIs. This article, firstly,…

  4. The Consumerism and Consumer Protection Policies in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the efficiency of the markets generally guarantees an effective superiority of the consumers, that unjustly consider them to be affected by large-scale diffusing of the consumption process, but which in reality are not more than the free choice expression of the consumers, practically of their own autonomy. Starting from these aspects, the authors have aimed, after a short presentation of the consumer protection policies and the origins and evolution of the consumption phenomenon within the EU, to identify and analyze the critical elements with impacts over these policies, but also the first steps made by the institutions and legislation of the states that make the European Community. Our attention has been mainly focused on the future strategies programmed by the EC, highlighting the support and harmony encouragement necessity between the national legislations of the EU member states, in order to answer first of all to the more pressing demand, on behalf of the citizens, to have laws as simple and clear as possible, and therefore to be protected. Therefore, consumer protection becomes, from an objective mediated through individual interventions of the Community Institutions (inspired by the harmonization wish of the national legislation afferent to the EU member states regarding economical and commercial relations one of the main intervention policies of the Community Organisms.

  5. Can regulatory agencies protect consumers. Stigler-Cohen debate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, A.

    1983-01-01

    Stigler-Cohen debate, organized by the American Enterprise Institute, took place twelve years ago. Since then, the movement now known as consumerism has rapidly grown and its impact on public opinion and on political decision makers is of greatest importance to business - it cannot be simply wished away, it must be dealt with rationally and effectively. The paper recognizes the changed reality of the marketplace resulting in growing consumer impotence and a very real need for protection going beyond the general rules governing commercial transactions. At the same time, the author points out that regulation is not costless, that the cure is often worse than the disease. Public policy must be assessed in the light of its overall effects, it must not be based simply on a response to a single-minded call for redress however loudly articulated. There is a great inconsistency in piecemeal attempts at protecting the consumer from himself, while government-supplied goods and services, and government-controlled monopoly pricing afford little consumer protection. Finally, the paper reminds us that freedom itself is our most valuable possession and must not be thoughtlessly traded for perceived temporary advantages.

  6. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...

  7. Board certification in professional psychology: promoting competency and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David R

    2010-04-01

    Board certification in psychology provides an opportunity for increased assessment of and demonstration of competence in the profession. In addition to serving as a means of consumer protection, it can serve the professional psychologist by providing the opportunity for increased income, professional satisfaction, facilitated mobility, and professional development. Jurisdictional and organizational recognition of the importance of board certification is increasing. This article uses the model and experience of the American Board of Professional Psychology, with particular attention to the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, to illustrate these benefits. Recent developments regarding board certification are described, as well as how to become involved in the process.

  8. Overview of multimedia content protection in consumer electronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Ahmet M.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2000-05-01

    A digital home network is a cluster of digital audio/visual (A/V) devices including set-top boxes, TVs, VCRs, DVD players, and general-purpose computing devices such as personal computers. The network may receive copyrighted digital multimedia content from a number of sources. This content may be broadcast via satellite or terrestrial systems, transmitted by cable operators, or made available as prepackaged media (e.g., a digital tape or a digital video disc). Before releasing their content for distribution, the content owners may require protection by specifying access conditions. Once the content is delivered to the consumer, it moves across home the network until it reaches its destination where it is stored or displayed. A copy protection system is needed to prevent unauthorized access to bit streams in transmission from one A/V device to another or while it is in storage on magnetic or optical media. Recently, two fundamental groups of technologies, encryption and watermarking, have been identified for protecting copyrighted digital multimedia content. This paper is an overview of the work done for protecting content owners' investment in intellectual property.

  9. Litigation against dermatosurgeons and cosmetologists and consumer protection act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of beauty has acquired new dimensions due to the increasing awareness in general public about the aesthetic procedures. The problems between the patient and the cosmetologists arise when the patients expectations become very high and unrealistic. The classical concept of doctor – patient relationship born in the golden days of family physicians has undergone drastic change due to dramatic advancement in medical technology, availability of sophisticated imaging system, high tech electronics and preponderance of new diseases. However, the accountability of the doctors under the law of professional negligence has emerged as a debatable issue among the medical fraternity all over the country after the enactment of the consumer protection act, 1986, which has not only changed the law of medical negligence1, but created an inexpensive and speedy remedy against medical malpractice.

  10. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  11. Protection of Interests of Consumers. Message from the President of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Richard

    Based on the concept of "buyer's rights," this message details the following Presidential recommendations concerning consumer protection: 1) An Office of Consumer Affairs in the Executive Office of the President, with new legislative standing, an expanded budget, and greater responsibilities; 2) A Division of Consumer Protection in the…

  12. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... airlines, travel agents, airport operators, state and local governments, and consumer and other public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF... Consumer Travel Alliance. All of the committee members have demonstrated experience in dealing...

  13. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  14. 76 FR 12817 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... across America navigate complex financial decisions, from buying a home or car to paying off a loan or... balance of power back to the American consumer. I was proud to sign into law the strongest consumer... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-5541 Filed 3-8-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P...

  15. Locus of Control and Protection of Consumer Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of locus of control on the consumer behavior. Theoretical supposition is proven by analyzing empirical data from a study of 287 students. The methods assessed the capacity for defending personal and consumer rights, as well as the type of locus of control.

  16. 76 FR 14014 - Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Public Roundtables: Protecting Consumers in the Sale and Leasing of Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Trade... pertaining to motor vehicle sales and leasing, the FTC is hosting a series of public roundtables in 2011. The... interested parties to discuss consumer protection issues in connection with motor vehicle sales and...

  17. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  18. Effective methods of consumer protection in Brazil. An analysis in the context of property development contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Alcici Salomão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer protection in arbitration, especially under the example of property development contract disputes in Brazil. This is a very current issue in light of the presidential veto of consumer arbitration on May 26, 2015. The article discusses the arbitrability of these disputes based on Brazilian legislation and relevant case law. It also analyzes of the advantages, disadvantages and trends of consumer arbitration in the context of real estate contracts. The paper concludes by providing suggestions specific to consumer protection in arbitration based on this analysis.

  19. Consumer Protection in Turkey: Law, Informality and the Role of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Creutzfeldt, Naomi; Mahy, Petra; KAZAZ, Jana; Caliskan, Emre; Lu, Yin Yin

    2016-01-01

    This report is part of a University of Oxford John Fell funded collaborative project:Informality and the Media in Consumer Protection in Emerging Economies. This pilot project seeks to shed light upon consumer complaint behaviour through social media in emerging economies. This report is about Turkey. It offers an overview of consumer protection laws, and a summary of what Turkish consumers complain about and how they choose to do this. The aim is to set the scene and context for further in-d...

  20. 77 FR 34233 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... autodialed or prerecorded calls (i.e., not simply those delivering marketing messages), it concludes that... expect marketing and service calls. The Commission disagrees. Consumers who provide a wireless phone... indicated that the term ``signed'' may include an electronic or digital form of signature, to the...

  1. Anti-Aging Medicine: Can Consumers Be Better Protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Binstock, Robert H.; Juengst, Eric T.; Ponsaran, Roselle S.; Whitehouse, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of interventions claiming to prevent, retard, or reverse aging is proliferating. Some of these interventions can seriously harm older persons and aging baby boomers who consume them. Others that are merely ineffective may divert patients from participating in beneficial regimens and also cause them economic harm. "Free market…

  2. Anti-Aging Medicine: Can Consumers Be Better Protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Binstock, Robert H.; Juengst, Eric T.; Ponsaran, Roselle S.; Whitehouse, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of interventions claiming to prevent, retard, or reverse aging is proliferating. Some of these interventions can seriously harm older persons and aging baby boomers who consume them. Others that are merely ineffective may divert patients from participating in beneficial regimens and also cause them economic harm. "Free market…

  3. 78 FR 26101 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... and travel agent industry, including GDSs, online travel agents, and consumer groups on the privacy... purchase of air travel from airlines and travel agents. Issues to be addressed are: what information is collected and by whom; who retains information (airlines, travel agents, including on-line travel......

  4. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... mandated by Section 411 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-95, 126 Stat. 11 (2012... passengers arriving on international flights through the U.S. Customs and Border Protection facilities at...

  5. The Principles of the Consumer Right Protection in Electronic Trade: A Comparative Law Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Anatolyevna Kirillova; Elena Anatolyevna Shergunova; Elena Stepanovna Ustinovich; Nikolay Nikolaevich Nadezhin; Lyubov Borisovna Sitdikova

    2016-01-01

    .... The development of electronic communications poses new tasks before the system of international private law, and one of them is the protection of the consumer rights, when conducting electronic trade...

  6. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  7. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  8. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

    and discusses information requirements of particular interest to m-commerce and how the technological development facilitates but also challenges the traditional way in which legal information is given. In order to prevent over-regulation and hindrances to the technological development, it has been suggested...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  9. The importance of traceability for public health and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, J D

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1980s, concerns about the safety and quality of food have increased at both governmental and consumer levels. The importance of traceability of animals and animal products has grown as food production and marketing have been removed from direct consumer control. Product traceability, which requires a transparent chain of custody to maintain credibility and to complete information transfer functions, has two components, namely: a unique identification system, and a credible and verifiable mechanism for identity preservation. Traceability systems can be subdivided into the following four categories: country of origin; retail; processor; and farm-to-retail identity. Although the availability of computers and electronic data devices can enhance the speed and accuracy of data acquisition and manipulation, a common set of developmental criteria exists, irrespective of data-handling processes. As data management technologies become more powerful and less costly, product traceability requirements will multiply. Public and private sectors should seize these opportunities to improve public health and quality parameters, or risk a narrowing of their markets.

  10. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Consumer Protection in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of consumer rights and consumer welfare are increasingly important, especially in the current economic climate in which the ability to make informed choices represents a real advantage in consumers’ daily life. In order to make their purchases with confidence, both in their country and abroad, consumers need easy access to precise information and to professional advice. Taking into account the fact that education and training are a strategic factor for a sustainable development through contribution to human capital development, within the Romania–Bulgaria Cross-Border Cooperation Program 2007–2013, the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svisthov, Bulgaria decided to collaborate in the field “Cooperation on human resources development – joint development of skills and knowledge”, through the development of cross-border liaisons and exchanges between the two universities. Our objective is to bring up new methods of training in the field of consumer protection in order to train and to supply the labour market with specialized experts in this field in charge with various issues regarding consumers in enterprises, in organizations in charge with elaborating consumer protection policies and in organizations in charge with market supervision and control and also in consumers’ associations. We consider that in this way we meet both consumers’ and employers’ needs because economic agents need professionals in the field as well, in order to advise them in their quest to protect the rights and interests of consumers. Also, Meglena Kuneva, the European Commissioner for Consumer Protection, noted that studies conducted at European level revealed that there is a high level of interest for recruiting qualified experts in the field of consumer protection shown by large companies, national governments, small and medium enterprises and consumers’ associations. In order to

  11. Evolution of consumer protection law in the light of the Proposal for a Horizontal Directive on Consumer Rights and Rome I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a broad analysis of changes in the field of consumer protection law in the European Union over three decades. In 2004, the European Commission launched a project of reviewing consumer law in order to strengthen consumers’ confidence in the internal market and to encourage businesses to conduct cross-border trading. The EU consumer protection regulatory framework is based on directives including a minimum harmonization clause. This clause allows Member States to maintain or adopt stricter consumer protection rules and leads to fragmentation in their national laws. For instance, it was found that the notion and definition of a consumer has been designed for use by a specific directive, depending on which area is covered by the regulation of the personal scope. The definition of the so-called weaker party in a contractual relationship is understood in a narrow way, which is highlighted in the established line of the European Court of Justice case law. A brief outline of the history of the shaping of consumer protection policy in the European Union is presented to demonstrate how the problem of amending consumer protection law has evolved in the EU as well as increased in importance; this has been demonstrated in several programs and resolutions of the European Parliament and communications of the European Commission, which discuss the need to reform consumer contract law. The Proposal for a Horizontal Directive on Consumer Rights is the result of a review of consumer law acquis communautaire, referred to as the Consumer Acquis, and aims at introducing a full harmonization clause where feasible. Until recently, the norms governing the determination of the law applicable to consumer contracts have been defined by the Rome Convention of 1980 on the law applicable to contract relations. Due to its overly casuistic nature and outdated provisions relating to consumer contracts, it was decided to amend the Convention

  12. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being euge

  13. LA PROTECCIÓN DE LOS CONSUMIDORES FINANCIEROS. THE PROTECTION OF FINANCIAL CONSUMERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayda Soraya Marín Galeano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone contrastar las diferentes legislaciones de protección a los consumidores financieros, observando el panorama colombiano con relación a otros países. El estudio se desarrolla en cuatro fases: en la primera, se expondrá un panorama general de los derechos de los consumidores financieros; en la segunda, se presentarán los indicadores construidos; la tercera, constará de la medición y comparación de la protección del consumidor financiero en los cinco países seleccionados (Chile, Colombia, Reino Unido, España y Estados Unidos; y finalmente, se propondrán hipótesis causales que expliquen la protección del consumidor financiero. Abstract: This article intends to contrast the different laws of protection to financial consumers, in which the Colombian view is being compared with the one from other countries. This study is developed in four stages: in the first one, a comprehensive overview of the financial consumer rights will be set out; in the second one, the built indicators will be shown; in the third one, the measurement and comparison of the financial consumer protection will be carried out in the five following selected countries: Chile, Colombia, United Kingdom, Spain, and The United States; and in the last one, causal hypotheses explaining the financial consumer protection will be proposed.

  14. Historical study regarding the protection of consumers within the electric energy and natural gas markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Pîrvu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The supply of electric energy and natural gas is a service of general interest, with a vital importance in satisfying the consumer’s basic needs. The conducted research is descriptive and its main focus is on the study of the field literature, aiming at aspects such as identifying the historic evolution of the electric energy and natural gas markets in Romania, the behaviour of companies operating on these markets and their impact on the consumers’ rights. The research methodology has been established starting from a synthetic analysis of the most recent published studies on the observation of the European policy in the energy field and EU’s efforts to build up a single, competitive market, including two sectors that not long ago were dominated by monopolistic national actors: electric energy and gas. The research methods imply study monitoring and reports as well as forecast analyses regarding the capacity of the Three Energy Packages, once implemented, to support the creation of competitive, transparent and uniformly regulated energy markets within the EU countries, in order to ensure the protection of the consumers of these general interest services. The research has a dual approach, combining quantitative and qualitative elements as well as conducting the analysis of the correlations between the efforts and effects registered in the field of consumer protection. The first section of the article offers conceptual clarifications regarding both the European policy in the energy field and the consumers of general economic services. The second section gives an insight into the energy and gas markets in Romania as well as the main obstacles in the way of their liberalization. The third section presents the efforts made with respect to consumer protection in the field of energy, analyzing the European Directives’ fundamental ideas regarding the protection of consumers and the phase of their embedment into our legislation in order to achieve

  15. On financial consumer protection%浅议金融消费者权益保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2014-01-01

    After the 2008 financial crisis, all the countries on the financial consumer protection is missing, have made to improve the legal system, and in the China, although in practice, financial consumer rights infringement cases meet the eye everywhere, but not so far in the field of law, promulgated relevant regulations, even the"financial consumer"name is not formal legal definition, consumer rights and interests protection law amendment is not involved, therefore, the author attempts to think in this field, the definition of"financial consumer", and that the right to know and the right of privacy protection, and whether to give the proper rights of rescission.%2008年金融危机后,各国均反思金融消费者权益保护缺失,纷纷构筑法律制度予以完善,而反观中国,虽然,实务中金融消费者权益受侵犯案例比比皆是,但是,在法律领域至今未出台相关制度加以规范,甚至连“金融消费者”这一名称亦未正式立法界定,最新修改的消费者权益保护法亦未有所涉及,故,笔者尝试在此领域加以思考,界定“金融消费者”,并设想其知情权和隐私权的保护,以及是否需给予其适度反悔权。

  16. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  17. The inadequacy of consumer protection in the UAE: the need for reform

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhafri, Abdulla MA

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis addresses the consumer protection regime in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against damages posed by defective industrial products, unfair business practices and misleading advertising. Nowadays, unfair and deceptive practices such as the selling of defective or sub-standard goods, the charging of exorbitant prices, misrepresentation of the efficacy or usefulness of goods, and negl...

  18. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  19. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  20. Consumer bill of rights and responsibilities: report to the President of the United States. Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    President Clinton appointed a 34-member Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry in 1997, and the group has adopted a statement of consumers' rights and responsibilities. The document addresses eight areas, including information disclosure on health plans, benefits, and qualifications of healthcare providers, choice of providers and plans, access to emergency services, patients' rights to participate in treatment decisions, mutual respect and nondiscrimination, confidentiality of health and personal information, complaints and the appeals process, and the responsibilities of consumers.

  1. Analysing the components of attitude in a function of improving consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are the starting point and the focus of all activities of companies that want to survive in the long term and do business profitably on the market. However, even in the most developed economies in the world do not have all the companies awareness about the importance of social responsible business and ethical marketing. Therefore there is a need for institutional protection of consumers from unfer and unethical business of companies, on the one hand, but on the other hand, they have to encourage themselves to be more involved in the protection of their rights. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the components of consumer attitude about the degree of protection of consumer rights in the Republic of Serbia in order to conclude on which way consumers can be encouraged to participate more actively in the exercise of rights. The aim of this study is to determine whether the cognitive, affective and behavioral component of the attitude are intercorelated and to what extent, and whether cognitive or affective component has dominant influence on forming behavioral component of the consumer attitude. Based on the results of the research about the corelation and influence of the analyzed components of the attitude we draw conclusions on which way it can be possible to affect on the consumer intention to be more engaged in its rights protection as well as on which way it can be possible to improve the consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia, generally speaking.

  2. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  3. Energy and consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Official transcript of public briefing and addendum, March 30, 1978, Washington, D. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Fifty questions are posed dealing with consumer protection, competition, and fraud. Answers are supplied by DOE officers and are additionally discussed at a public briefing on the subject. A transcript of the briefing is included.

  4. Tools for Consumer Rights Protection in the Prediction of Electronic Virtual Market and Technological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Gangur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic virtual markets can serve as an alternative tool for collecting information that is spread among numerous experts. This is the principal market functionality from the operators’ point of view. On the other hand it is profits that are the main interest of the market participants. What they expect from the market is liquidity as high as possible and the opportunity for unrestricted trading. Both the operator and the electronic market participant can be considered consumers of this particular market with reference to the requirements for the accuracy of its outputs but also for the market liquidity. Both the above mentioned groups of consumers (the operators and the participants themselves expect protection of their specific consumer rights, i.e. securing the two above mentioned functionalities of the market. These functionalities of the electronic market are, however, influenced by many factors, among others by participants’ activity. The article deals with the motivation tools that may improve the quality of the prediction market. In the prediction electronic virtual market there may be situations in which the commonly used tools for increasing business activities described in the published literature are not significantly effective. For such situations we suggest a new type of motivation incentive consisting in penalizing the individual market participants whose funds are not placed in the market. The functionality of the proposed motivation incentive is presented on the example of the existing data gained from the electronic virtual prediction market which is actively operated.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  6. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females belonging to dental (222 and medical (226 categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student’s t-test, ANOVA test,and Scheffe’s test were used as tests of significance.Results: The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector.Conclusion: Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  7. The Essences of Halal Labeling of the Consumer Protection within Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijrah Lahaling

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halal labeling is not simply a means of meeting the bodily needs. Simultaneously, it serves to satisfy the spiritual needs. Both Halal and haram foods are easy to identify when still in its fresh state. But as it underwent processing, it might be difficult to determine its halal status. The objectives of this paper are to determine the aspects of legal protection available for the consumers to be able to conveniently trade any food product they desired, to illustrate the MUI Authority as the competent authority with sole power to issue a fatwa to decide halal or haram status of food products around Indonesia; and finally to identify the extent of control held by the Government, LPKSM, and society as the parties playing important roles in monitoring the products or goods on the market. The results showed that the legal protection for the consumers remains weak. Furthermore, there is no maximum supervision carried out by the government, LPKSM, or through society. The presence of JPH Law No. 33 of 2014 still incites polemic, one of which related to the monopoly of authority by MUI.

  8. Financial Consumer Protection in the EU : Towards a Self-Sufficient European Contract Law for Consumer Financial Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of European contract law in the field of consumer financial services gives rise to the question to what extent it is self-sufficient. A self-sufficient European contract law presupposes the existence of an EU-made and EU-enforced contract-related legal order which is largely dist

  9. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  10. Electrosmog. Health hazards, limit values, consumer protection; 4. rev. ed.; Elektrosmog. Gesundheitsrisiken, Grenzwerte, Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karus, M.; Ebert, L.; Wilke, I.; Schneider, W.; Koehnecke, W.; Loefflad, H.; Plotzke, O.; Niessen, P.

