WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer demand

  1. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  2. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  3. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  4. Nuclear accidents, consumers' perspectives and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevritou-Goulielmou, H.

    2005-01-01

    The public's reaction to life threatening situations is determined by a variety of factors. In the case of nuclear accidents, the panic experienced by citizens may be reasonably justified. This paper briefly describes the parameters that cause panic reactions from a consumer's point of view and summarizes citizen's demands concerning nuclear crisis management

  5. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  6. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  7. Consumer demand for information about agricultural biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Czienskowski, Uwe

    The aim of the study was to provide a realistic assessment of (a) the amount and type of information that consumers would use in choices between second-generation novel foods and different types of competitor products, (b) the amount and type of information that consumers would access from general...... (glycoalkaloids), mutation-bred rice with lowered levels of an anti-nutrient (phytic acid), and functional food ingredients of a natural origin (phytosterols). A representative sample of 726 Danish consumers participated in a web experiment. In the first part of the experiment, information uptake in realistic...... product choice situations was monitored. Each participant completed three choice tasks, involving different categories of consumer products (basmati rice, milk, frozen sliced potatoes). Within each choice set, one product alternative was based on the second-generation novel foods used as paradigmatic...

  8. Regulating Consumer Demand in Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarcz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Expected Utility Theory (EUT) is a remarkably poor theory of how and why individuals purchase insurance. However, the normative implications of this conclusion have remained largely unexplored. This Article takes up this issue. It argues that many observed deviations from EUT are likely the result of mistakes, in the sense that consumers would act differently than they do if they possessed perfect information and cognitive res...

  9. The demand for consumer health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T H; Hu, T W; Hibbard, J H

    2001-11-01

    Using data from an evaluation of a community-wide informational intervention, we modeled the demand for medical reference books, telephone advice nurses, and computers for health information. Data were gathered from random household surveys in Boise, ID (experimental site), Billings, MT, and Eugene, OR (control sites). Conditional difference-in-differences show that the intervention increased the use of medical reference books, advice nurses, and computers for health information by approximately 15, 6, and 4%. respectively. The results also suggest that the intervention was associated with a decreased reliance on health professionals for information.

  10. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  11. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  12. Demand and choice probability generating functions for perturbed consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers equipped with additive linearly perturbed utility of the form U(x)+m⋅x and faced with general budget constraints x 2 B. Given compact budget sets, the paper provides necessary as well as sufficient conditions for a demand genera...

  13. THE CONCEPT OF REFLEXIVE MANAGEMENT OF CONSUMER DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Mavrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of theoretical approaches of demand management is conducted from the moment of awareness of the importance of this concept. Many models of individual consumers were developed. However, to predict the reaction of consumers to the commercial policy of the enterprise, exact methods do not exist yet because the available ones are mostly empirical in nature. Models of behaviour often do not provide the expected result because they use an erroneous approach to the analysis of the mechanism of demand formation. The subject of the research is the theoretical and methodological basis, methods of assessment, and reflexive management of consumer demand of commercial enterprises. The purpose of the paper is developing a concept of reflexive management of consumer demand. To achieve the research goal, the following tasks are set and solved: to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations of reflexive consumer management, to analyse existing approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour; to improve the model of consumer behaviour; to develop a concept of reflexive management of consumer behaviour. Methodology. In the paper, we use such methods and approaches to research as: reflexive approach (phenomenological method, behavioural economic theory, marketing approach, abstract-logical analysis, analysis of theoretical approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour. Results. Modern approaches to modelling of consumer behaviour are mostly empirical in nature and have shortcomings of general models. In them, there is no description of specific situations of the purchase of goods. They cannot be quantified. Therefore, they cannot be practical models. But they have a weighty advantage in a comprehensive look at motivated purchases, what makes it possible to evaluate the relevance of individual variables and to understand the fundamental processes of consumer behaviour. It makes possible to identify the variables necessary for the

  14. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1......Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...

  15. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...... choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1...

  16. Empirical studies on the labor market and on consumer demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis covers three topics on the labour market and on consumer demand. Chapters two and three focus on the labour market mobility and wage differentials between the formal sector and the informal sector in urban Mexico. Dynamic random effects panel data models are used in the analysis. Chapters

  17. The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Andrei

    The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

  18. Consumer Health Information and the Demand for Physician Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The present study empirically investigates the effect of consumer health information on the demand for physician visits. Using a direct information measure based on questions from the Swiss Health Survey, we estimate a Poisson hurdle model for office visits. We find that information has a negative effect on health care utilization, contradicting previous findings in the literature. We consider differences in the used information measures to be the most likely explanation for the different findings. However, our results suggest that increasing consumer health information has the potential to reduce health care expenditures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The psychological effects of empowerment strategies on consumers' product demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christoph; Prandelli, Emanuela; Schreier, Martin

    2010-01-01

    . In such scenarios, it is no longer the company but its customers who decide democratically which products should be produced. This article discusses the first set of empirical studies which highlight the important psychological consequences of this power shift. The results indicate that customers who are empowered...... of psychological ownership of the products selected. The studies also identify two boundary conditions for this "empowerment - product demand" effect: It diminishes if the outcome of the joint decision-making process does not reflect consumers' preferences and if consumers do not feel that they have the relevant......Companies have recently begun to use the Internet in order to integrate their customers more actively into various phases of the new product development (NPD) process. One such strategy involves empowering customers to cooperate in selecting the product concepts to be marketed by the firm...

  20. THE EFFECTS OF PRICE AND INCOMES ON CONSUMER DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tănase

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of consumption can only be explained by identifying and analysing all the factors acting upon the carrier of demand, and in a given time and space, they have a higher or a lower importance, which makes it impossible to find a hierarchy. However, in societies characterized by a low standard of living, prices and incomes have a strong impact on consumer behaviour. Consequently, this paper approaches one of the most stringent issues, which interest specialists, governing bodies, mass-media and, last but not least, population. In the entire paper we analyse the population’s consumption, i.e. food, non-food products and services, by categories of households, from the economic, statistic and sociologic viewpoints. The paper ends with a brief presentation of conclusions and suggestions regarding the analysis and improvement of population’s consumption.

  1. Consumer Demand for Healthy Diet: New Evidence from the Healthy Eating Index

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhifeng; Yu, Xiaohua; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A large volume of literature has been focusing on the measure of diet quality and consumer demand for food. However, little has estimated consumer demand for diet quality. In this article, we systematically estimate consumer demand for diet quality using the healthy eating index (HEI) developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Results show that consumers have insufficient consumption of the food containing dark green, orange vegetable, legumes and total grain. Age and education have...

  2. Consumer demands: Major problems facing industry in a consumer-driven society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G

    1994-01-01

    Demand is driven by conventional market forces over much of the world among consumers with strong positive attitudes to meat as a nutritious, tasty and premium food; price in relation to income, availability, quality (including leanness) and relevance to life-style remain the dominant forces operating. But in the developed world, there are emerging concerns about how meat is produced, which are likely to have negative effects on demand, particularly that of the current younger generation, and which may well begin to affect Government policies towards the meat industry. The industry needs to establish strong information and education programmes, but also to examine its procedures to provide greater consumer assurance about practises and controls. Also the scientists and technologists serving the industry need to help it move towards sustainable lower input, less environmentally damaging systems, less reliance on drugs, stimulants and additives, sensitive exploitation of the new genetics and with more consideration for the animals involved. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Gianluigi Zenti, President, Academia Barilla SpA - The Changing Consumer: Demanding but Predictable

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    It is crucial to understand and predict consumers' behaviour to meet future consumer demands. This report contributes to the discussion by giving an insight into consumers' behaviour from the perspective of Gianluigi Zenti, executive director of Academia Barilla. It is discussed how consumers' choice has changed in particular with regard to Italian food in the US and how Barilla has responded to that challenge.

  4. Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, K.G.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wever, M.; Scholderer, J.; Veflen Olsen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an

  5. On the Demand for Consumer Credit: an Islamic Setting (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Bendjilali, Boualem

    1995-01-01

    The study discusses the economic implication of the main axioms that govern the consumer credit in an Islamic framework. It derives the demand function for consumer credit, using the Murabaha modes. A simple econometric model is built to estimate the demand for credit in an Islamic setting.

  6. Demand forecasting: methodology used to electric power consumers for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi, R.D.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of load curves on the evaluation of systems behaviour, consumers and in the owners and users brought a new subsidy for the performance of forecast techniques. This paper shows how we can use these forecasting techniques and load curves in a specify situation joined to Guaira Substation, where the predominance is rural consumers with large activities in irrigation. The main objective of this study is bring by load curve modulation and the expansion of consumer market, a optimized view of load for the future years. (C.G.C.)

  7. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  8. Consumer trends and prefences in the demand for food

    OpenAIRE

    Lappo, Alena; Bjørndal, Trond; Fernandez-Polanco, Jose; Lem, Audun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse the major tastes and preferences of consumers in food consumption, as well as expected changes in these over time. We identify five important consumer trends and purchase drivers: food safety and health benefits; corporate social responsibility; production systems and innovations; sustainability; and food origin. For each of these trends we will consider relevant actions that are being implemented by governments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs)...

  9. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  10. Consumer demand : e-commerce or traditional technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Burinskienė, Aurelija; Burinskas, Arūnas

    2012-01-01

    The application of e-commerce technologies is associated with more efficient purchasing system. The research combines both: the application of e-commerce technologies by consumers and economic efficiency of such application. The research is aimed to propose profile, which can be used to identify cases when it is worth enough to choose e-commerce technologies instead of traditional ones. The paper presents new cash-flow model, which can be applied to evaluate efficiency when e-commerce technol...

  11. Heterogeneity in Consumer Demands and the Income Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses unique Spanish panel data on household expenditures to test whether unobservable heterogeneity in household demands (taste, etc.) is correlated with total expenditures (income). The main finding is that tastes are indeed correlated with income for about half of the goods considere....... For transportation, the bias is sufficiently large to misclassify the good as a luxury.......This paper uses unique Spanish panel data on household expenditures to test whether unobservable heterogeneity in household demands (taste, etc.) is correlated with total expenditures (income). The main finding is that tastes are indeed correlated with income for about half of the goods considered......, implying that cross-sectional estimates of income elasticities for these goods are biased. The goods are the following: food eaten outside home, alcohol and tobacco, transportation, and energy. The elasticity of alcohol and tobacco is more than halved when taking unobserved heterogeneity into account...

  12. MEDICAL TOURISM : Demand for Cuban Medical Tourism by Russian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ulanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism, often addressed as health tourism, is a new concept in terms of tourism industry in general, and it is also one of the rapidly developing and growing ones. This thesis gives information on the medical tourism in general and its history. It also revises the development stages of the medical tourism in the world. Cuban medical tourism is analyzed on its own, as well as Russian medical tourism and the demand for it. Medical tourism is rather popular among Russians due to various...

  13. The Relationship between Farm-Gate and Consumer Demand for Meat Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh fathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Demand for farm output is theoretically consistent with consumer demand and marketing performance. Many studies have focused on demand interrelationships at the retail level, but not on the demand for farm output. In this study, derived demand elasticities of sheep, beef and chicken were estimated in a complete system of demand functions by seemingly unrelated regression estimator (SURE for the years 1984-2012. Sheep, beef and chicken are considered as inputs for food processing and marketing and so their corresponding derived demands are related to consumer demand and marketing performance. Based on findings of this study, the elasticities of substitution are estimated to be 0.26 for sheep, 0.38 for cattle and 0.32 for poultry. The results showed that derived demand elasticity is more sensitive than the one measured by the traditional method. The price elasticities of the derived demands for the three types of meat were calculated-0.922, -0.775 and -0.716 for sheep, beef and chicken, respectively. This presents that demands at the farm level are less elastic than the associated demands at the retail level. Therefore, policies that change meat price at farm or retail level affect marginal markets of other meat products. According to the results of this study, it is necessary for policy makers to have information on the derived demand elasticity.

  14. A linear allocation of spending-power system : consumer demand and portfolio model

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Ken

    2017-01-01

    In the applied literature the household's consumption and portfolio decisions have tended to be viewed separately. This thesis is an initial attempt to remedy this. The household's demand for both commodities and assets, at a reasonably low level of aggregation, is integrated by using a tightly specified utility maximizing model. Utility is a function of both the flow of commodities consumed and the stock of assets held. The consumer demand literature is used as a starting point. The solutio...

  15. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  16. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  17. Consumer Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1996-01-01

    to farms that supply fresh manure to the digestion process, partly to crop farms in need of organic fertilizers. Environmental and agricultural benefits include savings for farmers as a consequence of improved fertilizer efficiency and thereby reduction  of needs of chemical fertilizers. A side effect...

  18. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S M; Mehmood, C A; Khan, B; Jawad, M; Farid, U; Jadoon, J K; Ali, M; Tareen, N K; Usman, S; Majid, M; Anwar, S M

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion.

  19. History of consumer demand theory 1871-1971: A Neo-Kantian rational reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Moscati Ivan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the neoclassical theory of consumer demand from 1871 to 1971 by bringing into play the knowledge theory of the Marburg School, a Neo-Kantian philosophical movement. The work aims to show the usefulness of a Marburg-inspired epistemology in rationalizing the development of consumer analysis and, more generally, to understand the principles that regulate the process of knowing in neoclassical economics.

  20. Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and the Demand for Cholesterol-Reducing Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Clifford; Calfee, John E.; Stempski, Randolph

    2003-01-01

    In August 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reinterpreted its advertising regulations to ease limits on the use of broadcast media when advertising prescription drugs directly to consumers. We estimate the effect of direct-to-consumer advertising on demand, using 1995-2000 data from the market for the statin class of cholesterol-reducing drugs. We find no statistically significant effect from any form of advertising and promotion on new statin prescriptions or renewals and no evide...

  1. History of consumer demand theory 1871-1971: A Neo-Kantian rational reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Moscati

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the neoclassical theory of consumer demand from 1871 to 1971 by bringing into play the knowledge theory of the Marburg School, a Neo-Kantian philosophical movement. The work aims to show the usefulness of a Marburg-inspired epistemology in rationalizing the development of consumer analysis and, more generally, to understand the principles that regulate the process of knowing in neoclassical economics.

  2. Can insects increase food security in developing countries? An analysis of Kenyan consumer preferences and demand for cricket flour buns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    demand as this would determine the success of product development. In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of consumer demand for an insect-based food. We assessed the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts...

  3. Consumer preferences and demand for insect-based food products in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen

    2017-01-01

    in developing countries. Due to these benefits, stakeholders in the food sector have recently focused on establishing the insect production sector. Nevertheless, there are a number of issues that need to be investigated before the production is fully optimized. This thesis investigates consumer demand in terms...... of consumers' preferences and willingness-topay (WTP) for insect-based food products in Kenya. It does this by focusing on the association of consumers' psychological orientations, contextual attributes, tasting experience and peer influence with consumers' choice behavior. A further focus is an investigation...... of the impacts of value elicitation methods in terms of hypothetical and nonhypothetical market scenarios on consumers' WTP for the insect-based food products. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are employed to collect data in field settings. The data is then analyzed using the state-of-the-art choice modeling...

  4. Consumer demand system estimation and value added tax reforms in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 246-273 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010033 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : consumer behavior * Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System * tax reforms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1301_jansky.pdf

  5. Changes in Consumer Demand Following Public Reporting of Summary Quality Ratings: An Evaluation in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Rachel M; Konetzka, R Tamara; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Limited consumer use of health care report cards may be due to the large amount of information presented in report cards, which can be difficult to understand. These limitations may be overcome with summary measures. Our objective was to evaluate consumer response to summary measures in the setting of nursing homes. 2005-2010 nursing home Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) datasets. In December 2008, Medicare converted its nursing home report card to summary or star ratings. We test whether there was a change in consumer demand for nursing homes related to the nursing home's star rating after the information was released. The star rating system was associated with a significant change in consumer demand for low- and high-scoring facilities. After the star-based rating system was released, 1-star facilities typically lost 8 percent of their market share and 5-star facilities gained over 6 percent of their market share. The nursing home star rating system significantly affected consumer demand for high- and low-rated nursing homes. These results support the use of summary measures in report cards. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  7. Modelling consumer demand and household labour supply: Welfare effects of increasing carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, R.; Nordstroem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response and welfare effects due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve this objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- and macro-data. In the demand model male and female labour supply is included as conditioning goods. To account for possible changes in labour supply due to increasing carbon taxes we estimate separate labour supply functions for men and women. In the simulations we consider two revenue neutral scenarios that both imply a doubling of the CO 2 tax; one that returns the revenues in the form of a lower VAT and one that subsidise public transport. One conclusion from the simulations is that the CO 2 tax has regional distribution effects, in the sense that household living in sparsely populated areas carry a larger share of the tax burden

  8. Linear models of income patterns in consumer demand for foods and evaluation of its elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Syrovátka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the use of the linear constructions for developing of Engel’s demand models in the field of the food-consumer demand. In the theoretical part of the paper, the linear approximations of this demand models are analysed on the bases of the linear interpolation. In the same part of this text, the hyperbolic elasticity function was defined for the linear Engel model. The behaviour of the hyperbolic elasticity function and its properties were consequently investigated too. The behaviour of the determined elasticity function was investigated according to the values of the intercept point and the direction parameter in the original linear Engel model. The obtained theoretical findings were tested using the real data of Czech Statistical Office. The developed linear Engel model was explicitly dynamised, because the achieved database was formed into the time series. With respect to the two variables definitions of the hyperbolic function in the theoretical part of the text, the determined dynamic model of the Engel demand for food was transformed into the form with parametric intercept point:ret* = At + 0.0946 · rmt*,where the values of absolute member are defined as:At = 1773.0973 + 9.3064 · t – 0.3023 · t2; (t = 1, 2, ... 32.The value of At in the parametric linear model of Engel consumer demand for food was during the observed period (1995–2002 always positive. Thus, the hyperbolic elasticity function achieved the elasticity coefficients from the interval:ηt ∈〈+0; +1.Within quantitative analysis of Engel demand for food in the Czech Republic during the given time period, it was founded, that income elasticity of food expenditures of the average Czech household was moved between +0.4080 and +0.4511. The Czech-household demand for food is thus income inelastic with the normal income reactions.

  9. Matching food service products to consumer demands through product development alliances and modularisation

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Friis, Alan; Christensen, Torben Bo Toft; Harmsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of meals are being consumed outside the home, and a new, interesting market for food producers are therefore emerging. However, meeting consumers’ demands, among others for quality, can represent a challenge, especially because producers are typically not involved in the composition of meal solutions and, therefore cannot control all processing steps and interactions with other meal components. In this project, it is proposed that cooperation between food producers on pro...

  10. Integrating sensory evaluations in incentivized discrete choice experiments to assess consumer demand for cricket flour buns in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of potential consumer demand for an insect based food product. We assess the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts of cricket flour. The novel feature of the study...

  11. Efficient Use of Behavioral Tools to Reduce Electricity Demand of Domestic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbaz Shimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study investigated the main literature on the subject of methods and policies for reducing the electricity demand of domestic consumers, in order to identify the place of behavioral tools. Methodology: We used secondary sources, performing a literature review, together with analysis and synthesis. Findings: Policy makers prefer to use tools offered by neoclassical economics, such as various forms of taxation, fines and financial incentives in order to make domestic electricity consumers save electricity, on the assumption that consumers will make rational decisions while maximizing their personal benefit. However, studies conducted in recent years in the field of behavioral economics, which are based on the assumption that consumers’ decisions are not rational and are affected by cognitive biases, showed that the use of behavioral tools, such as detailed online information (feedback,social comparison information, information on varying rates (dynamic pricing and general information (advertising campaign, are tools that are not less appropriate than the ones the neoclassical economics offers, mainly because electricity is an invisible product and consumers are unable to assess it by normal cognitive measures. Using an interdisciplinary combination of behavioral tools that come from a variety of approaches taken from a wide variety of different academic fields, it is possible to receive efficient results in the endeavor of reducing electricity demand. Implications: Although the neoclassical economics still remains the fundamental theory used by policymakers, it is recommended to consider behavioral economics as a complementary approach to the neoclassical economics, and combine behavioral tools in the policymakers’ toolbox, especially when those tools do not require a significant financial investment, thus efficiently maximizing the reduction of electricity demand among domestic consumers. These theoretical results will be

  12. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting the Electric Demand of Stand-Alone Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Direktor, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of short-term forecasting of electric power demand of stand-alone consumers (small inhabited localities) situated outside centralized power supply areas is considered. The basic approaches to modeling the electric power demand depending on the forecasting time frame and the problems set, as well as the specific features of such modeling, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the short-term forecast of the electric demand are indicated, and difficulties involved in the solution of the problem are outlined. The basic principles of arranging artificial neural networks are set forth; it is also shown that the proposed method is preferable when the input information necessary for prediction is lacking or incomplete. The selection of the parameters that should be included into the list of the input data for modeling the electric power demand of residential areas using artificial neural networks is validated. The structure of a neural network is proposed for solving the problem of modeling the electric power demand of residential areas. The specific features of generation of the training dataset are outlined. The results of test modeling of daily electric demand curves for some settlements of Kamchatka and Yakutia based on known actual electric demand curves are provided. The reliability of the test modeling has been validated. A high value of the deviation of the modeled curve from the reference curve obtained in one of the four reference calculations is explained. The input data and the predicted power demand curves for the rural settlement of Kuokuiskii Nasleg are provided. The power demand curves were modeled for four characteristic days of the year, and they can be used in the future for designing a power supply system for the settlement. To enhance the accuracy of the method, a series of measures based on specific features of a neural network's functioning are proposed.

  13. Coordinating a Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Agents under Demand and Consumer Returns Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimal order decision in a supply chain when it faces uncertain demand and uncertain consumer returns. We build consumer returns model with decision-makers’ risk preference under mean-variance objective framework and discuss supply chain coordination problem under wholesale-price-only policy and the manufacturer’s buyback policy, respectively. We find that, with wholesale price policy, the supply chain cannot be coordinated whether the supply chain agents are risk-neutral or risk-averse. However, with buyback policy, the supply chain can be coordinated and the profit of the supply chain can be arbitrarily allocated between the manufacturer and the retailer. Through numerical examples, we illustrate the impact of stochastic consumer returns and the supply chain agents’ risk attitude on the optimal order decision.

  14. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysiak, Frank C.; Weigt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  15. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysiak, Frank C., E-mail: frank.krysiak@unibas.ch; Weigt, Hannes [Department of Business and Economics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-05-19

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  16. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrysiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  17. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  18. Creating a perfect storm to increase consumer demand for Wisconsin's Tobacco Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Megan A; Redmond, Lezli A; Kobinsky, Kate H; Keller, Paula A; McAfee, Tim; Fiore, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Telephone quitlines are a clinically proven and cost-effective population-wide tobacco-dependence treatment, and this option is now available in all 50 states. Yet, only 1% of the smoking population accesses these services annually. This report describes a series of policy, programmatic, and communication initiatives recently implemented in Wisconsin that resulted in a dramatic increase in consumer demand for the Wisconsin Tobacco Quitline (WTQL). In 2007, the Wisconsin legislature voted to increase the state cigarette excise tax rate by $1.00, from $0.77/pack to $1.77/pack effective January 1, 2008. In preparation for the tax increase, the Wisconsin Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, the University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, which manages the WTQL, and the state's quitline service provider, Free & Clear, Inc., collaborated to enhance quitline knowledge, availability, and services with the goal of increasing consumer demand for services. The enhancements included for the first time, a free 2-week supply of over-the-counter nicotine replacement medication for tobacco users who agreed to receive multi-session quitline counseling. A successful statewide earned media campaign intensified the impact of these activities, which were timed to coincide with temporal smoking-cessation behavioral patterns (i.e., New Year's resolutions). As a result, the WTQL fielded a record 27,000 calls during the first 3 months of 2008, reaching nearly 3% of adult Wisconsin smokers. This experience demonstrates that consumer demand for quitline services can be markedly enhanced through policy and communication initiatives to increase the population reach of this evidence-based treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emission: a simulation analysis for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.J.; Proops, J.L.R.; Gay, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines a policy instrument that has been proposed as a means of reducing 'greenhouse gases', the introduction of a carbon tax on fossil fuels. It investigates the implication of a carbon tax for consumer prices using an input-output framework. Thus the effect of a tax on use of fossil fuels is allowed to affect consumer prices. These are then used in a micro-simulation program that features estimates of a system of demand equations obtained using 116,000 observations from the Family Expenditure System. This predicts the behavioural reaction of each household to the tax changes and the consequent effect on CO 2 emission, government revenue and any distributional effects. We illustrate the impact of a variety of carbon taxes, changes to indirect tax rates and lump-sum compensatory payments. (author)

  20. Economic demand response model in liberalised electricity markets with respect to flexibility of consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Before restructuring in the electricity industry, the primary decision-makers of the electricity market were deemed to be power generation and transmission companies, market regulation boards, and power industry regulators. In this traditional structure, consumers were interested in receiving...... electricity at flat rates while paying no attention to the problems of this industry. This attitude was the source of many problems, sometimes leading to collapse of power systems and widespread blackouts. Restructuring of the electricity industry however provided a multitude of solutions to these problems....... The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  1. Information or prices, which is most powerful in increasing consumer demand for organic vegetables?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2012-01-01

    of consuming conventional vegetables on demand for organic foods for six different segments of Danish households. Three of these segments are positive towards organics whereas the remaining three segments are negative or indifferent. Using the double hurdle model we estimate partial effects of both directly...... and indirectly obtained information as well as prices. The results show, that there are larger effects of information for households where the information is in accordance with initial knowledge and attitudes, hence the positive segments react more to information whereas the negative segments react more......Based on a unique and very detailed panel dataset covering consumption of organically and conventionally produced vegetables in the years 2005 - 2007, we examine the effects of information about positive health effects of consuming organic vegetables and information about negative health effects...

  2. Demand bidding construction for a large consumer through a hybrid IGDT-probability methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Kazem; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa; Sheikh El Eslami, Mohammad Kazem

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market for a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. It is considered that hourly market prices are normally distributed and this correlation is modeled by variance-covariance matrix. The uncertainty of procurement cost is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory which allows deriving robust bidding strategies with respect to price volatility. First Order Reliability Method is applied to construct the robust bidding curve. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  3. eHealth literacy demands and cognitive processes underlying barriers in consumer health information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie V. Chan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumer eHealth tools play an increasingly important role in engaging patients as participants in managing their health and seeking health information. However, there is a documented gap between the skill and knowledge demands of eHealth systems and user competencies to benefit from these tools. Objective: This research aims to reveal the knowledge- and skill-related barriers to effective use of eHealth tools. Methods: We used a micro-analytic framework for characterizing the different cognitive dimensions of eHealth literacy to classify task demands and barriers that 20 participants experienced while performing online information-seeking and decision-making tasks. Results: Participants ranged widely in their task performance across all 6 tasks as measured by task scores and types of barriers encountered. The highest performing participant experienced only 14 barriers whereas the lowest scoring one experienced 153. A more detailed analysis of two tasks revealed that the highest number of incorrect answers and experienced barriers were caused by tasks requiring: (a Media literacy and Science literacy at high cognitive complexity levels and (b a combination of Numeracy and Information literacy at different cognitive complexity levels. Conclusions: Applying this type of analysis enabled us to characterize task demands by literacy type and by cognitive complexity. Mapping barriers to literacy types provided insight into the interaction between users and eHealth tasks. Although the gap between eHealth tools, users’ skills, and knowledge can be difficult to bridge, an understanding of the cognitive complexity and literacy demands can serve to reduce the gap between designer and consumer.

  4. Saving money vs investing money: Do energy ratings influence consumer demand for energy efficient goods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzone, Luca A.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses economic barriers leading to the energy efficiency gap in the market for energy-using products by observing several million transactions in the UK over two years. The empirical exercise estimates AIDS models for refrigerators, washing machines, TVs, and light bulbs. Results indicate that market barriers are crucial in the demand for energy efficient options, and consumer response to changes in appliance prices, total expenditures, and energy prices depends on the possibility of behavioural adjustments in consumption. In contrast with the induced innovation hypothesis, current electricity prices can fail to induce innovation because of their short-term impact on disposable income, while consumers invest in energy efficiency when expecting electricity prices to rise in the future. - Highlights: • The article analyses economic barriers to energy efficiency in the UK. • Data refers to 2-year sales of refrigerators, washing machines, TV, and light bulbs. • Demand parameters by efficiency rating are estimated from four AIDS models. • Future (not present) electricity prices induce investments in energy efficiency. • Behavioural efficiency adjustments explain differences in market response

  5. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  6. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand. (letter)

  7. Increasing consumer demand for tobacco treatments: Ten design recommendations for clinicians and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan Swartz; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Health professionals play an important role in addressing patient tobacco use in clinical settings. While there is clear evidence that identifying tobacco use and assisting smokers in quitting affects outcomes, challenges to improve routine, clinician-delivered tobacco intervention persist. The Consumer Demand Initiative has identified simple design principles to increase consumers' use of proven tobacco treatments. Applying these design strategies to activities across the healthcare system, we articulate ten recommendations that can be implemented in the context of most clinical systems where most clinicians work. The recommendations are: (1) reframe the definition of success, (2) portray proven treatments as the best care, (3) redesign the 5A's of tobacco intervention, (4) be ready to deliver the right treatment at the right time, (5) move tobacco from the social history to the problem list, (6) use words as therapy and language that makes sense, (7) fit tobacco treatment into clinical team workflows, (8) embed tobacco treatment into health information technology, (9) make every encounter an opportunity to intervene, and (10) end social disparities for tobacco users. Clinical systems need to change to improve tobacco treatment implementation. The consumer- and clinician-centered recommendations provide a roadmap that focuses on increasing clinician performance through greater understanding of the clinician's role in helping tobacco users, highlighting the value of evidence-based tobacco treatments, employing shared decision-making skills, and integrating routine tobacco treatment into clinical system routines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Demand Side Response to Multi-zone Tariffs. Consumer Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Olszewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI is a technologically advanced solution currently implemented by the most innovative distribution system operators. ENERGA-OPERATOR SA set about preparing for smart metering implementation in 2010. So far the company has installed over 400,000 meters in its area, and plans to install a further 450,000 in 2015. Kalisz, the first fully AMI-covered city in Poland, was chosen for an in-depth analysis of the system. In particular, a consumer test was conducted there with the intention of answering the question about the strength of the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs and power reduction. Conclusions from the year-long test show the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs – i.e. the maximum temporary percentage reduction of energy consumption in the time zone with the tariff raised by a min. of 80% – stays within the 5–15% range. In the case of power reduction (the maximum temporary reduction of energy consumption in the time zone when the power available to a household is limited to 1 kW – the demand side response stays within the 10–30% range. An additional effect of tariff diversification and smart metering is a reduction in electricity consumption by 1–4% on working days (i.e. this is the effect of either the consumption reduction or shifting it to weekends. During the test energy consumers were subjected to both price incentives and education. Due to the fact that it is difficult to separate the effects of education and tariff structures, the company plans to continue the research related to verifying the effectiveness of individual activation tools in reducing electricity consumption by households.

  9. Consumer Demand on Halal Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influential factors involved in Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products in Indonesia by using the Theory of Planned Behavior. 100 questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, collected from respondents of female consumers who purchased Wardah cosmetics and personal care products in South Jakarta and South Tangerang. The findings show that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention are positively related to the consumers’ decision to purchase halal cosmetics and personal care products. By addressing the consumers’ traits that can predict halal cosmetics and personal care products necessity, marketers could generate proper marketing strategies to validate consumers’ demand which in turn will stimulate the growth of halal products industry in Indonesia.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.1867

  10. The impact of consumer behavior on residential energy demand for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H.; Biermayr, P. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Energy Economics

    1998-04-01

    Besides technical parameters, consumer behavior is the most important issue with respect to energy consumption in households. In this paper, the results of a cross-section analysis of Austrian households are presented. The impact of the following parameters on residential energy demand for space heating have been investigated: (i) thermal quality of buildings; (ii) consumer behavior; (iii) heating degree days; (iv) building type (single- or multi-family dwellings). The result of this investigation provides evidence of a rebound-effect of about 15 to 30% due to building retrofit. This leads to the conclusion that energy savings achieved in practice (and straightforward the reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions) due to energy conservation measures will be lower than those calculated in engineering conservation studies. Straightforward, the most important conclusions for energy policy makers are: (i) Standards, building codes, respectively, are important tools to increase the thermal quality of new buildings; and (ii) Due to prevailing low energy prices, a triggering tool has to be implemented which may be rebates or loans. (orig.)

  11. A demand response modeling for residential consumers in smart grid environment using game theory based energy scheduling algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, demand response modeling scheme is proposed for residential consumers using game theory algorithm as Generalized Tit for Tat (GTFT Dominant Game based Energy Scheduler. The methodology is established as a work flow domain model between the utility and the user considering the smart grid framework. It exhibits an algorithm which schedules load usage by creating several possible tariffs for consumers such that demand is never raised. This can be done both individually and among multiple users of a community. The uniqueness behind the demand response proposed is that, the tariff is calculated for all hours and the load during the peak hours which can be rescheduled is shifted based on the Peak Average Ratio. To enable the vitality of the work simulation results of a general case of three domestic consumers are modeled extended to a comparative performance and evaluation with other algorithms and inference is analyzed.

  12. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  13. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  14. Ferrets’ (Mustela putorius furo) enrichment priorities and preferences as determined in a seven-chamber consumer demand study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijgwart, Marsinah Lusanne; Vinke, C.M.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Van Der Meer, Miriam; Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    Knowledge of species-specific motivation and preferences for enrichment options is necessary to put in place an appropriate enrichment plan. This knowledge is currently lacking for ferrets. Therefore, seven female ferrets were consecutively housed in a seven-chamber closed economy consumer demand

  15. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the

  16. Over-harvesting driven by consumer demand leads to population decline: big-leaf mahogany in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Arthur G. Blundell; R. Matthew Landis; Ani Youatt; Raymond E. Gullison; Martha Martinez; Roberto Kometter; Marco Lentini; Richard E. Rice

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand for the premier neotropical luxury timber, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), has driven boom-and-bust logging cycles for centuries, depleting local and regional supplies from Mexico to Bolivia. We revise the standard historic range map for mahogany in South America and estimate the extent to which commercial stocks have been depleted using...

  17. Advertising and the Management of Aggregate Consumer Demand: A Cross-National Test of the Galbraithian Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, Rebecca C.; And Others

    John Kenneth Galbraith maintains that advertising is the prime instrument for the management of total consumer demand and results in increased consumption. Galbraith also maintains that television is a more effective advertising tool, in that it reaches people in all spectrums of intelligence. Other economists disagree, holding that it is actually…

  18. Optimal demand shaping strategies for dual-channel retailers in the face of evolving consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Nevin

    2016-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has not only enabled traditional brick-and-mortar retailers to open online channels, but also provided a platform that facilitated consumer-to-consumer information exchange on retailers and/or products. As a result, the purchasing decisions of today's consumers are often affected by the purchasing decisions of other consumers. In this dissertation, we adopt an interdisciplinary approach that brings together tools and concepts from operations management, economics, ...

  19. Demand Response Integration Through Agent-Based Coordination of Consumers in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Ma, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    of industrial loads. Coordination happens in response to Demand Response events, while considering local objectives in the industrial domain. We illustrate the applicability of our approach on a Virtual Power Plant scenario with three simulated greenhouses. The results suggest that the proposed design is able...... Power Plant design that is able to balance the demand of energy-intensive, industrial loads with the supply situation in the electricity grid. The proposed Virtual Power Plant design uses a novel inter-agent, multi-objective, multi-issue negotiation mechanism, to coordinate the electricity demands...... to coordinate the electricity demands of industrial loads, in compliance with external Demand Response events....