    1997-07-01

    The book deals with ``electrosmog``, the electromagnetic fields in our environment that are generated by electrical equipment and installations and which are being studied more closely recently as a suspected source of a variety of health hazards or diseases. The initial chapter explains the physical fundamentals and terminology, the process and the sources generating the electrical and magnetic fields found in our environment, as well as the measuring techniques applied for detection and assessment. The following chapters present information on the state of the art in research into the health effects of electrosmog in the low and high-frequency ranges, on currently applicable limit values and the underlying concepts of calculation, as well as the policy pursued in this context. The concluding chapters of the book discuss the sources of electrosmog in a variety of living environments as well as mitigating or protective measures defined from the angle of consumer protection. (FK) [Deutsch] Dieses Buch befasst sich mit der unter dem Namen `Elektrosmog` bekannt gewordenen elektromagnetischen Umweltbelastung, die in juengster Zeit fuer eine Vielzahl von Krankheiten verantwortlich gemacht wird. Eingangs werden grundlegende physikalische Begriffe, das Auftreten von elektrischen und magnetischen Feldern im Alltag sowie die Messung von Elektrosmog behandelt. Das folgende Kapitel stellt den aktuellen Forschungsstand ueber die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Elektrosmog im Nieder- und Hochfrequenzbereich dar. Anschliessend werden die derzeit gueltigen Grenzwerte und ihre konzeptionelle und politische Basis diskutiert. Der letzte Teil geht auf die vielfaeltigen Quellen von Elektrosmog in den unterschiedlichen Lebensbereichen ein und diskutiert Massnahmen fuer den Verbraucherschutz. (FK)

  11. Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2014-07-01

    The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  12. The Analysis of the Correlation between the Degree of Market Concentration and the Level of Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Cristina Curea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The common aim of legislation in the field of competition and consumer protection is to ensure the consumers’ sovereignty and well-being. Based on the analysis of literature in this field we have established, as the main focus of our research, a study of the correlation between the degree of market concentration and the level of consumer protection. By using regression analysis applied to data collected from two sectors of activity, respectively the compulsory civil liability insurance for car owners and mobile telecommunications, we have shown that there is a direct correlation, meaning that a high degree of market concentration – which indicates a low competition level, leads to a decrease in the level of consumer protection.

  13. 论对我国金融消费者的保护%The Protection of Financial Consumer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2012-01-01

    随着2007年金融危机的爆发,保护金融消费者的利益日益成为大家关注的焦点。但是,金融法学者对哪些属于金融消费者范畴一直是争论不休的,我国金融法也没有相关金融消费者的概念,缺乏对金融消费者的保护机制,本文主要是对金融消费者的界定和我国对金融消费者利益保护领域的不足进行探讨。%With the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007, protection the financial interests of consumers is increasingly becoming the focus of attention. However, financial legal scholars have debated which is a financial consumer areas. Our financial laws are without financial consumers concept, the lack of the financial consumer protection mechanisms, this thesis focuses on the definition of financial consumers and the issues of the field of protection of interests of financial consumers in China.

  14. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  15. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    requiring carriers to obtain customers' advance approval before releasing their telephone record information for marketing purposes. NCTA claimed the FCC's new opt-in rule violates companies' First Amendment right to engage in commercial speech. At stake in this appeal was the constitutionally required......Recently a U.S. federal appeals court upheld imposition of an opt-in consumer privacy rule protecting telecommunication subscribers despite the limiting effect this rule may have on the targeted marketing industry. This court's decision empowers the federal government to constitutionally regulate...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...

  16. Protective effects of selenium and vitamin E on rats consuming maize naturally contaminated with mycotoxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie YU; Daiwen CHEN; Bing YU

    2009-01-01

    Protective effects of antioxidant additives of selenium and vitamin E on rats that consumed maize naturally contaminated with mycotoxins were explored in this paper. Thirty-two Wistar female rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was given the basic diet with normal maize. The contaminated maize group was given the diet in which normal maize was replaced by mycotoxin-contaminated maize. The selenium group and vitamin E group were respectively fed mycotoxin-contaminated diet supplemented with 0.4 mg.kg1 selenium weeks. Compared with the control group, antioxidative status was decreased significantly in the contaminated maize group. However, the status in the selenium group and vitamin E group was increased significantly compared with the contaminated maize group. The activities of enzymes related to liver function were significantly higher in the contaminated maize group than those in the control group, whereas they were significantly lower in the selenium group and/or the vitamin E group compared to the contaminated maize group. It is concluded that selenium and vitamin E were able to alleviate oxidative stress and liver function damage due to the consumption of maize naturally contaminated with mycotoxins.

  17. The Structural Features of Sports and Race Betting Inducements: Issues for Harm Minimisation and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Sproston, Kerry; Brook, Kate; Brading, Richard

    2016-09-08

    Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting, despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising. This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling. A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located 223 separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. These comprised sign-up offers, refer-a-friend offers, happy hours, mobile betting bonuses, multi-bet offers, refund/stake-back offers, matching stakes/deposits, winnings paid for 'close calls', bonus or better odds, bonus or better winnings, competitions, reduced commission, free bets to selected punters, cash rebates and other free bets. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language. Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message. The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area.

  18. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  19. The System of the Geographical Indication – Important Component of the Politics of the Consumers` Protection in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use and diffusion of the geographical indication in the European Union countries, having as objective the protection of the products’ names, which are registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO labels. The reason for treating this theme started from the fact that the level of knowledge of the system and its symbols by the consumers is very low. In the introductory part, specification of surveyed topic is given and importance of consumer education and information is highlighted. Empirical research is based on two approaches. First, 1114 product names from DOOR database (Database for agricultural products and foodstuffs in EU countries were analysed in order to investigate the frequency of labels utilization by country and product classes, cluster analysis was applied to show the labels distribution by countries. Dominant countries in number of labels are Italy, France and Spain having registered over 50 % of all products. The most frequent product class is Fruits, vegetables and cereals for PGI and Cheeses for PDO. The second approach reflects consumer view on the issue; survey of 250 consumers in the Czech Republic was carried out with the purpose to identify awareness and perceived credibility of labels. Findings reveal a low awareness of labels, credibility of labels is influenced by their low familiarity. The main problem is lack of information. Respondents show interest in getting information regarding this topic. Quality labels have potential to communicate with consumers and facilitate their food purchases, but it is necessary to improve their promotion.

  20. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...... handling. Danish authorities have succeeded in motivating consumers to source separate waste. Possible explanations for the positive attitudes are discussed. The good intentions of seemingly well-mo citizens are not always borne out in adequate action. Possible reasons and implications for policy...

  1. Implementation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted on October 15, 2008, amended the Controlled Substances Act and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by adding several new provisions to prevent the illegal distribution and dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet. DEA is hereby issuing an interim rule to amend its regulations to implement the legislation and is requesting comments on the interim rule.

  2. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... first lien on a residential mobile home if a creditor covered by this part complies with the consumer... the final scheduled installment. (g) Deferral fees. (1) With respect to mobile home credit... money order; do not send cash....

  3. 3 CFR 8347 - Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009. National Consumer Protection Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individuals from fraud and abuse. Consumer vigilance also prevents problems before they arise. During National... choices about saving, investing, and spending their hard-earned money. Whether selecting a...

  4. TOOLS FOR CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC VIRTUAL MARKET AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikulás Gangur; Miroslav Plevný

    2014-01-01

    .... Both the operator and the electronic market participant can be considered consumers of this particular market with reference to the requirements for the accuracy of its outputs but also for the market liquidity...

  5. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    them; (f) consumers not understanding how a term will affect them in practice; and ...... The prohibition of unconscionable conduct in marketing, supply, negotiation, ... other improper or unethical conduct that would be improper or unethical to a ...

  6. Intervention model for contaminated consumer products: a multifaceted tool for protecting public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Paromita; Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products.

  7. Nano Food Packages: from Food Preservation Efficiency to Consumer Legal Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Apan; Anca Mihaly Cozmuta; Anca Peter; Camelia Nicula

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores some aspects related to the application of nanomaterials in food packaging. Therefore, the paper is structured into two sections. In the first section, aspects that could restrict/restrain the application of nanomaterials in food packaging industry in terms of environmental and human risks, the consumer`s rights to be informed regarding the utilization of nano-packages and regulation issues in the field of large scale application of food nano-packages are discussed. In the ...

  8. 银行消费者保护监管研究%Supervision on Banking Consumer Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海林

    2011-01-01

    银行消费者是指非以盈利为目的接受银行服务的个人;银行消费者离不开银行服务,银行服务的复杂性,决定银行消费者易受侵害;为了维护消费者的利益,也为了维护金融安全,监管部门必须通过设定相应的制度来保障银行消费者。这种制度必须得到真正的落实,以避免美国金融危机中银行消费者被侵害的局面;在我国必须制定《银行消费者权益保护条例》,明确银行监管部门在消费者保护方面的职责,完善我国银行业协会对消费者的保护机制,从而完善我国银行消费者保护监管制度。%Banking consumer refers to non-profit individual who accesses to banking services; banking customer can't go without bank services, but due to complexity, they are prone to infringe, in order to maintain financial stability, regulatory authority should establish relevant system to protect them. The system should be implemented seriously to avoid the situation faced by suffering banking consumer during Amercian Financial Crisis; "Rules for Protecting Banking Consumer Interests" should be established in China to clarify the responsibility on regulatory authority, protection mechanism for banking consumer by banker's guild should also be perfected.

  9. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  10. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conspicuous public place at each desk, station and position in the United States that is in charge of a person... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on...

  11. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    handling. Danish authorities have succeeded in motivating consumers to source separate waste. Possible explanations for the positive attitudes are discussed. The good intentions of seemingly well-mo citizens are not always borne out in adequate action. Possible reasons and implications for policy...

  12. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  13. The Consumers Rights Protection in Consultancy Services: the Problems of Theory and Judicial Practice in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonidovna Shilovskaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the existing legislative base, governing civil relations with consumers. The applied system-structural method of research helped to reveal the legal nature of the consultancy service and specifics of consumers’ rights’ protection on its provision and the existing problems in this sphere. The study found that by the general rule the means of civil rights and legal interest’s protection are pre-trial order (claim filing and judicial (lawsuit procedure for settlement of disputes. It was found also that the existing legal base does not guarantee quality and effectiveness of consumers’ rights protection in consultancy services. During the research, some civil legal problems in civilistic science have been revealed, along with the gaps in Act On protection of consumers’ rights, which sufficiently influence the level of citizens’ rights protection. The restoration of the financial situation of a customer of a consultancy service is also the way of protection and the consequence of civil liability. The performer could avoid such measures resorting to voluntary pre-trial settlement of the dispute.

  14. The New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner: a comparative assessment of the commissioner's contribution to protecting the rights of mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierow, Maria

    2002-02-01

    The Health and Disabliity Commissioner's contribution to the protection of mental health consumers' rights is examined. This assessment covers a number of aspects. It includes the scope of consumer rights jurisdiction, the breadth of legal entitlements, protective mechanisms used, and the effectiveness of that protection. The Commissioner's role is also assessed comparatively. It is contrasted domestically with District Inspectors of Mental Health and internationally with Scottish and United Kingdom reform proposals. While analysis reveals considerable similarities, the New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner is favourably highlighted in contrast with Scotland and the United Kingdom, particularly in the area of enforceability of mental health consumer rights.

  15. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  16. Nano Food Packages: from Food Preservation Efficiency to Consumer Legal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Apan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some aspects related to the application of nanomaterials in food packaging. Therefore, the paper is structured into two sections. In the first section, aspects that could restrict/restrain the application of nanomaterials in food packaging industry in terms of environmental and human risks, the consumer`s rights to be informed regarding the utilization of nano-packages and regulation issues in the field of large scale application of food nano-packages are discussed. In the second section, the efficiency of a nano-package based on Ag/TiO2 to preserve for a longer time (6 days the physical attributes of wheat bread (moisture, specific volume, porosity by comparison with shorter ranges allowed by the common polyethylene bag (3 days and non-packaging respectively (1 day is demonstrated.

  17. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  18. Consumer protection in Turkey: law, informality and the role of the media. Monash University, Workplace and Corporate Law Research Group, Working Paper No. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Creutzfeldt, N.; Mahy, P.; Kazaz, J.; Caliskan, E.; Lu, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This report is part of a University of Oxford John Fell funded collaborative project: Informality and the Media in Consumer Protection in Emerging Economies. This pilot project seeks to shed light upon consumer complaint behaviour through social media in emerging economies.

  19. Flexible distributed control and protection system for industrial objects – Consumers of electric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Alontseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of efficient use of electric power and energy saving remain to be outstanding in our country. Implementation of smart systems for accounting and control of energy resources becomes the efficient solution of these problems. The problem of control and forecasting consumption of energy by the facility to cover internal needs represents an independent task. In general, systems are suggested which pertain to the control and accounting of energy resources supplied to the consumer of electric power. Approach to the development of system on the basis of concept of smart grids using dedicated complex of technical and software products allowing optimizing electric power expenditures, re-distributing electric power and promptly adjusting electric power grid characteristics is addressed in the present paper. Electric power supply control and monitoring devices receiving and transferring information to the server are installed in the places of connection of consumers to electric power supply grids. Server collects, accumulates and stores the information and is equipped with dedicated software allowing optimizing the load, preventing overloading and development of emergency situations within the electric power supply system. Such systems are suggested to be implemented by the facilities of nuclear industry.

  20. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T

    2014-01-01

    to set up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns......Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practice life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs...... and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used...

  1. Unregulated private wells in the Republic of Ireland: consumer awareness, source susceptibility and protective actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Paul D; Misstear, Bruce D; Gill, Laurence W

    2013-09-30

    While the safety of public drinking water supplies in the Republic of Ireland is governed and monitored at both local and national levels, there are currently no legislative tools in place relating to private supplies. It is therefore paramount that private well owners (and users) be aware of source specifications and potential contamination risks, to ensure adequate water quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of awareness among private well owners in the Republic of Ireland, relating to source characterisation and groundwater contamination issues. This was undertaken through interviews with 245 private well owners. Statistical analysis indicates that respondents' source type significantly influences owner awareness, particularly regarding well construction and design parameters. Water treatment, source maintenance and regular water quality testing are considered the three primary "protective actions" (or "stewardship activities") to consumption of contaminated groundwater and were reported as being absent in 64%, 72% and 40% of cases, respectively. Results indicate that the level of awareness exhibited by well users did not significantly affect the likelihood of their source being contaminated (source susceptibility); increased awareness on behalf of well users was associated with increased levels of protective action, particularly among borehole owners. Hence, lower levels of awareness may result in increased contraction of waterborne illnesses where contaminants have entered the well. Accordingly, focused educational strategies to increase awareness among private groundwater users are advocated in the short-term; the development and introdiction of formal legislation is recommended in the long-term, including an integrated programme of well inspections and risk assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A theory of the availability and level of consumer protection in online and mobile payments for public economic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Ionescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of the paper is formed by an analysis of the factors that influence the community use of mobile payment for e-Government services, the use of mobile payment for the exchange of government goods and services, the types of e-Government services for which mobile payment is suitable, and real and perceived risks associated with mobile financial services. This paper presents a theory of the level of consumer protection and especially the availability of online payment systems and mobile public economic services, and highlights the use of Internet technology to provide effective and efficient public services. We underline the need to configure citizen-centric government services, accessibility challenges associated with the use of mobile, and diverse and transient nature of mobile technology use.

  3. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...... random stores in Copenhagen, Denmark to detect the proportion of items that may result in nickel allergy. METHODS: Inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps were purchased from 36 stores and street vendors in Copenhagen and were later tested for nickel release using the DMG test. RESULTS: The study showed...

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies.

  5. The Choice of China’s Legislation on Financial Consumer Protection%金融消费权益保护的立法路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时波

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对我国金融消费权益保护立法现状的阐述,分析了阻碍我国金融消费权益保护立法的主要因素,提出我国金融消费权益保护立法的路径选择院一是沿用叶消费者权益保护法曳中的相关规定并加以完善;二是渐进式地制定叶金融消费权益保护法曳;三是健全相关配套法律、法规。%The paper describes the present situation of legislation on financial consumer protection, analyzes the main factors which obstruct the legislation on financial consumer protection, and provides the choices of China’s legislation on financial consumer protection. The first is to follow and improve the relevant provisions in Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers;the second is to gradually constitute Law on Financial Consumer Protection;and the third is to improve relevant laws and regulations.

  6. Corporate Role in Protecting Consumers from the Risk of Identity Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed (Shawon M. Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has made it possible for users to be robbed of their reputation, money and credit worthiness by the click of a mouse. The impact of identity theft severely limits victims’ ability to participate in commerce,education and normal societal functions. This paper evaluates resurgence in syndicated cyber attacks,which includes but not limited to identity theft, corporate espionage and cyber warfare taking advantage of the Internet as a medium of operations. The paper highlights the increase of cyber related attacks in the past ten years due to lack of transatlantic international corporation between participating countries,coherent information security policies, data aggregation and sound international laws to facilitate prosecution of perpetrators. The cyber space coupled with availability of free hacking tools has contributed to resurgence in syndicated identity theft, corporate espionage and identity theft by organized crime elements taking advantage of the Internet as a medium of operations. This paper presents conclusive solution that users, organizations and consumerscan enact to protect themselves from the threat of cyberattacks culminating into identity theft, financial loss or both.

  7. Electrosmog. Health hazards, limiting values, consumer protection; 3. ed.; Elektrosmog. Gesundheitsrisiken, Grenzwerte, Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The book starts with the physical facts. All definitions and units required for understanding electrosmog are presented and discussed with a view to their practical application. The main part of the book is dedicated to the health hazards of elctrosmog. The present state of knowledge is outlined. Current limiting values are discussed along with their conceptional and political basis. The last part of the book discusses problems of consumber protection. It is shown how everybody can reduce their own exposure to electric and magnetic fields. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Buch beginnt mit den physikalischen Fakten. Alle Begriffe und Einheiten, die zum Verstaendnis von Elektrosmog notwendig sind, werden vorgestellt und in Bezug zur Praxis gebracht. Den weitaus groessten Teil des Buches nehmen die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Elektrosmog ein. Praesentiert wird der aktuelle wissenschaftliche Forschungsstand. Im Kapitel Grenzwerte, diskutiert werden die gueltigen Grenzwerte und ihre konzeptionelle und politische Basis. Der letzte Teil des Buches ist dem Verbraucherschutz gewidmet. Es wird gezeigt, wie man die eigene Belastung durch elektrische und magnetische Felder reduzieren kann. (orig./MG)

  8. EPA policies to protect the health of consumers of drinking water in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotruvo, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    In the United States our objective is to protect drinking water at the source, during treatment and during distribution. In 1975 interim regulations for bacteria and turbidity, 10 inorganic chemicals, 6 organic chemicals and radionuclides were promulgated. In 1979 National Secondary Regulations for substances affecting the aesthetic quality of water were promulgated. In 1979 trihalomethanes were added. The United States is engaged in comprehensive revisions of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. The areas of our most significant concern include detection and control of contamination of ground waters by organic chemicals resulting from improper waste disposal practices, a reassessment of microbiological regulations and toxicity of disinfectant by-products and a major effort to deal with corrosion-related contamination of drinking water during distribution. We are evaluating the issue of a granular activated carbon requirement for contaminated surface waters. A program to assure the quality of direct and indirect additives to drinking water has also been initiated. Part of this activity will include determination of the contaminants and by-products associated with the use of various water treatment chemicals and pipe materials.

  9. Report on the relationship between regulation and organization of distribution utilities with regard to their protection of consumer interests - Increased protection of consumer interests: From deregulated supply monopoly to regulated competition?; Rapport om sammenhaengen mellem regulering og organisation af distributionsselskaber i forhold til deres varetagelse af forbrugsinteresser - Oeget varetagelse af forbrugerinteresserne: Fra ureguleret forsyningsmonopol til reguleret konkurrence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, B.; Christensen, M.; Moesgaard Andersen, M.

    1997-05-01

    The Danish electric and heating sectors are categorized according to the consumer interests and distribution utilities. Ownership relationships, trade methods and staff situation are elucidated with regard to consumer interests and their protection. Competitiveness of various energy sources, pricing mechanisms, supply assurance etc in Denmark, Norway and Sweden are compared. Liberalization of the energy market is discussed. (EG)

  10. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  11. Improvement of the Legal Protection of Chinese Financial Consumers%我国金融消费者法律保护的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世如

    2012-01-01

    After the financial crisis, all the countries in the world set off the legal protection of the financial consumer. Our country's legal protection of financial consumers is still in its infancy. So, in the current situation of the legal protection of our country's financial consumers we can learn from foreign related legal protection system to improve the Chinese financial consumer protection law system.%世界各国在后金融危机时代,已经掀起对金融消费者的法律保护高潮。我国当前对金融消费者的法律保护还处在萌芽状态。因此,在梳理我国金融消费者法律保护的现状下,借鉴域外的相关法律保护制度,完善我国的金融消费者权益具有一定的理论和实际意义。

  12. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Money as You Grow Navigating the Military Financial Lifecycle Owning a Home Paying for College Planning for Retirement Browse answers to hundreds of financial questions. Ask CFPB Have an issue with a financial product? Submit a complaint Get your financial well-being ...