  20. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ALTERNATIVE BEEF LABELING STRATEGIES IN FRANCE, GERMANY, AND THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Lusk, Jayson L.; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A wide array of food safety scares and breakdowns have led to loss of consumer confidence in the quality and safety of beef products. To counteract such concerns, firms and regulators have the ability to utilize brands or labels to signal quality. Utilizing a mail survey in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, we analyzed consumer preferences for alternative beef labeling strategies. Using an ordered probit model and a double bounded logit model, we estimate consumer preferences for alter...

  1. Consumers in demand : The relationship between innovativeness and use of information sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijnsoever, F.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314100334

    2010-01-01

    As bounded rational agents, consumers face many uncertainties during the process of innovation adoption. The consumers that face most uncertainties are the ones that first adopt new products. These so-called ‘innovators’ are important for the innovation diffusion process. They take the risks for

  2. Conceptual framework for load controlling : with demand reduction bidding & consumer retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Ahamed, I.; Al-Ammar, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Advancement in demand side management strategies enables smart grid to cope with the increasing energy demand and provide economic benefit to all of its stakeholders. Moreover, emerging concept of smart pricing and advances in load control and communication generate new business opportunities as a

  3. Aggregation and Remuneration of Electricity Consumers and Producers for the Definition of Demand-Response Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Pedro; Spinola, Joao; Vale, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The use of distributed generation and demand-response (DR) programs is needed for improving business models, namely concerning the remuneration of these resources in the context of smart grids. In this paper, a methodology is proposed in which a virtual power player aggregates several small-sized resources, including consumers participating in DR programs. The global operation costs resulting from the resource scheduling are minimized. After scheduling the resources in several operation scena...

  4. Dynamic Pricing in Cloud Manufacturing Systems under Combined Effects of Consumer Structure, Negotiation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a game-theory based framework to model the dynamic pricing process in the cloud manufacturing (CMfg system. We considered a service provider (SP, a broker agent (BA, and a dynamic service demander (SD population that is composed of price takers and bargainers in this study. The pricing processes under linear demand and constant elasticity demand were modeled, respectively. The combined effects of SD population structure, negotiation, and demand forms on the SP’s and the BA’s equilibrium prices and expected revenues were examined. We found that the SP’s optimal wholesale price, the BA’s optimal reservation price, and posted price all increase with the proportion of price takers under linear demand but decrease with it under constant elasticity demand. We also found that the BA’s optimal reservation price increases with bargainers’ power no matter under what kind of demand. Through analyzing the participants’ revenues, we showed that a dynamic SD population with a high ratio of price takers would benefit the SP and the BA.

  5. Consumers and Experts : An Econometric Analysis of the Demand for Water Heaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice.Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs,

  6. Coordination of a supply chain with consumer return under vendor-managed consignment inventory and stochastic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihui; Chen, Dongyan; Yu, Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of the coordination policy is investigated for vendor-managed consignment inventory supply chain subject to consumer return. Here, the market demand is assumed to be affected by promotional effort and consumer return policy. The optimal consignment inventory and the optimal promotional effort level are proposed under the decentralized and centralized decisions. Based on the optimal decision conditions, the markdown allowance-promotional cost-sharing contract is investigated to coordinate the supply chain. Subsequently, the comparison between the two extreme policies shows that full-refund policy dominates the no-return policy when the returning cost and the positive effect of return policy are satisfied certain conditions. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the impacts of consumer return policy on the coordination contract and optimal profit as well as the effectiveness of the proposed supply chain decision.

  7. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  8. Actual and potential development of consumer demand on the organic food market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty; Denver, Sigrid; Zanolic, R.

    2011-01-01

    analysis undertaken by experts. Considerable differences between households underlay patterns of increasing aggregate demand at national levels, and fluctuations over time were identified at the household level. Interest in purchasing organic products on a regular basis and actual changes in shopping...... practices did not proceed apace. Limited availability has constituted a major barrier to increasing demand among ‘regular’ users. Demand on the part of ‘occasional’ users reflected a wider range of barriers, including lack of interest in and knowledge about production and processing and lack of trust...

  9. Consumers and experts. An econometric analysis of the demand for water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, A.; Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice. Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs, accountants recommending investment strategies, and plumbers making recommendations on alternative water heaters. In each of these examples, the transactions involve the sale of goods and services where the seller is at the same time an expert providing advice on the amount and type of product or service to be purchased. In the case of water heaters, the plumber advising a consumer on their choice of water heater will most likely also install the appliance. Because of the information asymmetry there is potentially a strategic element in the transmission of information from expert to consumer. This paper reports on an econometric investigation of the factors that determine the choices made by consumers and the recommendations made by plumbers and the extent to which plumbers act in the best interests of their customers. The empirical work is made possible by the availability of stated preference data generated by designed experiments involving separate samples of Australian consumers and plumbers. We find some evidence that plumbers have higher preferences than consumers for heater characteristics that increase their profit margin

  10. The incident of repetitive demands resolution in consumer affairs: empirical analysis of legal feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas do Monte Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the scenario of massification of lawsuits, this article intends to analyze the main arguments and questionings of the demands related to moral damage and health plans, on Santa Catarina’s Court of Justice, in order to analyze the possible application of the incident of repetitive demands resolution of the new Civil Procedure Code. To do so, it will be done, first, an analysis of the current context of the Brazilian judiciary, presenting the context of repetitive demands and massification of contracts and introductory aspects of the incident of repetitive demands resolution. Then it will made be a judicial empirical analysis, quantitative and qualitative, through a case study of Santa Catarina Courts of Justice, conducting an empirical study of cross descriptive analysis of the demands related to the issue highlighted above, in order to demonstrate an 'argumentative radiography’ of the judgments of that Court. The results confirmed the possibility of applying IRDR in repetitive demands relating to subjects of this study, with due legal caution, taking into account the high number of “issues of fact” that involve lawsuits that have, among their claims, compensation for moral damages.

  11. Two-stage discrete-continuous multi-objective load optimization: An industrial consumer utility approach to demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulaal, Ahmed; Moghaddass, Ramin; Asfour, Shihab

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Two-stage model links discrete-optimization to real-time system dynamics operation. •The solutions obtained are non-dominated Pareto optimal solutions. •Computationally efficient GA solver through customized chromosome coding. •Modest to considerable savings are achieved depending on the consumer’s preference. -- Abstract: In the wake of today’s highly dynamic and competitive energy markets, optimal dispatching of energy sources requires effective demand responsiveness. Suppliers have adopted a dynamic pricing strategy in efforts to control the downstream demand. This method however requires consumer awareness, flexibility, and timely responsiveness. While residential activities are more flexible and schedulable, larger commercial consumers remain an obstacle due to the impacts on industrial performance. This paper combines methods from quadratic, stochastic, and evolutionary programming with multi-objective optimization and continuous simulation, to propose a two-stage discrete-continuous multi-objective load optimization (DiCoMoLoOp) autonomous approach for industrial consumer demand response (DR). Stage 1 defines discrete-event load shifting targets. Accordingly, controllable loads are continuously optimized in stage 2 while considering the consumer’s utility. Utility functions, which measure the loads’ time value to the consumer, are derived and weights are assigned through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The method is demonstrated for an industrial building model using real data. The proposed method integrates with building energy management system and solves in real-time with autonomous and instantaneous load shifting in the hour-ahead energy price (HAP) market. The simulation shows the occasional existence of multiple load management options on the Pareto frontier. Finally, the computed savings, based on the simulation analysis with real consumption, climate, and price data, ranged from modest to considerable amounts

  12. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  13. Consumer demand as a driver of improved working conditions: the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W Patrick; Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin

    2014-01-01

    This article develops and explores the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition, which posits that consumers may prefer to buy goods that are made under good working conditions (GWCs). This preference would enhance a differentiation strategy for companies, thereby fostering the application of ergonomics in production. This proposition is developed in the context of a narrative review of the literature on 'ethical consumerism'. This is supplemented with a survey study, conducted in both Canada and Sweden (n = 141) to explore this proposition. Results indicate that consumers would prefer goods made under GWCs, but not unconditionally as quality and price concerns were ranked higher. Access to information on the working conditions in production was seen as a barrier. Nevertheless, the Ergo-Brand concept may be a viable avenue in promoting attention towards ergonomics in companies - particularly if consumer habits are subject to intervention by advertising. Further research on this strategy is warranted.

  14. Role of gastronomic, externality and feasibility attributes in consumer demand for organic and local foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    that although both organic and local food supply chains are often associated with special attributes such as gastronomic characteristics and relatively beneficial externality attributes, these attributes are perceived differently for the two types of supply chains. Perceived gastronomic quality is the most....... An internet questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among Danish consumers. 3.211 respondents completed the questionnaire, which included questions about respondents' food-related values and their specific perception of organic and local varieties of honey and apples. Variables related to consumers' food...

  15. Neuroeconomic Conditioning of the Influence of a Market Demand of Consumers on an Innovative Character of Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gardocka-Jałowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an identification of key sources of an innovative character and their conditioning in contemporary Polish economy. In the discussion, it is stated that consumers – the smallest, but the most numerous economic unit – through their expectations of the way / form of meeting their own needs, create a direction and dynamics of innovative business and confirm or undermine the legitimacy of accepted directions of actions of the supply side and greatly determine their economic force. In addition, the discussion concerning market decisions (their sources of consumers and businessmen is based on the results of neuroanatomical brain research. Analyses, that were carried out, allow for stating that: 1 consumers in a market play take on the following roles: creators of an innovative activity based on the reported potential demand; evaluating results of actions taken by innovative businessmen through effective demand; 2 in Poland, there has been a gradual redefinition of key factors of innovative character; 3 businessmen (over 90% consider coming closer to consumers, meeting their needs through the use of the Internet, interactive and social media as the most important initiatives; 4 an action of businessmen within the scope of improving operative efficiency, aiming at accelerating reactions to market consumers expectations increase; 5 brain activity accounts for nearly ¾ decisions made – each choice constitutes a completely real process engaging a particular neuron number (including von Economo neurons, which influences particular behaviour; 6 a network of neural connections in the brain changes as one gains knowledge and experience – in effect, brain structures become more flexible.

  16. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  17. Consumer demand in the Industrial Revolution : The Netherlands, 1815-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, Jan P.M.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2005-01-01

    The industrial revolution is mostly seen as a supply side phenomenon. Ever since Gilboy stated that factors of demand may have been equally important, scholars have stressed the importance of investments and technological change. This paper re-considers Gilboy’s ideas, using the dataset of the Dutch

  18. The Impact of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Pharmaceutical Prices and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Dave; Henry Saffer

    2010-01-01

    Expenditures on prescription drugs are one of the fastest growing components of national health care spending, rising by almost three-fold between 1995 and 2007. Coinciding with this growth in prescription drug expenditures has been a rapid rise in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), made feasible by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) clarification and relaxation of the rules governing broadcast advertising in 1997 and 1999. This study investigates the separate effects of broadcast a...

  19. Creating Demand for Prescription Drugs: A Content Analysis of Television Direct-to-Consumer Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Hornik, Robert C.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Barg, Frances K.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE American television viewers see as many as 16 hours of prescription drug advertisements (ads) each year, yet no research has examined how television ads attempt to influence consumers. This information is important, because ads may not meet their educational potential, possibly prompting consumers to request prescriptions that are clinically inappropriate or more expensive than equally effective alternatives. METHODS We coded ads shown during evening news and prime time hours for factual claims they make about the target condition, how they attempt to appeal to consumers, and how they portray the medication and lifestyle behaviors in the lives of ad characters. RESULTS Most ads (82%) made some factual claims and made rational arguments (86%) for product use, but few described condition causes (26%), risk factors (26%), or prevalence (25%). Emotional appeals were almost universal (95%). No ads mentioned lifestyle change as an alternative to products, though some (19%) portrayed it as an adjunct to medication. Some ads (18%) portrayed lifestyle changes as insufficient for controlling a condition. The ads often framed medication use in terms of losing (58%) and regaining control (85%) over some aspect of life and as engendering social approval (78%). Products were frequently (58%) portrayed as a medical breakthrough. CONCLUSIONS Despite claims that ads serve an educational purpose, they provide limited information about the causes of a disease or who may be at risk; they show characters that have lost control over their social, emotional, or physical lives without the medication; and they minimize the value of health promotion through lifestyle changes. The ads have limited educational value and may oversell the benefits of drugs in ways that might conflict with promoting population health. PMID:17261859

  20. Creating demand for prescription drugs: a content analysis of television direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Krueger, Patrick M; Hornik, Robert C; Cronholm, Peter F; Barg, Frances K

    2007-01-01

    American television viewers see as many as 16 hours of prescription drug advertisements (ads) each year, yet no research has examined how television ads attempt to influence consumers. This information is important, because ads may not meet their educational potential, possibly prompting consumers to request prescriptions that are clinically inappropriate or more expensive than equally effective alternatives. We coded ads shown during evening news and prime time hours for factual claims they make about the target condition, how they attempt to appeal to consumers, and how they portray the medication and lifestyle behaviors in the lives of ad characters. Most ads (82%) made some factual claims and made rational arguments (86%) for product use, but few described condition causes (26%), risk factors (26%), or prevalence (25%). Emotional appeals were almost universal (95%). No ads mentioned lifestyle change as an alternative to products, though some (19%) portrayed it as an adjunct to medication. Some ads (18%) portrayed lifestyle changes as insufficient for controlling a condition. The ads often framed medication use in terms of losing (58%) and regaining control (85%) over some aspect of life and as engendering social approval (78%). Products were frequently (58%) portrayed as a medical breakthrough. Despite claims that ads serve an educational purpose, they provide limited information about the causes of a disease or who may be at risk; they show characters that have lost control over their social, emotional, or physical lives without the medication; and they minimize the value of health promotion through lifestyle changes. The ads have limited educational value and may oversell the benefits of drugs in ways that might conflict with promoting population health.

  1. Electric Vehicles in Colorado: Anticipating Consumer Demand for Direct Current Fast Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-01

    To support the State of Colorado in planning for growth in direct current fast charging (DCFC) for electric vehicles, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has partnered with the Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) to analyze a number of DCFC investment scenarios. NREL analyzed existing electric vehicle registration data from IHS Markit (IHS) to highlight early trends in the electric vehicle market, which were compared with sales forecasts predicting large growth in the Colorado electric vehicle market. Electric vehicle forecasts were then used to develop future DCFC scenarios to be evaluated in a simulation environment to estimate consumer benefits of the hypothetical DCFC networks in terms of increased driving range and electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT). Simulated utilization of the hypothetical DCFC networks was analyzed for geographic trends, particularly for correlations with vehicle electric range. Finally, a subset of simulations is presented for consumers with potentially inconsistent access to charging at their home location and presumably greater reliance on public DCFC infrastructure.

  2. Measuring the consumer welfare effects of carbon penalties: theory and applications to household energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumagan, J.C.; Mount, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Increased attention is being devoted to the analysis of environmental externalities generated by economic activities. For example, the emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon from the generation of electricity are central issues in the discussion of externalities in the New York State bidding process. Furthermore, there is increasing interest nationally and internationally in policy proposals to reduce carbon emissions. The taxation of carbon emissions is one way for society to internalize environmental externalities relative to global warming by imposing monetary penalties per unit of carbon emitted from all fuels. This contrasts with the bidding process because the latter adds cost to electricity generation only. However, in both cases electric utilities are in a position to pass on these charges to their customers through increased rates. Consequently, there are inevitable effects on the welfare of consumers, and the monetary measurement of these welfare effects is the primary focus of this paper. (author)

  3. Demand for a Medicare prescription drug benefit: exploring consumer preferences under a managed competition framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Richard R; Mott, David A

    2003-01-01

    Several proposals for adding a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program rely on consumer choice and market forces to promote efficiency. However, little information exists regarding: 1) the extent of price sensitivity for such plans among Medicare beneficiaries, or 2) the extent to which drug-only insurance plans using various cost-control mechanisms might experience adverse selection. Using data from a survey of elderly Wisconsin residents regarding their likely choices from a menu of hypothetical drug plans, we show that respondents are likely to be price sensitive with respect to both premiums and out-of-pocket costs but that selection problems may arise in these markets. Outside intervention may be necessary to ensure the feasibility of a market-based approach to a Medicare drug benefit.

  4. Evidence-based Heuristics for Evaluating Demands on eHealth Literacy and Usability in a Mobile Consumer Health Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Heuristic evaluations have proven to be valuable for identifying usability issues in systems. Commonly used sets of heuritics exist; however, they may not always be the most suitable, given the specific goal of the analysis. One such example is seeking to evaluate the demands on eHealth literacy and usability of consumer health information systems. In this study, eight essential heuristics and three optional heuristics subsumed from the evidence on eHealth/health literacy and usability were tested for their utility in assessing a mobile blood pressure tracking application (app). This evaluation revealed a variety of ways the design of the app could both benefit and impede users with limited eHealth literacy. This study demonstrated the utility of a low-cost, single evaluation approach for identifying both eHealth literacy and usability issues based on existing evidence in the literature.

  5. Consumer-led demand side financing in health and education and its relevance for low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that supply subsidies for health and education services often fail to benefit those that are most vulnerable in a community. This recognition has led to a growing interest in and experimentation with, consumer-led demand side financing systems (CL-DSF). These mechanisms place purchasing power in the hands of consumers to spend on specific services at accredited facilities. International evidence in education and health sectors suggest a limited success of CL-DSF in raising the consumption of key services amongst priority groups. There is also some evidence that vouchers can be used to improve targeting of vulnerable groups. There is very little positive evidence on the effect of CL-DSF on service quality as a consequence of greater competition. Location of services relative to population means that areas with more provider choice, particularly in the private sector, tend to be dominated by higher and middle-income households. Extending CL-DSF in low-income countries requires the development of capacity in administering these financing schemes and also accrediting providers. Schemes could focus primarily on fixed packages of key services aimed at easily identifiable groups. Piloting and robust evaluation is required to fill the evidence gap on the impact of these mechanisms. Extending demand financing to less predictable services, such as hospital coverage for the population, is likely to require the development of a voucher scheme to purchase insurance. This suggests an already developed insurance market and is unlikely to be appropriate in most low-income countries for some time.

  6. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  7. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiu Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power

  8. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-04-27

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  9. Consumer behavior in renewable electricity: Can branding in accordance with identity signaling increase demand for renewable electricity and strengthen supplier brands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanimann, Raphael; Vinterbäck, Johan; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    A higher percentage of energy from renewable resources is an important goal on many environmental policy agendas. Yet, the demand for renewable electricity in liberalized markets has developed much more slowly than the demand for other green products. To date, research has mainly examined the willingness to pay for renewable electricity, but limited research has been conducted on the motivations behind it. The concept of identity signaling has proven to play a significant role in consumer behavior for green products. However, (renewable) electricity in the Swedish residential market typically lacks two important drivers for identity signaling: visibility and product involvement. A consumer choice simulation among 434 Swedish households compared consumer choices for renewable electricity contracts. The results show a positive effect of identity signaling on the demand for renewable electricity and yield suggestions for increasing the share of renewable electricity without market distorting measures. This leads to implications for policymakers, electricity suppliers and researchers. - Highlights: • Low demand for renewable electricity contracts falls short of high market potential. • For this study a consumer choice simulation for electricity contracts was processed. • Higher visibility and involvement increases demand for green electricity contracts. • Branding that enables identity signaling contributes to green energy policy goals

  10. Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

  11. New vision of demand side management strategy as the main tool in cooperation suppliers and consumers of electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkutnik, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the complex proposal for the implementation of the demand side management in the Polish energy sector. The issue of demand side management is well known in the world, European and domestic dimensions. The experience of western countries shows that at least to some extent, the demand side management strategy is already implemented there. However, Polish experience is far too insufficient. Demand side management consists in efficient management of energy demand as well as adoption of this demand i.e. changing the load. The decrease of energy consumption in the moment of its peak demand leads to the balance between the demand and supply in the system, which influences the market price of energy. If certain mechanisms are implemented that will cause that final receivers will be willing to adjust their demand for energy, we will create the Demand Response, which is an efficient tool in the demand side management strategy. It is assumed that electronic meters will bring a real quality change. The undertakings based on initiatives of the Polish Energy Regulatory Office that promote the concept of implementation of electronic metering in the Polish energy sector prove that Poland is determined to improve its energy efficiency. The report describes the concept of the electronic meters that enables the realisation of the demand side management strategy as well as other complementary solutions that make the strategy even more efficient. In this field, it is planned to establish a dedicated loyalty programmes for energy receivers. The concept includes also the combination of the model solutions with the campaign 'energy efficiency' organised by the Ministry of Economy, which aims at fulfilling the requirements of the directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. As complementary solution in this new vision to add the system of recycling of waste heat home appliance devices. (Author)

  12. The role of psychological determinants and demographic factors in consumer demand for farm-to-fork traceability systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myae, Aye Chan; Goddard, Ellen; Aubeeluck, Ashwina

    2011-01-01

    Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, trade, and the health status of animals and humans, new systems to help confirm the status of cattle products along the supply chain from farm to fork were implemented in many countries (Trautman et al. 2008 ). In this study, people's overall food safety beliefs are explored with the main objective of measuring the link between their food safety beliefs and their attitudes toward traceability. A comparison is made among English-speaking Canadians, French-speaking Canadians, and Japanese consumers. In the study, an Internet-based survey was used to collect data from nationally representative samples of the population in Canada-English (1275), Canada-French (343), and Japanese (1940) in the summer of 2009. Respondents' interests in traceability systems are clearly linked to their sense that the industry is primarily responsible for any food safety outbreaks. Moreover, it is clear that certain segments of the population in all samples feel strongly about the importance of farm to fork traceability in beef; thus, policymakers may wish to consider extending traceability beyond the point of slaughter as a way of encouraging beef sales in Canada.

  13. Consumer choice of on-demand mHealth app services: Context and contents values using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Euehun; Han, Semi; Jo, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    As smartphone penetration increases and the technology advances, various mobile services have reached the market. mHealth Applications are specifically highlighted for phenomena such as global aging & well-being, but the technology-driven mHealth services have not been successful in the market because consumer needs have not been reflected in the services properly. This study developed a research model consisting of context/contents values to explain the intention of consumers over the age of 40 in using mHealth Applications. To carry out this research, an online survey was conducted of mHealth Application users and recognizers in South Korea who are over 40 years old. 313 respondents gave usable data; those data were analyzed via a structural equation model. Context values (health stress, epistemic) produce an effect on contents values and contents values (convenience, usefulness), excepting reassurance and enjoyment, positively affect the intention to use mHealth Applications. The findings indicate that people who are stressed out about their health and are interested in new ways to control their health think that mHealth Applications are very convenient and useful because people can manage their health at home or at the office, even when they cannot go to a hospital. However, they feel that the current level of service does not provide reassurance. The level of service is behind people's expectations. Hence, a market-oriented approach that can determine user needs, specifically in terms of the reassurance value in the mHealth service field, is needed to develop mHealth Applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MARKET TOURS, PEDDLER RECEIPTS AND THE SHOPKEEPER GRAPE VINE: AN IMPORT WHOLESALER’S ATTEMPTS TO GAUGE RURAL, AFRICAN CONSUMER DEMAND IN EARLY COLONIAL NORTHWESTERN TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Jones

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how early colonial, town-based wholesalers discerned rural African consumer tastes and measured demand for imported goods by focusing on the experience of the O’Swald Mwanza branch from 1906 through 1916. Like many metropolitan firms, O’Swald had extensive experience in the earlier caravan trade. Thus, several decades later, its representatives arrived in Mwanza expecting that import sales would still conform to the tastes of elite caravan era consumers. With the extension of steam transport into the interior and the onset of an early colonial “Cash Crop Revolution,” however, many more rural cultivators and herdspeople than ever before had the means to acquire imports, and these new consumers proved far more fickle with regard to brand, style and novelty than firms like O’Swald had anticipated. They no longer accepted some caravan era favorites, and desired others in increasing variety. Thus, in order to stay on top of what the firm only slowly came to understand as an emerging mass market, the O’Swald men spied on their competition, engaged in brand name advertising, interrogated shopkeepers and peddlers, and increasingly market-tested new products.

  15. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  16. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee

    2006-01-01

    The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.

  17. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  18. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  19. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  20. 基于互联网社区的消费者需求信息采集策略%Strategies of Consumer Demand Information Acquisition Based on Internet Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 李倩

    2011-01-01

    从互联网社区参与者角色——社区建设者、主题发布者、话题讨论者出发,提出企业在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的基本方针,分析在互联网社区上消费者需求信息表现形式的转化过程,构建在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的具体路线,以此为企业制定在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息策略提供借鉴。%From the roles of Interact community participants—— the community constructor, the subject promulgator and the topic discusser, the paper proposes the basic acquisition policies for consumer demand information on the Internet community. It analyzes the conversion process of the forms of the consumer demand information, and constructs the concrete routes of gathering the information on the Internet community. It provides the reference to develop strategies of consumer demand information acquisition for enterprises.

  1. Risks and opportunities for plastic surgeons in a widening cosmetic medicine market: future demand, consumer preferences, and trends in practitioners' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Richard A; Saltz, Renato; Rohrich, Rod J; Kinney, Brian; Haeck, Phillip; Gold, Alan H; Singer, Robert; Jewell, Mark L; Eaves, Felmont

    2008-05-01

    The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery launched a joint Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to address the growing trend of non-plastic surgeons entering the cosmetic medicine field. The task force commissioned two surveys in 2007 to determine consumer attitudes about choosing cosmetic medicine providers and to learn about the cosmetic services that plastic surgeons offer. The first survey obtained responses from 1015 women who had undergone a cosmetic procedure or were considering having one within 2 years. The second survey obtained responses from 260 members of the two societies. Compared with other practitioners, plastic surgeons enjoy higher rates of satisfaction among their patients who undergo noninvasive procedures. Injectables present a particularly promising market for plastic surgeons. Half of consumers surveyed said they were very concerned about complications associated with injectables, and generally, the higher the perceived risk of the procedure, the higher the likelihood that a patient would choose a plastic surgeon to perform it. In addition, injectables were among the noninvasive treatments most frequently being considered by consumers. However, almost half of consumers said that if they had a positive experience with a non-plastic surgeon core provider for a noninvasive procedure, that physician would likely be their first choice for a surgical procedure. These findings suggest that plastic surgeons, and especially those who are building young practices, must expand their offerings of nonsurgical cosmetic services to remain at the core of the cosmetic medicine field.

  2. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  3. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  4. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  5. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  6. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation. A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 6-16, Nakanoshima 3-chome, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270 (Japan); Hamori, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Economics, Kobe University 2-1, Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections - all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states - and two time series - the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods - before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. (author)

  7. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  8. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  9. Regulating Consumer Demand in Insurance Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schwarcz (Daniel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Expected Utility Theory (EUT) is a remarkably poor theory of how and why individuals purchase insurance. However, the normative implications of this conclusion have remained largely unexplored. This Article takes up this issue. It

  10. Mobilizing consumer demand for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A lot of innovation effort is aimed at increased sustainable consumption, while at the same time actual sustainable consumption is not meeting the expectations raised by the positive public attitudes towards sustainability. This is indicative of a gap between attitudes and behaviors in sustainable

  11. Survey of Models on Demand, Customer Base-Line and Demand Response and Their Relationships in the Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of demand-side management as a tool to reliably meet electricity demand at peak time has stimulated interest among researchers, consumers and producer organizations, managers, regulators and policymakers, This research reviews the growing literature on models used to study demand, consumer baseline (CBL) and demand response in the electricity market. After characterizing the general demand models, it reviews consumer baseline based on which further study the demand response...

  12. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  13. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  14. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  15. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  16. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  18. Information Sensitive Consumers and Market Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)

  19. USSR Report, Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade, No. 35

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    PARTIAL CONTENTS: CONSUMER GOODS PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION - Deputy Gosplan Chairman Lakhtin on Consumer Demand, Consumer Co-ps and State Trade Urged To Improve Service, Stepped Up Light Industry Construction Urged...

  20. Possible effects of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on consumer demand for goods and services produced in the host community. An overview of the Finnish study; Ydinjaetteen loppusijoituslaitoksen mahdolliset vaikutukset kuluttajien valintoihin ja loppusijoituspaikkakunnan tuotteiden menekkiin markkinoilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, I.; Niva, M.; Timonen, P. [Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of a series of reports evaluating the possible impacts of a proposed Finnish high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository on consumer behavior and, subsequently, on the host community` s economy. In addition to the overview, the study consists of three parts: Report I reviews the literature on the impacts of analogous industrial facilities; Report II examines the possible reactions of industry and trade, and Report III studies the consumers` risk perceptions in relation to their consuming practices. Theoretically, this series of reports is based on previous research on risk perception, with two modifications. Report II studies products currently available on the consumer market to find out what possibilities the marketplace offers to a consumer interested in environmental risks to act according to his/her risk perception. Report III studies those everyday consuming practices on the basis of which consumers define risks. These two contexts mold the consumer reaction to risks that stem from industrial installations. The proposed HLNW repository benefits the host community in various direct and indirect ways, and may create new opportunities for developing the local economy. The proposed repository may also have negative impacts on the local economy. Food production in particular and, to a lesser extent, tourism might be affected harmfully. Consumer reaction is unlikely to be targeted at other goods produced in the proposed host communities. Under normal conditions (i.e., the repository functions as planned), consumers have fairly few possibilities to identify the products of this community without an extensive search for information, given the structure of the current food market: the proposed communities have few products with specific local identity. Also, fairly few consumers are willing to spend a substantial amount of time for studying the products and their raw materials in detail. Also, consumers are confident that they can manage

  1. Possible effects of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on consumer demand for goods and services produced in the host community. An overview of the Finnish study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, I.; Niva, M.; Timonen, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of a series of reports evaluating the possible impacts of a proposed Finnish high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository on consumer behavior and, subsequently, on the host community' s economy. In addition to the overview, the study consists of three parts: Report I reviews the literature on the impacts of analogous industrial facilities; Report II examines the possible reactions of industry and trade, and Report III studies the consumers' risk perceptions in relation to their consuming practices. Theoretically, this series of reports is based on previous research on risk perception, with two modifications. Report II studies products currently available on the consumer market to find out what possibilities the marketplace offers to a consumer interested in environmental risks to act according to his/her risk perception. Report III studies those everyday consuming practices on the basis of which consumers define risks. These two contexts mold the consumer reaction to risks that stem from industrial installations. The proposed HLNW repository benefits the host community in various direct and indirect ways, and may create new opportunities for developing the local economy. The proposed repository may also have negative impacts on the local economy. Food production in particular and, to a lesser extent, tourism might be affected harmfully. Consumer reaction is unlikely to be targeted at other goods produced in the proposed host communities. Under normal conditions (i.e., the repository functions as planned), consumers have fairly few possibilities to identify the products of this community without an extensive search for information, given the structure of the current food market: the proposed communities have few products with specific local identity. Also, fairly few consumers are willing to spend a substantial amount of time for studying the products and their raw materials in detail. Also, consumers are confident that they can manage

  2. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  3. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  4. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  5. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  6. Optimised control and pipe burst detection by water demand forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Water demand forecasting The total water demand in an area is the sum of the water demands of all individual domestic and industrial consumers in that area. These consumers behave in repetitive daily, weekly and annual patterns, and the same repetitive patterns can be observed in the drinking water

  7. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  8. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  9. Relationship Drivers in Provider - Consumer Relationships. Empirical Studies of Customer Loyalty Programs (första upplagan slutsåld / first edition sold out, 'print on demand' 60 €)

    OpenAIRE

    Arantola, Heli

    2003-01-01

    The study addressed a phenomenon that has become common marketing practice, customer loyalty programs. Although a common type of consumer relationship, there is limited knowledge of its nature. The purpose of the study was to create structured understanding of the nature of customer relationships from both the provider’s and the consumer’s viewpoints by studying relationship drivers and proposing the concept of relational motivation as a provider of a common framework for the analysis of thes...

  10. Market architecture and power demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rious, Vincent; Roques, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets considering climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at developing demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response for mid-size and small consumers, we investigate which types of market signals should be sent to demand response aggregators to see demand response emerge as a competitive activity. Using data from the French power system over eight years, we compare the possible market design options to allow demand response to develop. Our simulations demonstrate that with the current market rules, demand response is not a profitable activity in the French electricity industry. Introducing a capacity remuneration could bring additional revenues to demand response aggregators if the power system has no over-capacity

  11. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  13. Pattern of Demand For Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Berlian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the activity of the modern economy, the availability of money as a means of transaction is very important, because with the money as a means to pay consumers can easily to get the basic material needs are required, the manufacturer can provide the raw materials of labor for production, and distributors can obtain a variety of merchandise to be delivered at the end consumer. The pattern of use of money is influenced by the attitude of the public in the transaction. Researchers assume, that there are differences among communities, either by group differences in income, educational differences, ethnic differences, differences in profession, and perhaps even religious differences embraced. So as to provide information to the monetary authorities, to enrich the theory of demand for money based economic agents in Indonesia, and for the application of the theory of demand for money, the researchers felt the need to study patterns of use of money. Qualitative research, in addition to knowing whether the variables that affect the demand for money as the above theory is still relevant for economic actors in Indonesia at this time, or even are new variables, as well as the motive of money demand. Keywords: Demand for money, Keynes Theory, qualitative method

  14. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...

  15. Food sovereignty and consumer sovereignty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, Cristian; Félix, Georges F.; Tittonell, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty and vice versa.

  16. When demand accelerates demand : Trailing the bandwagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, E.; Pieters, R.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2009-01-01

    Consumers generally prefer scarce products, which has been related to their exclusiveness. Currently scarce products, however, are not necessarily exclusive, but could be scarce because many other consumers previously bought them. We propose that consumers also prefer scarce products in this

  17. When demand accelerates demand: Trailing the bandwagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pieters, F.G.M.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2009-01-01

    Consumers generally prefer scarce products, which has been related to their exclusiveness. Currently scarce products, however, are not necessarily exclusive, but could be scarce because many other consumers previously bought them. We propose that consumers also prefer scarce products in this

  18. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  19. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations...... is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs...

  20. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  1. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  2. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  3. The changing consciousness of the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, G.

    1989-01-01

    There has been a growing world-wide shift in consumer consciousness during the 1980s. More and more, consumers are challenging the conclusions and assurances of authorities and demanding to be better informed so that they can draw their own conclusions and make their choices accordingly. The viewpoint of these consumers is articulated, so that the specialists involved in the radurization of food can have a better understanding of what they are dealing with

  4. Learning in Advance Selling with Heterogeneous Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in advance, whil...

  5. Economic information from Smart Meter: Nexus Between Demand Profile and Electricity Retail Price Between Demand Profile and Electricity Retail Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Guangyi; Zhu, Wendong; Wang, Fei; Shu, Bin; Zhang, Kai; Rajagopal, Ram; Astier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a consumer's marginal system impact is only determined by their demand profile rather than their demand level. Demand profile clustering is identical to cluster consumers according to their marginal impacts on system costs. A profile-based uniform-rate price is economically efficient as real-time pricing. We develop a criteria system to evaluate the economic efficiency of an implemented retail price scheme in a distribution system by comparing profile cluste...

  6. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  7. Health Branding in the Consumer Food Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing complexity in the food marketplace makes healthy food choices more difficult for consumers. Several studies suggest that consumers therefore seem to rely on heuristics instead of computing all product attributes. Based on a survey (n=504) covering three different food products, four...... competency, and postpurchase stress are able to explain a substantial proportion of the variance in demand for food health branding....... consumer segments with different levels of demand for food health branding were identified. The results suggest that discriminating constructs such as product-specific food health information seeking, general food health involvement, product-specific food health involvement, product-specific food health...