  13. 信用视角下的金融消费者权益保护研究%Research on Financial Consumer Protection from the Perspective of Credit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏

    2013-01-01

    This article from the importance of ifnancial consumer credit information as the breakthrough point, analysis of some problems existing in current China's ifnancial consumer credit rights protection work, and some effective practices of international society, it put forward the policy recommendations of financial consumer rights and interests protection.%  本文从金融消费者信用信息的重要性为切入点,分析当前我国金融消费者信用权益保护工作中存在的几点问题,并借鉴国际社会的有效做法,就金融消费者权益保护工作提出政策建议。

  14. 金融消费者概念与完善金融消费保护%Concept of Financial Consumer and Improvement of Financial Consumption Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峣

    2011-01-01

    本文从金融消费者概念入手,阐述了金融服务消费者保护监管的理论基础及重点国家的金融保护实践,通过对发达国家或地区在金融服务消费者保护的立法及监管机制进行比较分析,提出改善我国金融服务消费者保护监管的政策及法律建议。%Starting from the concept of financial consumer,this article explains the theoretical basis for supervision over consumer protection in financial services,and introduces practices of financial protection in major foreign countries.With comparative analysis of legislative and supervisory mechanism over consumer protection in financial services in developed countries or regions,this article comes up with supervisory policy and legal suggestions to improve consumer protection in financial services.

  15. 網路購物契約與消費者保護 Online Shopping Contract and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉姿汝 Tsu-Zu Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 在網際網路發達的今日,透過網路購物已是一個很普遍的消費方式。網路購物可以不受時間、空間的設限,可謂十分便利,但卻產生與到實體店鋪購物方式所沒有的風險。本文將討論網路購物的特殊性,例如:1.交易相對人的不確定性。2.無法事前檢視交易標的。3.契約成立的時點。4.透過電子傳輸方式締結契約,或行使契約解除權,是否等同書面為之?5.意思表示有錯誤等瑕疵是否能撤銷?6.定型化契約型態對消費者權益的影響等等。另外,進一步則將探討以消費者保護法為主的現行法對於網路購物的規範,並佐以實務上案例,以瞭解相關規範對於上述的網路購物特性,對消費 者保護不足之處,並討論日本對於網路購物規範之現狀,以供比較與參考。最後試論可能改進之方案。 Today’s advancement in internet implies the change in consumer behavior. Shopping online has now become a common form for the purchase of goods. Though internet shopping is convenient with no restriction of time and space, it also possess hidden risks in comparison with the traditional way of shopping through solid shops. This article will discuss the uniqueness of online shopping such as under the circumstance of which face to face trade is not possible, the following factors should be considered: 1. The uncertainty of trade parties; 2. The condition of trade object cannot be examined prior to trade; 3. Unable to establish the time and place of the trade; 4. Are concluded/discharged contracts through method of electronic transmission equivalent to the actual written contracts? 5. If statement mistakes in statement and descriptions should occur, are cancellations possible? 6. The effects of form contract on consumer rights. Furthermore, current regulations on internet shopping with focus on Consumer Protection Act along with actual cases in practice will

  16. On the legal logic between people’s livelihood and consumer rights and interests protection:comments on the Amendment of Chinese Consumer Protection Law%基于民生问题的消费者权益保护立法--兼评我国《消费者权益保护法》的修改

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃梁

    2014-01-01

    From “consumer question” to “consumer protection legislation”, the historical evolution way promulgated the livelihood of the people to protect the unequalled legislation direction effectiveness regarding the consumer rights and interests. Under the concept of the rule of law in the people’s livelihood, and people’s livelihood is an important legislative orientation method. The method is highly characteristic of people’s livelihood. The unspoken rules on consumer protection are a reliable window to seek newly“the consumer question”. Unspoken rules reflect the type of consumer and consumer sectors as well as the powers and responsibilities vested in the three aspects of people’s livelihood issues of the new situation and the new situation. The Consumer Protection Law of the modified based on new issues of the people’s livelihood, strengthen weak protection of legislative concept to clarify and explore new issues. In the livelihood of the people on the road of the Consumer Protection Act still needs to face the intension and extension of both the challenges for the development of the consumer protection act. Expanded scope focus on consumer education of consumers and improves consumer protection programs and the establishment of a consumer protection law system is the development direction of Chinese consumer protection legislation.%从“消费者问题”到“消费者权益保护立法”的历史演进路径揭示了民生问题对于消费者权益保护重要的立法指引效用。在民生法治的理念下,民生问题是消费者权益保护的重要立法取向。“消费潜规则”是当下我们探求新“消费者问题”的一个可靠窗口。消费潜规则折射出在消费类型、消费领域以及权责归属三个方面民生问题的新情况与新形势。《消费者权益保护法》的修改立足于对新民生问题的回应,强化弱者保护的立法理念,厘清旧问题、破解新问题,但其发

  17. Scientific-methodological approaches to designing risk-oriented model of control and surveillance activities in the sphere of consumer rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present scientific-methodological approaches to defining risk categories of economic entities which are subject to surveillance in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Risk is suggested to be assessed as a product of violations frequency comprising violations of separate provisions of the law on consumer rights protection detected in the course of scheduled and unscheduled inspections; a number of claims per one detected violation which were satisfied by courts in favor of consumers; each separate case of harm accepted by court in money terms (as a sum of physical and moral damage to health and damage to property; and coefficient of a potential impact scope which differentiates risks for economic entities belonging to micro-, small, medium-sized and large business. Our information sources are official statistic data obtained due to realization of state control in the sphere of consumer rights protection and court practice collected in all the RF regions over 2012–2016. It is shown that a share of economic entities with extremely high risk potential which can cause total material damage to consumers in sums greater than 10 million rubles per year amounts to about 0.15 % of the total number of economic entities (both juridical persons and private entrepreneurs; economic entities with high risk potential account for about 2 %. Such groups are made of companies involved in financial markets, share construction services, insurance and tourism. About 23 % of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs can be classified as having low risk potential and they can be excluded from scheduled inspections. Economic entities structure in general corresponds to world practices. It is shown that risk-oriented surveillance model development requires improvements in keeping registers of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs as such registers should contain comprehensive information; it is necessary for correct risk category (or hazard category

  18. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  19. 完善我国金融消费者保护的法律路径思考%Legal Path on Improving Financial Consumer Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永强; 孙艳玲

    2012-01-01

    The sub-prime crisis shows that weak financial consumer protection is a main driving force. This paper puts forward the following suggestions, including learning from the international practices, speeding up the construction of financial consumer protection agencies in China, amending the relevant laws and regulations, improving the financial consumer complaint mechanism, and strengthening consumer financial education.%次贷危机表明,金融消费者保护不足是导致危机发生的重要原因之一。本文在借鉴国际通行做法并结合我国实际基础上,提出明确我国金融消费者权益保护机构,及时制定或修订相关法律法规,完善金融消费者投诉处理机制与程序,不断加强消费者金融知识教育等建议。

  20. [THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF ORGANS OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SUPERVISION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELFARE IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B; Romanov, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Iarushin, S V; Malykh, O L

    2015-01-01

    In the Sverdlovsk region there have developed and implemented methodological approaches to the optimization oj the activity of the Directorate and the Centre directed to the improvement of the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and in the sphere of the protection of the rights of consumers in the framework of the development of an comprehensive regional system of risk management for the population's health in the Sverdlovsk region.

  1. 互联网金融消费者权益保护问题研究%The Research on Internet Financial Consumer Rights and Interests Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2015-01-01

    如何在支持互联网金融创新发展的同时,有效保护互联网金融消费者的合法权益,是一个亟待研究的重要课题。本文在总结互联网金融概念、模式的基础上,深入分析了互联网金融消费者权益受侵害的表现形式和当前互联网金融消费者权益保护面临的困境,提出了完善互联网金融消费者权益保护的政策建议。%It is an important subject to be studied how to support the development of Internet financial innovation, and at the same time, protect the lawful rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers effectively. The paper, on the basis of summarizing the concept and mode of the Internet finance, deeply analyzes the forms of the infraction of the Internet financial consumers’ rights and interests and the current plight of the Internet financial consumers' rights and interests protection. Finally, the paper proposes the policy suggestions on perfecting the protection of the rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers.

  2. 完善我国金融消费者保护立法的思考%On Improving Financial Consumer Protection Legislation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽

    2011-01-01

    With the development of economy,the protection of financial consumer becomes so important for the growing number of consumer finance.The paper demonstrates the necessity of making new laws about protection of financial consumer from three aspects,including realistic conditions,the development of our current laws and laws of other countries.Also,legislative models and rules of protection are put forward and discussed in the paper.%随着经济的发展,金融消费日益增多,金融消费者保护问题也凸显重要。本文从金融消费者保护现状、国内现行法律现状与国外立法借鉴等三个方面分析对金融消费者保护专门立法的必要性,并就金融消费者保护的立法模式及具体保护规则进行了探讨。

  3. Law and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  4. Indicators of Consumer Protection and Empowerment in the Digital World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorun, Christian; Vetter, Max; Reisch, Lucia A.

    and risks. More than half of the world’s population still does not have access to the Internet, and many consumers fear that their personal information might be misused or that they might become victims of online fraud. These barriers and fears constitute a significant impediment for the further development...... of the digital economy: When consumers mistrust businesses, they are discouraged from using new digital products and services. Hence, growth on the supply-side of the digital market presupposes consumer trust on the demand-side of the market. As a result, governments around the world have put the task...... confidence and trust. The G20 Initiative also encourages efforts to develop better metrics, inter alia, for important policy issues like trust in the digital economy. The objective of the present study is to contribute to such a development of better metrics. It aims at testing the feasibility and making...

  5. The formation and establishment of modern Consumer Protection Law in European Union%论欧盟现代消费者保护法的形成与确立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘婧

    2012-01-01

    There is a distinct difference between modem Consumer Protection Law in European Union and traditional Consumers" Rights and interests Protection Law in China. With the strengthening of the global awareness of consumer protection, States are attaching more importance to it. This article reveals the meaning of modem Consumer Protection Law in improving our traditional Consumers'Rights and interests Protection Law by analyzing the formation, development, concept and system of modem Consumer Protection Law in European Union and its dialectical relationship with Civil Law and Consumers" Rights and interests Protection Law.%欧盟现代意义上的消费者保护法与中国传统意义上的消费者权益保护法有着截然不同的区别。随着全球消费者保护意识的加强,各国越来越重视对消费者的保护。本文通过分析欧盟现代意义上消费者保护法的形成、发展、概念与体系,评析其与民法、消费者权益保护法的辩证关系,揭示其对我国消费者保护法的借鉴作用。

  6. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  7. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... CFR Part 213 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). The Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increased the threshold in the Consumer Leasing Act...

  8. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  9. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  10. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  11. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.N.; Koster, A.; Russell, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called `functional foods¿ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This

  12. Researching the Gap between Foodstuff’s Attractiveness and Real Nutritional Profile – Prerequisite for Strengthening Nutrition Education and Consumer Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristian Onete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer`s health protection has become a major concern of global public policies, given that overweight and obesity have alarmingly increased, particularly among children and teens. The paper addresses one of the current problems caused by globalization, namely the obvious tendency of young people to choose food products based on organoleptic features and to disregard nutritional quality, with negative consequences on health. An exploratory marketing research was conducted among students for identifying the perceived importance of the sensorial dimension of food products and understanding key dimensions of buying decision process among youth. SAIN–LIM method was used to determine the nutritional profile of foodstuffs with special organoleptic features. Research results clearly show that in industrial foodstuff there is a gap between product attractiveness, which is based on exceptional sensorial properties, perceived by young consumers and real nutritional value of foods, which frequently translates into unbalanced nutritional profiles. To have a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, young consumers need to be informed that a tasty and good looking foodstuff is not necessarily healthy. Youth need to be properly educated in order to understand the close relationship between diet, weight and health and to develop a responsible food consumption behavior.

  13. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  14. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  15. Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.

  16. [Effectiveness of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region in 2007 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Ivanova, L K; Iagudin, B I; Turbinskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    A system for monitoring and analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of the Board of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region was introduced into its activities to estimate the provision of the Novosibirsk Region's population with sanitary epidemiological wellbeing in 2007-2009. The introduction of monitoring was ascertained to increase the effectiveness of budgetary fund surveillance and spending, by predicting the effectiveness and choice of priority lines of activities, by increasing the quality of budgetary services rendered in the provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being to the population.

  17. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  18. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  19. Protecting Financial Consumers by HKMA%香港金融管理局保护金融消费者的有关情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天琦

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the practices of protecting financial consumers by Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), and gives detailed analysis of the Complaint Handling Procedures (Supervisory Policy Manual --- IC .4), Mystery Customers Checking Pro- gram, and Complaint management by the HKMA. This paper also introduces several cases on protecting financial consumers being im- plemented by HKMA.%本文主要介绍了香港金管局保护金融消费者的有关情况,对金管局出台的《处理投诉程序(监管手册——IC.4)》、乔装客户检查计划、投诉管理等内容进行了详细的分析。并对金管局正在进行的有关消费者保护的几件事情作了介绍。

  20. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  1. Minnesota Consumer Education Program. "Consumers of the 90s."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Council on Economic Education, Minneapolis.

    This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies. Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4)…

  2. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increased the threshold in the Consumer Leasing Act...

  3. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  4. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  5. The Malaysian Telehealth Flagship Application: a national approach to health data protection and utilisation and consumer rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Jai; Razali Raja Yaacob, Raja

    2004-03-31

    Telehealth refers to the integration of information, telecommunication, human-machine interface technologies and health technologies to deliver health care, to promote the heath status of the people and to create health. The Malaysian Telehealth Application will, on completion, provide every resident of the country an electronic Lifetime Health Record (LHR) and Lifetime Health Plan (LHP). He or she will also hold a smart card that will contain a subset of the data in the Lifetime Health Record. These will be the means by which Malaysians will receive "seamless continuous quality care" across a range of health facilities and health care providers, and by which Malaysia's health goal of a nation of "healthy individuals, families and communities" is achieved. The challenges to security and privacy in providing access to an electronic Lifetime Health Record at private and government health facilities and to the electronic Lifetime Health Plan at homes of consumers require not only technical mechanisms but also national policies and practices addressing threats while facilitating access to health data during health encounters in different care settings. Organisational policies establish the goals that technical mechanisms serve. They should outline appropriate uses and access to information, create mechanisms for preventing and detecting violations, and set sanctions for violations. Some interesting innovations have been used to address these issues against the background of the launching of the multimedia supercorridor (MSC) in Malaysia.

  6. Detection of Sesame Allergen Traces with Two PCR Assays - The Challenge to Protect Food-Allergic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible presence of sesame in commercial foods normally carrying no warning for the allergen, but which may have been subjected to contamination during processing. One hundred units of widely consumed goods with high potential to contain allergenic substances deriving from nuts were analyzed, using sensitive and capable PCR (C-PCR and Real Time PCR (RT-PCR methodologies. Of the products examined, 15 (15.0% declared the presence of sesame, 36 (36.0% carried no food allergy label, 44 (44.0% were marked by the phrase “may contain traces of nuts” and 5 (5.0% carried the indication “may contain sesame traces”. The sesame-positive products detected using the C-PCR method were 15 (100%, 12 (33.3%, 14 (31.8% and 3 (60%, respectively. Using the RT-PCR technique, positive results were obtained for 15 (100%, 18 (50.0%, 18 (20.5% and 5 (100% samples, respectively. The results indicate that the PCR methods applied are highly sensitive and selective, which makes them suitable for the detection of sesame traces in food samples. In addition, they can be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of cleaning processes in the production units of the food industry.

  7. Jurisdiction over Consumer, Employment, and Insurance Contracts under the Brussels I Regulation Recast: Enhancing the Protection of the Weaker Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Galič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This article aims to present and critically assess the changes which the Recast Brussels I Regulation brought to the protective regime for the weaker parties. Although these changes are not as far-reaching as in other fields, they are nevertheless important. The most significant changes concern the limited extension of the scope of applicability against defend-ants from third states and jurisdiction based on the entering of an appearance. Although these changes improve the procedural protection of the weaker parties in principle, some new dilemmas arise, which are liable to jeopardize certainty and predictability of the jurisdictional regime. DEUTSCH: Der vorliegende Beitrag soll die wichtigsten Änderungen der neuen Brüssel Ibis Verordnung betreffend den Rechtsschutz für schwächere Parteien kritisch analysieren. Die VO bringt wichtige Verbesserungen im Rechtsschutz für Verbraucher bei Klagen gegen Unternehmer bzw Arbeitgeber aus Drittstaaten und sieht eine Belehrung zugunsten bestimmter schwächerer Parteien über die Folgen einer rügelosen Prozesseinlassung vor. Obwohl diese Änderungen den prozessrechtlichen Schutz schwächerer Parteien grundsätzlich verbessern, lassen die neuen Bestimmungen viele Fragen offen und gefährden daher die Rechtssicherheit und die Berechenbarkeit des Zuständigkeitsregimes.

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  9. On Innovation and Improvement of Our Consumer Protection System%试论我国消费者权益保护的制度创新与完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国庆

    2012-01-01

    我国消费者权益保护制度的根本目的在于保护消费者的合法权益、规范经营者的经营行为、促进社会主义市场经济的良性发展。随着经济社会深刻而全面的发展,消费者的法治意识、权利意识、规范意识渐愈强烈。在安全消费、称心消费、满意消费、自由消费成为普遍社会意识的背景下,消费者对自身权益的保护愈加关注和重视,这必然会促使我国现有消费者权益保护制度的与时俱进,并作出调整和革新,以适应消费者的需求,同时为构建和谐消费关系提供强有力的制度保障。%The fundamental aim of consumer protection system is to protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers and regulate the conduct of the operators, as well as promote the sound development of the socialist market economy. With the deep and comprehensive development of economic and society , consumer awareness of the law, rights and the standard become more intense. The protection of consumers on their rights in the context of consumer safety, consumer satisfaction become a common social consciousness with more concern and at- tention, which is bound to promote our existing consumer protection system keeping pace with the times and make adjustments and innovation to meet consumer demand, as well as provide a strong institutional guarantee for building a harmonious consumer relation.

  10. INVESTIGATION THE ROLE OF MOBILE USER’S GENDER ON ACCEPTANCE OF PERMISSION BASE MOBILE MARKETING ON IRANIAN MOBILE USERS AND CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bigdeli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progression on Internet, mobile phones and also the other communication tools allow companies to gain benefit from new applications such as SMS advertisement. Despite of these commercial opportunities, development of SMS advertisements are limited by some barriers such as invasion of mobile user’s consumer rights with unsolicited sms advertising. On one hand in developed countries, there are regulations for mobile user’s privacy protection, but on the other hand, these rules do not apply in Iran. According to the previous researches in this field, mobile user’s gender has a moderator role on acceptance of permission base mobile marketing. In this paper, the literature of mobile user’s consumer rights and effective factors on permission base mobile marketing such as Institutional Trust, Personal Trust, Mobile User’s Experience, Percieved Behavioral Control and Mobile User’s Gender are investigated through a trust base research model. Then, the hypothesized model is empirically tested using data collected from a standard questionary base survey in Tehran theater-e-shahr audiences. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used by the Lisrel 8.8 to evaluate the causal model and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model. It is concluded that Iranian mobile users due to the lack of appropriate regulations on mobile user’s consumer rights and also, receiving a lot of unsolicited sms advertising, have persecutor and negative experience about sms advertising. Because of the mentioned situation in Iran, on the both male and female research model, mobile marketing experience extremely affects the process of gaining mobile users’ permission. Thus, it is absolutely necessary to correct implementation of permission base mobile marketing and making positive and useful experience about the sms advertising for Iranian male and female mobile users.