  8. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  9. Analyses of demand response in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-01

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  10. The Demand for Calories in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Odin K. Knudsen; Pasquale L. Scandizzo

    1982-01-01

    This paper employs characteristic demand theory to estimate demand functions for calories for a set of developing countries and to investigate the potential impact of income growth, redistribution, and price changes on alleviating underconsumption of calories. The analysis finds that, although calorie elasticities with respect to income are substantial for the poorer consumers, income growth above historical rates is required for the food needs of the entire population to be satisfied within ...

  11. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  12. An analytical approach to activating demand elasticity with a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate analytically the conditions under which activating the elasticity of consumer demand could benefit social welfare. We have developed an analytical equilibrium model to quantify the effect of deploying demand response on social welfare and energy trade. The novelty of this research is that it demonstrates the existence of an optimal area for the price signal in which demand response enhances social welfare. This optimal area is negatively correlated to the degree of competitiveness of generation technologies and the market size of the system. In particular, it should be noted that the value of un-served energy or energy reduction which the producers could lose from such a demand response scheme would limit its effectiveness. This constraint is even greater if energy trade between countries is limited. Finally, we have demonstrated scope for more aggressive demand response, when only considering the impact in terms of consumer surplus. (authors)

  13. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  14. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  15. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  16. THE DEMAND FOR WATER: CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SCARCITY. (R828070)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Intrahousehold Bargaining and the Demand for Consumer Durables in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Polato e Fava, Ana Claudia; Arends-Kuenning, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, wives do most of the household work. About sixty percent of them also work outside the household, working a total of about 10 hours more per week than men. Because of this unequal distribution of household work, husbands and wives might have different priorities regarding the purchase of durable goods. Although both husbands and wives enjoy entertainment durable goods, wives might have a relative preference for household-production durable goods such as washing machines over entert...

  18. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  19. Does Knowledge Contribute to the Acceptance of Demand Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Annala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More flexible demand side would benefit the electricity markets, networks and sustainable power generation in many ways. The success of demand response programs, however, relies on consumer acceptance. This paper reviews previous studies about acceptability of different kinds of residential demand response programs. Furthermore, it discusses whether consumers who are more aware of the principles and benefits of demand response have more positive attitudes towards demand response programs. The results of the literature review and two survey studies suggest that price and security of supply are currently bigger motives to change consumption behaviour than environmental issues and that the savings expected to trigger any action (and to lead to lasting change in behaviour may be relatively high. Therefore, the framing of demand response programs goals may affect the acceptance. Additionally, consumers seem to prefer simple price structures that remain constant for a long time to more dynamic options.

  20. Consumers want safer meat - but not at all costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Consumers, the public authorities, and the food industry are all concerned with the safety of meat. The increasing demand for safer food from the consumers and the public authorities puts pressure on producers to identify efficient methods to reduce risks. Earlier studies have shown that consumer...

  1. Consumers' Attitudes Toward Printed Green Advertising : A study of attitudes among Swedish consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Amanda; Gustafsson, Niclas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction With the increased interest and awareness toward environmental issues among Swedish consumers, their demands on what constitutes value in advertisements have also changed. Advertising-in-general is often regarded as a rather unwelcomed intrusion and a source of irritation by consumers and a common reason is that many advertisers have overdramatized or even spread false claims about products, causing great skepticism among consumers. With the increase of environmentally minded con...

  2. The balance of supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmayan, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Supply and Demand Committee of the Uranium Institute was established to monitor continuously information and developments bearing on the uranium market and to publish from time to time reports giving its views on the supply and demand outlook. The last Uranium Institute supply and demand report was compiled at the beginning of 1979. Its main conclusions were that from 1979 to 1990 the flexibilities of the market were such as to offer adequate scope to producers and consumers of uranium to ensure a balance between supply and demand. Is that conclusion still valid one and a half years later. Some of the Supply and Demand Committee's more recent estimates are reported under the headings: reactor orders and cancellations; revised Institute forecasts of nuclear capacity; uranium supply; main implications of the new forecasts. (U.K.)

  3. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  4. Option value of electricity demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Krishnarao, P. [Citigroup Energy Inc., 1301 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  5. Competition with supply and demand functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, F.

    2001-01-01

    If economic agents have to determine in advance their supply or demand in reaction to different market prices we may assume that their strategic instruments are supply or demand functions. The best examples for such markets are the spot markets for electricity in England and Wales, in Chile, in New Zealand, in Scandinavia and perhaps elsewhere. A further example is computerized trading in stock markets, financial markets, or commodity exchanges. The functional form of equilibria is explicitly determined in this paper. Under a certain condition, equilibria exist for every finite spread of (stochastic) autonomous demand, i.e. demand from small, non-strategically acting consumers. Contrary to competition with supply functions alone, however, there is no tendency for market prices to converge to 0 if the spread of autonomous demand increases infinitely. Lower bounds of market prices can be computed instead

  6. Option value of electricity demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, C.A.; Krishnarao, P.

    2007-01-01

    As electricity markets deregulate and energy tariffs increasingly expose customers to commodity price volatility, it is difficult for energy consumers to assess the economic value of investments in technologies that manage electricity demand in response to changing energy prices. The key uncertainties in evaluating the economics of demand-response technologies are the level and volatility of future wholesale energy prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that financial engineering methodologies originally developed for pricing equity and commodity derivatives (e.g., futures, swaps, options) can be used to estimate the value of demand-response technologies. We adapt models used to value energy options and assets to value three common demand-response strategies: load curtailment, load shifting or displacement, and short-term fuel substitution-specifically, distributed generation. These option models represent an improvement to traditional discounted cash flow methods for assessing the relative merits of demand-side technology investments in restructured electricity markets. (author)

  7. Demand Side Management for Multiple Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Steering a heterogeneous set of devices in a Smart Grid using cost functions: Demand Side Management (DSM) is an important element in smart grids. DSM is already in operation for large consumers, but thorough research is required into DSM on a building level within the distribution grid.

  8. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  9. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  10. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  11. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research of feasibility of energy supply/demand structure overseas improvement (research of feasibility of more effective energy use for Russian energy consuming industries); 1998 nendo kaigai energy jukyu kozo kodoka jisshi kanosei chosa. Roshia no energy tashohi sangyo ni okeru energy yuko riyo nado jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A report is made outlining the economic situation and industrial policies in Russia and the actual state of energy consuming industries (thermoelectric power generation, oil refining, and iron making) in that country. In Russia, energy efficiency is much lower than in advanced countries in the West, and the improvement of energy efficiency is a serious task to solve in the Russian fuel energy department. Cited to explain the poor efficiency are facilities growing antiquated, delay in the introduction of new technologies and instruments, insufficient maintenance, and the weak consciousness of energy saving. Although the electric power circle and energy related departments are conscious of the need of endeavors for improving energy efficiency, yet it is too difficult for corporations themselves to invest heavily in facilities. When Japan implements a model project for saving energy in Russia, it will be greatly contributing to the improvement of energy supply/demand in Russia, to the stabilization of social and economic states in that country, and to the prevention of global warming. (NEDO)

  12. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  13. Consumer Economics and Consumer Mathematics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…

  14. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  15. The demand of guava in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso-Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, no systematic work have been carried out to determine the demand for fruits beyond descriptive analysis of per capita consumption according to different individual socioeconomic characteristics and much less for a specific product such as guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae. This paper estimates the relationship between guava prices and the demand of guava in Colombia. We found that guava consumption is not affected by its price and its demand is highly correlated to income. While socio-economic characteristics such as income, education and household head labor affect the decision-making for consuming guava, other characteristics such as race and the number of household members determine the quantity of guava consumed in a Colombian household.

  16. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  17. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  18. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  19. The impact of point-of-sale data in demand planning in the South African clothing retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas N. Raza; Peter J. Kilbourn

    2017-01-01

    Background: In modern days’ dynamic consumer markets, supply chains need to be value driven and consumer oriented. Demand planning allows supply chain members to focus on the consumer and create optimal value. In demand planning, Point-of-Sale (POS) data are an essential input to the process thereof; however, literature suggests that POS-based demand planning is often overlooked by demand planners in practice. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which ...

  20. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  1. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  2. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  3. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  4. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  5. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Jin [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs.

  6. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  7. Demand for healthcare in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  8. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  9. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  10. Econometric Modeling: An Application to the Demand for Electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical results show an inverse relationship between real appliance purchase price, the real per capita income and the demand for electricity. Also the rate of population growth rate as a proxy for electricity consumers appears to be insignificant. This reveals the clear fact that the demand for electricity is greater than ...

  11. Demand response policies for the implementation of smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koliou, E.

    2016-01-01

    With the grasp of a smart grid in sight, discussions have shifted the focus of system security measures away from generation capacity; apart from modifying the supply side, demand may also be exploited to keep the system in balance. Specifically, Demand Response (DR) is the concept of consumer load

  12. An Intuitive Definition of Demand Flexibility in Direct Load Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    Two control approaches: direct and indirect control of demand side energy management in a smart grid are studied. Indirect control of energy demands is based on economic incentives. In this approach, consumers will shift their energy consumption with the benefit of a cut down in the electricity b...

  13. Measuring and controlling unfairness in decentralized planning of energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Vasirani, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Aberer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side energy management improves robustness and efficiency in Smart Grids. Load-adjustment and load-shifting are performed to match demand to available supply. These operations come at a discomfort cost for consumers as their lifestyle is influenced when they adjust or shift in time their

  14. The Supply and Demand of Teachers and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfoss, Evelyn; Shapiro, Leo J.

    There is a general oversupply of teachers. Attempts to regulate teacher supply and demand are flawed by assumptions that teachers are a limited consumer item and that the school system will persist in its present form. The financial crises of schools, the demand of accountability, and the challenge to the principle of compulsory education indicate…

  15. Household food demand analysis: a survey of semiurban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In like manner, increased supply of the highly price-elastic commodities would benefit both the consumer and the producer in that an accompanying reduction in prices with increased supply would lead to a higher margin of demand than the fall in price. Finally, it is suggested that food demand problems in the study area ...

  16. Fuel switching in Harare : An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  17. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  18. Trends in food packaging: Arising opportunities and shifting demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerding, T.K.; Rijk, M.A.H.; Jetten, J.; Berg, F. van den; Kruijf, N. de

    1996-01-01

    Packaging foodstuffs is a dynamic process which continually has to respond to the changes in supply and demand which are the result of adaptations to the varying demands of the consumer, changes in retail practices, technological innovations, new materials and developments in legislation, especially

  19. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  20. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  1. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  2. Demand uncertainty and investment in the restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Jayoung

    2016-01-01

    Since the collapse of the housing market, the prolonged economic uncertainty lingering in the U.S. economy has dampened restaurant performance. Economic uncertainty affects consumer sentiment and spending, turning into demand uncertainty. Nevertheless, the highly competitive nature of the restaurant industry does not allow much room for restaurants to actively control prices, leaving most food service firms exposed to demand uncertainty. To investigate the impact of demand uncertainty in the ...

  3. A consolidated solution of a demand dispatch problem for different demand response schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Cuk, V.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Advance infrastructures have changed the passive consumers into active because now they can share information, perform automatic control as well as directly influence the electricity market via demand response (DR) programs. Till today, many DR Programs are proposed in Smart Grid (SG) paradigm and

  4. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  5. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  6. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off......-peak hours. The usefulness of the suggested method is then investigated by its combination with an electric vehicle optimal scheduling methodology which captures both economic valuation and grid technical constraints. This case is chosen in this study to address network congestion issues, namely under...

  7. Province gets serious about demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    Directives from the Minister to the Ontario Energy Board to review options for demand-side management and demand reduction activities, and discussion papers describing the policy framework needed to implement demand management, are indications of renewed interest by the provincial government in demand-side management of Ontario's electric power supply. This renewed interest comes on the hills of a 5.5 per cent increase in electricity use, a 33 per cent increase in imports, and consumption records broken in 10 of the last 12 months. A 117-page study was released in April by Navigant Consulting, entitled 'Demand response blueprint for Ontario' which estimates that if the Ontario market had 250 MW of additional demand response, customers providing the demand response would have saved $20 million by reducing their demand when HOEP was greater than $120/MWh, while other customers would have saved $170 million due to lower HOEP, and would have enjoyed greater reliability as a result of the increase in reserve margins. Other than price signals to induce customers to save, the Navigant report suggest paying customers not to consume during peak periods. The report estimates that such a policy could generate a total demand response of 350 MW and a $235 million reduction in revenue to generators. The Navigan report also includes a large number of detailed analysis and recommendations. One among them is for the extensive use of interval meters for customers with loads over 200 kW. The report tends to be critical of the recent price freeze ordered by the Ontario government, claiming that the freeze could increase consumption, making prices more volatile and increasing the cost to the government even more. Successful demand response programs from California, New York and the New England states are cited as examples for Ontario to emulate

  8. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  9. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates a structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of competition is derived from the estimated

  10. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known I Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates it structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of compelition is derived from the

  11. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  12. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  13. variances in consumers prices of selected food items among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    the consumer prices of rice, beans and garri in the three markets; rice and garri had insignificant differences in ... and inappropriate response by farmers to price ... supply or demand side or both). .... road network, storage facilities, subsidized.

  14. urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, ... the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand. Key Words: Fusarium wilt, Gros Michel, hedonic model, Musa spp.

  15. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  16. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  17. Controlling energy demand. What history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, Marloes; Bonhomme, Noel; Bouvier, Yves; Pautard, Eric; Fevrier, Patrick; Lanthier, Pierre; Goyens, Valerie; Desama, Claude; Beltran, Alain

    2012-01-01

    this special dossier of the historical annals of electricity collection takes stock of the post 1970's history of energy demand control in industrialized countries: Abatement of energy dependence, the European Communities program of rational use of energy in the 1970's (Marloes Beers); The G7 and the energy cost: the limits of dialogue between industrialized countries - 1975-1985 (Noel Bonhomme); Saving more to consume more. The ambiguity of EDF's communication during the 'energy saving' era (Yves Bouvier); From rationing to energy saving certificates, 4 decades of electricity demand control in France and in the UK (eric Pautard); The French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME): between energy control and sustainable development (Patrick Fevrier); Hydro-Quebec and efficiency in household energy consumption, from 1990 to the present day (Pierre Lanthier); Control of energy consumption since the 1970's, the policy of rational use of energy in Walloon region - Belgium (Valerie Goyens); Electricity distribution in the new energy paradigm (Claude Desama); Conclusion (Alain Beltran)

  18. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  19. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  20. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  1. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  2. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  3. Consumer Value Creation in the Consumption of Luxury Goods: A Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Benvie-Ferreiros, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    The globalisation of the luxury market has presented the industry with an ever expanding and broad range of global consumers that are facilitating significant growth to the industry. In light of the downturn in Western economies, the extension and demand for luxury goods in booming Eastern economies present the luxury industry with a rosy future, estimated to be worth over $450 billion by 2012. The nature of this growth has been down to changing consumption behaviour of consumers; no longer e...

  4. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  5. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  6. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  7. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  8. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  9. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  10. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  11. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  12. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  13. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  14. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  15. Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry - the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors - is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  16. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  17. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  18. Coping with unexpected oil demand movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous upward revisions to world oil demand projections for 2003 and 2004 are compared with the downward revisions that took place in 1998 and 1999, following the 1997 Asian economic crisis. Demand leads supply, in the current case, resulting in a time-lag in the whole supply chain, while supply led demand half a decade ago, with the OECD's commercial stocks reaching record highs. Recent months have seen a reversal of the longstanding inverse relationship between the United States of America's commercial crude oil stock levels and crude prices, and they are now moving in parallel. The fact that the US market is now adequately or even well supplied means that factors other than inventory levels are causing the present high prices. These factors are briefly outlined. OPEC is doing everything it can to maintain market stability, with prices at levels acceptable to producers and consumers. The agreement reached in Beirut on 3 June is the latest example of this. (Author)

  19. Data model for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand Side Management (DSM is a portfolio of measures to improve the energy system mainly at the consumption level. In this paper we propose a data model for DSM stating from the optimization methods approach in SMARTRADE project from different perspectives of several entities that include: Transmission System Operator (TSO/Distribution System Operators (DSOs perspectives in case of security/reliability concerns: minimum amount of load (or generation shedding; aggregators perspective in case of demand or generation shedding request: Which demand (or generators should be shed?; consumers perspective: load shifting (time-of-use (ToU tariffs and optimum contract strategies with the aggregators (also known as balancing responsible parties- BRP for load shedding.

  20. Load management through agent based coordination of flexible electricity consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Demazeau, Yves; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Demand Response (DR) offers a cost-effective and carbonfriendly way of performing load balancing. DR describes a change in the electricity consumption of flexible consumers in response to the supply situation. In DR, flexible consumers may perform their own load balancing through load management...

  1. 7 CFR 3.12 - Reporting of consumer debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Compromise of Claims § 3.12 Reporting of consumer debts. (a) Notice. In demand letters to debtors... the delinquent consumer debt to credit reporting agencies after 60 days; (2) The specific information... credit bureaus. (d) Stay of disclosure. Agencies shall not disclose a delinquent debt to a credit...

  2. Choices in the Marketplace: A Basic Unit on Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Paul; Stevahn, Laurie

    Consumer decision-making and its consequences for individual consumers and societal groups are examined in this economic unit for secondary school students. Seven lessons focus on developing an understanding of the concepts of scarcity, supply and demand, resources, choice, price, and interdependence and on fostering an economic way of thinking.…

  3. Can traceability improve consumers' confidence in food quality and safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates whether the implementation of traceability systems in line with the European General Food Law as well as food labelling laws related to allergens can impact on consumer confidence in food quality and safety. It aims to give insight into consumer demands regarding

  4. Monitor consumers market electricity and natural gas 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, T.; Cordeweners, J.; Noorlander, M.; Kahl, E.