  11. On .the Orientation and Legislation of Consumer Protection Law%论消费者保护法之定位及立法方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小牛

    2012-01-01

    In view of the specific adjustment object and practical importance of Consumer Protection Law, it should be brought into the civil law category, To be specific, into The civil special law. It is necessary to separate it from the economic law. In view of its many particularities, it needs separate legislation with reference to intellectual property right%基于消法有特定的调整对象和在现实中的重要性,应将其定位于民法范畴,属于民事特别法,并有必要从经济法中分离出来,而且鉴于其诸多的特殊性,应类比知识产权予以单独立法。

  12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  13. 论网络金融背景下金融消费安全的法律保护%Finance consuming safety's legal protection under network finance background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦洪宝

    2012-01-01

    As the network financial is booming,there are many threats to financial consumers.To protect the safety of financial consumers,law system innovation is required.Natural persons,legal persons or other organizations can become a financial consumer,professional investment institutions can also be regarded as professional financial consumers.Based on a scientific definition of the content of financial consumer safety,we should strengthen financial supervision,implement the judicial policies to benefit the financial consumers and enhance consumer safety education to protect consumers.%网络金融蓬勃发展的背后存在着威胁金融消费安全的诸多隐患,为保护金融消费安全,要不断创新法律制度。自然人、法人或其他组织均可成为金融消费者,专业投资机构也可被视为专业金融消费者。在科学界定金融消费安全所涉及的权利内容的基础上,应从强化金融监管、落实向金融消费者倾斜的司法救济政策及加强对消费者安全教育等方面加强金融消费安全保护。

  14. 对湖北农村金融消费者保护问题的思考%Thinking of Rural Financial Consumer Protection Issues in Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞华; 潘战胜

    2012-01-01

    Financial goods and service own the characters of specialization and technicalization. Facing with suppliers that consist of financial elites, it is obvious that financial consumers being at minority position results from lack professional knowledge and information asymmetry. For rural financial consumers, their rights are more likely to be erosed because of their low cutural character, lack of financial knowledge and social vulnerable groups' psychological inferiority. Behaviors of encroaching consumers will not only damage the interest of farmers but also destroy public confidence for financial system which wilt have a bad influence on the development of financial industry. To solve the problem of lacking in protection for rural consumers, we need to increase the supply of financial service in rural area, enhance the consumers' cultural quality and awareness of rights, and strengthen financial supervision as well as the service consciousness of financial institutions.%金融产品和服务具有专业化、技术化的特性,面对由金融精英组成的金融产品和服务的提供者,金融消费者相对而言不一定具备金融专业知识,信息不对称的弱势地位显而易见。农村金融消费者由于文化素质低,金融知识缺乏,加之弱势群体的心里劣势,消费者权益更容易受到侵害。侵害消费者的行为不仅损害了农民的利益,也损害了公众对金融体系的信心,影响金融行业的健康发展。针对农村消费者保护不力的状况,需要从增强农村金融供给、提高消费者文化素质和维权意识,加强金融机构的服务意识以及加强金融监管等多方面着手。

  15. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  16. 设立“金融知识普及月” 加强金融消费者保护%Setting up Financial Literacy Month and Strengthening Financial Consumer Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新明

    2012-01-01

    金融消费者教育是金融消费者保护的第一道防线,是金融消费者保护的重要内容和手段。本文研究分析了国外金融消费者教育的主要经验和做法,阐述了人民银行西安分行开展金融消费者教育的实践。在此基础上,建议设立“金融知识普及月”,构建提升全民金融素质的长效机制,加强金融消费者保护。%The financial consumer education is the first line of defense of financial consumer protection, and is the important con- tent and instrument of financial consumer protection. The paper studies the experience and practices of financial consumer education in foreign countries, and expatiates on the practices of financial consumer education carried out in Xi' an Branch PBC. On the basis of above analysis, the paper suggests that the govemment should set up "Financial Literacy Month" in China and construct a long-term and effective mechanism of improving national financial quality to strengthen financial consumer protection.

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  18. Bringing the System of Judicial Protection for Food Consumers to Perfection%食品消费者权益司法保护机制的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋远军

    2012-01-01

    司法是保护食品消费者合法权益所必不可少的社会机制。食品消费案件具有易发性、广泛性、公益性、诉讼双方力量不对等、案情相对简单、标的额较小等特点。要有效发挥司法对消费者权益的保护机能,必须根据食品消费案件的自身特点,对现有司法机制进行富有针对性的完善,具体包括扩大受案范围、简化审理程序、调整举证责任的分配格局、降低消费者的诉讼成本、提高赔偿标准;同时,要构建起相关的司法配套机制。%For consumers of foodstuffs,judicature is a specializing and indispensable social mechanism for the protection of their legal rights.Cases on food consumption are universal,non-interest and relatively simple,with inevitable inequality between the both parties in some aspects,so it makes sense for judicial organs to better themselves pointedly and specifically to ensure their aptitude to protect consumers' legal rights.It is demanded that the judicial system should slack its court acceptance restrictions appropriately,simplify its trial procedures and restructure the allotment of burden of proof.In addition,at the request of times and society,to lower lawsuit costs but to bring up standards of compensation has become an irresistible trend.And out of question,other sounder supporting regulations are expected to be set up for further protecting foodstuffs consumers' lawful rights.

  19. A Study on the Developmental Issues of Consumer Protection in Turkey = Türkiye'de Tüketicinin Korunması Hakkındaki Gelişimle İlgili Konular Üzerine bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül AYGEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share the findings of a study concerned with the developmental issues of consumer protection in our country from the perspective of consumers. Views and opinions of consumers with respect to the general subject of consumer protection are believed to reveal future expectations related to the subject and also opportunities and limitations we are likely to be confronted with, as a nation, in reaching a better life.

  20. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule, staff... requirements of Regulation M, which implements the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the... Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increases the threshold in the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA) for...

  1. The Analysis on the Transverse and Longitudinal Moderate Limit of Financial Consumer Protection%论金融消费者保护的“横向适度”与“纵向适度”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春敏

    2014-01-01

    加强对金融消费者的保护是对国际金融危机的主要反思结论,但同时又要警惕保护过度和保护失度对金融机构、金融消费者自身、金融行业所带来的负面影响。在进行金融消费者保护的具体制度设计时必须把握好保护的“度”,做到横向适度与纵向适度。金融消费者保护的横向适度就是要实现全面一般保护与特殊群体特殊保护之间的平衡,实行金融消费者保护的差异化,区别对待不同金融消费者。金融消费者保护的纵向适度就是要寻求加强金融消费者保护与推动金融创新之间的平衡,治理金融排斥与控制低端金融市场无序发展之间的平衡。%To strengthen the protection of financial consumers is the main conclusion of the reflection on this international financial crisis , but we must pay attention to the negative effect of excessive protection on financial institutions , financial consumers and financial industry. In the design of financial consumer protection system we must have a good grasp of the “degree”, and try to achieve the target of transverse and longitudinal moderate. To achieve the transverse moderate target of financial consumer protection , the essence is to realize the balance between fully general protection and special groups protection, to implement the differential protection strategy; To achieve the longitudinal moderate target of consumer financial protection , the key lies in seeking the balance between strengthening financial consumer protection and financial innovation , the balance between the management of Financial Exclusion and controlling the equilibrium development of the low-end financial market.

  2. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  3. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heattreated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphitoreducting Clostridia were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Results. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8% samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1% out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely

  4. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  5. Expansion of the Financial Consumer Protection in Developed Countries and Its Enlightenment%发达国家金融消费者保护的扩张及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶珠

    2013-01-01

      Owing to the outbreak of the international financial crisis, the financial consumer protection received unprecedented attention. Financial consumer protection not only involves the financial consumer personal interests, but also involves the interests of the financial markets of countries and even the whole international society. As the world's major developed countries, the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan were influenced greatly in the crisis. In response to the financial crisis, financial consumer protection systems of these countries were expanded accordingly. Although the financial supervision mode and legal system are different in these counties, we find the consensus of all countries. The consensus can be beneficial references for the perfection of financial consumer protection system in the future.%  国际金融危机的爆发,使金融消费者保护问题受到前所未有的重视。金融消费者保护不仅涉及金融消费者个人利益,对国家利益以至整个国际社会金融市场的健康发展都至关重要。美国、英国和日本作为世界主要发达国家,在此次经济危机中受创较重。为了应对金融危机,这些国家的金融消费者保护体系都有所扩张。尽管各国的金融监管模式和法律体系各有不同,但从中可以凝练出各国的共识。这些共识可以为今后金融消费者保护体系的完善提供有益借鉴。

  6. Discussion on Consumer Rights and Interests Protection in the Era of Internet Finance%互联网金融领域消费者权益保护问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝平

    2015-01-01

    互联网金融领域消费者权益保护方面的挑战,主要集中于信息安全隐患大、资金安全难保障、消费者维权意识淡薄且维权成本高三方面。为不断加大互联网金融领域消费者权益保护力度,需加强信息安全立法,规范准入门槛,在提升风控要求基础上充分发挥市场力量提升市场主体保护消费者权益的自觉性和主动性,唤醒消费者维权意识并降低消费者维权成本。%The challenges for these problems mainly focus on huge hidden risk from information security, the safety of funds hardly to be guaranteed, weak awareness of consumer rights and high cost of rights protection. It’ s neces-sary for constantly enhancing the strength for protecting Internet financial consumer rights and interests to highlight information security legislation, to regulate access thresholds, to exert the role of market forces into full play based on promoting risk control requirement, so as to enhance the consciousness and initiative of market participants in terms of protecting consumer interests and awaken the awareness of consumers to protect their rights and reduce the cost of rights protection.

  7. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  8. 78 FR 26545 - Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1075 RIN 3170-AA38 Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act or Act) establishes a ``Consumer...

  9. 76 FR 54998 - Request for Information on Consumer Financial Products and Services Offered to Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Services Offered to Servicemembers AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice and..., regarding consumer protection measures relating to consumer financial products and services offered to, or... Servicemember Affairs seeks information on consumer financial products and services that are currently...

  10. Study on the Application of Doctor-patient Relationship in Consumer Protection Law%新修《消费者权益保护法》可否调整医患关系之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灿平; 肖秋平

    2014-01-01

    新修《消费者权益保护法》的立法精神中,“生活消费”具有市场终端性和市场议价性的特点,患者可属于消费者,医疗机构可属于经营者,医患关系可属于消费关系,因此,医患关系可受新修《消费者权益保护法》调整。《消费者权益保护法》与《医疗事故处理条例》、《侵权责任法》等不是互相排斥的关系,不能以医患关系的特殊性而否定其可适用《消费者权益保护法》。%According to the legislative spirits of the presently renewed Consumer Protection Law,pa-tients can be included in consumers,medical institutions can be included in proprietors,and the doctor-pa-tient relationship can also be included in consumer-proprietors relationship.Consumer Protection Law can be in harmony with Regulations on the Medical Accident Treatment and Tort Liability Law.We can not directly deny doctor-patient relationship ‘s application to Consumer Protection Law,only because of the particularity of doctor-patient relationship.Providing perfecting the system of medical liability insurance, punitive compensation can be somehow attached to medical institutions.

  11. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  12. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  13. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  15. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  16. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  17. THE 2015 INTER-REGIONAL SEMINARS ON RADIATION HYGIENE FOR LOCAL AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS’ SPECIALISTS OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the inter-regional seminars on ensuring population radiation safety held in 2015. Each one of the eight inter-regional centers of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being conducts such seminars once in every two years in order to render organizational, methodological and practical assistance on the issues of population radiation protection ( Inter-Regional Centers on Radiation Safety – IRC RS In 2015 the inter-regional seminars were conducted by the following inter-regional centers: the Central IRC RS in Moscow on March 18–19, the Southern IRC RS in Simferopol on April 21-23, the Far Eastern IRC RS in Habarovsk on May 26-28, the Siberian IRC RS in Gorno-Altaisk on September 22-24 and the Head Scientific-Methodological Center of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (HSMC in St. Petersburg on October 7-8.The seminar elucidated upon current issues of ensuring population radiation protection. The presentations were made by the top-notch specialists of St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev. They expanded upon limitation of population exposure from natural, medical and technogenic ionizing radiation sources, implementation of new regulatory-methodological documents devised by the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being. They also dwelled upon state-of the-art instruments and methods of conducting radiation monitoring. Practical matters were discussed in relation to establishment of sanitary-epidemiological supervision over population radiation protection.The article highlights the issues discussed at those seminars, major challenges underscored by the participants as the result of the discussions. It provides the general evaluation and conclusions based on the seminars’ outcomes. The smooth organization of those seminars was highly

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer..., advertising, or offering insurance products or annuities to the consumer at an office of the bank or on behalf...

  19. Financial Regulatory Reform: Analysis of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency (CFPA) as Proposed by the Obama Administration and H.R. 3126

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-17

    to which banks are subject.52 It is still unclear how (or if) Congress will propose to change the prudential regulation of financial institutions ...the past several decades, banks and other financial institutions have expanded the scale and scope of their consumer lending programs. Partly driven...prudential standards for financial firms; and increased federal oversight of institutions that are unregulated or only lightly regulated under current

  20. consumer rights as constitutional rights-a comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    1984-07-24

    Jul 24, 1984 ... A consumer right is the hallmark of consumer protection law. .... The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental Protection in the Oil … 186 ... O. Okpara; Human Rights Law & Practice in Nigeria 2005, Enugu ...

  1. 78 FR 26489 - Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1075 RIN 3170-AA38 Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  2. EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN SAKHALIN REGION TO THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Darizhapov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Sakhalin Region in organizing prevention of conditions that endanger the public radiation safety related to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The authors present results of the measurements of the radiation situation in the Sakhalin region and propose ways to improve organizational and sanitary-hygienic measures aimed on ensuring public protectiony in events of radiation accidents.

  3. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  4. ACTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMANWELL-BEING IN KAMCHATSKY KRAI AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION"CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGYIN THE KAMCHATSKY KRAI" FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION IN CONNECTION WITH THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Zhdanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes actions of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in KamchatskyKrai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kamchatsky Krai" to ensure radiation protection of the population in conditions of the radiation accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant and their co-operation with other regional administrations in solution of this problem. The article also presents results of radiation monitoring in the region and shows absence of any significant radiation exposure to the population of the region resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

  5. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  6. 论网络购物中的消费者权益保护%Protection of consumer rights and interests in online shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何如; 俞华娟; 施燕飞

    2016-01-01

    随着互联网的发展和电子科技的进步,网络购物已经成为了当今社会新兴的购物方式。由于网络购物的便捷高效,商品多样,吸引着越来越多的人加入网络购物中来。消费者通过网络购物带给自身便利,但由于网络购物的高速发展和关于这个领域的立法空缺,网络购物存在的客观问题也开始显现。如何保障网络购物消费者的合法权益成为社会的热点。%With the development of internet and the advancement of electronic science and technology, online shopping has become a new way of shopping in today's society. Due to the convenience and efficiency of online shopping, goods are diverse, attracting more and more people to join online shopping. Consumers through online shopping to bring their own convenience, but because of the rapid development of online shopping and the legislative vacancy on this field, the existence of the objective problems of online shopping also began to show. How to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the consumers of online shopping has become a hot spot of society.

  7. A Reflection on Law in China's Network Consumer Rights Protection%完善我国网络消费者权益保护的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜韦

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rapid development of network consumption, network shopping has become a hard - hit area of network consumers rights protection, which leads to constant cases of network consumers' trading safety, rights for information, fair play and request for compensation, thus violating China's economic order and legal rights of consumers. Improvements must be made in China's current law in the field of protecting consumers' rights. Such work should focus on specifying relevant legal duties and responsibilities of operators, and centers on protecting consumers' rights, hinge on regulating and monitoring electronic merchants' behavior, and guaranteeing an approach of remedy methods.%当前,随着网络消费的迅猛发展,网络购物已成为消费者维权投诉的重灾区,致使侵害网络消费者交易安全权、知情权、公平交易权和求偿权的行为不断发生,严重破坏了我国的经济秩序和消费者的合法权益。为了保护消费者的合法权益,就必须完善我国现有的保护消费者合法权益的法律制度,当务之急是健全以规制经营者的相关法律义务和责任为重心,以保障消费者合法权益为核心,以规范监管电商行业法律准则为关键,以完善消费者救济途径为保障的网络消费者权益保护制度。

  8. Behavior of fluopyram and tebuconazole and some selected pesticides in ripe apples and consumer exposure assessment in the applied crop protection framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.

  9. Defining Medically Necessary Services To Protect Children. Protecting Consumer Rights in Public Systems: Managed Mental Health Care Policy. A Series of Issue Papers on Contracting for Managed Behavioral Health Care, #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Washington, DC.

    This issue paper is designed to help families, advocates and policymakers ensure that "medically necessary" standards in public-sector contracts for managed mental health care protect children's rights, particularly the rights of children who have serious emotional disturbance. Fundamental principles for developing sound contracts for…

  10. REGULATION AND SUPERVISION SHADOW BANKING INSTITUTIONS WHICH IS POTENTIALLY GIVES SYSTEMIC RISK AS AN EFFORT TO GIVE LAW PROTECTION TO CONSUMERS (Study in Banyumas Ex-Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shadow banking practice there is a tendency to increase, then the regulator should be set. Some cases have led to financial stability system disorders and cause systemic risk. This study aims to reveal weaknesses in the regulation and implementation of shadow banking institutions that have the potential for systemic risk and the protection of customers both normative and implementation in the Ex-residency of Banyumas. This study is a qualitative study with normative juridical approach and the study of law as the law in action, a social science studies that non-doctrinal and empirical. The results showed that the implementation of the supervision of shadow banking in the former residency of Banyumas potential harm to customers primarily in LJKNB shaped KSP / KJKS that provide services to non members, LJKNB who misuse their permissions business activities, LJKNB that has not been incorporated, but no potential systemic. Factors law, law enforcement, facilities, people and culture affect the implementation of surveillance in the area of Ex-residency of Banyumas.

  11. 扬州市消费者个人信息法律保护调查报告%Yangzhou city consumer personal information legal protection survey report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫

    2015-01-01

    随着信息技术的发展,以互联网技术为基础各种新兴服务和物联网正在以前所未有的速度发展。但与此同时,今年来却频繁曝出信息泄露和倒卖的事件,这不禁引起人们的警惕。大数据时代的到来,既给商家带来的机遇,也给个人信息保护带来了挑战。我们要充分挖掘数据的潜在能力,使其为人们的生活提供便利和高效,同时也警惕个人信息暴露处在“裸奔”的风险中。%With the development of information technology, all kinds of new services and the Internet of things is developing rapidly. But at the same time, frequent Revelations information leak, it can not help but the benefit of the people. The advent of the era of big data, both for business opportunities, also poses a chalenge to the protection of personal information. We should make ful potential ability of data mining, provide convenience for people's life and high efficiency, but also alert to personal information exposure.

  12. Utility shopping: are consumers ready?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrados, A. [Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    This report provides an overview of public readiness to deal with deregulation of the electric power industry , based on an analysis of public reaction to the deregulation of the transportation, telecommunications and natural gas industries which already have taken place. The report also examines the reasons why residential consumers have reason to be wary of deregulation. These include the likelihood of slow development of the intended competition, the consequent limits on consumer choices, the possibility of increased prices, decreased quality of service and erosion of social values such as affordability and accessibility. The report concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring the existence of workable competition for residential consumers, that reliable and meaningful information is available as competition in deregulated markets gets underway, that independent sources of information are widely available, and that basic consumer protection against deceptive and borderline marketing practices, a regulatory oversight mechanism and public reporting mechanisms are in place before competition begins. 33 refs.

  13. 77 FR 12031 - Impacts of Overdraft Programs on Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... consumer financial products or services under the Federal consumer financial laws.'' \\1\\ Specifically, the... Regulation E and overdraft opt-in rates, (d) impact of changes in financial institutions' operating policies... FINANCIAL PROTECTION Impacts of Overdraft Programs on Consumers AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial...

  14. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Burghelea; Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changin...

  15. On the Modification of the"Three Guarantees"---Comment on the Deficiencies of Article 24 of Consumer Protection L aw%论我国“三包”规定的完善--兼评《消费者权益保护法》第24条之不足

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宗泽

    2015-01-01

    The"Three Guarantees"generates in the period of planned economy .After the modification of Consumer Protection L aw ,the"T hree Guarantees"must be modified in order to better protect the legitimate interests of consumers .Meanwhile ,the deficiencies of the Article 24 of the new Consumer Protection Law should be inproved .%我国“三包”规定产生于计划经济时期,《消费者权益保护法》修订后,“三包”规定亟须修改以做到明确统一。与此同时,《消费者权益保护法》第24条也应做相应完善。

  16. 基于消费者权益保护的纳米风险法律治理研究%Legal Governance Research of Nano Risk Based on Consumer Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱体正

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been widely used in daily consumer goods and medicine service fields ,but nanop‐articles have potential hazards to human health and the environment .China has achieved remarkable results in some fields ,but regulators and enterprises should learn from the advanced measures ,strengthen the nanotech risk supervision ,implement nanotech certification system and information disclosure system ,develop nanotech science popularization activity ,and improve risks legal governance mechanism to protect consumer ’ s health right ,right to know ,right of choice and privacy right ,etc .%纳米技术广泛应用于日常消费品及医疗技术服务等领域,但纳米材料对于人体健康和环境具有不可忽视的潜在危害。我国在纳米技术标准、纳米产品认证等方面取得了一定成效,但监管部门和纳米制售企业还应借鉴美国、欧盟等国的先进经验,加强纳米技术风险监测,推行纳米产品标识和安全信息披露制度,开展纳米科普活动,提高纳米消费者的认知水平,健全法律治理机制,切实维护消费者的健康权、知情权、选择权和隐私权等合法权益。

  17. Rhode Island Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This consumer curriculum guide is divided into 10 component areas: basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping, advertising, responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy and resources. Each component is accompanied by a goal statement that identifies key concepts…

  18. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of... Leasing Act of 1976 (CLA) to the Bureau, the Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation M (Consumer Leasing). This interim final rule does not impose any new...