    2011-02-01

    This monitor maps the developments in the energy market for small users (consumers). It can be used to identify possible bottlenecks in this market. The monitoring report describes the energy market for consumers by means of six indicators that are relevant for the operation of the market: demand for products, prices, access and concentration, switching, transparency and service provision. [nl

  5. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  6. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  7. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  8. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  9. New style in comunication: consumer-generated media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Teodor Negrea

    2007-01-01

    The following paper reveals the content of a new form of comunication used as vehicle for information between consumers on the Internet. Consumer-Generated Media (CGM) describes a variety of new sources of online information that are created, initiated, circulated and used by consumers intent on educating each other about products, brands, services, personalities and issues. The particularities of this concept demand full attention from marketers, because its content offer a large amount of i...

  10. Analysis on the Changes in Consumer Behavior and Marketing Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there’s a huge change in the media use habit, demand and route to get the information for the consumers, and the right of consumers to release information is mostly realized, indicating an actual return of consumer sovereignty. In such a background, it is undoubtedly the best choice for the marketing of enterprise brand to focus on the target people, manage the client relation and increase the socialized videos.

  11. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Höning, Nicolas; La Poutré, Han; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys electricity on an ahead market and offers downward regulation on the balancing market. Bidding in two- set...

  12. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  13. Consumer-oriented functional food development: how well do functional disciplines reflect the 'voice of the consumer'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van P.W.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Food innovation can have its source in either superior understanding of consumer demand (pull) or in superiority at the supply side (science and technology push). However, in either case market success depends on the degree to which the new product reflects unmet consumer needs. The present study

  14. Marketing analysis of the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimenko Elena Jur'evna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of studying the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk, studied Rosreestra data on quantity of completed contracts for the purchase of property, assess the current state of the real estate market in Chelyabinsk; consumer demand in the property market in Chelyabinsk (size, structure; socio-demographic characteristics of consumers of residential property; consumer preferences when buying a residential property.

  15. New joints: Private providers and rising demand in the English National Health Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Elaine; Stoye, George

    2015-01-01

    Reforms to public services have extended consumer choice by allowing for the entry of private providers. The aim is to generate competitive pressure to improve quality when consumers choose between providers. However, for many services new entrants could also affect whether a consumer demands the service at all. We explore this issue by considering how demand for elective surgery responds following the entry of private providers into the market for publicly funded health care in England. For ...

  16. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  17. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  18. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  19. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  20. Methodology of demand forecast by market analysis of electric power and load curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, C.J.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for demand forecast of consumer classes and their aggregation is presented. An analysis of the actual attended market can be done by appropriate measures and load curves studies. The suppositions for the future market behaviour by consumer classes (industrial, residential, commercial, others) are shown, and the actions for optimise this market are foreseen, obtained by load curves modulations. The process of future demand determination is obtained by the appropriate aggregation of this segmented demands. (C.G.C.)

  1. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  2. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  3. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  4. Reducing meat consumption in today’s consumer society: questioning the citizen-consumer gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de E.; Dagevos, H.

    2012-01-01

    Our growing demand for meat and dairy food products is unsustainable. It is hard to imagine that this global issue can be solved solely by more efficient technologies. Lowering our meat consumption seems inescapable. Yet, the question is whether modern consumers can be considered as reliable allies

  5. Enabling technologies for demand management: Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Rising transport demand is likely to be the biggest hurdle to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions. Globally and nationally, transport is consuming an ever increasing share of our total energy use. Furthermore, the bulk of energy used in transport comes from the burning of petroleum products. This brief paper summarises options arising from the two routes to reduce energy demand in transport: improved and more efficient use of existing and possible new transport modes, and the reduction of transport demand. In both areas, the prospects in the immediate and longer-term future are hedged with difficulties. Automobiles and aircraft have improved considerably in recent decades, but future improvements are likely to be incremental. The introduction of hydrogen as a fuel is appealing, but there are technical problems to be solved. Active reduction of demand for transport will require a decoupling of the link between demand and growth in gross domestic product. Globally, this will be very difficult to achieve. Various modes of public transport exist that are efficient in terms of their energy use per passenger kilometre. But they need large investments to make them more attractive than the automobile. However, population concentration in mega-cities, allied with congestion, will make such innovation essential. Policy measures can be assisted in their implementation by new technology, but will remain politically problematic

  6. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  7. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  8. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  9. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  10. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  11. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  12. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  13. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  14. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  15. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  16. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  17. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  18. The emergence of diverse organic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Jensen, Katherine

    polarised. It can also be said to have matured insofar as positively oriented segments that differ in their food involvement, shopping behaviour and levels of ethical concern have appeared, while marketing and distribution strategies have co-developed with these trends. We discuss the current relevance......This study uses qualitative and quantitative data as well as household panel data regarding actual purchases of organic food in order to examine organic consumer profiles and recent developments of organic demand in Denmark. Six different segments of Danish households are identified, of which three...... of segmenting organic consumers in mature markets with a view to improving strategies of production, distribution and marketing of organic foods....

  19. Retail sector responses to changing consumer preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codron, Jean-Marie; Grunert, Klaus G.; Giraud-Heraud, Eric

    2005-01-01

    , more healthful, or produced in ways that are more beneficial to the environment and take animal welfare and equitable labor concerns into consideration. For example, 80 percent of the consumers in the European Union (EU) indicate a concern for animal welfare (Blandford and Fulponi, 1999), and European...... consumers are increasingly demanding organic food products and a wider selection of such products (Lohr, 2001). The social concerns for equitable income distribution and sustainable development are reflected in the growth of sales of products marketed under Fair Trade labels. The European Fair Trade market...

  20. A MODEL FOR THE DEMAND FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1919-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPBELL, ROBERT; SIEGEL, BARRY N.

    STATISTICAL DEMAND ANALYSIS, WHICH EMPHASIZES THE INFLUENCE OF RELATIVE PRICES AND REAL INCOME UPON THE DEMAND FOR A COMMODITY, WAS USED TO DEVELOP A MODEL OF THE DEMAND FOR HIGHER EDUCATION. THE STUDY IS BASED ON THE FACT THAT COLLEGE ENROLLMENT REPRESENTS THE PURCHASE OF BOTH A PRODUCER AND CONSUMER DURABLE, AND IS AN ACT OF INVESTMENT.…

  1. Review of barriers to the introduction of residential demand response : A case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weck, M. H J; van Hooff, J.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    Demand response, defined as the shifting of electricity demand, is generally believed to have value both for the grid and for the market: by matching demand more closely to supply, consumers could profit from lower prices, while in a smart grid environment, more renewable electricity can be used and

  2. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  3. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  4. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  5. Basic analysis on the load management in consumer section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Tetsuo; Nishikawa, Eiichi

    1988-05-01

    The load management of the energy (electric power, gas and oil products) in consumer section means to move demand characteristics in desirable directions. The demand characteristics are represented by the energy consumption characteristics along time and their annual sum. The load management is analyzed here from a more practical point of view. As the total thermal demand has been fixed to some extent from the aspect of a total system, the trade-off occurs among objectives of industries. For the quantitative consistency, the model analysis is effective. Changes in the consumers' attitude have been observed as indicated by the cogeneration, heat storage technology and automatic energy management by consumers. Techniques for changing the demand characteristics include the charging system, financial aids for equipment installation, favorable provisions in taxation, law revision and marketing. Stable supply and improved consumption are the future tasks. (2 figs, 6 tabs, 28 refs)

  6. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Alexander, J. S.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Brenya, A.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management. PMID:27632169

  7. Modelling of demand response and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoffersen, B.B.; Donslund, B.; Boerre Eriksen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Demand-side flexibility and demand response to high prices are prerequisites for the proper functioning of the Nordic power market. If the consumers are unwilling to respond to high prices, the market may fail the clearing, and this may result in unwanted forced demand disconnections. Being the TSO of Western Denmark, Eltra is responsible of both security of supply and the design of the power market within its area. On this basis, Eltra has developed a new mathematical model tool for analysing the Nordic wholesale market. The model is named MARS (MARket Simulation). The model is able to handle hydropower and thermal production, nuclear power and wind power. Production, demand and exchanges modelled on an hourly basis are new important features of the model. The model uses the same principles as Nord Pool (The Nordic Power Exchange), including the division of the Nordic countries into price areas. On the demand side, price elasticity is taken into account and described by a Cobb-Douglas function. Apart from simulating perfect competition markets, particular attention has been given to modelling imperfect market conditions, i.e. exercise of market power on the supply side. Market power is simulated by using game theory, including the Nash equilibrium concept. The paper gives a short description of the MARS model. Besides, focus is on the application of the model in order to illustrate the importance of demand response in the Nordic market. Simulations with different values of demand elasticity are compared. Calculations are carried out for perfect competition and for the situation in which market power is exercised by the large power producers in the Nordic countries (oligopoly). (au)

  8. Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

  9. A Dynamic Market Mechanism for Markets with Shiftable Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Kiani, Arman

    2014-01-01

    renewables, this mechanism accommodates both consumers with a shiftable Demand Response and an adjustable Demand Response. The overall market mechanism is evaluated in a Day Ahead Market and is shown in a numerical example to result in a reduction of the cost of electricity for the consumer, as well......In this paper, we propose a dynamic market mechanism that converges to the desired market equilibrium. Both locational marginal prices and the schedules for generation and consumption are determined through a negotiation process between the key market players. In addition to incorporating...

  10. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  11. Demand Analysis of Selected Fruits and Vegetables in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior and prospective changes in demand of food product have a significant impact on production and distribution decisions. Consumer responsiveness to changes in prices, income and other demand determinants is very important to production and market decision-makers. The present study estimates demand responses for selected fruits and vegetables in Oman using consumer aggregated national data. The main objective is to generate information needed for making public as well as private decisions. Results indicate that most fruit and vegetable consumers respond to price, and income changes in the expected manner. Responses are different from one commodity to another depending on its nature and importance in the consumer's diet habits. In a few cases income is not a significant determinant of the demand. Moreover, many fruits and vegetables have shown a relationship of substitution and complementary consistent with Omani diet. These results are useful in farmers and distributers to allow them to adjust their production and marketing services according to the consumer’s response.

  12. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  13. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  14. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  15. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  16. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  17. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  18. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  19. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  20. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  1. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  2. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechtman, R.; Baum, M.

    1989-01-01

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  3. Gas demand forecasting by a new artificial intelligent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi. B, Vahid; Khatibi, Elham

    2012-01-01

    Energy demand forecasting is a key issue for consumers and generators in all energy markets in the world. This paper presents a new forecasting algorithm for daily gas demand prediction. This algorithm combines a wavelet transform and forecasting models such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), linear regression or GARCH. The proposed method is applied to real data from the UK gas markets to evaluate their performance. The results show that the forecasting accuracy is improved significantly by using the proposed method.

  4. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  5. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  6. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  7. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  9. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  11. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  12. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  13. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  14. An Economic Customer-Oriented Demand Response Model in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choice theory is a branch of microeconomics. This theory relates to adjusting consumption expenditures and consumer demand curve. Consumer choice science is trying to realize the buyer's decision-making process. This science studies customer characteristics, such as behavioral criteria......, to understand the consumer’s need. The concept of price elasticity of demand (PED) has also been derived from this theory. In fact, the PED is the percentage of changes in the amount of demand relative to the price changes. In consumer choice theory, for each consumer according to behavioral criteria, a unique...... demand response (DR) models have been developed based on this concept, this will also be deemed as a disadvantage for them. In this paper, we propose an economic DR model based on economic theories and mathematical methods. In addition to abate the defects of price-elasticity based DR models...

  15. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  16. A Model of Boundedly Rational Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Riechmann

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an extended version of the standard textbook problem of consumer choice. As usual, agents have to decide about their desired quatities of various consumption goods, at the same time taking into account their limited budget. Prices for the goods are not fixed but arise from a Walrasian interaction of total demand and a stilized supply function for each of the goods. After showing that this type of model cannot be solved analytically, three different types of evolutionary alg...

  17. A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens

    We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose...... subgradients with respect to these perturbations are convex hulls of the utility-maximizing demands. We give necessary as well as sufficient conditions for DGF to be consistent with utility maximization, and establish under quite general conditions that utility-maximizing demands are almost everywhere single......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....

  18. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  19. The consumer dimension in new market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranchere, Anne-Soizic; Chamoy, Anne-Sophie; Scholtes, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    In a context of growing share of renewable energy sources and reduced electricity consumption, both long term and short term security of supply are under pressure. Gas fired power plants are facing reduced income from the energy market calling into question both the electricity market design and the electricity generation mix Integration of smart consumers (demand response) in the electricity System is a key element to address both questions. Due to market and System complexity, new market participants such as aggregators are contributing to building up and operating flexibility from consumers. Since 2009, Energy Pool has been actively contributing to the opening of new market mechanisms to value demand response. Energy Pool has developed services to support consumers in optimizing their flexibility. While today demand response value lies mainly in the balancing and reserve markets operated by the French transport System operator (RTE), new opportunities will emerge with the capacity market and the possibility to take advantage of the price signal by both increasing and reducing consumption. (authors)

  20. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  1. Consumer flexibility - State and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarises experiences and results from relevant projects carried out within the area of consumer flexibility in the last years. A general description of the projects is presented. In addition are testing activities, economical signals for motivating the end user for load reductions and appropriate technology for communication and effect management mentioned separately. Briefly summarised is the following achieved: 1) The potential for effect regulating measures in ordinary consumption and in power demanding industry is analysed and estimated to 1750 MW and 3360 MW respectively. 2) Time varied rates are developed and are tested. The NVE has decided on this basis that all the network owners should offer season varied rates to their customers. 3) Test projects in Drammen, Oslo and Trondheim have shown that it is possible to motivate smaller consumers for and implement load reductions. 4) Technology for load management for the end user is evaluated. 5) A survey is made viewing the technology for two way communication. In addition the ''option'' market for the reserves of the Statnett has proved that a steady compensation is a sufficient incentive for producing substantial effect reserves in the load sector (power intensive industry). In the last part of the report the incentives and frame conditions for establishing technical solutions and infrastructure are discussed. Further work will focus on the consumer flexibility in shortage situations. The main challenges are connected to: 1) Establishing a foundation for decisions concerning cost efficient investments in necessary technical equipment. 2) To find an optimal combination of a price flexible and remote controlled load reduction

  2. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  3. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  4. The emergence of diverse organic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2013-01-01

    as positively oriented segments that differ in their food involvement, shopping behaviour and levels of ethical concern have appeared, while marketing and distribution strategies have co-developed with these trends. We discuss our findings in the light of the attitude-behaviour gap that is said to exist......This study uses qualitative and quantitative data as well as household panel data regarding actual purchases of organic food in order to make a psychographic profiling of organic consumers and examine recent developments of organic demand in Denmark. It is shown that contemporary organic consumers...... in regard to organic consumption and the consequences that are thought to follow from the detachment of consumers from organic producers according to the much debated conventionalisation thesis....

  5. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  6. Fuel demand in Brazil in a dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervásio F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of fuel consumers regarding price and income, taking recent changes in the Brazilian fuel market into account. In this market, new market rules, energy policy towards fuel diversification and introduction of flex-fuel engines have determined fuel competition among gasoline, ethanol and compressed natural gas. Using a dynamic panel data model, demand equations for these three fuels are econometrically estimated to obtain consumer adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities in the short and long-run. In addition, the effect of the introduction of flex-fuel engines in the market and the rationality of consumers towards efficiency constraints of the engines were tested. Apart from considerable competition, results show that the dynamics of the Brazilian fuel market revolves around ethanol instead of gasoline. While demands for gasoline and natural gas are inelastic to price, demand for ethanol is elastic in Brazil. Furthermore, after the introduction of the flex-fuel technology the sensitivity of consumers to fuel prices changed, and ethanol consumers take efficiency constrains into account when ethanol prices reach the threshold of 70% of gasoline prices. - Highlights: ► Fuel demand in Brazil is evaluated, considering the changes in the fuel market. ► A dynamic panel data model is used to fit demand equations for fuels. ► Adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities are estimated. ► The impact of flex-fuel technology on the consumer behavior is tested. ► The results showed that the dynamic of the fuel market revolves around ethanol. ► The flex-fuel technology increased the competition among fuels

  7. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials....

  8. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials....

  9. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  10. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  11. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  12. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  13. Review of barriers to the introduction of residential demand response : A case study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Weck, M. H J; van Hooff, J.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2017-01-01

    Demand response, defined as the shifting of electricity demand, is generally believed to have value both for the grid and for the market: by matching demand more closely to supply, consumers could profit from lower prices, while in a smart grid environment, more renewable electricity can be used and less grid capacity may be needed. However, the introduction of residential demand response programmes to support the development of smart grids that includes renewable generation is hampered by a ...

  14. THE DEMAND FOR MEAT PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Olowolayemo, Surajudeen O.; Martin, Neil R., Jr.; Raymond, Jennie E.

    1993-01-01

    Given the importance of meat consumption, and the proportion of consumers' income spent on meat, this study estimates the demand for eight meat categories using two different functional forms. An inverse almost ideal demand system (IAIDS), and linear double-log price dependent demand models are specified. In most cases, flexibilities obtained from both methods are comparable and show that the demand for meat products is price inflexible. In addition, there are regional as well as seasonal var...

  15. Which electricity market design to encourage the development of demand response?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Rious, Fabien Roques and Yannick Perez

    2012-01-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets under climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at encouraging the deployment of smart meters and the development of demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response and smart metering for mid-size and small consumers,...