  19. Rhode Island Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This consumer curriculum guide is divided into 10 component areas: basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping, advertising, responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy and resources. Each component is accompanied by a goal statement that identifies key concepts…

  20. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  1. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  2. Consumer Protection in Digital Market Place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽峰

    2007-01-01

    在最近的二十年中,随着科学技术的发展互联网也以惊人的速度发展着,互联网如今已成为最重要的商业传播媒介这一,但在发展的同时,我们也应注意到一些潜在的问题.文章探讨了在互联网络里消费者的权益保护以及各国目前就使用一些好的可以被我国借鉴的方法以及电子商务在现实中发挥的重要作用.

  3. 75 FR 13471 - Telephone Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The proposed revisions would require sellers and telemarketers... sellers at a particular number. When written consent is required under the Commission's rules and orders... written consent requirement. The Commission also seeks comment on how best to reconcile the congressional...

  4. Chinese Consumers Wake Up and Take Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    TEN years ago, if you had asked a woman shopping in a market, "What are your rights as a consumer?" chances are, she would have responded with a bewildered face. Today, however, more and more people are trying to protect and enjoy their rights as consumers according to the law. In the past several years, due to outmoded production and a highlycentralized, planned economic system, Chinese residents could only use coupons to buy basic consumer goods. They also faced the problem of whether or not the commodities were available; they had few rights as consumers. The policies of reform and opening up

  5. Consumer Rights between Regulation and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Belu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated globalization of recent decades has made the world economy is becoming more integrated, strengthening the global business environment, beyond national and regional environment. This process rises new challenges for the protection of consumer rights. This paper aims to examine consumers' awareness of the rights stipulated in the existing legislation at Community and national level. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted on a sample of 250 persons in the age group 18-30 in Bucharest, results show the need for information campaigns for consumers on their rights campaigns aimed at awareness knowledge of their consumer rights.

  6. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  7. 76 FR 81789 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M); Correction AGENCY: Bureau of... December 19, 2011 (76 FR 78500). The interim final rule established a new Regulation M (Consumer Leasing) in accordance with the transfer of rulemaking authority for the Consumer Leasing Act of 1976...

  8. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  9. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  10. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  11. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  12. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  13. A Nation of Consumers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What is the true potential of Chinese consumers? This is a longstanding and difficult question to answer. It is not a lack of statistics that makes this question unanswerable, but there is a paradox in China's consumer market-while the rate of household consumption is falling, total retail sales of consumer goods are rising.

  14. Be a Smart Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  15. Self-consuming materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  16. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  17. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  18. 对保险消费者概念的商榷——兼论保险相对人权益保护范式的选择%The Concept of Insurance Consumer and the Choice of Consumer Protection Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢楠

    2012-01-01

    在全球金融危机背景下于2009年修订并实施的新《保险法》,对保险相对人的权益保护受到了社会各界最大程度的关注,"保险消费者"的概念在保险法学界引起了热烈讨论,体现出我国《保险法》在立法理念和保护范式选择上的分歧与争议。学者和实务界人士对此提出了肯定说、否定说和衡平说三种观点。本文认为,"保险消费者"概念的提出在当前特定背景下确有其积极意义,但将保险相对人的保护纳入消费者保护法制的轨道存在诸多问题,概念内涵上无法覆盖,权利构造上难以契合,法律精神上缺少共鸣,制度运行上易出现排异反应。无需完全摒弃现有的保险当事人利益衡平保护理论与制度,而在"保险消费者"概念下重塑保险相对人的保护范式。从根本而言,对于保险相对人权益的切实有效保护,仍应在保险法的制度框架中寻求。%Although putting forward the concept of "insurance consumer" in current specific context has its positive significance, we see many problems arising from bringing the protection of insurance relative party into the consumer law system. In fact, the two concepts of "insurance consumer" and "insurance relative party" do not contain each other or share the same structure of legal rights. In addition, there is lack of a common ground in the principle, which may result in rejection and mismatch in the legal system functioning. It is neither reasonable nor necessary to get rid of existing theories and systems of the equal protection paradigms and restructure it under the "insurance consumer" concept. It is concluded in this paper that the effective and substantial protection of insurance relative parties' rights shall eventually he achieved by traversing the path of insurance laws.

  19. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the internation...

  20. Study on Legislative Restriction on the Regret Rights of Consumer——Remarks on Amendments of the Related Articles in the Consumer Rights Protection Law%论消费者后悔权的立法限制——兼论我国《消费者权益保护法》相关条文的修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤建辉; 张通

    2012-01-01

    The regret rights give the consumer the right to rescind the purchase contract.In foreign countries,this rule has been established in law for long.In terms of the consumer,as a vulnerable group,this method of relief is convenient and feasible.It is of great significance to enhance the protection of consumer rights.But if consumers abuse their right,it would harm the interests of the manager,inimical to the construction of good faith of market environment and it will not fit the value objective of fairness in the civil law,so necessary restriction should be given to the regret rights,in order to better realize the substantive justice.The consumer regret rights should be opportunely brought in during the amendment of Consumer Rights Protection Law,and give necessary limitation to the regrets.%后悔权给予消费者无偿解约的权利,在国外立法中早有规定,对作为弱势群体的消费者来说,该救济方法方便可行,对于加强消费者权利保护具有重要意义,但是如果消费者滥用权利则会损害经营者的利益,不利于诚信的消费环境的构建,也不符合民法公平的价值目标,故应该对后悔权给予必要的限制,以便更好地实现实质正义。在我国的消费者保护法修订过程中应适时地纳入消费者后悔权,并对后悔权加以必要的限制。

  1. The Study on the Issues of Consumer Rights and Interests Protection in the Field of Electronic Commerce---The Prominent Risks of Infringing Consumer Rights and Interests in Online Shopping and Countermeasures%电子商务领域的消费者权益保护问题研究--网购中存在的侵犯消费者权益的突出风险及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝平

    2015-01-01

    电子商务领域,存在诸多消费者权益受侵犯的风险隐患,主要在于电子商务领域信息泄露风险敞口较大、电子商务领域假冒伪劣商品难以得到有效解决、电子商务领域诈骗犯罪泛滥三个方面。为促进电子商务健康发展、更好保护网购消费者合法权益,需从不断创新健全网购欺诈赔偿机制、加强网购行政监管并规范网购市场行为、完善刑事立法以打击网购欺诈犯罪三个方面,健全完善我国的消费者权益保障体系。%There exist potential risks of infringing consumers rights and interests in the field of e-commerce, mainly in three as-pects such as that the risk exposure of information leaks are larger, it is difficult to effectively solve the problems of fake and inferior commodities, and there exist many e-commerce fraud crimes. In order to promote the healthy development of e-commerce, and better protecting lawful rights and interests of online shopping consumers, measures should be taken to continuously explore innovative and sound online shopping fraud compensation mechanism, strengthen the administrative supervision and standardize the online shopping market behavior, perfect the criminal legislation against online shopping fraud crime, and perfect the consumer rights and interests protection system in china.

  2. Consumer Profile Of Hunting Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage

  3. MODELLING CONSUMER EMPOWERMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aimed to analyze the effect of socioeconomic characteristics, consumer reference group, and the intensity of having consumer education on consumer empowerment among the residents of urban and rural area in Bogor. Better socio-economic characteristics were associated with better consumer empowerment, i.e. more the subjects were more skillful, more to acknowledge their rights, and more assertive. Reference group had no direct effect on the consumer empowerment, but indirectly affected it through its consumer educational aspect. The intensity of consumer education was found to improve the consumer empowerment. All results applied to both in rural and urban areas.Keywords: socio-economic, consumer empowerment, consumer education, reference groupJEL Classification Number : D100, D180AbstrakTujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis pengaruh karakteristik sosial ekonomi, kelompok rujukan dan intensitas mengikuti pendidikan konsumen terhadap keberdayaan konsumen. Karakteristik sosial ekonomi yang semakin baik dan jumlah kelompok rujukan semakin banyak akan meningkatkan intensitas mengikuti kegiatan pendidikan konsumen. Karakteristik sosial ekonomi berpengaruh baik langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap keberdayaan konsumen, artinya kondisi sosial ekonomi yang lebih baik akan meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen menjadi lebih terampil, tahu hak-haknya dan lebih tegas. Kelompok rujukan secara langsung tidak meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen, namun secara tidak langsung melalui pendidikan konsumen yang lebih intensif dapat meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen. Intensitas mengikuti pendidikan konsumen mampu meningkatkan keberdayaan konsumen baik di perdesaan maupun perkotaan.Keywords: sosial ekonomi, keberdayaan, konsumen, pendidikan, kelompok rujukanJEL Classification Number: D100, D180

  4. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  5. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Vulnerable Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    . The Directive’s Article 5(3) concerning vulnerable consumers protects only—and to a limited extent—groups who are vulnerable due to mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity. Even though consumers make many good choices, all consumers are vulnerable in certain situations—often due to time constraints......, cognitive limitations, and/or bounded rationality as convincingly demonstrated in behavioural economics. Those consumers who are vulnerable in the light of the Directive are those who are at risk of having their economic behaviour distorted by lawful commercial practices. In the article, the author suggests...... how the directive’s protection of vulnerable consumers may be improved through interpretation, revision, and new initiatives. It is not possible to protect all consumers from bad consumption, but welfare loss originating from certain commercial practices may be reduced....

  6. “有欺诈行为”经营者赔偿责任的体系化思考--以《消费者权益保护法》第55条为视角%Thinking Systematically of the Liability of Business Dealer Convicted of Fraud---From the Angle of the Article 55 of Consumer Protection Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国庆

    2014-01-01

    From the view of modern hermeneutics, the person who buys false goods with intention is the con-sumer should be protected by the provisions of punitive damages under the article 55 of Consumer Protection Law. The debt problems of the article 55 are quite worthy of attention. From the perspective of Contract Law, the contract involved in article 55 of Consumer Protection Law is invalid or withdrawed, so, as one of the par-ties to the contract, the operator's responsibility is due to contracting negligence since the contract is invalid or revoked. Paragraph 2 in article 113 of the Contract Law which is related to the special regulations in article 55 of Consumer Protection Law should be ruled in validity sector of Contract Law rather than in breach of contract provisions. From the debt law perspective, the operator committing fraud who promises to compensate ten for one should not only bear the responsibility of treaty fault liability in accordance with the article 55 of Con-sumer Protection Law, but also bear the responsibility of compensating ten for one because of unilateral promise.%从法解释学视角看,“知假买假”者也是“消费者”,应适用《消法》第55条经营者赔偿责任。《消法》第55条所体现的债的问题也颇值得关注;从合同法视域看,《消法》第55条所涉及的合同属于无效合同或可变更可撤销合同,合同当事人之一经营者的责任是因(合同无效或被撤销而引发的)缔约过失之债而产生的赔偿责任,《合同法》第113条第2款关于《消法》第55条的特殊规定应当在《合同法》合同效力篇而不是违约责任篇予以规定;从债法角度看,实施欺诈行为并作出“假一赔十”表示的经营者,应依缔约过失之债和单方允诺之债的相关规定,分别承担赔偿责任。

  7. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  8. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  9. Advancing consumer neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.; Hsu, M.; Sanfey, A.G.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ebstein, R.P.; Huettel, S.A.; Kable, J.W.; Karmarkar, U.R.; Kitayama, S.; Knutson, B.; Liberzon, I.; Lohrenz, T.; Stallen, Mirre; Yoon, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new frontiers for on

  10. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  11. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  12. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  13. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways. It shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; it is a self-help manual for resolving individual consumer complaints; and it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two sections. Part…

  14. Consumers + Questions = Confusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually a...

  15. Working for the Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  16. Consumer Health: CAM Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Don't take all CAM claims at face value. Do your homework when considering CAM therapies. By ... dose of skepticism. Federal Trade Commission. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0167-miracle-health-claims. Accessed ...

  17. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  18. Working for the Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabecoff, Alice

    1976-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the consumer movement, the Department of Labor (DOL) is instituting new procedures and improving existing ones to draw its clients more fully into the policy-setting and decision-making process. The Department is also adding the viewpoint of the consumer to its plans. (WL)

  19. Measurement of Consumer Ethnocentrism of Slovak Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova; Maria Gibalova

    2014-01-01

    The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. Whe...

  20. Social/Behavioral Effects of Violence on Television. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This subcommittee hearing report presents testimony of television network officials, academic researchers, and consumer representatives concerning the social and behavioral effects of portrayed violence on television, especially as it relates to children. It also provides documents used as attachments to the oral testimony and written statements…

  1. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  2. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive, and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. We conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who were victimized in the past. A telemarketer pitched a mock scam 2 or 4 weeks after participants were warned about the same scam o

  3. Tourism law: from traveller to consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casanovas Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law on tourism – “tourism law” for some authors – is the instrument that has been used to turn the tourist into a consumer. Travellers are increasingly aware of the rights they can exercise. Incorporating the regulation of combined travel contracts (separate tourist services sold for an overall price into the body of consumer regulation and air passenger protection has made a definitive contribution to establishing this condition. Tourist contracts involving consumers have ended up in the courts, which have already had the opportunity to interpret the regulations and orient them towards the most protectionist positions for consumers. With the addition of new consumption habits and new types of contracting the future of this field looks far from static.

  4. SPORT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Without any doubt, sport has become a major consumer market, either we discuss about practicing any kind of sport at professional or amateur level, or we are just interested by a competition, sport organization or an athlete as a regular consumer. From this last perspective, we can distinguish between two types of behaviors, respectively the spectator and the supporter or fan. Each of these two typologies has its own characteristics which define, in a significant manner, the consumer behavior. A correct understanding and management of this phenomenon, of the factors that influence the attitudes and the decisions taken by the respective consumer, of the display manner for the consumer behavior have a major importance from the management and marketing point of view. This paper focuses on the football consumer and describes, first of all, the main characteristics of each of the typologies mentioned above from this perspective, presenting also the reasons for their transition from passive supporter to fan. Another issue we approach in the current paper refers to the changes appeared in the consumer behavior when the market segment is represented by those supporters whose teams are either relegated or liquidated, which is a global phenomenon in the football area. Having in mind this aspect and taking into consideration the influence of media (TV, press, Internet, social media etc, some individual benchmarks that influence those consumer’s behavior are identified within the context of the general typologies previously mentioned. These influences help the consumer to obtain benefits or satisfaction similar to those already lost. The findings may be used in further research focused on that particular market segment and could provide the necessary support data for further development of proper techniques and tools for reshaping and changing the respective consumer behavior.

  5. 77 FR 10725 - Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... consumer financial protection laws, and which will provide information to the Bureau concerning emerging... financial laws,'' so as to ensure that ``all consumers have access to markets for consumer financial.... Supervising persons covered under the Dodd-Frank Act for compliance with Federal consumer financial law,...

  6. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  7. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  8. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...... become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community...

  9. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  10. Gambling: A Consumer Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, Carole J.; Tucker, Suzanne

    1993-01-01

    Focuses upon gambling, the twelfth largest industry in the United States, and its impact on families. Discusses the history of gambling, the cost of gambling, and the growth of lotteries. Suggests issues for consumer professionals to explore. (JOW)

  11. CONFIDENCE FOR CONSUMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Government tightens regulation on food additives in response to safety concerns after several food safety scandals were brought to light When buying food these days,Chinese consumers become nervous at the mere mention of

  12. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... proposes an adoption of innovation framework for understanding consumer responses. The framework is applied in a mall-intercept survey of the early adoption of a new ecolabel, the MSC label for sustainable fishery, in Denmark. Findings - Early adopters of a new ecolabel mostly employ a high effort adoption...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...

  13. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... proposes an adoption of innovation framework for understanding consumer responses. The framework is applied in a mall-intercept survey of the early adoption of a new ecolabel, the MSC label for sustainable fishery, in Denmark. Findings - Early adopters of a new ecolabel mostly employ a high effort adoption...

  14. 291__Kazeem_consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ASSESSMENT OF CONSUMERS' PREFERENCE TO THE USE OF GARLIC AND. CINNAMON OILS ... into other products such as low moisture food Kilishi. The use of garlic ... temperature is fast making it a house-hold name in. Nigeria and ...

  15. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  16. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the international norms are concerned it effectively contains the Bill of Rights of Consumers which help them across the globe to effectively protect their interests. Keeping in consideration about the poor bargaining position of the consumers and with an aim to ensure consumers to access non-hazardous products United Nation issued Guidelines for Consumer Protection, 1985, expanded again in 1999. The consumer justice is a facet of socio-economic justice and emanates from the basic philosophy of the Indian constitution i.e. to do justice and to strengthen the standard and status of the people of this country. It has been discussed in this article in an elaborate way about the various provisions of the Constitution and all the legislations which addresses the issues of consumers and resolve to protect their interests. But still the exploitation of Indian consumers by the dishonest traders and service providers become a routine matter and this article also scanned the reasons for the same and also provides suggestions to ameliorate the conditions of consumers. This paper is based on qualitative analysis of the information mainly obtained from secondary sources such as different books and journals as referred over here, Policy documents, existing laws, reports of United Nations, important judgments and observations of Judiciary etc.

  17. EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION MONITORING, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES TO MINIMIZE RISKS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE MAGADAN REGION POPULATION RELATED TO THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN MAGADAN REGION AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION "CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MAGADAN REGION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rubtsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of activities of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Magadan region and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Magadan region" in the context of monitoring of the radiation situation in the Magadan region from 12.03.2011 in connection with the Fukushima accident in Japan. The authors present the data on radiological laboratory studies, the analysis of performed organizational activities, the results of co-operation with the state and other regulatory authorities.

  18. On the Protection of Consumers'Safety Right under the Background of E-business%电子商务中的消费者安全权保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温蕾

    2016-01-01

    Consumers'safety right is the most important right of consumers under the background of E-business;it is also the important conflict. The safe network environment and perfect law system is the most powerful guarantee of consumers'safety under the background of E-business. First,we should formulate the related law,provide online consumers with rational cooling-off period,empower online consumers to have the right to regret and withdraw,and force the unethical merchants to be punished;second,we should formulate the market access mechanism and perfect the related supervision system;third,we should formulate the guarantee system,carry out the evaluation on E-businesses'qualification,credit reputation,scale and operational situation,and proportional withdraw some money for guarantee;fourth,we should clarify the jurisdiction of lawsuit, and encourage consumers to safeguard their rights through judicial channel;and fifth,we should perfect and develop the online complaining,online disputes resolution,online evaluation,and online network information sharing agents and expand more legal remedy ways for consumers.%消费者安全权是电子商务环境下消费者最重要的一项权利,也是亟待解决的一个主要矛盾.安全的网络环境和健全的法律制度是电子商务环境下消费者安全权最有力的保证.第一,制定电子商务消费者权益保护法,给予网络消费者合理的冷确期,赋予网络消费者以反悔权和撤销权,对不良商家进行惩罚性赔偿;第二,健全电子商务监管体制,建立网络交易经营者市场准入制度;第三,建立电子商务保障金制度,对电子商务商家的资质、信誉、规模和经营状况进行评估,按比例提取一定的电子商务保障金;第四,明确诉讼管辖权,如采取约定管辖原则、被告人所在地管辖原则、电子合同履行地管辖原则等,保护消费者通过司法渠道维权;第五,健全和发展在线投诉、在线纠纷解决、在线

  19. Gaps and Challenges in the Enforcement Framework for Consumer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tessema_Elias

    The effectiveness of consumer protection in a market economy is, inter alia, determined by the ..... Indeed, there appear to be far more countries housing their ...... Paper School of Business, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia. 104 Ibid.

  20. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  1. Taking collective interest of consumers seriously : A View from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safjan, Marek; Gorywoda, Lukasz; Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    An increased focus on consumer collective redress marks the shift from substance- to enforcement-oriented perspective in the EU consumer policy. The EU action in this regard is currently at the stage of feasibility study but it seems to be moving towards a mechanism protecting collective rather than

  2. Supervisory governance, the case of the Dutch Consumer Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the impact of the Regulation on consumer protection cooperation, especially with regard to the introduction of a public law supervisory authority, on the primarily civil law and self-regulatory Dutch concept of supervision and enforcement in consumer law. The response to this r

  3. 76 FR 79025 - Privacy of Consumer Financial Information (Regulation P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... financial, investment, or economic advisory services is a consumer regardless of whether you establish a... are each financial institutions because providing financial and investment advisory services are... / Wednesday, December 21, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR...