  16. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  17. Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24. edition of the 'Red Book', a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  18. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wine and culinary tourism: Preferences of experiential consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the key components of consumer demand for the development of a successful wine and culinary tourism segment. In particular, we investigate the demand preferences that are important to consumers interested in a wine and culinary related hotel stay in South Tyrol. Conceptually, we utilize the 4E-Model of experiential consumption by Pine & Gilmore [1, 2] and propose that the four realms of an experience (i.e., entertainment, education, escapist, and aesthetic relate to the principal components of consumer preferences. We survey potential tourists to gain a better understanding of their demand preferences for culinary and wine related hotel stays. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we identify the principal components of consumer demand preferences. The most preferred demand feature of a culinary wine experience relates to informative entertainment. The second feature relates to social-cultural activities that are educating. The third are escapist wine and food-specific activities and the forth relates to the aesthetics of accommodation traits and style in the culinary and wine domain. Moreover, we study the current supply attributes of wine and culinary related hotel offer in South Tyrol and their pricing using a hedonic model. Attributes that provide an entertainment experience form the basis of any offer in the wine and culinary domain. Attributes that provide an educational experience are highly relevant and add will a significant price premium. Matching demand preferences and supply conditions is crucial in developing a successful culinary and wine related tourism segment.

  20. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  1. Decomposition of electricity demand in China's industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past five years, China's demand for electricity has accelerated far beyond what central planners had forecasted, leading to supply constraints and costly brownouts throughout the country. This paper presents analysis of the effect of changes in the industrial sector on electricity demand, an important economic sector contributing to these above patterns as it consumes nearly 70% of the electricity generated in China. Using decomposition analysis, it is found that both increased industrial activity and fuel shifts helped increase industrial sector electricity demand between 1998 and 2002, the period of focus in this study, but significant increases in energy efficiency countered this

  2. On the path independence conditions for discrete-continuous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    We consider the manner in which the well-established path independence conditions apply to Small and Rosen's (1981) problem of discrete-continuous demand, focussing especially upon the restricted case of discrete choice (probabilistic) demand. We note that the consumer surplus measure promoted...... by Small and Rosen, which is specific to the probabilistic demand, imposes path independence to price changes a priori. We find that path independence to income changes can further be imposed provided a numeraire good is available in the consumption set. We show that, for practical purposes, Mc...

  3. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  4. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  5. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  6. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  7. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  8. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  9. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  10. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  11. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  12. Consumer Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Consumer Finance Act by making short-term advances to customers who write personal checks in return for substantially smaller amounts of on-the-spot case...practices lawsuit with H&R Block, Inc. forcing tax return company to advertise its "Rapid Refund" program is actually a loan program charging customers ...home equity loans/lines of credit/home improvement loans, etc.) 2. A consumer can have only 9M principal dwelling at a time (includes mobile homes

  13. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  14. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  15. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  16. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  17. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    In the past, several electricity demand studies have been published for India based on aggregate macro data at the country or sub-national/state level. Since the underlying theory of consumer demand is based on the behaviour of individual agents, the use of micro data, which reflects individual and household behaviour, more closely, can shed greater light on the nature of consumer responses. In this paper, seasonal price and income elasticities of electricity demand in the residential sector of all urban areas of India are estimated for the first time using disaggregate level survey data for about 30,000 households. Three electricity demand functions have been econometrically estimated using monthly data for the winter, monsoon and summer season in order to understand the extent to which factors like income, prices, household size and other household specific characteristics, influence variations observed in individual households' electricity demand. The results show electricity demand is income and price inelastic in all three seasons, and that household, demographic and geographical variables are significant in determining electricity demand

  18. Empirical Analysis Of The Determinants Of Demand For Children In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using cross-section data on urban households from Jimma city, Southwestern Ethiopia, in this paper we apply the economic theory of consumer choice and examine some endogenous household characteristics that affect the demand for children among urban households in Ethiopia. Based on parameter estimates derived ...

  19. Co-evolution of demand and supply under competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Kok, de A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive strategies to enforce dominance in a business-to-consumer market with heterogeneous, competing products, while the market segmentation evolves through interaction of demand and supply. By using evolutionary economic notions, we extend operations management studies on

  20. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  1. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  2. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs.

  3. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    . Primary data were collected through a consumer survey (April 2003) and focus group discussions (May 2004) with Belgian consumers. The majority of the consumer sample reported no perceived differences between farmed versus wild fish. However, mean perception scores were slightly in favour of wild fish......The increasing number of marketable fish being supplied from aquaculture is a response to the increasing demand for healthy food and is filling the gap left by depleting natural fish stocks. Little is known about the awareness and perception of the consumer in terms of farmed fish versus fish from...... capture fisheries. The consumer's subjective point of view is of overriding importance for the production system and product acceptance as well as for future market success. In this paper consumer perception in Belgium is explored and compared against scientific evidence of farmed versus wild fish...

  4. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  5. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Current Reality and Barriers: Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. Conclusions and Policy Implications: There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs. PMID:26665120

  6. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  7. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  8. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  9. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  10. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  11. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  12. Interaction in consumers attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind a fact that consumers represent the central aspect of the companies' demand, consumer behavior must be the focal point of marketing research as well as the central topic in the entire marketing system. The initial and the most fundamental marketing activity is the research of consumer behavior. It is only after the analysis of the collected relevant data on current and potential buyers, that the companies can implement other marketing activities such as competition analysis, sales forecast, measuring the market potential as well as the market share in order to create the appropriate marketing mix of the company. Numerous factors influence behavior of the consumers, however, one can conclude that the attitudes play very important role in the psychological analysis of the consumer behavior. Attitude recognition gives us a chance to analyze past and predict future behaviors. Often the behavior appears as the consequence of the formed attitudes. Weather the behavior results from the attitude and whether or not it is in accordance with this attitude, depends on the strength of the attitude as well as on the influence of other environmental factors.

  13. Ethical Marketing Practices viewed through Consumer Spectacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the working of a demand and supply mechanism in an ethical scenario in the cosmetics market context. It principally aims to investigate the intentions of consumers to consider marketers’ commitment to ethics issues. Design/Methodology/Approach – Using a sample of urban female respondents from Malaysia, a consumer survey was carried out. PLS structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Findings and implications – The results show that the aspects of product fairness and price fairness are positively correlated to the attitudes of shoppers’ towards firms that resort to such practices. Additionally, shoppers’ attitudes and their perceived behavioral control further influence their intentions to consider a firm’s ethicality while anticipating a purchase. In terms of lifestyle aspects, the self-confidence and health consciousness of consumers do not moderate the relationship between attitude and intentions. As a whole, consumers offer hints that it is high time for marketers to start developing a sense of obligation to adhere to relevant ethical practices under vulnerable circumstances. Accordingly, it is suggested that managers offer products that are safe and pose the least risks, and that they set rational and justifiable prices. Limitation – This study has been limited to facial care products in Malaysia. Originality – This study addresses and operationalizes fairness aspects of products and their pricing from a consumer perspective through a rigorous review of the marketing and business ethics literature.

  14. Does organic crowding out influence organic food demand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    All Previous studies of organic food demand that investigating substitution focus on specific food submarkets and have to assume separability from other food consumption. However, consumers typically associate attributes such as e.g. healthiness and environment friendliness with organic variants...... of most types of food. If such general organic attributes are important for consumer behaviour then separability may not hold because the general attribute obtained from one type of organic food may be a close or even perfect substitute for the same attribute obtained from other types of organic food....... In this paper we utilize a unique Danish micro panel where all food demand is registered on a disaggregated level with an organic/nonorganic indicator to estimate a general food demand system with organic variants. We clearly reject the usual separability assumption and find that the behaviour of Danish...

  15. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  16. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  17. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  18. Invester Response to Consumer Elasticity, Nordic Energy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Grenaa; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, Hans V.

    2004-01-01

    . The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity......, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity...... demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used...

  19. A Framework to Improve Communication and Reliability Between Cloud Consumer and Provider in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services consumers demand reliable methods for choosing appropriate cloud service provider for their requirements. Number of cloud consumer is increasing day by day and so cloud providers, hence requirement for a common platform for interacting between cloud provider and cloud consumer is also on the raise. This paper introduces Cloud Providers Market Platform Dashboard. This will act as not only just cloud provider discoverability but also provide timely report to consumer on cloud ser...

  20. Energy Report. State of the art in the market for consumers. First six months of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    Based on a number of key indicators, the market outcomes and market structure of the consumer market for energy are mapped, including the behavior of consumers. This report is limited to displaying a number of figures and facts, relating to the demand for products, prices, concentrations, switching, satisfaction and confidence of consumers in the energy market and information from ConsuWijzer, a Dutch governmental consumer protection organization. [nl

  1. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  2. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A directive from the former Minister of Energy was received by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), directing the Board to consult with stakeholders on options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, including the role of local distribution companies in such activities. The implementation costs were to be balanced with the benefits to both consumers and the entire system. The scope of the review was expanded by the Board to include the role of gas distribution companies in DSM. A consultation process was implemented and stakeholders were invited to participate. A series of recommendations was made, including: (1) a hybrid framework utilizing market-based and public-policy approaches should deliver DSM and DR activities in Ontario's energy markets, (2) DSM and DR activities should come under the responsibility of a central agency, (3) DSM and DR activities should be coordinated through cooperation between the Ministry of Energy, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) and the Ontario Energy Board, (4) regulatory mechanisms to induce gas distributors, electricity transmitters and electricity distributors to reduce distribution system losses should be put in place, (5) all electricity consumers should fund electricity DSM and some retail DR initiatives through a transparent, non-bypassable consumption charge, and (6) the Board should design, develop and deliver information to consumers regarding energy conservation, energy efficiency, load management, and cleaner sources of energy. refs., 4 figs

  3. Retailers and consumers in sequential auctions of collectibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Chanel, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We analyse an independent private-value model, where heterogeneous bidders compete for objects sold in sequential second-price auctions. In this heterogeneous game, bidders may have differently distributed valuations, and some have multi-unit demand with decreasing marginal values (retailers......); others have a specific single-unit demand (consumers). By examining equilibrium bidding strategies and price sequences, we show that the presence of consumers leads to more aggressive bidding from the retailers on average and heterogeneous bidders is a plausible explanation of the price decline effect....... The study of the expected revenue of the seller confirms the interest of auctioneers in inviting different types of bidders...

  4. Citizen and consumer influence on future pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Stacey, Julia Rolsted; Poulsen, Louise Vestergaard Skøtt

    2008-01-01

    The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers.......The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers....

  5. Consumer Behavior towards Decision Making and Loyalty to Particular Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Adunola Oluremi; Kamolshotiros, Parinda; Popoola, Oluwamayowa Yewande; Ajagbe, Musibau Akintunde; Olujobi, Olusola Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Currently, consumers pay more attention to their health; there is a growing awareness of health benefits of healthy drinks such as the green tea. Green tea is a popular healthy drink that helps prevent many deadly diseases. There are increasing numbers of green tea manufacturers around the world especially in Thailand. This industry has overwhelmingly expanded due to high consumers demand and purchases. Previous studies show that the market of green tea beverage in Thailand is worth nearly 9,...

  6. The Dynamic Pricing of Next Generation Consumer Durables

    OpenAIRE

    Barry L. Bayus

    1992-01-01

    Learning curve effects, aspects of consumer demand models (e.g., reservation price distributions, intertemporal utility maximizing behavior), and competitive activity are reasons which have been offered to explain why prices of new durables decline over time. This paper presents an alternative rationale based on the buying behavior for products with overlapping replacement cycles (i.e., next generation products). A model for consumer sales of a new durable is developed by incorporating the re...

  7. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  8. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  9. Medicalization, markets and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.

  10. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... scoring highly on both issue-relevant knowledge and motivation are the most likely innovators and early adopters. Their high level of expertise means that they do not need a lot of explanation for understanding the label and its self-relevance and their strong motivation means that they will search...

  11. Consumer attitudes toward health policy and knowledge about health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, E; Taylor, J A

    1978-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward key issues affecting health policy decisions in the local community have been ignored both by local health policy makers and by medical sociologists. The authors report an empirical analysis of: (1) consumer attitudes towards federal intervention in health care; (2) consumer perceptions of the free market philosophy of health providers; (3) consumer perceptions of their involvement in health policy making; (4) consumer confidence in present systems of health services delivery; and (5) consumer awareness of recent major health legislation. It was found that consumers are poorly informed about recent health care legislation. The authors compared the attitudes of consumers with those held by local hospital board members toward health policy issues. The differences for all comparisons were statistically significant. The authors argue that hospital board members attribute problems in health services delivery to demand dysfunctions while consumers perceive the problems to be a result of supply dysfunctions. Thus, failure to include consumers on health policy boards guarantees the absence of a solution-oriented dialogue and promotes the continuing predominance of a provider-biased ideology.

  12. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  13. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  14. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  15. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  16. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  17. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  18. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  19. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  20. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  1. Hermeneutics and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  4. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  5. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  6. Consuming the Exotic Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalvani, Suren

    1995-01-01

    Explores the multiple and heterogeneous deployment of the Other within discourses that intersect and contest each other. Shows how the 19th century discourse of "le femme orientale," which informed the Romantic critique of capitalism, was recuperated in a hegemonic manner to promote an expanding consumer culture. Discusses the colonial…

  7. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  8. 我国因特网使用需求的经济分析%Economic Analysis of Internet Utilizing Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋恩梅

    2003-01-01

    Based on the thinking that Internet is a kina of special information commodity,this article discusses the demand for Internet in China from 3 aspects,that is,demand elasticity, consumers'' surplus and market balance.

  9. Energy demand with the flexible double-logarithmic functional form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, G.D.; Murry, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible double-logarithmic function form is developed to meet assumptions of consumer behavior. Then annual residential and commercial data (1970-87) are applied to this functional form to examine demand for petroleum products, electricity, and natural gas in California. The traditional double log-linear functional form has shortcomings of constant elasticities. The regression equations in this study, with varied estimated elasticities, overcome some of these shortcomings. All short-run own-price elasticities are inelastic and all income elasticities are close to unity in this study. According to the short-run time-trend elasticities, consumers' fuel preference in California is electricity. The long-run income elasticities also indicate that the residential consumers will consume more electricity and natural gas as their energy budgets increase in the long run. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Modelling Commodity Demands and Labour Supply with m-Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In the empirical modelling of demands and labour supply we often lack data on a full set of goods. The usual response is to invoke separability assumptions. Here we present an alternative based on modelling demands as a function of prices and the quantity of a reference good rather than total expenditure. We term such demands m-demands. The advantage of this approach is that we make maximum use of the data to hand without invoking implausible separability assumptions. In the theory section qu...

  11. Integration of Large-scale Consumers in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Samira

    2015-01-01

    A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work is on industrial consumers. We propose a three-level hierarchical control framework, in which a so-called “Aggregator” is located between a number of flexible industrial demands and a grid operator. The aggrega...

  12. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...... firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  13. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  14. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 2003, the Ontario Energy Board was asked by the Minister of Energy to identify and review options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, by consulting with stakeholders. The role of local distribution company (distributor) in such activities was also to be determined. The objective was to balance implementation costs with the benefits to consumers and the entire system. The preliminary research and ideas were presented in this discussion paper. Definitions of both DSM and DR were provided, followed by an overview of economic theory and competitive markets. The framework for discussion was presented, along with a list of issues and other considerations. A spectrum of potential approaches to a DSM and DR framework was included and jurisdictional examples provided. A brief overview of the concept of load aggregation was presented and the next steps for consultations were outlined. 30 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  16. Integration of Large-scale Consumers in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira

    A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work is on indu......A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work...... the demand that these consumers represent. The exact responsibility of the aggregator, however, can vary depending on several factors such as control strategies, demand types, provided services etc. This thesis addresses the aggregator design for a specific class of consumers. The work involves selecting...... an appropriate control scenario, formulating the optimal objective function at the aggregator, modeling the flexibility of our specific case studies and determining the required information flow. This thesis also investigates different types of aggregation, when we have different types of consumers...

  17. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  18. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  19. The power to choose. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Highly volatile electricity prices are becoming a more frequent and unwanted characteristic of modern electricity wholesale markets. But low demand elasticity, mainly the result of a lack of incentives and consumers' inability to control demand, means that consumer behaviour is not reflected in the cost of energy. This study analyses the impact of price-responsive demand and shows how pricing, policy and technology can be used to inform consumer behaviour and choice. Informed choice and market-based valuation of electricity supply will ensure liberalized markets are competitive, efficient, less volatile and able to provide long term security of supply. Significant benefits will occur even if only 5% of customers become responsive to price-incentives and information. And customers will respond to well designed programs, thereby developing a role in ensuring efficient price formulation for electricity. This study analyses the economic, efficiency and security benefits and identifies the changes in electricity tariffs and the network infrastructure needed to achieve greater demand response

  20. The optimization of demand response programs in smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, Ghasem; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Kazemi, Ahad

    2016-01-01

    The potential to schedule portion of the electricity demand in smart energy systems is clear as a significant opportunity to enhance the efficiency of the grids. Demand response is one of the new developments in the field of electricity which is meant to engage consumers in improving the energy consumption pattern. We used Teaching & Learning based Optimization (TLBO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL) algorithms to propose an optimization model for consumption scheduling in smart grid when payment costs of different periods are reduced. This study conducted on four types residential consumers obtained in the summer for some residential houses located in the centre of Tehran city in Iran: first with time of use pricing, second with real-time pricing, third one with critical peak pricing, and the last consumer had no tariff for pricing. The results demonstrate that the adoption of demand response programs can reduce total payment costs and determine a more efficient use of optimization techniques. - Highlights: •An optimization model for the demand response program is made. •TLBO and SFL algorithms are applied to reduce payment costs in smart grid. •The optimal condition is provided for the maximization of the social welfare problem. •An application to some residential houses located in the centre of Tehran city in Iran is demonstrated.

  1. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  2. Owning, letting and demanding second homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    with administrative register data and presents estimations of the probability of owning a second home, the decision to let the second home and the number of let weeks per year. Also income elasticities for primary and second housing demand are estimated. We find a conventional monotonic increase in demand...... elasticities for primary housing demand for non-owners of second homes; however, owners of second homes have the highest income elasticity in the middle income group.......An increasing number of households consume housing beyond the primary home as owners of a second home. Economic studies of non-speculative demand for second homeownership are still scarce, and the present empirical study fills this gap to some extent. It is based on Danish survey data combined...

  3. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  4. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  5. Consumer focus can spur group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M S; Draper, A

    2001-06-01

    Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure.

  6. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  7. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  8. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  9. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  10. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CEREAL DEMAND IN MOROCCO USING THE ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Essaten

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Following up the agricultural policy in Morocco and enforcing it, the new strategy Green Morocco Plan (GMP launched in 2008 also stressed on the cereals’ supply. Meantime, despite their significant nutritional role, little attention has been paid to the demand side. This paper intends to perform an econometric analysis of the demand of five main cereals - Common wheat, Durum wheat, Barley, Corn and Rice- using a linear version of the flexible Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS model. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR approach has been applied to the demand system equations with annual data covering the period from 1980 to 2015. At the overall, regular econometric restrictions (stability, structural separability, validity, etc. have been respected our results suggest that the relations of complementarity or substitution are not determining in the cereal bundle in Morocco. Also, the Moroccan consumer behavior is characterized by a strong sensibility towards common wheat price’s changes and by a difficult access for the durum wheat as it is considered as luxury good.

  11. Determination of consumer awareness about sustainable fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricam, C.; Erdumlu, N.; Silan, A.; Dogan, B. L.; Sonmezcan, G.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of sustainability has begun to gain importance in fashion industry. The companies, which are acting in sustainable fashion, want to gain recognition, inform the consumer about their products and services and generate a demand from the consumers. But the awareness of the consumers about sustainability is still an unknown. In this study, the level of awareness of consumers about sustainable fashion was tried to be determined with a survey established in Turkey in which the socio-demographic characteristics and the awareness level of the participants were questioned. The result of the survey showed that the level of awareness among the participants is not so high and the perception of sustainability is mostly limited to some aspects of sustainable fashion such as “Usage of organic materials” and “Recycling”. Besides, the analysis of the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and awareness level of sustainable fashion showed that the awareness level increased with the education level and income to some extent. But specifically, the males and the participants aged between 24-29 have higher levels of awareness compared with the other participants.

  12. THE CONTENT OF AN ECONOMIC CATEGORY AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical categories and levels of consumer demand. There is no uniformity in the interpretation of the content of an economic category and demand level in the literature on the economic theory and applied research of the market. We want to conduct the verification of the demand category, a consolidation of the wording of measuring the level of demand, the classification of demand. Theoretical basis of the conducted research is the methodology of the economic theory and the general theory of statistics.

  13. Crisis Resistance of Tourist Demand: The Importance of Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses tourist demand during the persisting economic downturn between 2008 and 2013, within the context of expenditures on other consumer goods, taking into account different types of vacations and focusing on the “why” of the development of this demand over time. The research

  14. Crisis resistance of tourist demand: the importance of quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses tourist demand during the persisting economic downturn between 2008 and 2013, within the context of expenditures on other consumer goods, taking into account different types of vacations and focusing on the "why" of the development of this demand over time. The research

  15. Making Demand Response a Reality in Europe: Policy, Regulations, and Deployment Status

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinos, Ilias; Hatziargyriou, Nikos D.; Kokos, Isidoros; Dimeas, Aris Dimeas

    2016-01-01

    Power systems undergo massive operational and technological changes amid increasing demand for environmental sustainability and energy efficiency. The traditional, supplydriven approach, relying on large-scale generation plants, which has dominated old utilities, is reconsidered to incorporate the increased penetration of variable renewable energy sources, distributed generation and storage. Demand Response is an important instrument for improving energy efficiency, since it increases consume...

  16. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  17. Views of Health System Experts on Macro Factors of Induced Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Khorasani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this research present a framework for analyzing the major causes of induced demand. The causes identified here include complexity of medicine, information mismatch between service providers and consumers, clinical uncertainty, false beliefs, advertisements, insufficient supervision, scarcity of clinical guidelines, weakness of education system, and ignorance of medical ethics. These findings help policymakers to investigate the induced demand phenomenon clear-sighted.

  18. Machine learning for identifying demand patterns of home energy management systems with dynamic electricity pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D. (Derck); Sadat-Razavi, N. (Navid); W. Ketter (Wolfgang)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEnergy management plays a crucial role in providing necessary system flexibility to deal with the ongoing integration of volatile and intermittent energy sources. Demand Response (DR) programs enhance demand flexibility by communicating energy market price volatility to the end-consumer.

  19. Decentralized planning of energy demand for the management of robustness and discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Vasirani, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Aberer, K.

    2014-01-01

    The robustness of smart grids is challenged by unpredictable power peaks or temporal demand oscillations that can cause blackouts and increase supply costs. Planning of demand can mitigate these effects and increase robustness. However, the impact on consumers in regards to the discomfort they

  20. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  1. Cost-reflective electricity pricing: Consumer preferences and perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Nina L.; Jeanneret, Talia D.; Rai, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, residential electricity peak demand has risen steeply in recent decades, leading to higher prices as new infrastructure was needed to satisfy demand. One way of limiting further infrastructure-induced retail price rises is via ‘cost-reflective’ electricity network pricing that incentivises users to shift their demand to non-peak periods. Empowering consumers with knowledge of their energy usage is critical to maximise the potential benefits of cost-reflective pricing. This research consulted residential electricity consumers in three Australian states on their perceptions and acceptance of two cost-reflective pricing scenarios (Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing) and associated technologies to support such pricing (smart meters, in-home displays and direct load control devices). An energy economist presented information to focus groups on the merits and limitations of each scenario, and participants’ views were captured. Almost half of the 53 participants were agreeable to Time-of-Use pricing, but did not have a clear preference for Peak Capacity pricing, where the price was based on the daily maximum demand. Participants recommended further information to both understand and justify the potential benefits, and for technologies to be introduced to enhance the pricing options. The results have implications for utilities and providers who seek to reduce peak demand. - Highlights: •Electricity price rises can be limited by ‘cost-reflective’ pricing. •We consulted residential electricity consumers on Time-of-Use and Peak Capacity pricing. •Understanding of peak electricity demand must increase to enable demand shift. •Interactive website could enable consumers to evaluate pricing options. •Smart meter adoption may increase if voluntary and includes an in-home display.

  2. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  3. Advertising and Consumer Choice of Telecommunication Services in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oladipo Olalekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the critical influence of advertising on consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. The advertisement played a key role in providing the consumers with product information. The study investigates the effect of marketing medium of telecommunication as a proxy for advertisement on preference of telecommunication services as a proxy for consumer choice in Nigeria. The Binary Logit Model (BLM and descriptive analytical frameworks are used to evaluate the statistical importance of advertisement, quality of services, income of the consumer, product’s self and related service charges for a consumer choice of telecommunication services through Wald test. The findings show that product’s self service charge and service quality are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 1 percent significance level. And, related product’s service is statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 5 percent significance level. While advertisement and income of the consumer are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 10 percent. The study concludes that advertisement is important for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria but having less impact. And, product’s self service charge and service quality are hugely significant for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. Therefore, the sector of telecommunications needs more investment in advertisement so as to have telecommunications’ products information spread in order to stimulate the increase in demand for telecommunication services in Nigeria.

  4. Consumer attitudes and use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi; Marcus, Ruthanne; Hadler, James L; Imhoff, Beth; Vugia, Duc J; Cieslak, Paul R; Zell, Elizabeth; Deneen, Valerie; McCombs, Katherine Gibbs; Zansky, Shelley M; Hawkins, Marguerite A; Besser, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Recent antibiotic use is a risk factor for infection or colonization with resistant bacterial pathogens. Demand for antibiotics can be affected by consumers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In 1998-1999, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet( conducted a population-based, random-digit dialing telephone survey, including questions regarding respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices of antibiotic use. Twelve percent had recently taken antibiotics; 27% believed that taking antibiotics when they had a cold made them better more quickly, 32% believed that taking antibiotics when they had a cold prevented more serious illness, and 48% expected a prescription for antibiotics when they were ill enough from a cold to seek medical attention. These misguided beliefs and expectations were associated with a lack of awareness of the dangers of antibiotic use; 58% of patients were not aware of the possible health dangers. National educational efforts are needed to address these issues if patient demand for antibiotics is to be reduced.

  5. Flexible demand in the GB domestic electricity sector in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drysdale, Brian; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual domestic demand by category and daily flexible load profiles are shown to 2030. • Valuable flexible demand requires loads to be identifiable, accessible, and useful. • The extent of flexible demand varies significantly on a diurnal and seasonal basis. • Barriers to accessing domestic demand include multiple low value loads and apathy. • Existing market structure a barrier to fully rewarding individual load flexibility. - Abstract: In order to meet greenhouse gas emissions targets the Great Britain (GB) future electricity supply will include a higher fraction of non-dispatchable generation, increasing opportunities for demand side management to maintain a supply/demand balance. This paper examines the extent of flexible domestic demand (FDD) in GB, its usefulness in system balancing and appropriate incentives to encourage consumers to participate. FDD, classified as electric space and water heating (ESWH), and cold and wet appliances, amounts to 59 TW h in 2012 (113 TW h total domestic demand) and is calculated to increase to 67 TW h in 2030. Summer and winter daily load profiles for flexible loads show significant seasonal and diurnal variations in the total flexible load and between load categories. Low levels of reflective consumer engagement with electricity consumption and a resistance to automation present barriers to effective access to FDD. A value of £1.97/household/year has been calculated for cold appliance loads used for frequency response in 2030, using 2013 market rates. The introduction of smart meters in GB by 2020 will allow access to FDD for system balancing. The low commercial value of individual domestic loads increases the attractiveness of non-financial incentives to fully exploit FDD. It was shown that appliance loads have different characteristics which can contribute to an efficient power system in different ways

  6. Remaking the Elasticity of Consumer Wants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug

    The paper analyses a smart grid project named EcoGrid, the paper shows how a large market experiment is used to present a solution to the intermittency problem associated with wind power: How to balance supply and demand when electricity production 'follows the wind'? It is shown how electricity...... consumption is sought moved away from periods of peak consumption, and towards periods of peak production, by making consumers sensitive to ongoing changes in price. The study takes a pragmatic stance, applying concepts from the sociology of markets. The paper shows how the price elasticity of a good...

  7. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  8. A PROBABILISTIC DEMAND APPLICATION IN THE AMERICAN CRACKER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Cd. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of consumer buying strategies by producers may permit improved marketing strategies and improved ability to respond to volatile market conditions. In order to investigate potential ways of gaining such knowledge, this study extends the work of Kahneman, Russell, and Thaler through the application of a probabilistic demand framework using Choice Wave theory, based on the Schrödinger Wave Equation in quantum mechanics. Probabilistic variability of response to health information and its potential influence on buying strategies is also investigated, extending the work of Clement, Johnson, Hu, Pagoulatos, and Debertin. In the present study, the domestic cracker market within fourteen U.S. metropolitan areas is segmented, using the Choice Wave Probabilistic Demand approach, into two statistically independent “Consumer Types” of seven metropolitan areas each. The two Consumer Types are shown to have statistically different elasticities than each other and from the combined market as a whole. This approach may provide not only improved marketing strategies through improved awareness of consumer preferences and buying strategies, especially in the volatile agricultural sector, but also may be useful in aiding producers of store brand/private label products in finding desirable markets in which to compete against national brands. The results also suggest that supply/producer-side strategies should take into account the ways in which information, whether under the direct control of the producer or not, may influence and change consumer buying strategies.

  9. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  10. Emotions and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...

  11. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  12. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  13. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  14. Distributed Optimisation Algorithm for Demand Side Management in a Grid-Connected Smart Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of Distributed Energy Generation (DEG and Distributed Energy Storage (DES for Demand Side Management (DSM purposes in a smart macrogrid or microgrid cannot be over-emphasised. However, standalone DEG and DES can lead to under-utilisation of energy generation by consumers and financial investments; in grid-connection mode, though, DEG and DES can offer arbitrage opportunities for consumers and utility provider(s. A grid-connected smart microgrid comprising heterogeneous (active and passive smart consumers, electric vehicles and a large-scale centralised energy storage is considered in this paper. Efficient energy management by each smart entity is carried out by the proposed Microgrid Energy Management Distributed Optimisation Algorithm (MEM-DOA installed distributively within the network according to consumer type. Each smart consumer optimises its energy consumption and trading for comfort (demand satisfaction and profit. The proposed model was observed to yield better consumer satisfaction, higher financial savings, and reduced Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand on the utility grid. Other associated benefits of the model include reduced investment on peaker plants, grid reliability and environmental benefits. The MEM-DOA also offered participating smart consumers energy and tariff incentives so that passive smart consumers do not benefit more than active smart consumers, as was the case with some previous energy management algorithms.

  15. 75 FR 6414 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid AGENCY: Office of... information and controls technology--can help to realize these benefits. Demand-side Smart Grid technologies... from the smart meter (or another monitoring device) through an in-home display or energy management...

  16. 75 FR 7526 - Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Consumer Interface With the Smart Grid AGENCY: Office of... realize these benefits. Demand-side Smart Grid technologies include ``smart meters'' (which provide two... information exchange between the home and the Smart Grid. Section 1305 of the Energy Independence and Security...

  17. Power Balancing Aggregator Design for Industrial Consumers Using Direct Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Demand side management in the future smart grid requires new players in the electricity markets. We assume a player, the so-called aggregator which aims to utilize the flexibility in large-scale consumers with thermal energy storage. An aggregator design is proposed to mange the power consumption...

  18. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore have a market potential. It is recommended that market development activities including organising and training farmers in improved agronomic methods, handling bananas for local markets; and promotional studies of the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand.

  19. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Höning (Nicolas); J.A. La Poutré (Han); K. Strunz

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work

  20. A preliminary study of South African consumers' knowledge of and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Plant and Soil ... The findings showed that consumer behaviour was most likely to be influenced by the following factors: the distinct benefits of using indigenous plants in gardens or landscapes, the local demand for indigenous plants and their availability on the South African market, the importance ...

  1. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    . For a safe and reliable operation of electric power systems, the balance between electricity generation and consumption has to be maintained. The conventional fossil fuel based power generation achieves this balance by adjusting the generation to follow the consumption. In the electric power system......Electricity has become an inevitable part of human life in present day world. In the past two centuries, the electric power system has undergone a lot of changes. Due to the awareness about the adverse impact of the fossil fuels, the power industry is adopting green and sustainable energy sources....... In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR...

  2. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  3. Harnessing the power of demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  4. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.

    1976-11-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed here after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed. (author)

  5. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  6. Uranium resources, demand and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Demand differentiation in inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals with inventory systems where customer demand is categorised into different classes. Most inventory systems do not take into account individual customer preferences for a given product, and therefore handle all demand in a similar way. Nowadays, market segmentation has become a

  8. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  9. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  10. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  11. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  12. Teaching Consumers To Use the Internet To Make Consumer Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An adult-education course familiarized participants with online consumer resources. Beyond teaching the mechanics of Internet use, it showed how to use the Internet as a tool for consumer decision making. (SK)

  13. The estimate of world demand for Pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tien Thong, Nguyen; Nielsen, Max; Roth, Eva

    2017-01-01

    in all markets except Latin America evaluate Pangasius as a necessary good, indicating that the Pangasius industry is relatively little affected by recessions and booms in the world economy. The major markets are substitutes for each other; therefore, if demand at one market region is reduced......-linear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of the seven market regions. Prices in all markets are found very inflexible, with own-price flexibilities on −0.200 to −0.917, or −0.419 on average, revealing the option of expanding global production and export without inducing a substantial price reduction. Consumers...

  14. Demand for luxury cars in China: development, trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis was to investigate what is demand for luxury cars in People's Republic of China and how it has developed, what trends there are and what direction development is going currently. The topic of this thesis was selected based on how interesting it is and how current the topic is at the moment. Objective was to find out what is the demand of luxury cars in China, what kind of buyers Chinese consumers are in field of luxury cars, what trends there are and what are the charac...

  15. A survey of oil product demand elasticities for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol

    1994-01-01

    As more and more developing countries join the ranks of the rich they will consume both more oil and higher percentage of the lighter products. To satisfy this growing demand oil production and refinery capacity that can provide the right quantity and mix of products must be developed. In a companion piece, Dahl (1993) found the total demand for oil to be price inelastic (-0.34) and income elastic (1.32) These elasticities can give information on the total quantity of oil that might be demanded, the total amount of distillation capacity that might be needed and the overall increases in product prices that might be necessary to choke off demand growth. However, with this overall growth in product demand, the more the shift towards the lighter portion of the barrel, the more complex the refinery and the greater the demand for downstream capital. To provide information on this mix in developing countries in the coming years, this paper surveys the available work on econometric demand elasticities by oil product. (author)

  16. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  17. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Latifi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Systems engineering, Electrical engineering

  18. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  19. The perspective of organic wine in Brazil – trends, demands and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Marcos Vinícius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the productive reality and propose a panorama for the Brazilian organic wine production, from the perspective of producers, representatives of the sector, market and consumers, thus seeking to highlight the market perspectives and adequacy to the consumers' aspirations. This production that aims to meet a growing demand for sustainable products, which include organic, biodynamic and natural foods, combined with the growing Brazilian tendency to consume better quality wines. To prosecute this study, an exploratory research was developed, interviewing twenty consumers, one intermediary, one representative of the sector and four wineries. The data were analyzed crossing the information collected with these actors and bring out key contents. The results show that production is not aligned with consumer demand that it is still necessary to review the information made available to consumers, in addition to making it clearer, other values could be aggregated to those products or better communicated. On this way, it is possible to conclude that an intermediate product between organic and conventional, which has sustainable practices in its production could meet the current demand, so that in the future it can produce an organic product that corresponds to the consumer's demand.

  20. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....