  4. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  5. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  6. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  7. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  8. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...... clothing consumption. One of the main results of the descriptive analyses was that the average consumer across all four countries purchased 5.74 clothing items worth €153.79 over a three-month period. Interestingly, country differences were observed in relation to consumption volume, spending, preferred...

  9. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  10. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  11. CoNSTRUCTIoN AND APPLICATIoN oF PUNITIVE DAMAGES SYSTEM IN "CoNSUMER PRoTECTIoN LAW"%《消费者权益保护法》中惩罚性赔偿制度的建构与适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴逸越

    2014-01-01

    新修改的《消费者权益保护法》构建了更为全面的惩罚性赔偿制度,加大了惩罚性赔偿的力度,扩大了其适用范围,力图更有效地保护消费者的权益。借鉴大陆法系和英美法系典型国家具有代表性的理论与案例,兼采法律的经济分析方法,对该惩罚性赔偿制度进行了理论剖析与评价。%The new revised Consumer Protection Law builds a more comprehensive system of punitive damages and expands its scope of application in order to protect the interests of consumers more effectively. The paper uses for reference the typical theories and cases of the judicial system in Mainland China and the legal system Anglo-America and conducts a theoretical analysis and evaluation of the punitive damages system by adopting the economic analysis of law.

  12. 经济法实质正义的解读——浅谈对《消费者权益保护法》第49条的理解%Interpretation of substantive justice of economic law--on the understanding of"consumer protection law"forty-ninth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇

    2012-01-01

      The forty-ninth of"the people's Republic of China Consumer Protection Law"broke through the traditional theory of civil compensation system, first determine the Civil Punitive Compensation system. The system carry out tilt protection for the disadvantaged consumers, solves the market itself"partial information"the problems caused by the conflict of interest, from the legal point of view, the forty-ninth reflects the value orientation of the essence fairness of economic law and justice.%  《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》第49条突破了民事赔偿制度的传统理论,首次确定民事惩罚性赔偿制度。该制度针对处于弱势地位的消费者进行倾斜性保护,解决了源自市场本身的“信息偏在”问题而导致的利益冲突,从法理的角度而言,第49条体现了经济法的实质公平和正义的价值取向。

  13. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  15. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  16. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  17. Educating Tomorrow's Culture Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1979-01-01

    In light of the fact that young Americans spend hundreds of dollars each year on the arts yet have little training in developing critical skills, this writer outlines what must be done in school arts programs to educate culture consumers. (Author/JM)

  18. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  19. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  20. Consumer Rights in Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Attempts in both academia and the legal arena to delineate the concepts of academic fraud and malpractice and to develop the positive implications of the student as a responsible consumer may lead to the establishment of a more appropriate student-institution relationship for today's highly diversified and demanding college learners. (Author/EB)

  1. Young Market: Young Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2009-01-01

    @@ This young generation enjoys a staggering amount of purchasing power in China.That's because the population of young consumers in China is massive. They were born after China instituted its one-child policy in the late 1970s and grew up in the context of China launching its economic reforms and opening up to the world outside.

  2. Understanding the Child Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  3. Consumer Markets & Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Robert

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that one external force, consumerism, is determining what happens in colleges and universities. The new market for higher education is dominated by students who make choices in a very different way from traditional students. Current students seek credentials and want practical knowledge in an easily consumed package. (MSE)

  4. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  5. Understanding the Child Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  6. The Legal Framework of the Consumer Associations in the Romanian Consumer Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita GOICOVICI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of the main legalaspects related to the activity of consumerassociations, seen as promoters of collectiveinterests of their members, in the RomanianConsumer Law. As a social partner of the publicadministration’ organisms, these associations playthree kinds of roles: (1 representing the consumersin the organisms of public administration;(2 informing and advising their members inquestions related to the purchase of products orthe supply of services; (3 taking legal actionsin order to obtain the protection of a collectiveinterest of consumers or the cessation of a illegalcommercial practice. This article also stresses theimportance of non governmental organizations ofconsumers’ right to be consulted by the PublicAdministration’ representatives, in the process ofelaborating legal norms and procedures relatedto consumers’ protection. The non governmentalorganizations of consumers are entitled to betreated as social partners, while representing theirmembers in the specialized organisms, at a nationalor local level, in which the Public Administrationauthorities are represented.

  7. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  8. Consumer Right to Information before Purchase: Research on the Romanian Online Stores for Technical Consumer Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Balan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to evaluate the status of the protection of consumer right to information before the purchase from Romanian online stores. The perspective focuses on technical consumer goods. The research pursued two major objectives. The former consisted in analysing the compliance of the online stores with the provisions of article 6 paragraph 1 of the Directive 2011/83/EU on consumer rights, relative to the information provided to potential buyers before the purchase. The latter was to identify the consumer awareness of the rights stipulated by article 6 of the directive, as well as to study the opinions of consumers relative to the information that online stores are compelled to supply before purchase. The first objective was accomplished by applying the content analysis method to the information available on the Web for a sample of 100 online stores. The second objective was achieved through the survey method on a sample of 351 persons from the 25 to 34 age group, residing in Bucharest. Compared to other studies, the major contributions of the present research approach are the following: the investigation of an extensive sample of online stores; the wider range of products; the focus on both online stores and consumers. The results show that improvements are needed in the level of compliance and in the consumer awareness of own rights.

  9. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  10. Consumer drop-in centers: operations, services, and consumer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Carol T; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Holter, Mark C

    2002-11-01

    Interest in involvement of consumers in mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation services delivery has expanded in recent years, encompassing self-help approaches, consumers employed as providers in formal agencies, and consumers operating their own services. This study reports results from in-depth phone surveys conducted with 32 consumer drop-in centers in Michigan. Results indicate that centers operate in many ways like other human services businesses, albeit with much smaller budgets. Funding levels, salaries, and services showed great heterogeneity among the centers and in comparison with reports in the literature. Centers autonomously run by consumers and centers with consumer involvement (operated by a non-consumer agency) were found to differ significantly on several variables, including consumer control, funding and service levels, and challenges. Implications for the growth and increased use of consumer drop-in centers are discussed.

  11. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past. A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam. Both warnings reduc...

  12. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...... are present in theoretical and empirical elaborations on mobility, but these remain largely implicit and unchallenged (Bauman 1998). This talk will endeavour to unmask distance as a theoretical entity by exploring ways in which distance can be understood and by discussing distance through its representations...

  13. A Rising Consumer Class

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Sonthalia

    2010-01-01

    India has had two stages of growth, both related to consumption since 1947. The first was based on developing economic self sufficiency; the second on rising disposable income. It is now entering its third period of consumption growth which sees it entering the world stage as one of the largest consumers in the world. This paper explains the factors that are driving this dramatic shift from the emerging middle classes to the patterns of consumption and investment in India today.

  14. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone;

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  15. Food quality and the consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. Consumers and professionals in the food sector will differ in the way they view food quality. Professionals have knowledge and resources to establish quality based on objective criteria. Consumers lack both, and they are typically concerned with many different products....... Quality perception is therefore the best way to describe how consumers relate to the quality of food products. 2. The way consumers perceive quality is only imperfectly related to how they act on the market. There are many reasons why food choice can deviate from consumer intentions: lack of economic...... resources, of means of transportation, of time, of knowledge. Consumers' shopping behaviour is therefore an imperfect indicator of the quality consumers want, insufficient way of communicating consumer wishes to the food sector. 3. The fact that the food producer may be separated from the consumer...

  16. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  17. Consumables data base workbook: Formulation of consumables management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Activity consumables data specifications and data applications are presented. The data are structured in a series of "Consumable Data Worksheets" for each activity that includes a profile of its operations and the rate of each consumable required to support the given activity. The data worksheets provide for the uniform specification of consumables data, allows for the ready identification of the consumables affected by a given activity, and facilitates the updating process. An activity is defined and the data that must be included in the data worksheets are specified. An example of its use and application is given, i.e. consumables data requirements for the performance of the EVA. The consumables data for the activities currently identified for the shuttle spacecraft are included. The consumables data sources are identified and information to facilitate the maintenance process is detailed.

  18. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GMO FOODS: BRANDING, CERTIFICATION, AND CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.; Mazzocco, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Two consumer choice models were developed using conjoint analysis to evaluate the effect of potential strategies to gain consumer acceptance of GMO foods. Results indicate that a government certification program would be more effective than the use of a familiar brand in assuring consumers of the safety of GMO foods.

  19. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 356 - Description of the Consumer Price Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of the Consumer Price.... 1-93) Pt. 356, App. D Appendix D to Part 356—Description of the Consumer Price Index The Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) for purposes of inflation-protected securities is the non-seasonally adjusted U.S...

  20. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... and Service Markets AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Proposed rule; request... consumer financial products or services. The Bureau must define such ``larger participants'' by rule, and... covering additional markets for consumer financial products and services. The Bureau also proposes...

  1. Integrate or separate. Institutional design for the enforcement of competition law and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Cseres

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years several EU Member States decided to integrate their competition authorities with their consumer protection agencies. Most recently, the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) has merged the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) with the Dutch Consumer Authority (

  2. Integrate or separate. Institutional design for the enforcement of competition law and consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years several EU Member States decided to integrate their competition authorities with their consumer protection agencies. Most recently, the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) has merged the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) with the Dutch Consumer Authority

  3. A Rational Analysis on the Right of Revocation in Law on Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers%关于《消费者权益保护法》“反悔权”的立法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝英

    2011-01-01

    The right of revocation has its jurisprudence and reality foundation. Besides, there are foreign legislations can be referred to. The scope of applicability of this right and the exception should be stipulate according to the national conditions in Law on Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers.%反悔权的规定有其法理学基础和现实基础,也有国外的立法可供借鉴。我国应在《消费者权益保护法》中对反悔权的适用范围及行使期限等作出规定,并结合我国的国情具体规定排除适用的情况。

  4. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover......, Pragmatist and Status Seeker. Expedient use of the voices in creating design strategies is discussed, thus contributing directly to the practice of high level design managers. The main academic contribution of this paper is demonstrating how applied anthropology can be used to generate insights...... into disruptive emergence of product service systems, where quantitative user analyses rely on historical continuation....

  5. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....

  6. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    , as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...... them. Applications of gene technology - in all industries a topic which is likely to result in confrontations - are still in the pre-market phase, and a high-profile debate is to be expected as soon as the first products are launched. In the following, I will briefly review the 'state of the art...

  7. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FOOD DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Mark G. Brown

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, consumer demand for food diversity is measured by the entropy and Simpson indices for budget shares. Results show that consumer demand for food diversity is related to total food expenditures and household size and composition.

  8. Consumer satisfaction - an unattainable ideal?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    purchasing process (and this includes consumer (dis)- satisfaction) .... the field of consumer behaviour and a number of comparable ... used for manufacturing, and the construction and ... furniture and clothing, because possession and use.

  9. Consumer networks and firm reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....

  10. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  11. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in ... eat, the ground we walk upon, and the consumer products we purchase and use. Although many might ...

  12. Ethics in the Institution of Consumers’ Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at emphasizing the level of institutional ethics for the needs of an organization, which is the consumersř protection. By the means of this marketing research which has as a starting point the Fishbein- Rosenberg model, we wish to point out the importance of the main attributes specified by the Law of the Public Servant, whether these can be the basis of the relationship between consumers and economic operators. The institution of consumersř protection acts as an arbitrer in this case and we wish to find out whether these attributes follow the requirements of the relationship between consumer and the institution which protects them.

  13. Effects of Consumer Involvement, Consumer Knowledge, and Consumer Education on Decision Quality and Consumer Loyalty in Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ching-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of consumer education, consumer knowledge, and consumer involvement on decision quality and consumer loyalty. First, the research gives an overview of the industrial background and literature review. In addition, the relationships between each construct are indicated based on the pervious researches. A quantitative research in the form of online questionnaire was conducted and results are analysed. Finally, the conclusion and limitation of the study is reported...

  14. Consumers Networks and Search Equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti

    2004-01-01

    textabstractI examine a search model a la' Burdett and Judd (1983). Consumers are embedded in a consumers network, they may costly search for price quotations and the information gathered are non-excludable along direct links. This allows me to explore the effect of endogenous consumers externalitie

  15. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  16. One School's Consumer Survival Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charlotte

    1978-01-01

    The Chairman of the Business Education Department at Oak Park-River Forest High School in Illinois and head of the school's consumer education program speaks of the development of consumer awareness among his students over the past seven years and suggests some possible directions for consumer education in the future. (Editor/RK)

  17. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... inflation by the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical... adjusted annually by any annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and... Consumer Price Index. See, e.g., 12 CFR 226.32(a)(1)(ii) and its accompanying commentary. The Board...

  18. 76 FR 18349 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... adjusted annually for inflation by the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban... increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers. Accordingly, the Board is... annual adjustments based on a consumer price index. See, e.g., 12 CFR 226.32(a)(1)(ii) and its...

  19. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to innovation

  20. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  1. Making Space for Consuming Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Donna; Manidis, Marie; Scheeres, Hermine

    2016-01-01

    This empirically driven paper is about workplace learning with specific focus on the "work" of "consuming practices." By "consuming" we refer to the eating, and the drinking, and (at times) to the smoking that workers, in most organisations, do on a daily basis. Indeed, it is the quotidian nature of consuming, coupled…

  2. Approaches to Consumer Economic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how students in high school social studies should benefit from participation in an economic education program. Presents objectives relating to the consumer in society, consumer rights and responsibilities, and consumer law. A directory of materials and resources concludes the article. (Author/DB)

  3. Court of Justice ruling on transparency of terms in consumer insurance contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    European consumers are protected against unfair terms in consumer contracts, including insurance contracts. However, this protection does not extend to terms setting out the essential elements of a contract, such as the extent of the risk covered and the amount of the insurance premium. Nevertheless

  4. PRE-CONTRACTUAL INFORMATION IN CREDIT AGREEMENTS FOR CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Irina IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an image to the point on information provided to consumers before the conclusion of a credit contract, starting with the importance of information and ending with the legal framework. A high consumer protection may be achieved primarily through consumer information. The complexity of banking services but also the vulnerability of consumers in relation to the banks and the unbalanced relationship led to the need to develop specific legislation that clearly establishes the rights and obligations of the parties of a credit agreement for consumers. In this regard, in 2008, after many debates, Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on credit agreements for consumers was adopted. At national level, the Directive was transposed by the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 50/2010 on credit agreements for consumers. Taking into account national specificities, such as lack of experience of consumers in financial products, the irresponsible lending and the unfair practices of creditors, the national act includes wider provisions than the European Directive, such as those relating to fees limitations or those related to the calculation of the variable interest rate. Also the GEO no 50/2010 applies to all credit agreements concluded by consumers and creditors. As regards the advertising, any advertisement shall include a series of standard information. Also, pre-contractual information is standard information, is provided to consumers 15 days before the contract is concluded and is transmitted through the “European Consumer Credit Information sheet Standard”. The article presents when, how and what information should be given to consumers and insists on the importance of annual percentage rate and to what consumers should pay attention in order to be able to compare different offers.

  5. 论消费者权益保护法与相关法律之竞合%Law on Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers and Corresponding Laws:Competition and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莉

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the competition and cooperation of consumers’ rights and in-terests protection laws is that of the amount of compensation in the case of punitive dama-ges,while the competition and cooperation between that and the law of contract is the about measure of indemnity.In the case of concurrent liability,Chinese judicial practice allows the victim,with restricted condition,to choose the right of claim.%消费者权益保护法在与侵权责任的竞合实质为惩罚性赔偿中赔偿数额的竞合。而与合同法的竞合是在赔偿标准的方面的竞合。当发生责任竞合时,我国司法实践中对于责任竞合的处理对策是允许受害人在一定的限制条件内对于竞合的法律选择请求权。

  6. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  7. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  8. Workshop report. Children as a special subpopulation: focus on immunotoxicity. Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), 15-16 November 2001, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter-Reichhelm, H.-B.; Schulte, A.; Ewe, S.; Gundert-Remy, U. [Bundesinstitut fuer gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinaermedizin (BgVV), 14191 Berlin (Germany); Althoff, J.

    2002-07-01

    relevant aspects into existing test guidelines for testing developmental immunotoxicity. In this context, it is recommended that animals culled otherwise in one- and two-generation studies be examined for developmental immunotoxicity according to the valid methods and parameters discussed. The majority of participants agreed that a safety factor of 10 is too low in risk assessment and management to protect a sensitive subpopulation of children against man-made environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  9. 阿什沃斯核心原则评析——兼议英国刑法的消费者保护%Comments on Core Principle of Ashworth ——Also on consumer protection in British Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松才

    2011-01-01

    There are no uniform standards on the key issues of the definition of crime, its constitutive elements, and the criterion of liability in the United Kingdom. These issues become even more complicated when linked with consumer protection. In order to define the principles of crime and apply them to practical eases, Ashworth has set out four principles of criminal Zaw which inc/ude the target group of criminal law, equal treatment, suspects or defendants legal protection and proportionality. His thoughts have greatly influenced the legislation, administration of justice and law enforcement in modern UK. By analyzing these principles, the author attempts to prove some inspiration for the reform and development of criminal law and useful reference for consumer protection in China.%对于犯罪的定义、犯罪构成、归责原则等刑法上的重大问题,英国长期以来没有一个统一的标准。当刑法上的这些问题与消费者保护发生联系时,情形变得尤为复杂。如何在理论上对犯罪的原则进行界定并在实践中加以运用,阿什沃斯提出了刑法的四项基本原则。这些原则包括刑法适用的对象、执行刑法所应遵循的原则、对犯罪嫌疑人和被告人的法律保护以及罪刑相适应等多个方面。其思想对于英国当代的刑事立法、刑事司法和执法都具有重要影响。文章试图通过对这些原则的具体内容、历史背景以及英国学术界围绕这些原则所展开的争议、讨论进行分析,以期对我国刑法的改革与发展有所启迪,同时结合这些原则在英国消费者保护中的应用,为完善我国的消费者保护制度提供借鉴。

  10. Harmonization: A Need for EU Action on Consumer Credit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    As in the consumer area in general, the objective of the internal market has been applied as a reason why there is a EU need for action regarding consumer credit. Even though it is more than 25 years ago since the first Consumer Credit Directive harmonized aspects of the legislation in the Member...... States, cross-border activities are still extremely low. The achievement of the internal market depends on the consumers’ and the creditors’ overall incentives to cross-border activities, where harmonized aspects of the legislation are only an insignificant motivation. Despite a need for EU action may...... seem small, there is still a need for EU action, but with a different approach that considers the nature of consumer credit. This means a focus on preventing overindebtedness and ensuring financial stability as well as a high level of consumer protection in a financialized and thereby more complex...

  11. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  12. Consumer directed health care: ethical limits to choice and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell-Thompson, Linda M

    2005-04-01

    As health care costs continue to escalate, cost control measures will likely become unavoidable and painful. One approach is to engage external forces to allocate resources--for example, through managed care or outright rationing. Another approach is to engage consumers to make their own allocation decisions, through "self-rationing," wherein they are given greater awareness, control, and hence responsibility for their health care spending. Steadily gaining popularity in this context is the concept of "consumer directed health care" (CDHC), which is envisioned to both control cost and enhance choice, by combining financial incentives with information to help consumers make more informed health care decisions and to appreciate the economic trade-offs of those decisions. While CDHC is gaining attention in the popular press, business publications, and academic journals, it is not without controversy about its relative merits and demerits. CDHC raises questions regarding the ethical limits of consumer responsibility for their choices. While the emphasis on consumer choice implies that autonomy is the ruling ethical principle in CDHC, it must be tempered by justice and beneficence. Justice must temper autonomy to protect disadvantaged populations from further widening disparities in health care access and outcomes that could arise from health care reform efforts. Beneficence must temper autonomy to protect consumers from unintended consequences of uninformed decisions. Thoughtful paternalism suggests that CDHC plans offer choices that are comprehensible to lay consumers, limited in their range of options, and carefully structured with default rules that minimize potential error costs.

  13. An analysis of popularity of Consumer to Consumer websites

    OpenAIRE

    Abul Kalam Mohammad Azad; Md Kabirul Islam; Mohammed Shamsul Hoque

    2014-01-01

    Websites on the net are making the world business very effective, challenging and dynamic. Business running with the use of websites in the form of buying and selling is called E- commerce. Among the various types of E-commerce business model Consumer to Consumer (C2C) is spreading in Bangladesh rapidly and getting familiarity among the customers. However, no such recognized study has been done to investigate consumer to consumer E-commerce business model in our country. The main purpose of t...

  14. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  15. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  17. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...

  18. FACEBOOK INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sparano Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of social network, Facebook, in consumer behavior of consumers in Curitiba (a city in Brazil. Specifically, the study sought to understand how the target audience searches for products, to what extent social network influence them, if they buy more or have brand recall in decisive moments. We collected data through a sample of 88 consumers in Curitiba and analyzed them from the interpretation of the statistical description. We concluded that the brands that keep their Facebook profiles active do not directly influence consumer behavior and do not encourage immediate purchase because consumers seek entertainment, information and relevant content on Facebook. However, the companies have opportunities to establish and strengthen relationship with their consumers.

  19. Consumer ethnocentrism of Serbian citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković Veljko; Stanišić Nenad; Kostić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Consumer ethnocentrism implies the consumers’ orientation to the purchasing of domestic goods, disapproval of purchasing of foreign goods, and the attitude that the buyers of foreign goods are responsible for domestic economic problems and unemployment. This paper presents the results of measurement of consumer ethnocentrism in Central Serbia, five administrative districts precisely (Šumadijski, Pomoravski, Rasinski, Moravički, and Raški). Results show the moderate level of consumer eth...

  20. Consumer-Based Product Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    novices. The aim was to explore the usability of the Napping® method by untrained consumers and to analyze differences between beer novices and experts in their ability to discriminate and describe the products. The method succeeded in discriminating between the beers, revealing sensory descriptors...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers' experience with the product. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  1. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  2. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density...

  3. Characterising convinced sustainable food consumers

    OpenAIRE

    von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; von der Wense, Vera; Spiller, Achim

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the distinguishing socio-demographic and psychographic features of convinced sustainable consumers in contrast to convinced conventional consumers. Furthermore, it contributes to the sparse literature about tea consumption. This study is based on data collected via an online consumer survey. First respondents took part in a choice experiment with tea varying in its price (four levels) and quality (conventional / organic / fair trade / organic & fai...

  4. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density...

  5. 77 FR 5241 - No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... PROTECTION No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under the Federal Antidiscrimination and Whistleblower Protection Laws AGENCY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (CFPB or the Bureau) is providing notice to...

  6. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain...

  7. Consumer behaviour regarding energy products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evelina Gradinaru; Lorant Bucs; Gabriel Bratucu

    2016-01-01

    ... challenge if one considers achieving them sustainably. That being said, the present paper gives emphasis to some theoretical and practical information regarding the consumer behaviour regarding energy products...

  8. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production are among the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...... understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy....

  9. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  10. Analysis of the Romanian Insurance Market Based on Ensuring and Exercising Consumers` Right to Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the financial market of insurance, consumer protection represents an important component contributing to the stability, discipline and efficiency of the market. In this respect, the activity of educating and informing insurance consumers on ensuring and exercising their right to claim plays a leading role in the mechanism of consumer protection. This study aims to improve the decision-making capacity of the financial services consumers from the Romanian insurance market through better information on ensuring and exercising their right to claim under the legislation. Thus, by applying three data analysis techniques – principal components analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis – to the data regarding the petitions that were registered by the 41 insurance companies which operated in the Romanian market in 2012, a classification that assesses the insurance market transparency is achieved, resulting in a better information for consumers and, hence, the improvement of their protection through reducing the level of transactions that are harmful to consumers

  11. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  12. Consumer Behavior: Developing Skills for Assertiveness. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Lou

    The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…

  13. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vita

  14. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    on other resources (e.g., knowl-edge) as well. Together with the person's level of motivation to do so, this subjective feeling of how difficult it is to make a change towards a more sustainable lifestyle deter-mine how hard the person will strive to do so. Consumer policy can empower consumers...

  15. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    , if a consumer wants to buy organic food or environment-friendly detergents, limited distribution and premium pricing put restrictions on his or her opportunities for doing so. However, how severely these restrictions are felt depends on the individual consumer's financial and time resources and sometimes...

  16. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  17. Summary report on the Solar Consumer Assurance Network (SOLCAN) Program Planning Task in the southern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, M. B. [comp.

    1981-03-15

    The goal of the SOLCAN Program Planning Task is to assist in the development, at the state and local levels, of consumer assurance approaches that will support the accelerated adoption and effective use of new products promoted by government incentives to consumers to meet our nation's energy needs. The task includes state-conducted evaluations and state SOLCAN meetings to identify consumer assurance mechanisms, assess their effectiveness, and identify and describe alternative means for strengthening consumer and industry assurance in each state. Results of the SOLCAN process are presented, including: a Solar Consumer Protection State Assessment Guide; State Solar Consumer Assurance Resources for Selected States; State Solar Consumer Protection Assessment Interviews for Florida; and state SOLCAN meeting summaries and participants. (LEW)

  18. CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND CONSUMER ASSOCIATIONS WITH SLOVAK BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Vilčeková

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the perception of Slovak consumers toward domestic and foreign brands and examines their associations with Slovak brands. The introduction to country of origin in marketing is provided, followed by a brief description of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity; then description of research methodology is mentioned; and finally, research results are presented.The representative research was conducted in 2013 over a sample of 1,067 Slovak consumers over the age of 16.  To capture the spontaneous reactions to Slovak brands, the respondents were asked to name what comes to their mind when they hear the expression “Slovak brand.”  Slovak consumers associate domestic brands with quality, tradition, fair prices, and Slovakia. Their primary feelings toward Slovak brands are mostly positive. If they have negative perception, that is only because domestic products are not often available in stores and there is a lack of Slovak brands. Moreover, the consumers were presented with a list of 27 statements concerning their attitude toward domestic and foreign brands and their brand buying behavior.  Based on the research results, Slovak consumers can be observed as very brand-oriented and often possess a strong brand loyalty when making purchasing decisions. Slovak consumers are not necessarily patriotic as far as purchasing is concerned. The main reason for buying Slovak products is only to support the economy and the Slovak consumers are very aware of the benefits of supporting domestic production. Nevertheless, consumer ethnocentrism is not typical for Slovaks.

  19. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past. A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam. Both warnings reduced unequivocal acceptance of the mock scam although outright refusals (as opposed to expressions of skepticism) were more frequent with the same scam warning than the different scam warning. The same scam warning, but not the different scam warning, lost effectiveness over time. Findings demonstrate that social psychological research can inform effective protection strategies against telemarketing fraud. PMID:25328263

  20. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past. A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam. Both warnings reduced unequivocal acceptance of the mock scam although outright refusals (as opposed to expressions of skepticism) were more frequent with the same scam warning than the different scam warning. The same scam warning, but not the different scam warning, lost effectiveness over time. Findings demonstrate that social psychological research can inform effective protection strategies against telemarketing fraud.

  1. Putting Consumers' Bodies to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    that advertising psychologists had made. In these markets, representations of consumers and their behaviour began to take on a life of their own and allowed markets for consumer attention to be enacted. In that process, consumers’ bodies became increasingly reconfigured as walking measurement instruments...

  2. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  3. Attention, motivation, and consumer judgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...

  4. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  5. Consumer views on DTCA advertising.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Vervloet, M.; Friele, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, except for New Zealand and the USA, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs is prohibited. Currently, at European level, there is an ongoing discussion whether or not to allow pharmaceutical companies to inform consumers about prescription drugs. H

  6. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  7. Understanding consumers of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order for food businesses, scientists and policy makers to develop successful products, services and policies, it is essential that they understand food consumers and how they decide which products to buy. Food consumer behaviour is the result of various factors, including the motivations of diff

  8. Consumer's Resource Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways: (1) it shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; (2) it is a self-help manual for resolving in dividual consumer complaints; and (3) it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two…

  9. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  10. Consumer views on DTCA advertising.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Vervloet, M.; Friele, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, except for New Zealand and the USA, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs is prohibited. Currently, at European level, there is an ongoing discussion whether or not to allow pharmaceutical companies to inform consumers about prescription drugs. H

  11. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying

  12. Interactive Television and Consumer Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Friedrichsen, Mike

    This chapter focuses on the problem of how television can keep its position to at-tract users’ attention and earn income from advertisers. When television is evolv-ing and passing from digital TV toward interactive TV, media consumer market is changing too, under influence of web 2.0 and always...... in consumer markets....

  13. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...

  14. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  15. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present an......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers.......Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...

  16. Consumer ethnocentrism of Serbian citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer ethnocentrism implies the consumers’ orientation to the purchasing of domestic goods, disapproval of purchasing of foreign goods, and the attitude that the buyers of foreign goods are responsible for domestic economic problems and unemployment. This paper presents the results of measurement of consumer ethnocentrism in Central Serbia, five administrative districts precisely (Šumadijski, Pomoravski, Rasinski, Moravički, and Raški. Results show the moderate level of consumer ethnocentrism, which is now higher than before economic crisis, but still at the same level as the ethnocentrism in other counties of the region (B&H, Croatia, and Montenegro. At the segment level, consumer ethnocentrism is higher among rural, older and male population. Results also display the high and statistically significant correlation between level of consumer ethnocentrism, on one side, and consumer’s preferences and behavior, on the other.

  17. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  18. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  19. Connecting the Dots between Consumer Protection, Skepticism, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The concept of relevance is an obvious component in the success of classroom science investigations, but it is also one of the tenets behind the numerous media advertisements that bombard our senses on a daily basis. The authors decided to capitalize on the similarities between process-based science and the world of advertising by initiating…

  20. 75 FR 10991 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... about marketing and business, whether they are shopping at their local store or in the global online... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 46 / Wednesday, March 10, 2010 / Presidential...

  1. THE AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY OF FOOD – CONSUMERS PROTECTION FORM

    OpenAIRE

    PASCU EMILIA

    2013-01-01

    The quality of food is closely related with food safety, highlighted by their authenticity and traceability. Essentially the food it is a carrier of information, his quality reflecting off the capability of the body to decode them and so to provide a healthy lifestyle. Each individual, as well as the community, is preoccupied by the great problems of food, eating and the food behaviour, seeking the right solutions to the questions: what, how, when, and where do we eat to satisfy our physiolog...

  2. THE AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY OF FOOD – CONSUMERS PROTECTION FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCU EMILIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of food is closely related with food safety, highlighted by their authenticity and traceability. Essentially the food it is a carrier of information, his quality reflecting off the capability of the body to decode them and so to provide a healthy lifestyle. Each individual, as well as the community, is preoccupied by the great problems of food, eating and the food behaviour, seeking the right solutions to the questions: what, how, when, and where do we eat to satisfy our physiological necessities. Food and food behaviour are essential determinants of our numerous pathologies, appreciating that many of the severe diseases may be prevented by lifestyle changes where the food is playing a key role. For authentic products, in this article there are presented information regarding benefits of traceability of products. The traceability of food products can be obtained by registering the ups and downs of the physical flux obtained during the production process. The objective of traceability is to obtain total control on products by individual and group identification to intervene in case of post-processing defects or any inconvenience. In traceability the "one step back, one step ahead" principle is applied. This means that any company has the obligation to have all the necessary information regarding the product, including the nature of raw and auxiliary materials and to possess information regarding the date and delivery destination. For the accomplishment of this wish, the individual identification of the goods, products, locations and place is indispensable. The traceability of the product is based on the identification code. It is monitored the changes that have occurred during the production processes, transport, storage and distribution flux.

  3. THE AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY OF FOOD - CONSUMERS PROTECTION FORM

    OpenAIRE

    PASCU EMILIA

    2013-01-01

    The quality of food is closely related with food safety, highlighted by their authenticity and traceability. Essentially the food it is a carrier of information, his quality reflecting off the capability of the body to decode them and so to provide a healthy lifestyle. Each individual, as well as the community, is preoccupied by the great problems of food, eating and the food behaviour, seeking the right solutions to the questions: what, how, when, and where do we eat to satisfy our physiolog...

  4. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  5. Seafood Safety: Seriousness of Problems and Efforts to Protect Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    acute or chronic illness in humans. Biological pathogens (including naturally occurring, water-borne and sewage- related bacteria and viruses) are...Seafood S GAtO 1 le% I Contents Executive Summary 2 Chapter 1 10 Introduction Recent Concerns About Seafood Safety 11 Objectives, Scope, and Methodology...con- cern for most of t his centuiiry. Illness out breaks and deathl froim typhoid fever bacteria in shellfish during the first qtuarter of’ this (ent

  6. Consumer Protection and Premium Rate Services In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Services, or allows the User to monitor his bill, limit his usage, or limits the liability in connection to unauthorised usage.Infringement of the legislation in question is mainly sanctioned by administrative or civil sanctions. The overall impression is that the Danish telecommunication industry is quite...

  7. Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisite for environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Carl Folke; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    En del af de miljømæssige problemer, som truer vore omgivelser, er mere eller mindre forårsaget af forbrugernes livsstil. En mere miljøbevidst livsstil kan ikke opnås, uden der sker markante ændringer i forbrugernes indstilling og adfærd. For at nå frem til en syntese om, hvad man ved, og hvad de...

  8. 78 FR 14625 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... America A Proclamation Over 4 years ago, widespread abuses in America's financial system nearly brought... oversight that led to an epidemic of irresponsibility, and it highlighted the need for common-sense..., effective marketplace. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by...

  9. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  10. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-95, 126 Stat. 11 (2012)), established the..., delays in the clearance of passengers arriving on international flights through the U.S. Customs...

  11. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  12. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of the flight, members of the public might get a false sense of security based on the reputation of... not possible to quantify. The value of this rulemaking would be the increased transparency for both the public and competitors in this market. There is also value in the timely and accurate production...

  13. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N. K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF LENDING ACTIVITY OVER CONSUMER\\'S BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela STEFAN-DUICU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lending activity involves an embedding of general principles which require the analysis of risks incorporated in banking operations, both from a consumer and bank perspective. Correlated with economic environment shifts, the consumer’s definition concentrates a series of individual and group necessities with a decisive role in a possible lending decision. As socio-economic issue, the consumer is oriented at lending when his income in order to buy goods or services is not satisfactory. This paper aims at presenting the consumer hypostasis resulted from lending activities, identifying its purposes and risks.

  15. Consumer@Protection. EU. An analysis of European consumer legislation in the information society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock Buning, M. de; Hondius, E.H.; Prins, C.; Vries, Marc de

    2001-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce have emerged as the emblems of a worldwide virtual economy. Although it is yet difficult to grasp all the repercussions of the borderless world of the Internet, it is certain that to shop in this world is different from shopping in the world as we knew it ten yea

  16. Consumer Education: A Teaching-Learning Unit on the Rights and Responsibilities of all Consumers and Special Problems of Elderly Consumers, Poor Consumers, Handicapped Consumers, Non-English Speaking Consumers and Nonreaders, Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville.

    To help high school students understand the role of consumers in the everyday world, the teaching guide presents objectives and activities related to seven consumer topics. Topics are rights and responsibilities of all consumers, common transportation concerns of consumers with special problems, and problems which particularly affect consumers who…

  17. 14 CFR 259.7 - Response to consumer problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ENHANCED PROTECTIONS FOR AIRLINE PASSENGERS § 259.7 Response to consumer... department in the airline with which to file a complaint about its scheduled service. This information shall... concerning a difficulty or problem which the person experienced when using or attempting to use an airline's...

  18. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  19. Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Jennie; Nordgren, Anders; Perrudin, Maud; Ronteltap, Amber; Savigny, Jean; van Trijp, Hans; Nordström, Karin; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one's health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user's rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  20. Impacts of Consumer Law No 6502 on Insurance Activities: Comparing With EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Özkan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As is often the case in many developed and developing countries, in our country, too, the consumer is protected and the extent and limits of this protection is expanding day by day. The last step in this direction was the Law on the Protection of Consumers No 6502, which entered into force on 28.05.2014 and provides important changes and developments. While these developments were achieved within the scope of the consumer legislation, in the insurance legislation area a strong protection has been brought comprising all insurers/insured which is independent from this and is not limited to the consumers. While this protection has been brought onto a new level with the Law on Insurance no 5684 which entered into force in 2007, it has been reinforced with the Turkish Law on Trade entering into force in 2012. While the Law on the Protection of the Consumer No 6502 provided a protection outside the insurance legislation for consumer insured it also has brought about diffused accountability in terms of implementation of the legislation The most important common issue in terms of legislation developments in the insurance and consumer legislation is the effort to reflect the principles, rules and developments accepted for consumers and insurance products/services in the European Union Acquis to national law.In this context our study has been assessed together with the principles and implementing procedures accepted by the Consumer Law in terms of insurance activities and the regulations included in the Insurance Law and related secondary legislation ("Insurance Legislation". Meanwhile an attempt has been made to refer to the relationship between insurance and consumer legislation within the scope of the EU legislation.

  1. THE WORKER IS A CONSUMER. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE ANNUAL AFL-CIO NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNITY SERVICES (10TH, WASHINGTON, MAY 16-20, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    THE TENTH ANNUAL AFL-CIO NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNITY SERVICES WAS CONCERNED WITH WAYS THE LABOR UNIONS CAN DEVELOP CONSUMER EDUCATION AROUND THE NEEDS OF WORKERS. SPEAKERS POINTED OUT THE NEED FOR ENFORCEMENT OF CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS, OUTLINED AREAS IN WHICH SCHOOL CONSUMER COURSES WERE NEEDED, DISCUSSED CONSUMER RIGHTS, AND SUGGESTED…

  2. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  3. Consumer formity in virtual society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram ranjbarian

    2013-08-01

    In this research, consumer Internet conformity (normative and informational conformity has been investigated. The study sample included 384 students of shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. For data analysis software spss 16 and lisrel8.5 was used. The results indicates that sense of belongingness and Community expertise on Community trustworthiness and Community trustworthiness on Informational consumer conformity Positive and significant impact, and also Self esteem on Conformity motivation No significant effect, but variable Involvement on Conformity motivation Positive and Conformity motivation on Normative consumer conformity has Positive significant impact.

  4. Aging and consumer decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  5. Attention, motivation, and consumer judgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    The aim of this project was, as specified in the original title, to increase the effectiveness of health cues, health claims, and nutrition labels on product packages. This research goal has been interpreted as two main research questions: which kind of health information do consumers process...... and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...

  6. Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Economy: Availing Sustainable Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital economy and, implicitly, of competition in the online marketplace has triggered new challenges in terms of consumer protection approaches. Online, consumer skills are expected to be improved and the level of consumer awareness and engagement increased. These are the baseline prerequisites of the sustainable purchasing decision and, thus, should be considered as pillars of responsible online consumption. Consistent with the novel consumption challenges, the current paper is intended to advance and test a research model integrating five main constructs, namely, competition in the online marketplace, online consumer skills, online consumer awareness, online consumer engagement and sustainable purchasing decision. A total of 318 college students—a representative population of the new Millennials generation—accepted the invitation to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. In order to pertinently analyze the collected data, a structural equation modeling technique based on partial least squares was employed for the assessment of the measurement and the structural model. The findings indicated that the model explained 24.4 percent of the variance of sustainable purchasing decisions, while the highest influence was exerted by the improvement of online consumer skills. This implies that online providers should revisit their products sustainability standards on purpose to preserve a competitive advantage.

  7. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  8. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development....... Wecontribute to the strategy literature by suggesting that learning and innovation efforts from which afirm may benefit need not necessarily be located within the organization, but may well reside in theconsumer environment. We also contribute to the existing theory on `user-driven innovation' byshowing what......Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...

  9. GREEN: MARKETING, PRODUCTS AND CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Mihaela SANDU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review of green marketing, eco-friendly products and green consumers. Nowadays, awareness on different environmental problems increased significantly and it is of global concern to reduce negative impact on the environment. In relation to this, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, a new segment of consumers was introduced, the so called green consumers. Green marketing tries to adapt by putting in the center of attention theneeds of such a consumer. An increase of organic products exists in both parts, in demand and offer. To maintain the welfare of present and future generations, a sustainable development is essentially.

  10. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  11. Drivers of high-involvement consumers' intention to buy PDO wines: Valpolicella PDO case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitello, Roberta; Agnoli, Lara; Begalli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates whether different sensory profiles of wines belonging to the same Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are perceived as different products by consumers. It identifies the drivers of consumers' intention to buy preferred wines. Descriptive sensory analysis, consumer tests and consumer interviews were conducted to reach research aims. To perform the consumer tests and interviews, 443 consumers participated in the survey. The tasted wines comprised five samples representative of Valpolicella PDO wine. Analysis of variance tests, principal component analysis and linear and logit regressions were employed to verify the research hypotheses. The results demonstrated: (1) different sensory profiles exist within the Valpolicella PDO wine; (2) these sensory profiles result in consumers having the perception of diversified products; (3) the perception of differences was less marked for consumers than for trained assessors due to the different weight attributed to visual, aroma and the taste/mouthfeel hedonic dimensions; and (4) consumers' liking, as well as general perceptions, attitudes, preferences, wine knowledge and experience, contribute to consumers' intentions to buy more than the socio-demographic characteristics of consumers. The analysis of the drivers of consumers' intention to buy certain PDO wines provides new marketing insights into the roles of intrinsic quality, preferences and consumers' subjective characteristics in market segmentation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  13. Identity-based consumer behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk

    2012-01-01

    Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category label with which a consumer self-associates that is amenable to a clear picture ...

  14. Consumer Behaviour in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hasslinger, Anders; Hodzic, Selma; Opazo, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how the consumer perceives online purchases. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad. Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was ...

  15. Gasoline Taxes and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun; Linn, Joshua; Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline taxes can be employed to correct externalities associated with automobile use, to reduce dependency on foreign oil, and to raise government revenue. Our understanding of the optimal gasoline tax and the efficacy of existing taxes is largely based on empirical analysis of consumer responses to gasoline price changes. In this paper, we directly examine how gasoline taxes affect consumer behavior as distinct from tax-exclusive gasoline prices. Our analysis shows that a 5-cent tax increa...

  16. Position Auctions with Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Athey; Glenn Ellison

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a model in which advertisers bid for "sponsored-link" positions on a search engine. The value advertisers derive from each position is endogenized as coming from sales to a population of consumers who make rational inferences about firm qualities and search optimally. Consumer search strategies, equilibrium bidding, and the welfare benefits of position auctions are analyzed. Implications for reserve prices and a number of other auction design questions are discussed.

  17. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  18. CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS WITH RUTHLESS BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Power, John; Whelan, Susan; Davies, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The marketing and reputation literature has failed to investigate how brands with negative associations can build trusting relationships with consumers. Research into the measurement of product brand image is unbalanced and has focused on using only positive traits (Aaker, 1999; Batra et al. 1993; Bellenger et al., 1976), as the belief was that a brand could have significant brand equity when consumers held a favourable impression of the brand (Keller, 1993). However, it has been argued tha...

  19. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  1. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  2. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  3. TOURISM CONSUMPION BEHAVIOR IN NATURAL PROTECTED AREAS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Remus Ion Hornoiu; Mihaela Ana Padurean; Ana-Maria Nica; Liviu-George Maha

    2014-01-01

      From the perspective of tourism consumers, researchers as well as of other categories of stakeholders, protected natural areas have become holiday destinations based on the principles of sustainable development...

  4. Consumer depletion alters seagrass resistance to an invasive macroalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Sarah; Calabretti, Chiara; Delaria, Maria Anna; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Navone, Augusto; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Few field studies have investigated how changes at one trophic level can affect the invasibility of other trophic levels. We examined the hypothesis that the spread of an introduced alga in disturbed seagrass beds with degraded canopies depends on the depletion of large consumers. We mimicked the degradation of seagrass canopies by clipping shoot density and reducing leaf length, simulating natural and anthropogenic stressors such as fish overgrazing and water quality. Caulerpa racemosa was transplanted into each plot and large consumers were excluded from half of them using cages. Potential cage artifacts were assessed by measuring irradiance, scouring by leaf movement, water flow, and sedimentation. Algal invasion of the seagrass bed differed based on the size of consumers. The alga had higher cover and size under the cages, where the seagrass was characterized by reduced shoot density and canopy height. Furthermore, canopy height had a significant effect depending on canopy density. The alteration of seagrass canopies increased the spread of C. racemosa only when large consumers were absent. Our results suggest that protecting declining habitats and/or restoring fish populations will limit the expansion of C. racemosa. Because MPAs also enhance the abundance and size of fish consuming seagrass they can indirectly promote algal invasion. The effects of MPAs on invasive species are context dependent and require balancing opposing forces, such as the conservation of seagrass canopy structure and the protection of fish grazing the seagrass.

  5. Different concentration of Penthorum chinese Pursh have significant Protected effects on the GPT,UA and Cr of alcohol consumPtion liver damage%初步研究不同浓度赶黄草对酒精肝小鼠谷丙转氨酶,尿酸及肌酐的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方聪; 曾伟; 黄婷; 彭波辉; 赵国; 田建军; 罗玥佶

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究不同浓度赶黄草对酒精肝小鼠谷丙转氨酶,尿酸及肌酐的影响。方法成年健康小鼠50只,按体重随机分为5组,每组10只,分别为酒精模型组,低浓度药物治疗组,中浓度药物治疗组,高浓度药物治疗组,正常对照组。前四组每天给予5ml/kg,浓度50%的乙醇灌胃,连续30d,同时药物影响的三组给予不同浓度的药物治疗,正常对照组灌相同量的蒸馏水。实验结束,取动物肝脏进行病理组织学检查,血清进行生化检测。结果对小鼠肝组织内谷丙转氨酶,尿酸及总胆固醇含量的影响与正常对照组比较,赶黄草小鼠肝组织内的 GPT,UA 含量显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。提示高剂量的赶黄草对小鼠长期过量饮酒肝损伤有明显的保护作用。%PurPose: To study that different concentration of Penthorum chinese Pursh have significant Protected effects on the liver damage of long time excessive alcohol consumPtion. Methods: According to their body weights, adult healthy mice were randomly divided into 5 grouPs with each 10 mice: alcohol model grouP, low concentration medicine treatment grouP, middle concentration medicine treatment grouP, high concentration medicine treatment grouP and normal control grouP. The Previous four grouPs received 5ml/kg, 50% alcohol for 30 consecutive days, at the same time, the three medicine treatment grouP received different intensity drugs theraPy, normal control grouP received the same amount of distilled water. After the exPeriment, the GPT and UA level significantly decreased in the liver of the exPeriment mice received Penthorum chinese Pursh and the differences were statically significant (P<0.01). The result shows that high concentration of Penthorum chinese Pursh have significant Protected imPacts on the liver damage of long time excessive alcohol consumPtion.

  6. 77 FR 57566 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review and Request for Public Comment on Potential Approaches to Electronic Delivery of the CCR;...

  7. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer financial product and service markets... / Friday, December 7, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations...

  8. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Financial Protection (Bureau) amends the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... ``larger participant '' of markets for other consumer financial products or services, as the Bureau defines...

  9. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and AIM Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA... for additional consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to approve...

  10. 76 FR 3633 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the rechartering of the Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... ``Commission'') regarding consumer issues within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate...

  11. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  12. Health Protection Products Are Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    FooDS and beverages that are made from natural ingredients and advertised as therapies are sweeping the consumer market. The health protection products I’ve seen can be divided into five categories. They include: 1. Beverages: tea, haw juice, mineral water; 2. Medicinal liquids: royal jelly, black-boned chicken essence, softshelled turtle essence; 3. Health protection foods: brown rice powder, rice vinegar, asparagus juice, egg-white candy;

  13. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors.

  14. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  15. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers......As a result of the impressive resurgence of micro and craft breweries, the product diversity in the Danish beer market has remarkably increased. Craft breweries are traditionally characterized by innovativeness, unique sensory experiences, and a focus on novel beer styles not previously known......, and ways in which these can be considered to inform product development decisions. Sensory insights into how consumers perceive a new beer are paramount. As craft breweries rarely have access to traditional sensory analysis (in the form of a trained panel), the first part of the project has examined...

  16. Consumers' misunderstanding of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, George; Friedman, Joelle Y; McGill, Barbara; Ahmad, Sarah; Linck, Suzanne; Sinkula, Stacey; Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Kolstad, Jonathan; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; List, John A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-09-01

    We report results from two surveys of representative samples of Americans with private health insurance. The first examines how well Americans understand, and believe they understand, traditional health insurance coverage. The second examines whether those insured under a simplified all-copay insurance plan will be more likely to engage in cost-reducing behaviors relative to those insured under a traditional plan with deductibles and coinsurance, and measures consumer preferences between the two plans. The surveys provide strong evidence that consumers do not understand traditional plans and would better understand a simplified plan, but weaker evidence that a simplified plan would have strong appeal to consumers or change their healthcare choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the impressive resurgence of micro and craft breweries, the product diversity in the Danish beer market has remarkably increased. Craft breweries are traditionally characterized by innovativeness, unique sensory experiences, and a focus on novel beer styles not previously known...... to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers......, and ways in which these can be considered to inform product development decisions. Sensory insights into how consumers perceive a new beer are paramount. As craft breweries rarely have access to traditional sensory analysis (in the form of a trained panel), the first part of the project has examined...

  18. Shades of the Green Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Consumers' awareness of environmentally friendly products has increased in the past few years. However, concern for the environment continues to be tempered by economic concerns. Although many consumers take steps to conserve energy and resources in their own homes, they are motivated as much by the desire to save money as by the desire to save the environment - 80% conserve energy, 74% purchase energy-saving appliances, and 68% limit water use. Nonetheless, 2010 saw significant shifts in two forms of environmental activism that are not economically motivated - the percentage of consumers opting not to use plastic bags jumped from 39% to 45%, and the percentage checking corporate environmental policies increased from 23% to 28%.

  19. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    's implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... scope. Consequently, in this study we have chosen to focus on the consequences of the following amendments:Under the new provisions in s. 77a(3), any lack of conformity with the contract is assumed to have existed at the time of delivery if such lack of conformity becomes apparent within six months...... of the time of delivery.Where there is a lack of conformity, the consumer in general has a right to choose between replacement and repair under s. 78. Replacement is no longer contingent on the lack of conformity constituting a fundamental breach. Furthermore, it is no longer possible for the seller...

  20. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  2. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  3. REGULATORY AGENCIES, CONSUMER AND ENVIROMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Valezi Raymundo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis on the insertion of the consumer in the current model of State in Brazil, considering the nowaday legal system. It is wished to be shown, moreover, the already existing reality on the theme, even if modest, so to in a way to question the responsibility of the consumer, according to its consuming habits and its inertia, takes in today’s technological society. To such proposal, the most effective research method, and, for this reason had been used in this paper, is the extensive bibliography research and legislation consultation. Through it, it had been found that the State model has changed over the past decades in order to delegate the execution of various activities of State ownership to private enterprise, in view of the existence of a minimal State and governor. In this sense, there were created the Regulatory Agencies, which are indirect public administration entities, with the ultimate objective of regulating and supervising the execution of those legal activities, performed by the private sector. The consumer, inserted in this reality, is the direct recipient of the action of the mentioned entities, questioning the legislative and sanction legitimacy of the regulatory entities as well as the possibility of judicial review on the merits of administrative actions of these entities and the applicability of the Brazilian Code of Defense of the Consumer (CDC to the execution of public services, a discipline that affects the administrative law rights. Notwithstanding the above analysis in context, all these social workers, consumers and regulatory agencies are immersed in changing habits, due to the optimization of actions, aimed at preserving the environment, the prospect of achieving sustainable development. Based on this perspective, the results brought by the survey showed that the application of the Brazilian Code of Defense of the Consumer in relations between consumers does not preclude

  4. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... and concerns associated with processing technologies, emerging scientific innovations and their own health status may enable the development of information strategies that are relevant to wider groups of individuals in the population, and deliver real health benefits to people suffering from illnesses relating...

  5. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  6. Mobile satellite communications for consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-11-01

    The RadioSat system based on MSAT satellites and scheduled for launch in 1994 is described. The RadioSat system will provide integrated communications and navigation services to consumers, including nationwide digital audio broadcasts, data broadcasts, precision navigation, and two-way voice and data communications. Particular attention is given to the MSAT satellite system capabilities and economics. It is concluded that the RadioSat system will be capable of providing a low-cost, highly flexible two-way communications for consumers that can be adapted to various applications.

  7. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  8. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  9. CONSUMERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell court, white blood cell court and platelet count. The mean ... ethnic groups to alcohol consumption attributed mainly to geneti" differences! 2. These variations may be found at low .... vitamin content of burukutu, but like the industrial beer it.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND CONSUMER ANIMOSITY ON THE RE-PURCHASE INTENT: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CONSUMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sukru Akdogan; Sevki Ozgener; Metin Kaplan; Aysen Coskun

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of international trade and travel, consumers are increasingly confronted with foreign products and services. But some negative attitudes towards foreign products can arise from several factors such as previous or ongoing political, military, economic, or diplomatic events. Thus, both consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity have become important constructs in marketing. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity affec...

  11. THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND CONSUMER ANIMOSITY ON THE RE-PURCHASE INTENT: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CONSUMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sukru Akdogan; Sevki Ozgener; Metin Kaplan; Aysen Coskun

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of international trade and travel, consumers are increasingly confronted with foreign products and services. But some negative attitudes towards foreign products can arise from several factors such as previous or ongoing political, military, economic, or diplomatic events. Thus, both consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity have become important constructs in marketing. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity affec...

  12. CONSUMER BETWEEN OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Dina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society where the consumer, due to the diversity and abundance of products and services whose characteristics are becoming more similar, has to make choices that are increasingly difficult. Another aspect that has led to a profound transformation of the consumer behavior is due to the large volume of information, supplied by the Internet, information which in some cases is not accurate, but is decisively influencing the consumer. In equal measure, the difficulty of making a purchasing decision is caused by the fact that with the opening to the global market, where the products and services were depersonalized, gaining common features, and where the concept of quality tends to no longer relate to the same standards as a few decades ago, having suffered major changes. The quality of products is a fundamental requirement of competitiveness, and quality assessment is a personal right of the consumer, because this is a direct effect of quality of life. (“Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor” Dinu Vasile, 2008

  13. Personal Law and Consumer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, David

    1972-01-01

    There is little doubt at Minnetonka High School that the integrated personal law and consumer problems course is effective. The areas studied promote variety, concentration on vital matters, and student interest in the business department as a source of general education. (Author)

  14. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category i

  15. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  16. Happy cows and unhappy consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    , health, convenience), and their effects on purchase intentions and purchases have often been analyzed by measuring the inferences consumers make from such information with regard to perceived product quality. However, recent research suggests that this cognitive mediation of the effects of storytelling...

  17. Economy & the Light Green Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ U.S. consumers are keenly aware of environmental issues and are concerned about the environmental friendliness of the products they buy. However, economic pressures may affect how actively shoppers seek out products marketed as environmentally friendly and how willing they are to pay a premium for these products.

  18. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category

  19. Designing a New Electricity Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug

    The paper reports on a smart grid experiment for the making of a new retail electricity market integrating fluctuating electricity generation into electricity systems. An outline of design challenges faced by the market engineers when dealing with different and lacking conceptions of consumers...

  20. Happy cows and unhappy consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    in the food area may be only half of the story. In addition, such information on food products may also also elicit spontaneous (positive) affect in the consumer mind, leading to a positive impact on purchase intentions that is not cognitively mediated. To the extent that such intentions actually lead...

  1. Power to the energy consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    In the Winter of 2016 the European Commission published a package of proposals for the reform of EU energy legislation. This contribution deals with the question what can energy consumers expect from the proposals regarding their rights and chances to actively participate in the energy market in the

  2. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other

  3. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice

  4. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  5. Shades of the Green Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Consumers’ awareness of environmentally friendly products has increased in the past few years.However,concern for the environment continues to be tempered by economic concerns. Although many consumers take steps to conserve energy and resources in their own homes,they are motivated as much by the desire to save money

  6. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other t

  7. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  8. Consumer e-health solutions: the cure for Baumol's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2014-01-01

    Baumol's disease is the fact that costs in persistently labour-intensive sectors such as healthcare do not drop, despite increased use of technology. The idea of consumer e-health solutions is seductive, because it provides one option for treating Baumol's disease. However, barriers to the implementation of these solutions exist, and the successful treatment of Baumol's disease with consumer e-health solutions rests on more than their removal. In this introduction, the editor-in-chief adds to the conversation four shifts that are critical to reaping the benefits of consumer e-health solutions: moving the focus from privacy to protection; from mere access to the use of information in decision-making; from the patient-provider dyad to one that includes a full formal and informal care team; and from structural solutions in healthcare to ones designed around the goals we have for our health system.

  9. Research of honey consumers' behavior in province of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Vojvodina is considered to be very favorable for honey production, whereby the area of Fruska Gora is primarily considered as the most bountiful. However, one of the key problems that honey producers encounter is the lack of understanding of consumer behavior and therefore inability to create appropriate marketing strategies and programs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide assistance to honey producers in Vojvodina, to lime honey producers from Fruska Gora with protected geographical origin in particular, to identify the motives, attitudes and buying habits of consumers of honey in Vojvodina. The conclusion is carried to summarize the obtained results about what type of honey consumers in Vojvodina buy, why, where, when, how often and what are their attitudes toward the introduction of a new brand of honey. Moreover, it presents the basic guidelines to honey producers for the improvement of marketing strategies and marketing programs.

  10. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Linda A.

    This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

  11. Consumer Education in Illinois Schools, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Intended to assist Illinois teachers in planning an instructional program in consumer education that meets state requirements, this consumer education curriculum is designed to help students in grades 9 through 12: (1) become informed consumers; (2) understand the rights and responsibilities of consumers in society; (3) develop responsible…

  12. Consumer Behavior Determined by Social Classes

    OpenAIRE

    ªerban Comãnescu Adrian; Muhcinã Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Information on consumer behavior is essential in trade policy decision-making process. The study of consumer behavior has concerned different subjects:psychology, sociology, economy. In a marketing approach knowledge of consumer behavior is not an end in itself, but only a tool, a means by which business decisions are adapted to the consumer expectations.

  13. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers...

  14. Supervisory governance
    The case of the Dutch Consumer Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel A. Heldeweg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the impact of the Regulation on consumer protection cooperation, especially with regard to the introduction of a public law supervisory authority, on the primarily civil law and self-regulatory Dutch concept of supervision and enforcement in consumer law. The response to this regulation has been to introduce a dual system of enforcement (separating civil law and public law enforcement in which the new Dutch Consumer Authority is to act in accordance with the subsidiarity principle (intervening only when the market itself fails to respond adequately. The major question is whether this new ‘hybrid’ concept of dualism and subsidiarity will be sustainable or if a full ‘publicisation’ of Dutch consumer protection law should be expected. Important determining factors are the positioning of the Consumer Authority in both the European network and in several national networks with both public and private law partners. A key issue is how responsibility for consumer protection will be distributed through these networks. Finding a balance between, especially, the role of the European Commission (in the European network and ministerial responsibility (for the Consumer Authority is necessary to enable the Consumer Authority to create sufficient trust within these networks so as to make dualism and subsidiarity possible.

  15. The Recent Shift from the Passive to the Active Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thiede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: The debate on the protection of consumers in cross - border settings has flared up repeatedly since the introduction of the consumer protection rules of the Brussels I and Rome I Regulations. Whilst in the past consumer protection had not often been prioritised and the CJEU had insisted on strict interpretations to the consumers’ detriment, 1 and though since then a middle road between the interests of the entrepreneur and the consumer has been sought, 2 it seems that the pendulum has now swung back the other way again. According to the CJEU’s latest judgment in C - 218/12 Emrek/Sabranovic, in all cases where an entrepreneur concludes a contract with a foreign consumer, this falls under the adjudicatory jurisdiction of the consumer’s domicile, even if the entrepreneur’s marketing activity in the consumer’s state was not causally relevant for the event u- al conclusion of the contract. DEUTSCH: Die Diskussion um das Internationale Verbraucherschutzrecht flammt seit der Schaffung des Verbrauchergerichtsstandes im Internationalen Zivilverfahrensrecht und den Verbraucherschutzregeln der Rom I-VO immer wieder auf. Nachdem der EuGH in der Vergangenheit zunächst den Verbraucherschutz hintanhielt, indem er auf eine äußert enge Auslegung pochte und den Anwendungsbereich damit schmal hielt, in der Folge einen Mittelweg zwischen den Interessen der Unternehmer und Verbraucher suchte, scheint das Pendel nunmehr in die andere Richtung auszuschlagen. Ausweislich des jüngsten EuGH-Urteils in C-218/12 Emrek/Sabranovic ist nämlich derjenige Unternehmer, der einen Vertrag mit einem ausländischen Verbraucher abschließt, selbst dann am Wohnsitz des Verbrauchers gerichtspflichtig, wenn der Vertrag nicht auf seine dortige Marketingtätigkeit zurückzuführen ist.

  16. Materialism, status consumption, and consumer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.

  17. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  18. Consumer perception of bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % of linol acid, almost 60 % of saccharides, Ľ iron and about 13 % of vitamin B2 and calcium. If we add some cereal fiber which is an effective prevention factor of cardiovascular di­sea­ses, metabolic and oncological diseases of colon and anus, we will get a complex picture about positive effects of cereals in our nutrition. If we were to mark any foodstuff which has been accompanying the mankind in the course of history, it could be bread. Its consummation is spread in the whole world. Only the ones who once suffered from its lack have recognized its value.It results from our research that consumers in Slovakia prefer consuming the wheat-ray bread (38.5 %. The respondents – consumers prefer at choosing buying bread in terms of the external, subjective factors, the overall shape when choosing bread (45 % and dark color of crust (25 %. They showed minimum interest in white color crust and packaging size. In terms of the internal, objective factors, the most important factor for respondents, for women as well as for men was freshness of foodstuffs followed by fiber (with a big difference (12.82 %.Almost 60 % of bread consumers claimed that they did not have any possibility to obtain the required information regarding bread in supermarkets and hypermarkets because it is not possible to find professional staff providing them with the required information. A different situation is in the classical, small, self-service, and

  19. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas that are painted white. DO ... protect the ears or sides of the face. Special clothing that protects the skin by absorbing UV ...

  20. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies...