WorldWideScience

Sample records for constructions energy efficiency

  1. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  2. Technology Paths in Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing......Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing...

  3. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  4. Towards a sustainable aesthetics. Architects constructing energy efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryghaug, Marianne

    2002-07-01

    This interdisciplinary study discusses challenges in energy economising in Norway as they involve the architect profession and their role in affecting the energy standard in buildings. The main research question is separated into two component research questions. The first is to analyse how the reality orientation of the architect profession is constituted and maintained, and how this in turn influences their values in connection to energy related decisions. How is the architects' professional role conception reflected in the educational system and architect journals, and how is it expressed among the 'green outsiders' of the profession? The second component research question is related to decision-making processes regarding design processes, particularly concerning energy in buildings and the role played by the architects in these processes as they interact with other actors and within institutional frames.

  5. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  6. Sustainable Industrialization in the Building Industry: On the Road to Energy Efficient Construction Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Ussing, Lene Faber

    2013-01-01

    in this discussion paper. The main method is a review to track past merits in the two domains and to detect knowledge gaps that have research potential. A strategic research agenda focusing on energy-efficient construction management is outlined showing the need for future focus on combining industrialization......Since the Brundtland report in 1987, sustainability has been an issue in all parts of the world, and the focus is increasing in these years. In the same period, the building industry has in the same period also been under heavy pressure to increase productivity in the same pace as other...... in construction management with sustainability and energy concerns in construction management....

  7. Accurate energy-efficient construction of buildings; Haeuser richtig energieeffizient bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Only about half of all new constructions in Germany meets the requirements of the Energy Conservation Act. Such deficiencies not only tarnish the pleasure of living, but also can be extremely expensive in the long term: moisture in roofs and walls, mould growth, enhanced costs of heating houses, environmental impacts. Similar problems also occur in the case of refurbishment of old buildings. From this perspective, the author of the book under consideration reports on the following topics: Checklist for energy-efficient and cost-conscious building; prevention of mould by means of optimal ventilation; fire prevention and burglar alarm systems; ensuring air tightness; recommended building materials, comparison of insulating materials; saving costs and prevention of botched job; energy efficient building; pitfalls in building contracts; laws and regulations: Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) and Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources (EEWaermeG).

  8. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  10. Energy-Efficient Devices for Transporting and Feeding Bulk Materials in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in the construction industry millions of tons of bulk materials that need to be transported to the place of processing, storing and evenly or dosed feeding are recycled annually. Decreasing the costs of these processes will significantly reduce the cost of the finished product. The article presents a review of studies conducted in the field of storage, transport and feed bulk materials, and it describes the innovative design of energy-efficient disc vibrating feeder bulk materials.

  11. The human component of sustainability: a study for assessing "human performances" of energy efficient construction blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an applied research aimed at understanding the relevance and the applicability of human related criteria in sustainability assessment of construction materials. Under a theoretical perspective, human factors consideration is strongly encouraged by building sustainability assessment methods, but the practice demonstrates that current models for building sustainability assessment neglect ergonomic issues, especially those ones concerning the construction phase. The study starts from the observation that new construction techniques for high energy efficient external walls are characterized by elements generally heavier and bigger than traditional materials. In this case, high sustainability performances connected with energy saving could be reached only consuming high, and then not very much sustainable, human efforts during setting-up operations. The paper illustrates a practical approach for encompassing human factors in sustainability assessment of four block types for energy efficient external walls. Research steps, from block selections to bricklaying task analysis, human factors indicators and metrics formulation, data gathering and final assessment are going to be presented. Finally, open issues and further possible generalizations from the particular case study will be discussed.

  12. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m{sup 2}. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO{sub 2} emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO{sub 2} emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures. (author)

  13. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy "NANOMET®" cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, N.; Tanimoto, K.; Makino, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys "NANOMET®" exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T), low coercivity (Hc DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  14. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  15. Identification of Ways to Improve Military Construction for Energy-Efficient Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    identify all processes of MCA that impact building energy efficiency and ways of improving them. ,,’, *% Executive Order 12003, Relating to the...process which ’" would increase building energy efficiency and (2) preliminary development of an accept- 0 ance testing program for ItVAC systems...unfamiliar with or confused about a building’s systems, they may disconnect or bypass components critical to building energy efficiency . Second, a full

  16. Energy-Efficient Technologies and the Building’s Saleable Floor Area: Bust or Boost for Highly-Efficient Green Construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Hintze

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the external measurements of a building are fixed, an increase in external wall thickness caused by additional insulation, for example, will lead to loss of saleable floor area. This issue has to be taken into account in the evaluation of investment profitability. This paper examines how technologies used in energy-efficient residential building construction affect the available saleable floor area and how this impacts profitability of investment. Using a modeled building and an analysis of the average construction cost, we assessed losses and gains of saleable floor area in energy-efficient buildings. The analysis shows that the impact of potential losses or gains of saleable floor area should be taken into account when comparing investment alternatives: building energy-efficient green dwellings or building conventional ones. The results indicate that constructing energy-efficient buildings and introducing very energy-efficient technologies may be energy- and cost-effective even compared with conventional buildings. Employing new products in energy-efficient construction allows benefit to be drawn from lower energy consumption during the life cycle of the building, but also from the increase in saleable floor area.

  17. Construction components and energy efficiency in buildings; Componentes de construccion y eficiencia energetica en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, N.K.; Bhandari, M.S.; Kummar, P.S. [Centro para el Estudio de Energia, Instituto Hindu de Tecnologia, Hauz Khas, Nueva Delhi (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    An energy efficiency analysis to a set of buildings was made in India to quantify the effects of the individual design concepts with respect to the energy system in general. The saving potential of energy of different concepts as well as the orientation, windows, air cavities, insulation, etc. was quantified for the different climatic conditions that prevail in most of the Central India regions. It is demonstrated that the specific requirement of heat energy can be reduced to 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) for a building of normal construction up to 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) when using ceiling insulation and walls and by means of the use of double glass windows. [Spanish] Se realizo el analisis de eficiencia de energia a un conjunto de edificios en la India, para cuantificar los efectos de los conceptos individuales de diseno respecto al sistema de energia en general. El potencial de ahorro de energia de distintos conceptos, como la orientacion, ventanas, cavidades de aire, aislamiento, etc. fue cuantificado para las distintas condiciones climaticas que prevalecen en la mayoria de las regiones de India central. Se demuestra que el requerimiento especifico de energia calorifica puede ser reducida de 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) para un edificio de construccion normal hasta 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) al usar un aislante en el techo, paredes y mediante el empleo de ventanas de doble vidrio.

  18. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  19. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  20. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  1. Revision of the Energy-Efficiency Requirements in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Craig C.; Dillon, Heather E.; Lucas, Robert G.; Lubliner, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Energy-efficiency requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes, which are regulated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. A life-cycle cost analysis from the homeowner's perspective was used to establish parameters for a least-cost home in a large number of cities. Economic, financial, and energy-efficiency measures for the life-cycle cost analysis were selected and documented. The resulting energy-efficiency levels were aggregated to zones that were expressed as a maximum overall home U-factor (thermal transmittance) requirement for the building envelope. The proposed revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. This analysis updates a similar effort completed in 1992, which was the basis for the existing HUD code overall U-factor requirement.

  2. Energy Efficient Low-Cost Virtual Backbone Construction for Optimal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohaideen Pitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prominent applications in wireless sensor networks which require collected information have to be routed to end nodes in an efficient manner. In general, weighted connected dominating Sets (WCDS based routing is a promising approach for enhancing the routing efficiency in sensor networks. Backbone has been used extensively in routing. Here an efficient WCDS algorithm for constructing a virtual backbone with low total cost, hop spanning ratio, and minimum number of dominators is proposed. We report a systematic approach, which has three phases. Initial phase considers the issues of revoking a partial CDS tree from a complete CDS tree. Secondary and final phases make the design of the complete algorithm by considering the determination of dominators using an iteration process. Our findings reveal better performance than the existing algorithms in terms of total cost, hop spanning ratio, and number of dominators.

  3. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy-efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4) and they plan to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed.

  4. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selection and integration of high performance home features are two sides of the same coin in energy efficient sustainable construction. Many advanced technologies are available for selection, but it is in the integration of these technologies into an affordable set of features that can be used on a production basis by builders, that ensures whole-house performance meets expectations. This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4). The builder plans to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed. The information in this report can be used by builders and designers to evaluate options, and the integration of options, for increasing the efficiency of home designs in climate zone 4. The data also provide a point of reference for evaluating estimates of energy savings and costs for specific features.

  5. Operation algorithm of the information system of improving organizational and technological reliability of construction projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Aleksandr Vital’evich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main source for the development of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use is investments. The traditional approaches of risk management: insurance, diversification and redundancy only raise the cost of the construction project, which has a negative impact on the investor’s decision to invest. In order to solve this problem an information system has been developed, which is based on the principle of insightful analysis of the potential “pure” risks and a list of recommendations of risk management. This tool allows identifying all the weaknesses of a construction project, improving the organizational and technological reliability, and imparting an understanding to the investor / a customer of the resources required for the project implementation.

  6. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  7. Planning and constructional instruments that support an energy-efficient supply of heat; Planungs- und Bauinstrumente zugunsten einer energieeffizienten Waermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, P.; Bonnet, C. [Planair SA, Bureau d' ingenieurs SIA, La Sagne (Switzerland); Hoesli, B.; Wuethrich, M. [Hesse und Schwarze und Partner, Buero fuer Raumplanung AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gerheuser, F. W. [Polis, Politikberatung und Sozialforschung, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Cantons of Basel-Stadt, Berne, Geneva and Zurich presents the results of a study that examined how regulations in the planning and construction areas can be used to support the saving of energy, its efficient use and how the proportion of renewable sources of energy can be increased. Topics discussed include dense building, passive energy generation, obligatory refurbishing of existing building with high energy consumption, use of the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard for new and refurbished buildings, aid for energy refurbishment, co-ordination of the use of district heating, definition of intensive-farming areas, development of energy concepts with restrictions on energy consumption and carbon dioxide production as well as aids for negotiation and the development of target agreements. The report suggests an order of priority in which the measures should be considered and makes suggestions for action to be taken in various areas.

  8. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  9. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  10. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response:Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-06-20

    Many of today's advanced building control systems are designed to improve granularity of control for energy efficiency. Examples include direct digital controls for building heating, ventilation, and cooling systems (HVAC), and dimmable ballasts for continuous dimming for daylighting applications. This paper discusses recent research on the use of new and existing controls in commercial buildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). The paper discusses the use of DR controls strategies in commercial buildings and provides specific details on DR control strategy design concepts for a new building in New York. We present preliminary results from EnergyPlus simulations of the DR strategies at the New York Times Headquarters building currently under construction. The DR strategies at the Times building involve unique state of the art systems with dimmable ballasts, movable shades on the glass facade, and underfloor air HVAC. The simulation efforts at this building are novel, with an innovative building owner considering DR and future DR program participation strategies during the design phase. This paper also discusses commissioning plans for the DR strategies. The trends in integration of various systems through the EMCS, master versus supervisory controls and dynamic operational modes concepts are presented and future research directions are outlined.

  11. Energy Efficient Green Building Based on Geo Cooling System in Sustainable Construction of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Alam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused to utilize geo energy in cooling of building in tropical country like Malaysia where temperature rises in daytime and goes beyond to a comfortable limit. In daytime inside temperature of the room is considered to be reduced by adding thermal conductivity media inside the room elements such as walls through its connectivity to the underground where temperature is less than the ambient room temperature. Due to the ground connectivity of thermal conductivity media a flow of heat creates from the room to the ground and tries to produce a thermal balance between these two medias and therefore, room temperature drops to a temperature close to the underground soil temperature. Aluminium pipes are considered as high thermal conductivity material. The entire study is done numerically using ANSYS 11 finite element software to determine the role of underground soil and thermal conductivity pipes. In numerical investigation heat flow between two systems (building rooms equipped with thermal conductivity pipe and underground soil is studied and the performance of the conductivity materials is examined. The room temperature in the presence of thermal conductivity media as well as mechanical cooling system is also investigated in this study. It is seen that high thermal conductivity media plays a role in transferring heat from room to the ground and makes cooling of the building effectively. It acts also effectively when it uses with other mechanical cooling system of building.

  12. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.

  13. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy “NANOMET®” cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nishiyama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys “NANOMET®” exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T, low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m and low core loss (W1.7/50 ∼ 0.4 W/kg even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  14. Energy-Friendly Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A building is a base for human activities, but it also consumes a large amount of energy and resources. Of all the newly constructed buildings throughout China, it is estimated only 10 to 15 percent are up to the state standard, and over 80 percent require enormous energy consumption. This

  15. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  16. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  17. Efficient on-site construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims to analyse the implementation of a German platform for housing projects through a successful case on modern methods of construction featuring efficient on-site construction. Through continuous development, the platform has been carefully designed to suit a carefully s...

  18. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  19. Making energy efficiency happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  20. 制约建筑节能推进的因素探究%Exploring the Restrictive Factors to Promote the Construction of Energy-efficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy, building problems especial y the energy consumption problem becomes more and more significant, and actively promoted the urgent task of energy-saving construction work. This paper thr-ough the analysis of the significance of energy-saving constru-ction work, analyzes the restricting factors to promote the con-struction of energy-saving, aims to break the restriction factor to promote the construction of energy-saving in China, to acce-lerate the construction of energy-saving, let building energy ef-ficiency become the people's livelihood project which benefit the nation and people.%  随着全球经济的快速发展,建筑带来的问题特别是能源消耗问题越来越显著,积极推进建筑节能工作任务紧迫。本文通过分析建筑节能工作的意义,剖析制约我国建筑节能推进的因素,旨在破除我国建筑节能推进的制约因素,加快我国建筑节能的步伐,让建筑节能成为利国利民的民生工程。

  1. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy efficienc

  2. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  3. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  4. Energy conservation and energy efficiency; Energiebesparing en energie-efficientie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossevoort, H.

    2013-07-15

    The author discusses the important role of the concepts of energy conservation and energy efficiency in the design and construction of buildings [Dutch] De auteur bespreekt hoe belangrijk de rol is van de begrippen energiebesparing en energie efficientie bij het ontwerpen en bouwen van gebouwen.

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Disparities in the production structure, moral and physical obsolescence and depreciation offixed assets in economics, low-effective use fuel and energy resources (FER and water demands excessiveuse of energy, requiring substantial imports of energy resources (over 50% of needs. The resultingdependence of the basic branches of economy of Ukraine, primarily fuel and energy complex, from theexporting countries of fuel resources and, consequently, increasing the threat to energy safety. Meanwhile,such situation is in contrudiction of the principles of sustainable developments, adopted on the Summit inRio-de-Janeiro (1992. Ukraine needs the more active energy efficient policy.Keywords: energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy intensity of gross domestic product, energysafety state, fuel and energy resources, innovative development, structural changes ineconomy.

  6. MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT FENCING STRUCTURES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of thermal and technical features of enveloping structures show that at the present time the structures of outer walls with hinged ventilated facades are the most energy efficient. The facades with air space are widely used both in residential and in public buildings. In the recent years the problems related to energy efficient enveloping structures are being actively investigated. The problems of modern Russian and foreign energy-efficient facade systems, their technical and structural solutions and the main methods of their installation are reviewed in the article. The methods of solving the tasks of research are proposed and the obtained results are described. The development of organizational and technological solutions for sealing of joints of front panels during installation of ventilated facades by pre-assembly method was the basis of the method of solving of the problem. The obtained data together with the developed structural and technological solutions may become the base for the development of technical rules and regulations.

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  8. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  10. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  11. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  12. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  13. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...

  14. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study......The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...

  15. Wind energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Badger, J.; Rasmussen, Flemming; Soerensen, Poul

    2012-11-15

    As we have shown above, wind energy can help to secure energy efficiency in power generation, and research results and tools are being developed that will increase the role of wind energy in the global energy supply. An important instrument is the development of wind turbine technology to reduce capital and operational costs. This has not been the emphasis in this chapter, though; instead we have focused on equally important instruments, namely making best use of the wind resource and available sites, adapting wind farm layout and technology to the increased exploitation of wind, and improving the interaction between wind farms and the power system. With these developments we expect that wind energy can become the backbone of the power system globally and play a major role in creating an efficient and sustainable power system. (Author)

  16. Energy efficiency and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses energy efficiency and conservation in the light of what is termed 'least cost planning'. It is explained how the normal market economy scenario of producing and purchasing in terms of supply and demand are not sufficient to describe the energy market. Seven market imperfections and barriers which hinder optimal investment in energy efficiency are listed. Much of the article is devoted to explaining the meaning of least cost planning and compares energy bills with energy prices. Sub-headings in the article include: (i) Integrated Resource Planning as an Instrument of Strategic Resource Planning; (ii) Accounting for the Environmental Externalities of Electricity Production in the USA; (iii) Monetization Using Damage Costs; (iv) Monetization Using Control Costs; (v) Damage Costs versus Control Costs for Policy Purposes and (vi) Unpriceable Environmental Costs.

  17. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  18. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  19. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able......Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...

  20. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  1. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...

  2. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  3. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  4. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  5. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  6. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload...

  7. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  8. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-06-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  9. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  10. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Stationary battery energy storage systems are widely used for uninterruptible power supply systems. Furthermore, they are able to provide grid services. This yields in rising installed power and capacity. One possibility uses high voltage batteries. This results in an improvement of the overall s...

  11. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Stationary battery energy storage systems are widely used for uninterruptible power supply systems. Furthermore, they are able to provide grid services. This yields in rising installed power and capacity. One possibility uses high voltage batteries. This results in an improvement of the overall...

  12. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  13. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  14. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  15. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  16. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-23

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 能效服务网络建设及能效小组活动实施效果%Energy efficiency service network construction and the energy efficiency implementation effect of group activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂旺; 易玉平

    2014-01-01

    河北廊坊供电公司搭建覆盖广泛的能效服务网络,通过活动载体、活动形式、活动内容、活动机制的创新,优化了能效服务网络,体现了能效服务活动在地市公司的价值,提高了小组成员的企业竞争力,推动供电公司节能指标和重点工作任务的完成,创造了可观的经济价值和良好的社会效益。%Langfang power supply company sets up energy efficiency service network which covers a wide range. Through ac-tivity carrier, activity form, activity content, mechanism innovation, it optimizes the energy efficiency service network, embodies the value of energy efficiency service activities in cities, improves the competitiveness of the team members, promotes energy-saving in-dex and power supply company tasks completion. The service net-work creates a considerable economic value and good social bene-fits.

  18. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  19. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  20. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  1. Energy efficiency in refrigerated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Sluis, S.M. van der; Schiphouwer, H.

    1998-01-01

    In refrigerated road transport, 10 to 40 `)/0 of the total energy consumption is related to refrigeration. However, energy consumption and energy efficiency of refrigerated transport equipment is rarely mentioned in the discussions about energy saving, potentials in road transport. Two main approach

  2. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  3. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  4. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  5. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    2000-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse

  6. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  7. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  8. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus of this....... Furthermore, a comparative analysis of best available technology and conventional technologies implies that the standard for the environmental performance of TVs has been driven by technology push rather than a regulatory pull....... of this paper is on the Implementing Measures (IM) for televisions. The ambition level of the IM for televisions is investigated and it is argued that the IM have not succeeded in setting up sufficient ecodesign requirements, as only one life cycle phase and one environmental impact category is addressed...

  9. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review subcommittee reports on...

  10. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  11. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  12. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  13. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  14. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  15. Energy Efficient Housing for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Farshad; Wehage, Philipp; Shahriari, Effatolsadat; Tarkashvand, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt erschienen im Universitätsverlag der Technischen Universität Berlin, 2013. - ISBN 978-3-7983-2528-9, ISSN 2193-6099 This volume introduces a cost-neutral method to reduce the energy demand of residential buildings in the climatic conditions of the Tehran region. "Architectural Energy Efficiency" describes how the energy demand of residential buildings can be lowered through a conscious and intelligent design. It indicates the high energy saving potential that can be achie...

  16. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  17. The computer science institute building of TU Brunswick University. Construction of an energy-efficient university building; Das Informatikzentrum der TU Braunschweig. Realisierung eines energieeffizienten Institutsgebaeudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozynski, M.; Gerder, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2003-07-01

    Saving of resources will be a key issue in future building construction. A new building projected on the campus of Brunswick University will have a power supply and ventilation concept that ensures low energy consumption. The project is carried out with funds provided by the Federal Minister of Economics and Technology (BMWi) in the context of the SolarBau funding concept. Construction of the building will be followed by an extensive monitoring programme that is to ensure its perfect function. [German] Eine wesentliche Zielsetzung zukuenftigen Bauens ist der sparsame Umgang mit Ressourcen. Im Rahmen eines integralen Planungsprozesses konnte fuer den Neubau des Informatikzentrums der TU Braunschweig ein Energie- und Lueftungskonzept realisiert werden, dass auf einen niedrigen Energieverbrauch zielt. Das Projekt wird im Rahmen des Foerderkonzeptes SolarBau durch das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) gefoerdert. Durch das anschliessende umfangreiche Monitoringprogramm wird derzeit die Funktionsfaehigkeit dieses Konzeptes ueberprueft. (orig.)

  18. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  19. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  20. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  1. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  2. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  3. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  4. Leightweight construction, a key technology for materials saving, energy efficiency and climate protection. Proceedings of the colloquium; Leichtbau, eine Schluesseltechnologie fuer Material-, Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Tagungsband zum Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Otto; Bicker, Marc (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    At the fourth Landshut colloquium on lightweight construction, 24 papers were presented by experts of science and practice on the following subjects: 1. Composite structures; 2. Surface technology and coatings; 3. Foamed aluminium and magnesium; 4. Aluminium and foamed aluminium; 5. Joining techniques; 4. Bolted joints; 6. Metal composites and foamed materials; 7. Core materials for sandwich structures; 8. Fabrication technologies of fibre-reinforced composites; 9. Forming and efficient use of materials; 10. Aluminium moulds; 11. Simulation and optimisation; 12. Lightweight construction in aircraft and vehicle engineering. [German] Im vierten Landshuter Leichtbau-Colloquium-Band werden insgesamt 24 Beitraege von Experten aus Wissenschaft und Praxis aus folgenden Themengebieten vorgestellt: 1. Werkstoffverbundstrukturen, 2. Oberflaechentechnik und -beschichtungen, 3. Aluminiumschaeume und Magnesium, 4. Aluminium und Aluminiumschaeume, 5. Verbindungstechnik, 5. Schraubverbindungen, 6. Metallische Verbundwerkstoffe und Schaeume, 7. Kernmaterialien fuer Sandwichstrukturen, 8. Fertigungstechnologien Faserverbundstrukturen, 9. Umformen / Effizienter Materialeinsatz, 10. Urformen mit Aluminium, 11. Simulation und Optimierung und 12. Leichtbau im Luftfahrzeug- und Fahrzeugbau.

  5. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  6. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  7. Guidebook for energy-saving construction. Hitten the point - neutral specialized information for more energy efficiency. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Ratgeber energiesparendes Bauen. Auf den Punkt gebracht - Neutrale Fachinformationen fuer mehr Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigstein, T.

    2007-07-01

    Energy conservation measures in the area of buildings can considerably contribute to the planned reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions particularly if they are not only carried out in the field of new buildings but also in existing buildings. In this booklet technical possibilities and bases of constructional thermal insulation in modern construction engineering are described in detail. In this connection the following subjects are gone into: Low-energy houses, bases of heat and humidity technology, correct heating and ventilating, thermal insulation of heating systems and water heaters, renewable energy sources, legal obligations like energy passport, support possibilities, energy diagnosis and counselling. (GL)

  8. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  9. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  10. Strengthening the construction energy-efficient design to realize the sustainable development of construction industry%加强建筑节能设计实现建筑业可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓瑞芬

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the development situation of buildings energy saving design in our country,according to the construction industry large resource consumption problems,analyzed the planning focus of building energy saving design,and emphatically discussed the energy saving design method of building single part,to reduce the energy consumption,promoted the sustainable development of construction industry.%阐述了我国建筑节能设计的发展现状,针对建筑行业资源消耗量大的问题,分析了建筑节能设计的规划重点,并着重论述了建筑单体部分的节能设计方式,以减少能源消耗,促进建筑业的可持续发展。

  11. Generic construction of efficient matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, C.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix product operators (MPOs) are at the heart of the second-generation density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm formulated in matrix product state language. We first summarize the widely known facts on MPO arithmetic and representations of single-site operators. Second, we introduce three compression methods (rescaled SVD, deparallelization, and delinearization) for MPOs and show that it is possible to construct efficient representations of arbitrary operators using MPO arithmetic and compression. As examples, we construct powers of a short-ranged spin-chain Hamiltonian, a complicated Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional system and, as proof of principle, the long-range four-body Hamiltonian from quantum chemistry.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2013-01-01

    . Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also......This paper presents a case study which investigates a strategic and methodological approach to future proofed renovations of social housing in an environmental, economically and socially sustainable way. In years to come the social housing sector must undergo major renovation. The housing sector...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value...

  13. Green Construction: Efficient Design for Military Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Id.com/ archives /Ot her-copy/NavyPol icy3 .ht m I > l6 ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Turchen, Stephen and Comer, Craig, Making Sense of the Model Energy Code 17...add extreme costs to the project by the necessity of compliance. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration , and Air Conditioning Engineers... ASHRAE Standard 90.1. This standard was the first national consensus on commercial building energy efficiency. Utilization of thermal mass and United

  14. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  15. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  16. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  17. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  18. 柔性屋面系统在工业建筑节能中的应用%Flexible Roof System for Energy Efficiency in Industrial Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邦俊; 罗航; 熊茂康; 黄可贵

    2013-01-01

      在能源危机的当前背景下,工业建筑屋面节能降耗的功能更加突出。在烟草生产这个对温度和湿度要求较为特殊的环境中,通过应用新技术材料高分子防水卷材、保温板及其配套附件组成的集防水保温一体的柔性屋面系统对原有的老厂房屋面进行改造,能耗节约20%~25%,每年可节约成本100万元以上。%Recently, energy crisis exists globally. The energy-saving for roof of industrial construction is crucial. Tobacco process has special requirement for temperature and humidity, so flexible roof system, which is made of macromolecule waterproof roll and warming plate and accessories, is utilized to reconstruct the roof. The system for retrofitting the old plant can save energy by 20%-25%, and cut cost over 1 million yuan.

  19. Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.T.; Smit, Lodewijk Theodoor

    2003-01-01

    This thesis provides a general framework to build an energy-efficient wireless link. The central idea is to determine the exact amount of effort that is necessary to obtain the required quality given a current wireless medium. So the key is to be effective, only doing the work that is really

  20. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE... CONTACT: Christine Platt-Patrick, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), (202)...

  1. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  2. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  3. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  5. Energy efficiency in manufacturing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology - with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element - is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  6. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  7. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  8. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries....

  9. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  10. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  11. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  12. Strengthen Domestic Construction to Satisfy Energy Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The energy issue is a common concern for all countries in the world and also a challenge to China, and Chinese government attaches great importance to the issue.China's demand for energy rises steadily with its fast economic growth. In face of energy resources shortages, China has to implement a twofold strategy on the energy issue: strenuously consolidating domestic resources construction, and rigorously enforcing energy-saving by improving public awareness of energy conservation.

  13. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  14. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  15. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  16. New challenge for residential building energy efficiency standards in Japan: unify energy efficiency of envelope and housing appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Mikiko [Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency standards of many countries evaluate envelope performance. Japanese energy efficiency standards of residential building were revised in 1999, and include both a performance standard and a prescriptive standard for envelope energy efficiency. The target is for over 50 % of new houses to meet the standard in 2010. Efficiency of residential appliances are governed by the Top Runner standards. However, these standards consider each appliance individually, but do not evaluate the whole house comprehensively.Because residential energy efficiency varies greatly depending on the performance of appliances, we developed a method to evaluate performance of both the envelope and the appliances, with the following characteristics. 1) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the envelope and appliance together. 2) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the whole house using total energy consumption specified for the space conditioning, water heating, lighting, and ventilation appliances at the time of construction. 3) Evaluate the efficiency for space conditioning and water heating appliances using efficiencies during actual operating time. 4) We have performed detailed measurements to understand the efficiency during actual operation. The evaluation method we developed will have a major impact on future Japanese standards for residential energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the composition of new standards for housing energy efficiency and explain our method for evaluating energy efficiency of household appliances.

  17. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  18. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions.

  19. Experimental Characterization and Modelling of Energy Efficient Fluid Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorklund, Karina M; Vacca, Andrea; Opperwall, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    In applications such as in agriculture, construction, and aerospace applications, high pressure hydraulics is the preferred technology to transmit mechanical power. As a consequence, the energy efficiency of the hydraulic system used to perform the mechanical actuations is of primary concern to reduce the energy consumptions in the abovementioned applications. In an hydraulic system, the primary component determining the energy efficiency is the hydraulic pump. This work focuses on the study ...

  20. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  1. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  2. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  3. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  4. Energy efficiency and economic growth of China: 1953-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2009-01-01

    Energy plays an important role in the economic life.With the rapid development of economy,the constrain of energy on the sustainable development of economy is becoming more and more obvious.This paper just studies the factors influencing energy effciency of China and the relationship between energy efficiency and China's eco,nomic growth.By using time series multivariable linear regression methods with China's relevant data from 1953to 2006,this paper constructs the regression model to analyze the factors that would impact energy efficiency.After that,a regression model of China's real output to capital,labor and energy efficiency is conducted to estimate the marginal contribution of every factor to the real output to prove the.fundamental influence of energy efficiency to the economic growth.In the end,some policies and recommendations are also put forward in order to improve the energu efficiency of China.

  5. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  6. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  7. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  8. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  9. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to... programs and policies to expand the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  10. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  11. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  12. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  13. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  14. Indoor environment and energy efficiency in schools

    CERN Document Server

    Bellia, Laura; Boerstra, Atze; Dijken, Froukje van; Ianniello, Elvira; Lopardo, Gino; Minichiello, Francesco; Romagnoni, Piercarlo; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel Carlos

    2010-01-01

    School buildings represent a significant part of the building stock and also a noteworthy part of the total energy use. Indoor and Energy Efficiency in Schools Guidebook describes the optimal design and operation of schools with respect to low energy cost and performance of the students. It focuses particularly on energy efficient systems for a healthy indoor environment.

  15. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  16. Green energy and efficiency an economic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansuategi, Alberto; Galarraga, Ibon

    2014-01-01

    Directed toward informing and assisting academics and policymakers with a general interest in energy, climate change and environmental economics, this book discusses and analyzes the major issues surrounding regarding green energy and energy efficiency.

  17. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  18. Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of industrial electricity demand and the role of energy efficiency policy. An important context for the study is the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs in which different types of tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. Paper 1 conceptually analyses the cost-effectiveness of voluntary ...

  19. The energy efficiency directive; Die Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Benedicte [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet - Recht, Oekonomie und Politik e.V. (IKEM)

    2012-12-13

    The present article gives an overview of the recently adopted European Energy Efficiency Directive. The Directive is to take effect in early December 2012 and will supersede the Energy Services Directive and the Cogeneration Directive. The Energy Efficiency Directive is dedicated to current European energy saving goals. To this end it contains regulations that are to lead to savings in primary energy as well as final energy use. One that deserves particular mention is Art. 7, which provides a framework for the introduction of energy saving engagement systems, on the strength of which transmission system operators and/or energy suppliers can be obligated to encourage final customers to implement energy saving measures.

  20. using energy efficient using energy efficient temperature sensor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CONTROL OF THE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM IN THE HOME. OF THE HEATING ... In this paper, a new Smart Living ... not new in science and engineering field of study. ..... The construction of this project was done on a Vero board.

  1. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  2. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... data centers, telecommunications, utilities, and construction. Green ICTs--or smart...

  3. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a... administration of programs and policies to enhance the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable...

  4. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  5. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  6. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  7. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level

  8. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  9. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  10. Constructing consumers. Efforts to make governmentality through energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbolt, Aasne L.; Karlstroem, Henrik; Soerensen, Knut H. (Centre for Energy and Society, Dept. of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway))

    2009-07-01

    The paper focuses on the way household consumers have been perceived and constructed by Norwegian policy-makers through a period of 30 years. It shows how, Norwegian energy policy makers have engaged in the making of ambiguous, vague and shifting constructions of consumers and their anticipated market behaviour. We have identified three main shifts in the constructions, each related to a particular time period. The first came about in the wake of the international oil crisis of 1973, when a combined focus on energy conservation and economic efficiency of energy use were introduced as a goal in Norwegian energy policy. This construction was based on a belief in economically rational behaviour, but rendered unclear by observations of deficits related to knowledge and morals. The second shift occurred at the end of the 1980s, with the introduction of the proposal of a new Energy Act with the aim of deregulating the electricity trade. The result was a controversy and construction of two versions of the consumer as economically rational or as in need of political care. The third change came with the crisis in the supply of electricity that occurred during the winter of 2002/2003. This meant a shift towards a focus on investment in technology rather than the act of consuming. We suggest that the ineffectiveness of energy efficiency measures to some extent has been due to these constructions. On this basis, we propose the need for policy-makers to be more reflexive about the performance of their constructions, maybe also engage more actively with other social science research than economics to find knowledge about consumers.

  11. Wood constructions. Energy eficient, sustainable, practically proven; Holzbau Konstruktionen. Energieeffizient, nachhaltig, praxisgerecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueckmann, Rudolf

    2012-07-01

    The book 'Wood constructions' provides standardized and practically proven designs, all necessary information on building physics, fire protection and additional specialized knowledge for energy efficient renovations and construction details in wood construction. The main topics of this book are: Fundamentals, timber-frame structures, wood preservation, thermal insulation, sound insulation, fire protection, energy-efficient timber buildings, timber construction systems, rehabilitation of timber structures, relevant regulations and standards.

  12. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  13. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , and will require unique energy efficient solutions. For instance, an MS may be battery-powered, and the relevant energy efficient solution would include switching-off the display and minimizing signalling overhead (e.g. sleep mode). Meanwhile energy efficient... solution for the BS may include the intelligent sleep mode policies when the number of users and the traffic load decreases [3]. Due to the growing demand for advanced broadband wireless technologies and services, research in green radio solutions...

  14. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  15. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  16. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  17. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  18. Target Improves Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  19. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  20. Efficient Representation for Online Suffix Tree Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, N. Jesper; Fuglsang, Kasper; Karlsson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Suffix tree construction algorithms based on suffix links are popular because they are simple to implement, can operate online in linear time, and because the suffix links are often convenient for pattern matching. We present an approach using edge-oriented suffix links, which reduces the number...

  1. Construction legislation and energy efficiency. A discussion on the covered open spaces for ventilation adopted by the Rio de Janeiro city building code, Brazil; Legislacao edilicia e eficiencia energetica. Uma discussao sobre os vaos de ventilacao adotados pelo codigo de obras do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Gustavo Carvalho; Barroso-Krause, Claudia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Arquitetura]. E-mails: gparj@terra.com.br; bkrause@ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses, under the energetic efficiency viewpoint, the critical points of the Rio de Janeiro city construction legislation, by the time that decrees the directives for covered open spaces for ventilation in multi-familiar buildings. The paper also demonstrates where and how the building code influences the architectonic project to induce energy consumption not contributing for an efficient architecture.

  2. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts.

  3. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  4. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  5. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  6. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...

  7. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  8. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  9. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  10. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...... and efficient use of resources and energy as well as renewable energy production. However, the role and potential contribution of municipalities to this transition is still unclear as many aspects of energy generation, distribution and use are going far beyond municipal competences (Rutherford & Coutard 2014...

  11. Analysis for improved energy consumption calculation of construction sites; Untersuchung zur verbesserten Energiebedarfsermittlung von Baustellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargstaedt, H.J.; Kath, T.; Schuster, A. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimar (Germany); Guttenberger, P. [Max Boegl - Transport und Geraete GmbH und Co. KG, Neumarkt (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The energy demand of construction sites depends on a variety of factors which are characterized by a wide range and low predictability. Looking at the increasing energy costs, the need for developing an efficient energy controlling system will be required. Hereby, the interaction between construction processes and technical properties of the construction equipment marks a main challenge for the controlling of the energy costs. With the intention to make new technologies accessible for a moderate as well as cost efficient use of energy resources on construction sites, the construction company Max Boegl and the Chair of Construction Engineering and Management at the Bauhaus University Weimar developed concepts and methods, which make possible the structured collection of relevant energy-consuming processes. Finally a Software Application has been developed, with which further development and approvement of energy management systems of construction sites have been made possible. (orig.)

  12. Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Sandra; Broberg, Sarah; Ottosson, Mikael; Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments ...

  13. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  14. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  15. Towards energy efficient mobile communications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available to the power saving class (PSC) of Type I in IEEE 802.16. Our numerical results show that more energy can be saved if the listening interval is considered under non-sleep or awake mode....

  16. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the dominant factor that determines the country’s welfare and influences all activity segments of society.To achieve continuous and sustainable economic development, energy sources must be adequate and safe, reasonably priced and ensure economic competitiveness of the country. This article will examine the essence ofenergy policy, stages of development and perspective directions for Moldova, oriented towards joining the European Union and cooperation with the CIS countries.

  18. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  19. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  20. Enhancing Energy Efficient TCP by Partial Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study on the effects on a mobile system's energy efficiency of enhancing, with partial reliability, our energy efficient TCP variant (E/sup 2/TCP) (see Donckers, L. et al., Proc. 2nd Asian Int. Mobile Computing Conf. - AMOC2002, p.18-28, 2002). Partial reliability is beneficial for mult

  1. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  2. Efficient Use of Energy: as a Life Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Sabry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Early Eighties of the last Century, the Egyptian Government considered Energy Conservation as one of the main pillars of Energy Planning in Egypt, based on the fact that investing in Energy Efficiency is more cost effective than in constructing new Power Plants.Energy Efficiency (EE Programs financed by International Financing Institutions focused at that time, on Energy Audits in Industrial Buildings, Power Plants, Electricity Transmission and in some other Governmental Buildings. Recommendations for Efficient Use of Energy and reducing energy consumption at those entities were implemented by the Use of Efficient Lamps, Improving Power Factor, Waste Heat Recovery, Thermal Insulation, Efficient Firing in Boilers…. Consequently, High Quality Energy Efficient Products were competing in the market with others not having the same advantage.Although the above mentioned EE Programs included Awareness Campaigns for all sectors but the consumption in Residential Sector remained high and increased more and more ,exceeding even the consumption in Industrial Sector specially that the prices of electricity were highly subsidized.For that reason, more awareness campaigns (Lectures, Brochures, Audio and visual advertisement and more incentives were offered by Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MoERE to consumers in the Residential Sector. Meanwhile, a Program to reduce gradually subsidies on electricity prices started aiming to push consumers to follow energy efficiency instructions and buy efficient appliances especially while they were suffering from electricity cut for about two years.To prepare for Market Transformation to efficient appliances the Government, issued the Standard Specifications and Labeling for Energy Efficient Appliances (lamps, refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, air conditioners, dish washers and others. Meanwhile, these Standards are supported with Accredited Testing Labs in National Entities (NREA

  3. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  4. Energy efficiency and conservation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, O.M.; Yunez Naude, A.; Wionczek, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Comparing the degree of efficiency in energy production and the uses to which energy resources are allocated in Mexico with that in other countries, this book addresses three basic questions: What are the major reasons for differences in energy efficiency between industrial economies and a newly industrializing country like Mexico. To what extent is energy conservation possible in the Mexican economy. And what are the social and economic benefits of more efficient use and conservation of energy in comparison with their costs. Using the history and operations of two state-owned energy agencies, PEMEX and the Federal Electricity Commission, as case studies, the contributors explore the patterns of energy use in all major sectors of the economy and discuss the prospects for energy-saving policies between the mid-1980s and the end of the century.

  5. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  6. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... the authorities fail to mobilise the stakeholders to implement energy efficient technologies in local building practices. This points towards a need to reframe policy initiatives in order to take the complexity of the challenge of dissemination of energy efficient technologies in practice into account......; acknowledging that singular instruments are seldom sufficient to boost a wider transition in building practices, since no simple cause or driver for change exists. The municipal level is essential in facilitating change within energy efficient technologies, since municipals have strong interrelations...

  7. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  8. Energy Efficiency Vital for Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world is hoping the Chinese economy will continue to be the engine of global growth after growing by about 9 percent in 2011. This relentless economic expansion comes at a high price, and China finds itself well short of immediate solutions on how to rein in its vast energy consumption and, consequently, the environmental pollution that threatens its progress. In 2010 China's electricity consumption grew 13.7 percent, outstripping its GDP growth of 10.4 percent. It used 3.2 trillion tons of coal equivalent, or about 20 percent of the world's energy consumption, overtaking the US to become the world's largest energy consumer.

  9. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency Cable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iashutina Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the energy calculation is made at different temperatures of the heating surface. The influence of the speed of pulling on the cost of the finished products of cable products. The interrelation of speed broaching and temperature of the heating surface.

  13. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  14. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  15. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T.; Vesterager Christensen, D.; Andersen, Hans (Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Dam, M. (NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark)); Thorndahl, M. (Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Maagoee, P.; Kristensen, Kenneth T. (Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kirketerp Friis, A. (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  16. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is pot

  17. Energy-efficient quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Joni; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-04-01

    In the near future, one of the major challenges in the realization of large-scale quantum computers operating at low temperatures is the management of harmful heat loads owing to thermal conduction of cabling and dissipation at cryogenic components. This naturally raises the question that what are the fundamental limitations of energy consumption in scalable quantum computing. In this work, we derive the greatest lower bound for the gate error induced by a single application of a bosonic drive mode of given energy. Previously, such an error type has been considered to be inversely proportional to the total driving power, but we show that this limitation can be circumvented by introducing a qubit driving scheme which reuses and corrects drive pulses. Specifically, our method serves to reduce the average energy consumption per gate operation without increasing the average gate error. Thus our work shows that precise, scalable control of quantum systems can, in principle, be implemented without the introduction of excessive heat or decoherence.

  18. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... understanding of and involvement in local building processes. Through such planning approaches with a strong local contex-tual rooting, the municipalities are capable of facilitating changes in local building practices, leading to the implementation of energy efficient technologies in local building projects...

  19. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  20. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  1. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  2. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  3. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-02-27

    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  4. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  5. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development. Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European initiatives as the Covenant of Mayors or Energy Cities are closely following this development...... the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...... on the state of energy use in an advanced economy as well as its transition towards more sustainable energy patterns. An important question in this context is how cities (i.e. municipalities) actually can work towards being more energy efficient. Many municipalities have an increasing focus on sustainable...

  6. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  7. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  8. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  9. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  10. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics......The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  11. 北方村镇住宅围护结构节能构造优选研究%Optimization Research on Envelope Energy Efficiency Construction of Northern Rural Residences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春艳; 金虹

    2011-01-01

    建筑的围护结构构造是影响建筑是否节能的重要因素之一.我国北方村镇地区幅员辽阔,各地材料资源、技术资源和经济水平各不相同,所以在围护结构构造的选择上具有明显的地域差异性.为了选择出适宜于各地域特征的围护结构构造,本文采用基于生命周期的模糊数学层次分析方法进行了综合评价.该方法以全生命周期为研究范围,采用层次分析法构建评价体系并确定权重,然后采用模糊评价法确定定量与定性指标的隶属度,并采用线性加权法进行综合评价,以此作为优选评价的依据.在此基础上,以黑龙江省某村镇住宅为例,对该地区的墙体构造进行了模拟评价,结果表明,基于生命周期的模糊数学层次分析方法是各地区选择适宜围护结构构造的一种有效方法.%Envelope construction is one of the important factors which have influences on building energy efficiency. In the northern rural of China, material resources, technology resources and economic levels are different due to the massive land, therefore, there is obvious regional disparity for the choice of envelope construction. In this paper, in order to choose the suitable envelope construction for various regional features,the methods of analytical hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation based on the whole life cycle were adopted. In the calculation process,the whole life cycle was taken as the research scope,AHP method was applied to construct the evaluation structure and determine the weights,and then,the fuzzy evaluation method was adopted to ascertain the degree of membership of quantitative and qualitative indexes, and the linear weighting method was used to carry out the comprehensive evaluation, which was considered as the foundation for optimization. On the basis of discussion, the envelope construction of rural residence in Heilongjiang was taken as an example to perform the simulation

  12. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Purcell, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  13. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Purcell, C.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  14. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  15. Energy efficiency of buildings with phase-change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of energy efficient buildings using innovative building materials such as phase change materials, in addition to improving indoor comfort, energy savings and costs, can be achieved by increasing their market value. Because of its ability to absorb and release energy at predictable temperatures, phase change materials are effective in controlling and maintaining the thermal environment in the building. The use of phase changing materials, materials stored latent energy storage is an effective form of heat. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis

  16. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  17. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  18. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  19. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  20. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model.......This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological...... development are one of the main causes for the very diverging results which have been obtained using bottom-up and top-down models for analysing the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. One of the objectives for studies comparing model results have been to create comparable model assumptions regarding...

  1. Energy efficient perlite expansion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, K.L.

    1982-08-31

    A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

  2. Efficient dynamic graph construction for inductive semi-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, F; Dahbi, R; Bosaghzadeh, A; Ruichek, Y

    2017-10-01

    Most of graph construction techniques assume a transductive setting in which the whole data collection is available at construction time. Addressing graph construction for inductive setting, in which data are coming sequentially, has received much less attention. For inductive settings, constructing the graph from scratch can be very time consuming. This paper introduces a generic framework that is able to make any graph construction method incremental. This framework yields an efficient and dynamic graph construction method that adds new samples (labeled or unlabeled) to a previously constructed graph. As a case study, we use the recently proposed Two Phase Weighted Regularized Least Square (TPWRLS) graph construction method. The paper has two main contributions. First, we use the TPWRLS coding scheme to represent new sample(s) with respect to an existing database. The representative coefficients are then used to update the graph affinity matrix. The proposed method not only appends the new samples to the graph but also updates the whole graph structure by discovering which nodes are affected by the introduction of new samples and by updating their edge weights. The second contribution of the article is the application of the proposed framework to the problem of graph-based label propagation using multiple observations for vision-based recognition tasks. Experiments on several image databases show that, without any significant loss in the accuracy of the final classification, the proposed dynamic graph construction is more efficient than the batch graph construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    in understanding the impact that different options can have on the energy consumption of their networks. This paper investigates the possible energy gains of evolving a mobile network through a joint pico deployment and macro upgrade solution over a period of 8 years. Besides the network energy consumption, energy...... efficiency in Mbps/kWh is also analyzed. Furthermore, a cost analysis is carried out, to give a more complete picture of the different options being considered. Focusing on the last year of the evolution analysis, results show that deploying more pico sites reduces the energy consumption of the network......, by a maximum of 30%. With regards to the energy efficiency, high deployment of pico sites allowed the network to carry 16% more traffic for the same amount of energy. This, however, results in an increase in cost, specifically operational costs....

  4. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyz

  5. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  6. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  7. Energy efficient outdoor lighting: an implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat, Ahmed; Florea, Anna; Martínez Lastra, José Luis; Brañas Reyes, Christian; Azcondo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Lighting strongly influences human daily activities. Smart lighting emerged as new generation of lighting system, able to precisely address the specific needs. Under conditions of shortage in fossil fuels and high prices for energy, smart lighting enables design of lighting systems, which can efficiently use power resources without compromising the user experience. The paper describes implementation of outdoor lighting solution targeting energy efficiency. The proposed approach takes holistic...

  8. An energy efficient platform for mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonali; Tiwari, Ritu; Shukla, Anupam

    2012-11-01

    Exploration of an unknown environment by autonomous mobile robot is a fundamental concern in mobile robotics. Today most of the mobile robots are powered by batteries so their energy and operation times are limited. Therefore, how to minimize energy consumption and obstacle avoidance becomes an important problem. Frontier-based method is known to be most efficient for robot exploration system. In this paper, we propose a novel energy efficient platform based on the notion of frontiers for mobile robot. The robot selects the next frontier to visit based on the robot's current direction and relative location of frontier cells. Our frontier selection method can reduce duplicate coverage and thus save energy and reduce the distance also. Distance to frontier are computed using energy efficient A* algorithm. We estimate the energy consumption and choose the most energy-efficient route to move to that frontier considering energy of stop and turnings. We tested the algorithm on various types of environment maps. The experiments were conducted assuming equal velocity for the robot during whole exploration. All paths generated were optimal in terms of energy consumption and turns. The robot was easily able to escape a variety of obstacles and reach the goal in an optimal manner.

  9. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  10. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  11. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP...

  12. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true st...... storage density is then equivalently smaller. Systems covered include compressed and liquid hydrogen, reversible and irreversible metal hydrides, and methanol and ammonia.......A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  13. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  14. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  15. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  16. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kazakevicius, E. [Kazakevicius (Eduardas), Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  17. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  18. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  19. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  20. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  1. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  2. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through

  3. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  4. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  5. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  6. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed.......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling...

  7. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  8. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  9. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  10. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  11. Start It up: Flywheel Energy Storage Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to construct and test an off-grid photovoltaic (PV) system in which the power from a solar array could be stored in a rechargeable battery and a flywheel motor generator assembly. The mechanical flywheel energy storage system would in turn effectively power a 12-volt DC appliance. The voltage and current of…

  12. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  13. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  14. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  15. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  18. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  19. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  20. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    -General for Energy and The Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs have the leadership of the main adopted product groups within the Ecodesign Directive. DG Environment is involved in the process and has a shared leadership of the preparatory study on washing machines...... significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......Report tool and to develop the necessary resource efficiency indicators. A continued pressure from the stakeholders is also important, and a recommendation is therefore to continue the open ecodesign process and strengthen stakeholder consultations during the preparatory study. The Directorate...

  1. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebel Matthias M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the “energy and buildings” topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  2. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  3. Energy Efficient Design for Body Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hardware requirements and design constraints that derive from unique features of body sensor networks (BSNs. Based on the BSN requirements, we examine the tradeoff between custom hardware and commercial off the shelf (COTS designs for BSNs. The broad range of BSN applications includes situations where either custom chips or COTS design is optimal. For both types of nodes, we survey key techniques to improve energy efficiency in BSNs and identify general approaches to energy efficiency in this space.

  4. Open-access, cogeneration and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous implementation of cogeneration systems and energy efficient investments were presented, together with the factors which must be present before implementing a cogeneration system. Cogeneration has been shown to be a cost-effective investment, with significant environmental benefits such as reduction of carbon emissions. It was suggested that it would be a good opportunity for businesses which have sizeable heat energy requirements to combine the concept of cogeneration, energy efficiency and open access. The combination would allow the business to sell excess electrical energy to a power pool. When planning, the electricity generation capability should be large enough to meet the needs not only of the existing facility, but also current and future electricity needs. 10 refs.

  5. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  6. Energy Efficient Military Mobile Base Station Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ray

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an energy efficient network for military mobile base station placement. Theproposed method is based on minimizing the energy loss of military communication networks where thebase station is moving along a preset path and the users are constantly moving in an independent speedand direction. It takes into account the free space loss and the knife edge effect for the energy loss toestablish a path weight for the shortest path model. Then, it evaluates the neighboring points to the basestation for the energy loss of the network in order to find the position at which the minimum energy lossoccurs. The results show a clear energy saving advantage when compared to Lloyd-Max’s method

  7. Holistic Approach to Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This presentation discusses NREL's Energy System Integrations Facility and NREL's holistic design approach to sustainable data centers that led to the world's most energy-efficient data center. It describes Peregrine, a warm water liquid cooled supercomputer, waste heat reuse in the data center, demonstrated PUE and ERE, and lessons learned during four years of operation.

  8. Energy-efficient Localization for Virtual Fencing

    OpenAIRE

    Jurdak, Raja; Corke, Peter; Dharman, Dhinesh; Salagnac, Guillaume; Crossman, Chris; Valencia, Philip; Bishop-Hurley, Greg

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This poster addresses the tradeoff between energy consumption and localization performance in a mobile sensor network application. It focuses on combining GPS location with more energy-efficient location sensors to bound position estimate uncertainty in order to prolong node lifetime. The focus is on an outdoor location monitoring application for tracking cattle using smart collars that contain wireless sensor nodes and GPS modules. We use empirically-derived models to...

  9. Energy Efficiency Studies of Mont Blanc Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance and energy efficiency of four different implementations of matrix multiplication, written in OmpSs and OpenCL, is tested and evaluated. The benchmarking is done using an Intel Ivy Bridge Core i7 3770K. The results are evaluated and discussed with regards to different optimization configurations, like vectorization and multi-threading. Energy measurements are taken using PAPI, which in turn uses the Running Average Power Limit interface in the Intel processor to...

  10. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  11. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  12. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  13. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulate...

  14. The Construction of Affordable Low Energy Prefabricated Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...... efficient to operate and valuable for building communities. Herein discussed are two successful examples of low energy prefabricated housing projects built in Copenhagen Denmark, which embraced both the constraints and possibilities offered by prefabrication....

  15. 76 FR 6605 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of... of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law......

  16. Status and prospects of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGWeiding; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly describes situation of building energy consumption in China. The authors indicate some relations in building energy efficiency should be dealt with properly: energy saving and energy efficiency, envelopes and building services systems, energy use and indoor environment, electric power saving and energy saving, devices and system, energy efficiency at stable state and at dynamic state. The authors suggest to use Coefficient of Energy Consumption as a Indicator of building energy efficiency.

  17. 2. Biberach Geothermal Day - innovative systems as well as professional planning, construction and operation for maximum energy efficiency; 2. Biberacher Geothermietag - Innovative Systeme sowie professionelle Planung, Ausfuehrung und Betriebsfuehrung als Voraussetzung fuer Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsdorff, R. [Bauakademie Biberach, Hochschule Biberach (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    This conference was held on 30 November 2005. It was to provide a forum for exchange of practical experience between universities, research, planners, industry and users. The focus owas on the projecting, construction and performance of geothermal heating and cooling systems for buildings. The conference was held by the Bauakademie in cooperation with the local university and the energy agency and EnBW Regional AG, Biberach, and was supported by the Baden-Wuerttemberg minister of economy. (orig.)

  18. I/O-Efficient Construction of Constrained Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we designed and implemented an I/O-efficient algorithm for constructing constrained Delaunay triangulations. If the number of constraining segments is smaller than the memory size, our algorithm runs in expected O( N B logM/B NB ) I/Os for triangulating N points in the plane, where M...

  19. From energy plant to energy-efficient museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-11-01

    A former coal-fired heating plant at Marieberg, north of Kristinehamn in Sweden, has been converted, by the municipality, into a museum for contemporary art. Christer Nordstoem Arkitektkontor AB designed the conversion, in cooperation with WSP Environment. The focus is on energy efficiency, the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), optimising daylighting, environmental acceptability and thermal comfort. The building's predicted energy consumption for heating has been calculated at 90 kWh/m{sup 2} per year. This is only 42% of the energy used before conversion. The use of electricity has been calculated at 25 kWh/m{sup 2} per year, 30% less than that used before conversion. Aspects briefly discussed are solar air heating and hybrid ventilation, insulation and energy efficiency and optimised daylighting. (UK)

  20. A new approach to constructing efficient stiffly accurate EPIRK methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, G.; Tokman, M.

    2016-10-01

    The structural flexibility of the exponential propagation iterative methods of Runge-Kutta type (EPIRK) enables construction of particularly efficient exponential time integrators. While the EPIRK methods have been shown to perform well on stiff problems, all of the schemes proposed up to now have been derived using classical order conditions. In this paper we extend the stiff order conditions and the convergence theory developed for the exponential Rosenbrock methods to the EPIRK integrators. We derive stiff order conditions for the EPIRK methods and develop algorithms to solve them to obtain specific schemes. Moreover, we propose a new approach to constructing particularly efficient EPIRK integrators that are optimized to work with an adaptive Krylov algorithm. We use a set of numerical examples to illustrate the computational advantages that the newly constructed EPIRK methods offer compared to previously proposed exponential integrators.

  1. An Efficient Construction of Secure Network Co ding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-li; TANG Ping; MA Song-ya

    2016-01-01

    Under the assumption that the wiretapper can get at most r(rconstruction for searching such an n × n nonsingular matrix Q. In this paper, we find that their method implies an efficient construction of Q. That is to say, Q can be taken as a special block lower triangular matrix with diagonal subblocks being the (n−r) × (n−r) and r × r identity matrices, respectively. Moreover, complexity analysis is made to show the efficiency of the specific construction.

  2. Overall assessment of the energy efficiency in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Світлана Вікторівна Шастун

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to investigation of the energy efficiency in Ukraine. The author aims to establish the current state of Ukraine energy efficiency and identify the potential of energy efficiency development. The object of research are following areas of energy efficiency in Ukraine: energy efficiency of the regions (including analysis of energy efficiency of the fields of activity, which is within the territorial units, namely agriculture, industry, services, housing sector and determin...

  3. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  4. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  5. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  6. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  7. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design o...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  8. Energy Efficiency in Cloud Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, G.; Bevini, S.; Lago, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud-based software is often considered as providing a greener, more energy-efficient solution. At the same time, it introduces more complexity and demands for new investments in cloud services, technologies, and competencies for migration, maintenance, and evolution of the underlying software arch

  9. Complex photonic structures for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic structures are playing an increasingly important role in energy efficiency. In particular, they can help to control the flow of light and improve the optical properties of photovoltaic solar cells. We will explain the physics of light transport in such structures with a special focus on disordered materials.

  10. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by...

  11. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  12. Tools for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Aden, Nate; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    With growing urbanization, our cities are playing an increasingly important role in accelerating energy efficiency improvements and mitigating climate change (REN21 2016). Cities are one of the biggest consumers of energy in the world, representing almost two-thirds of global primary energy demand...... and accounting for 70 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector (IEA2016). Therefore, with urbanization forecast to continue cities will be a critical driver in the sustainable energy transition. Typically city governments have direct decision powers to implement policy actions, which have...... (Holder 2016). Population growth and urbanization are together expanding global building stocks that are increasing the urgency to reduce GHG emissions from the buildings sector by at least a quarter by 2030, in order to have a chance of limiting average global temperature increase to less than 2 degrees...

  13. Energy efficiency of consecutive fragmentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fontbona, Joaquin; Martinez, Servet

    2010-01-01

    We present a ?rst study on the energy required to reduce a unit mass fragment by consecutively using several devices, as it happens in the mining industry. Two devices are considered, which we represent as different stochastic fragmentation processes. Following the self-similar energy model introduced by Bertoin and Martinez, we compute the average energy required to attain a size x with this two-device procedure. We then asymptotically compare, as x goes to 0 or 1, its energy requirement with that of individual fragmentation processes. In particular, we show that for certain range of parameters of the fragmentation processes and of their energy cost-functions, the consecutive use of two devices can be asymptotically more efficient than using each of them separately, or conversely.

  14. Worldwide trends in energy use and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency over the past three decades have played a key role in limiting global increases in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. For IEA countries, energy efficiency gains since 1990 have led to annual energy savings of more than 16 EJ in 2005 and 1.3 Gt of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the recent rate of efficiency improvement has been much lower than in the past. The good news is that a large potential remains for further energy and CO{sub 2} savings across all sectors. In industry alone, the application of proven technologies and best practices on a global scale could save between 1.9 Gt and 3.2 Gt of CO{sub 2} emissions per year. In public power generation, if all countries produced electricity at current best practice levels, CO{sub 2} savings would be between 1.8 Gt and 2.5 Gt. 40 figs., 5 tabs., 3 annexes.

  15. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  16. Who should administer energy efficiency programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen

    2003-08-01

    The restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry created a crisis for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities-utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations-that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: Compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved.We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition.

  17. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  18. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  19. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  20. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  1. Simulation of value stream mapping and discrete optimization of energy consumption in modular construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Mukul

    With the increased practice of modularization and prefabrication, the construction industry gained the benefits of quality management, improved completion time, reduced site disruption and vehicular traffic, and improved overall safety and security. Whereas industrialized construction methods, such as modular and manufactured buildings, have evolved over decades, core techniques used in prefabrication plants vary only slightly from those employed in traditional site-built construction. With a focus on energy and cost efficient modular construction, this research presents the development of a simulation, measurement and optimization system for energy consumption in the manufacturing process of modular construction. The system is based on Lean Six Sigma principles and loosely coupled system operation to identify the non-value adding tasks and possible causes of low energy efficiency. The proposed system will also include visualization functions for demonstration of energy consumption in modular construction. The benefits of implementing this system include a reduction in the energy consumption in production cost, decrease of energy cost in the production of lean-modular construction, and increase profit. In addition, the visualization functions will provide detailed information about energy efficiency and operation flexibility in modular construction. A case study is presented to validate the reliability of the system.

  2. Fact sheets energy efficiency. Meat processing industry; Factsheets energie-efficiency. Vleesverwerkende industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    To support the activities of the Dutch industry, carried out within the framework of the long-range agreements between the Dutch government and the industry to improve the energy efficiency by 20% in the year 2000, energy efficiency fact sheets have been drafted. Based on the information in the fact sheets specific industries can gain insight into and learn about energy saving options. The information in the fact sheets concerns data about a specific industrial sector, schematic presentation of processes and energy carriers, and technical and economical aspects of energy saving options and how they can be realized. This fact sheet concerns the meat processing industry. 28 refs.

  3. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  4. Efficient construction of nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals in large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Weihai; Yang, Weitao

    2010-08-26

    Localized molecular orbitals (LMOs) are much more compact representations of electronic degrees of freedom than canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs). The most compact representation is provided by nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs), which are linearly independent but are not orthogonal. Both LMOs and NOLMOs are thus useful for linear-scaling calculations of electronic structures for large systems. Recently, NOLMOs have been successfully applied to linear-scaling calculations with density functional theory (DFT) and to reformulating time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for calculations of excited states and spectroscopy. However, a challenge remains as NOLMO construction from CMOs is still inefficient for large systems. In this work, we develop an efficient method to accelerate the NOLMO construction by using predefined centroids of the NOLMO and thereby removing the nonlinear equality constraints in the original method ( J. Chem. Phys. 2004 , 120 , 9458 and J. Chem. Phys. 2000 , 112 , 4 ). Thus, NOLMO construction becomes an unconstrained optimization. Its efficiency is demonstrated for the selected saturated and conjugated molecules. Our method for fast NOLMO construction should lead to efficient DFT and NOLMO-TDDFT applications to large systems.

  5. Implementing efficient and effective learnerships in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mummenthey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Overcoming skills deficits has been a major concern in South Africa since the advent of democracy in 1994.Research purpose: This study investigated the current state of the learnership system in the construction sector and identified the major obstacles.Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to illustrate why it is necessary to implement efficient and effective learnerships in the construction industry.Research design, approach and method: A learnership evaluation framework was developed and indicated the critical factors for efficient and effective learnership implementation as well as the roles of the various key stakeholders. The sample included respondents from building and civil companies (n = 90, learners (n = 135, accredited training providers (n = 14 and Construction Education and Training Authority and industry-related bodies (n = 10.Main findings: It was found that descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and a content analysis of the Western Cape data indicated that, despite low satisfaction with the system in the workplace and among institutional providers, the learnership system was nevertheless regarded as an appropriate means to develop artisans.Practical/managerial implications: Companies were motivated to offer learnerships but felt inadequately prepared for actual implementation. Learnerships were felt to demonstrate effectiveness in terms of employability and skills enhancement.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess the implementation of efficient and effective learnerships in the construction industry.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  7. Treatment Efficiencies of Constructed Wetlands for Eutrophic Landscape River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-Bing; YAN Li; KONG Hai-Nan; LIU Zhi-Ming; WU De-Yi; HU Zhan-Bo

    2007-01-01

    The efficiencies of two types of constructed wetlands for the treatment of low-concentration polluted eutrophic landscape river water were studied in the western section of the Qingyuan River at the Minhang campus of Shanghai Jiaotong University. The first wetland was a single-stage system using gravel as a filtration medium, and the second was a three-stage system filled with combinations of gravel, zeolite, and fly ash. Results from parallel operations of the wetlands showed that the three-stage constructed wetland could remove organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus successfully. At the same time, it could also decrease ammoniacal odour in the effluent. Compared to the single-stage constructed wetland, it had better nutrient removal efficiencies with a higher removal of 19.37%-65.27% for total phosphorus (TP) and 21.56%- 62.94% for total nitrogen (TN), respectively, during the operation period of 14 weeks. In terms of removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and blue-green algae, these two wetland systems had equivalent performances. It was also found that in the western section of the test river, in which the two constructed wetlands were located, the water quality was much better than that in the eastern and middle sections without constructed wetland because COD, TN, and TP were all in a relatively lower level and the eutrophication could be prevented completely in the western section.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  9. Energy-Efficiency & Water Institute Research Facility, Purdue University, (IN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nnanna, Agbai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The renovation of the Schneider Avenue Building to construct two research laboratories within the building is complete. The research laboratories are for the Purdue Calumet Water Institute and the Energy Efficiency and Reliability Center. The Water Institute occupies approximately 1000+ SF of research space plus supporting offices. The Energy-Efficiency Center occupies approximately 1000+ SF that houses the research space. The labs will enhance the Water & Energy Institute’s research capabilities necessary to tackle these issues through the development of practical approaches critical to local government and industry. The addition of these research laboratories to the Purdue University Calumet campus is in both direct support of the University’s Strategic Plan as well as the 2008 Campus Master Plan that identifies a 20% shortage of research space.

  10. Application Independent Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Virmani, Deepali; Ghanshyam,; Ahlawat, Khyati; Noble,

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor networks are dense networks of small, low-cost sensors, which collect and disseminate environmental data and thus facilitate monitoring and controlling of physical environment from remote locations with better accuracy. The major challenge is to achieve energy efficiency during the communication among the nodes. This paper aims at proposing a solution to schedule the node's activities to reduce the energy consumption. We propose the construction of a decentralized lifetime maximizing tree within clusters. We aim at minimizing the distance of transmission with minimization of energy consumption. The sensor network is distributed into clusters based on the close proximity of the nodes. Data transfer among the nodes is done with a hybrid technique of both TDMA/ FDMA which leads to efficient utilization of bandwidth and maximizing throughput.

  11. The nonstandard algorithm for constructing efficient conjoint experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a research technique for measuring consumer preferences, and it is a method for simulating consumers' possible reactions to changes in current products or newly introduced products into an existing competitive market. One of the most critical steps in Conjoint analysis application is experimental designs construction. The purpose of an experimental design is to give a rough overall idea as to the shape of the experimental response surface, while only requiring a relatively small number of runs. These designs are expected to be orthogonal and balanced in an ideal case. In practice, though, it is hard to construct optimal designs and thus constructing of near optimal and efficient designs is carried out. There are several ways to quantify the relative efficiency of experimental designs. The choice of measure will determine which types of experimental designs are favored as well as the algorithms for choosing efficient designs. In this paper it is proposed the algorithm which combines one standard and one non-standard optimality criteria. The computational experiments were made, and results of comparison with algorithm implemented in commercial package SPSS confirm the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. .

  12. The ''passivhaus'' standard: from energy efficiency to 'green' building; Le standard ''passivhaus'': de la performance energetique a la construction ''verte''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    The German voluntary standard 'Passivhaus' (passive house) leads to buildings with practically no energy consumption. The first residential buildings of this type were built in 1998 and the first tertiary buildings in 2000. Such a passive house must fulfill 5 efficiency criteria: annual space heating needs {<=} 15 kWh/m{sup 2}, U{sub v} envelope coefficient lower than 0.15 W/(m{sup 2}.K), U{sub v} of openings lower than 0.8 W/(m{sup 2}.K), airtightness {<=} 0.6 volume/hour, and total energy needs (space heating, hot water, ventilation, lighting and domestic uses) measured at the meter lower than 42 kWh/m{sup 2}.year. This article makes a status of the effective efficiency of existing passive buildings both in the residential and tertiary sectors and presents some possible ways of improvement. (J.S.)

  13. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The

  14. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  15. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  16. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  17. Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz-Calcedo, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and quantify the average healthcare centres' energy behavior and estimate the possibilities of savings through the use of concrete measures to reduce their energy demand in Extremadura, Spain. It provides the average energy consumption of 55 healthcare centres sized between 500 and 3,500 m². The analysis evaluated data of electricity and fossil fuel energy consumption as well as water use and other energy-consuming devices. The energy solutions proposed to improve the efficiency are quantified and listed. The average annual energy consumption of a healthcare centre is 86.01 kWh/m², with a standard deviation of 16.8 kWh/m². The results show that an annual savings of €4.77/m² is possible. The potential to reduce the energy consumption of a healthcare centre of size 1,000 m² is 10,801 kWh by making an average investment of €11,601, thus saving €2,961/year with an average payback of 3.92 years.

  18. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  19. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    lightweight block ciphers, and thereby try to predict the optimal value of r at which an r-round unrolled architecture for a cipher is likely to be most energy efficient. We also try to relate our results to some physical design parameters like the signal delay across a round and algorithmic parameters like......In the last few years, the field of lightweight cryptography has seen an influx in the number of block ciphers and hash functions being proposed. One of the metrics that define a good lightweight design is the energy consumed per unit operation of the algorithm. For block ciphers, this operation...... is the encryption of one plaintext. By studying the energy consumption model of a CMOS gate, we arrive at the conclusion that the energy consumed per cycle during the encryption operation of an r-round unrolled architecture of any block cipher is a quadratic function in r. We then apply our model to 9 well known...

  20. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  1. Energy efficient for refrigeration and air conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows.

  2. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  3. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  4. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  5. Energy Efficiency Optimization for MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is addressed in this paper, taking into account the transmit independent power which is related to the active transmit antenna number. A new optimization framework is proposed, in which transmit covariance optimization under fixed active transmit antenna sets is first performed and active transmit antenna selection (ATAS) is utilized then. To optimize the EE under a fixed transmit antenna set, we propose an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme according to the block-coordinate ascent algorithm, through transforming the problem into a concave fractional optimization via uplink-downlink duality. It is proved that the proposed scheme converges to the global optimality. After that, ATAS is employed to determine the active transmit antenna set and to turn off the rest inactive antennas. ATAS can balance the active transmit antenna number related EE gain with higher capacity gain and the EE loss with more transmit independent po...

  6. Energy-efficient wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntlatlapa, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available ­deficient areas such as rural areas in  Africa.  Index   Terms—Energy   efficient   design,   Wireless  Mesh networks, Network Protocols I. INTRODUCTION The  objectives  of   this   research  group   are   the  application   and   adaptation   of   existing   wireless  local   area...   networks,   especially   those   based   on  802.11 standard, for   the energy­efficient  wireless  mesh network (EE­WMN) architectures, protocols  and   controls.   In   addition   to   the   WMN   regular  features   of   self...

  7. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  8. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  9. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  10. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Victoria [Building Industry Research Alliance, Stockton, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  11. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Amaris Custom Homes, St.Paul, Minnesota; DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-06-01

    For this project Amaris worked with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team, NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, to approach zero energy in Minnesota's cold climate using reasonable, cost-effective, and replicable construction materials and practices. The result is a passive solar, super-efficient 3542-ft2 walkout rambler with all the creature comforts.

  13. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient estimation of energy transfer efficiency in light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, A; Mohseni, M; Rabitz, H; Lloyd, S

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental physical mechanisms of energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes is not yet fully understood. In particular, the degree of efficiency or sensitivity of these systems for energy transfer is not known given their realistic with surrounding photonic and phononic environments. One major problem in studying light-harvesting complexes has been the lack of an efficient method for simulation of their dynamics in biological environments. To this end, here we revisit the second order time-convolution (TC2) master equation and examine its reliability beyond extreme Markovian and perturbative limits. In particular, we present a derivation of TC2 without making the usual weak system-bath coupling assumption. Using this equation, we explore the long-time behavior of exciton dynamics of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) portein complex. Moreover, we introduce a constructive error analysis to estimate the accuracy of TC2 equation in calculating energy transfer efficiency, exhibiting reliable performance for system-bath interactions with weak and intermediate memory and strength. Furthermore, we numerically show that energy transfer efficiency is optimal and robust for the FMO protein complex of green sulfur bacteria with respect to variations in reorganization energy and bath correlation time scales.

  15. Multi functional roof structures of the energy efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern architectural concepts, which are based on rational energy consumption of buildings and the use of solar energy as a renewable energy source, give the new and significant role to the roofs that become multifunctional structures. Various energy efficient roof structures and elements, beside the role of protection, provide thermal and electric energy supply, natural ventilation and cooling of a building, natural lighting of the indoor space sunbeam protection, water supply for technical use, thus according to the above mentioned functions, classification and analysis of such roof structures and elements are made in this paper. The search for new architectural values and optimization in total energy balance of a building or the likewise for the urban complex, gave to roofs the role of "climatic membranes". Contemporary roof forms and materials clearly exemplify their multifunctional features. There are numerous possibilities to achieve the new and attractive roof design which broadens to the whole construction. With such inducement, this paper principally analyze the configuration characteristics of the energy efficient roof structures and elements, as well as the visual effects that may be achieved by their application.

  16. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  17. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  18. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The U... manufactured homes with higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards....

  19. Robust Forecasting for Energy Efficiency of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available An important criterion of wireless sensor network is the energy efficiency inspecified applications. In this wireless multimedia sensor network, the observations arederived from acoustic sensors. Focused on the energy problem of target tracking, this paperproposes a robust forecasting method to enhance the energy efficiency of wirelessmultimedia sensor networks. Target motion information is acquired by acoustic sensornodes while a distributed network with honeycomb configuration is constructed. Thereby,target localization is performed by multiple sensor nodes collaboratively through acousticsignal processing. A novel method, combining autoregressive moving average (ARMAmodel and radial basis function networks (RBFNs, is exploited to perform robust targetposition forecasting during target tracking. Then sensor nodes around the target areawakened according to the forecasted target position. With committee decision of sensornodes, target localization is performed in a distributed manner and the uncertainty ofdetection is reduced. Moreover, a sensor-to-observer routing approach of the honeycombmesh network is investigated to solve the data reporting considering the residual energy ofsensor nodes. Target localization and forecasting are implemented in experiments.Meanwhile, sensor node awakening and dynamic routing are evaluated. Experimentalresults verify that energy efficiency of wireless multimedia sensor network is enhanced bythe proposed target tracking method.

  20. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  2. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  3. Overall energy efficiency trends in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B.

    2000-07-01

    This study presents some statistical data about the energy efficiency trends in the European countries: 1) - energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission trends (need for climate corrections, economic growth and the related energy growth); 2) - trends in primary and final energy intensities (energy consumption and economic activity, relative evolution rate of primary and final energy intensities); 3) - final energy intensity, climate variations and economic growth (energy intensity and GDP growth, energy prices and energy efficiency); 4) - economic structures and final energy intensity (changes in economic structures and in GDP structure, technical and behavioural factors); 5) - energy efficiency in the EU from an energy policy viewpoint (different contribution of the EU countries in the energy intensity change of the GDP, improvement of energy efficiency since 1993); 6) - industry (overall industrial energy consumption and intensity trends; energy intensities, efficiency and structural changes in the industry). (J.S.)

  4. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  5. Improving Building Energy Efficiency in India: State-level Analysis of Building Energy Efficiency Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Gordon P.; Vu, Linh D.; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  6. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Submission for Office of... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  7. 75 FR 69655 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28640] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the...

  8. 2009 EnerQuality energy efficiency/green building study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    An energy efficiency/green building study was conducted in 2009 related to the perceptions of consumers in making energy efficiency decisions. This presentation provided information and analysis related to the importance of energy efficiency when deciding on a new home purchase; reasons why energy efficiency is important to buyers; energy efficiency features proposed by the builder; the perceived benefit of energy efficient features; and how well builders communicate the benefits of an energy efficient home. In addition, the presentation described energy efficient features purchased by new home buyers and related cost; the likelihood of buyers to search and pay for an energy efficient home; measuring the awareness of different energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on energy efficient certification labels; the importance buyers place on other green building aspects, in addition to energy efficiency; and new home buyers' perceptions toward energy efficiency. The presentation concluded that almost 9 out of 10 homeowners perceive energy efficiency to be important. In addition, cost savings is perceived to be the most important energy efficiency benefit to buyers followed by a healthier indoor environment. figs.

  9. Economics and utility energy-efficiency programs: Energy-efficient manufactured housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    As utilities investigate ways to implement conservation programs, the differences between customer and utility economic perspectives become more important. Because utilities bear the cost of new energy sources, energy efficiency investments that are cost-effective to them may not be cost-effective to their customers who pay average energy prices and have different economic parameters. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other parties in the Pacific Northwest have initiated an innovative manufactured (mobile) home energy conservation program. Because manufactured homes are regulated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), are exempt from local regulations, and comprise up to 50% of new housing starts in some parts of the United States, utilities and energy planners need to find creative ways to make the economics of manufactured housing energy-efficiency investments more attractive. Differences between the economic criteria and perspectives of consumers and utilities can be used to design energy-efficiency programs. This paper discusses life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis as a framework for highlighting these differences and examines other economic criteria. It then presents information from the Pacific Northwest manufactured housing program to illustrate the application of this framework to a real-world program. Findings from this program should,be of interest to utility and government planners who are designing innovative energy-efficiency programs.

  10. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  11. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  12. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  13. Construction of energy-momentum tensor of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Shimizu, Katsutaro

    2016-10-01

    We construct the gravitational energy-momentum tensor in general relativity through the Noether theorem. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that the constructed quantity can vary as a tensor under the general coordinate transformation. Furthermore, we verify that the energy-momentum conservation is satisfied because one of the two indices of the energy-momentum tensor should be in the local Lorentz frame. It is also shown that the gravitational energy and the matter one cancel out in certain space-times.

  14. Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol for MANET Multicasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander H. AlQarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET consists of a self-configured set of portable mobile nodes without any central infrastructure to regulate traffic in the network. These networks present problems such as lack of congestion control, reliability, and energy consumption. In this paper, we present a new model for MANET multicasting called Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol Depending on Distance and Remaining Energy (REEDDRE. Our proposal is based on a tone system to provide more efficiency and better performance, and it combines solutions over the Medium Access Control (MAC layer. The protocol consists of a new construction method for mobile nodes using a clustering approach that depends on distance and remaining energy to provide more stability and to reduce energy consumption. In addition, we propose an adjustment to the typical multicast flow by adding unicast links between clusters. We further present in our model a technique to provide more reliability based on a busy tone system (RMBTM to reduce excessive control overhead caused by control packets in error recovery. We simulate our proposal using OPNET, and the results show enhancement in terms of reliability, packet delivery ratio (PDR, energy consumption, and throughput.

  15. Efficient Energy use in Different Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars

    2007-05-15

    smelt in the bottom of the boiler in a separate recovery cycle. By introducing PEHT-BLG, a synthesis gas is obtained that can be used to generate electricity or be reformed into alternative automotive fuels. A demonstration plant, constructed by Chemrec AB, has been running periodically since late 2005. The plant is located at the Kappa Smurfit mill in conjunction with the Energy Technology Centre in Piteaa, Sweden. In this thesis CFD models of the quench and counter current condenser have been performed and presented. The long term objectives with the CFD models are to create a tool that can be an aid in future scale-ups and for optimisation purposes. Since PEHT-BLG enhances the flexibility of the black liquor recovery cycle it is a promising alternative for future industrial commercialization if the remaining issues can be overcome.

  16. Constructing Projection Frequent Pattern Tree for Efficient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangJian-wen; HeYan-xiang; KokichiFutatsugi; KongWei-qiang

    2003-01-01

    Frequent Pattern mining plays an essential role in data mining.Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and/or long patterns. In this study, we introduce a novel frequent pattern growth (FP-growth)method, which is efficient and scalable for mining both long and short frequent patterns without candidate generation. And build a new projection frequent pattern tree (PFP-tree) algorithm on this study, which not only heirs all the advantages in the FP-growth method, but also avoids it's bottleneck in database size dependence when constructing the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree). Efficiency of mining is achieved by introducing the projection technique, which avoid serial scan each frequent item in the database, the cost is mainly related to the depth of the tree, namely the number of frequent items of the longest transaction in the database, not the sum of all the frequent items in the database,which hugely shortens the time of tree-construction. Our performance study shows that the PFP-tree method is efficient and scalable for mining large databases or data warehouses, and is even about an order of magnitude faster than the FP-growth method.

  17. Constructing Projection Frequent Pattern Tree for Efficient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jian-wen; He Yan-xiang; Kokichi Futatsugi; Kong Wei-qiang

    2003-01-01

    Frequent Pattern mining plays an essential role in data mining.Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and/or long patterns.In this study, we introduce a novel frequent pattern growth (FP-growth)method, which is efficient and scalable for mining both long and short frequent patterns without candidate generation. And build a new projection frequent pat-tern tree (PFP-tree) algorithm on this study, which not only heirs all the ad-vantages in the FP-growth method, but also avoids it's bottleneck in database size dependence when constructing the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree). Effi-ciency of mining is achieved by introducing the projection technique, which avoid serial scan each frequent item in the database, the cost is mainly related to the depth of the tree, namely the number of frequent items of the longest trans-action in the database, not the sum of all the frequent items in the database,which hugely shortens the time of tree-construction. Our performance study shows that the PFP-tree method is efficient and scalable for mining large databas-es or data warehouses, and is even about an order of magnitude faster than the FP-growth method.

  18. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    . A comprehensive analysis on the trade-off between power consumption and capital expenditures (CAPEX) is also presented. The results confirmed that gross-grained designs (i.e., designs that account for high bandwidth technologies) are attractive from a cost perspective, however, power consumption needs...... with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division...... to be further improved. A second analysis for core networks is performed on a programmable networking platform, named software defined networking, to consolidate core network designs towards cost-efficient and flexible solutions. Results on jitter, latency, and power consumption for a novel south-bound protocol...

  19. Magnetocaloric materials for energy efficient cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubina, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Solid-state magnetic cooling near room temperature has recently gained a prominent position among alternative cooling technologies that are deemed to have higher energy efficiency compared to vapour compression. This prospect has surged a rapid growth of the area of magnetocaloric materials. Although several breakthroughs were achieved, the extensive study revealed a number of challenges in the effective deployment of the magnetic refrigerants. This review focuses on fundamentally and technologically relevant aspects of the cooling with magnetocaloric materials. A critical evaluation of magnetic refrigerants and progress made in improvement of their performance is provided. Future development trends in the field of materials for the solid state cooling are highlighted.

  20. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand......, as there is a high potential for reducing the transmission power when resource utilization becomes low. The eNBs must be aware of conguration updates in neighboring cells and make automated decisions to respond to changes in the network. The effectiveness of the algorithm is represented as a number of powered off eNB...

  1. Energy efficiency in multi-story buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staritcyna Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project a research on energy efficiency of Malta house was provided, it is a residential multi-story building in Helsinki, Jätkäsaari area. This project describes introduction with a new heating system for residential dwellings, which uses only heated air. To maintain air temperature in comfort level heat recovery and district heating is used in the same system. The task was to research efficacy of the enclosure structures. For research the 3D model has been created in the program the Revit 2015 and Lumion 13. Thermotechnical calculation for three types of a design has been executed in the program U-value.net.

  2. A novel energy efficient broadcast leader election

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Philippe; Milioris, Dimitrios; Muhlethaler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new algorithm to achieve a distributed leader election in a broadcast channel that is more efficient than the classic Part-and-Try algorithm. The algorithm has the adavantage of having a reduced overhead $\\log\\log N$ rather than $\\log N$. More importantly the algorithm has the a greatly reduced energy consumption since it requires $O(N^{1/k})$ burst transmissions instead of $O(N/k)$, per election, $k$ being a parameter depending on the physical propertie...

  3. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)

    1995-07-01

    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  5. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  6. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  7. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  8. Statistically Efficient Construction of α-Risk-Minimizing Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Taniai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a semiparametrically efficient estimator for α-risk-minimizing portfolio weights. Based on the work of Bassett et al. (2004, an α-risk-minimizing portfolio optimization is formulated as a linear quantile regression problem. The quantile regression method uses a pseudolikelihood based on an asymmetric Laplace reference density, and asymptotic properties such as consistency and asymptotic normality are obtained. We apply the results of Hallin et al. (2008 to the problem of constructing α-risk-minimizing portfolios using residual signs and ranks and a general reference density. Monte Carlo simulations assess the performance of the proposed method. Empirical applications are also investigated.

  9. Let's stop wasting energy on efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew

    2000-09-01

    Energy efficiency is popular during times of energy surplus. We are living in one such time, and the historic debate about the relative value of improved energy efficiency has been occurring. This paper discusses the theory behind energy efficiency and summarizes that debate. (Author)

  10. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  11. Innovations in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Recent IEA analysis highlights member countries' significant progress with developing energy efficiency policy (International Energy Agency 2009). The 28 member countries of the IEA are engaged in promoting innovative financial instruments, energy efficiency strategies and action plans. They are designing policies to promote energy efficiency in buildings, the adoption of standby power, the phase out of inefficient lighting, proper tyre-inflation and related policies, and energy efficiency in utilities.

  12. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  13. Impacts of energy efficiency on employment, growth and trade. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Jochem, E.

    2000-07-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that, although substantial improvements in energy efficiency have already been made, there still exist significant economic potentials - even in energy intensive sectors. Realising these potentials will reduce costs for energy services and improve overall economic efficiency, but employment gains are likely to be small. Technological progress in energy efficiency may foster economic growth, improve competitiveness and create new export markets. Above-average growth and export rates for energy efficient products can be expected to continue, in particular, if policies are appropriately designed to realise untapped efficiency potentials and to encourage innovation in energy efficient technologies. (orig.)

  14. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  15. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia

    2012-09-30

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  16. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  17. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  18. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollini, R. [Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Viale Druso 1, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Danza, L.; Meroni, I. [ITC-CNR, Construction Technologies Institute - Italian National Research Council, Via Lombardia, 49 - 20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  19. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  20. Developing an energy efficiency service industry in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Goldman, Charles; Levine, Mark; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-02-10

    The rapid development of the Chinese economy over the past two decades has led to significant growth in China's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy consumption more than doubled from 602 million to 1.3 billion tons of coal-equivalent (NBS, 2003). In 2000, China's GHG emissions were about 12% of the global total, ranked second behind only the US. According to the latest national development plan issued by the Chinese government, China's energy demand is likely to double again by 2020 (DRC, 2004), based on a quadrupling of its gross domestic product (GDP). The objectives of the national development plan imply that China needs to significantly raise the energy efficiency of its economy, i.e., cutting the energy intensity of its economy by half. Such goals are extremely ambitious, but not infeasible. China has achieved such reductions in the past, and its current overall level of energy efficiency remains far behind those observed in other developed economies. However, challenges remain whether China can put together an appropriate policy framework and the institutions needed to improve the energy efficiency of its economy under a more market-based economy today. Shanghai, located at the heart of the Yangtze River Delta, is the most dynamic economic and financial center in the booming Chinese economy. With 1% of Chinese population (13 million inhabitants), its GDP in 2000 stood at 455 billion RMB yuan (5% of the national total), with an annual growth rate of 12%--much higher than the national average. It is a major destination for foreign as well as Chinese domestic investment. In 2003, Shanghai absorbed 10% of actual foreign investment in all China (''Economist'', January 17-23, 2004). Construction in Shanghai continues at a breakneck pace, with an annual addition of approximately 200 million square foot of residential property and 100 million square foot of commercial and

  1. States Address Air Pollution from Energy through Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  2. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  3. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  4. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  5. Buildings Energy Efficiency: Interventions Analysis under a Smart Cities Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriele Battista; Luca Evangelisti; Claudia Guattari; Carmine Basilicata; Roberto de Lieto Vollaro

    2014-01-01

    .... Smart cities can be a viable solution. The methodology traditionally adopted to evaluate building energy efficiency starts from the structure's energy demands analysis and the demands reduction evaluation...

  6. Energy reduction using biofiltration in a highly efficient residential home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kevin L.

    The objective of this research was to design, demonstrate, and monitor the Biowall; a novel system for improving indoor air quality in a residential building, which has the potential to save energy compared to traditional air quality control. The Biowall was integrated into the heating, ventilation, and air-condition system of a high performance home and utilized plants as a passive filter system to remove volatile organic compounds from the interior space of the home. The testing environment in this study was a 984 square foot efficient residential home constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 competition. A number of sensors were installed in the home to monitor the operation of the wall including temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) sensors. The main outcomes of the project included the design and construction of a test platform for the current study and future research, energy results that showed as high as 160% energy savings over a 1 week test period and $170 per year in cost savings versus a traditional ventilation strategy, and lessons learned and suggestions for future research.

  7. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  8. The Impact of Increased Efficiency in the Transport Sectors‟ Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    efficient by 2016 and are the largest energy-consumers. ... factors motivating the investigation of the effects of energy efficiency ...... Hotels & Restaurants .... some existing empirical evidence indicating that the choice of model closures affects ...

  9. Renewable energy in energy efficient, low-pollution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1997-03-01

    Energy use accounts for the dominating fraction of total sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, different strategies for reducing these emissions are evaluated, using a bottom-up approach. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity and heat production in western Scania, Sweden, can be reduced by 25% and the emissions of acidifying gases (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) by 50% by the year 2010, compared with 1988 levels, using energy systems based on efficient end-use technologies, cogeneration of heat and electricity, renewable energy sources and low-pollution energy conversion technologies. Exhaust-pipe NO{sub x} emissions from the Swedish transportation sector can be reduced by 50 percent by the year 2015, compared with 1991, by implementing the best available vehicle technologies. Exhaust-pipe emissions of CO{sub 2} can be stabilized at the 1991 level. With further technical development and the use of fuels from renewable sources of energy, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by 75 percent and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80 percent compared with 1991 levels. Swedish biomass resources are large, and, assuming production conditions around 2015, about 200 TWh/year could be utilised for energy. Major reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved by substituting biomass for fossil fuels in heat, electricity and transportation fuel production. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass are likely to be less expensive than transportation fuels from conventional biomass feedstocks such as oil plants, sugar-beet and cereals. 90 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  11. 77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of the General Counsel... mechanisms by grantees of the State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  12. 76 FR 54224 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The purpose of the ERAC is to..., and deployment priorities within the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The...

  13. Efficient Configuration Space Construction and Optimization for Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The configuration space is a fundamental concept that is widely used in algorithmic robotics. Many applications in robotics, computer-aided design, and related areas can be reduced to computational problems in terms of configuration spaces. In this paper, we survey some of our recent work on solving two important challenges related to configuration spaces: how to efficiently compute an approximate representation of high-dimensional configuration spaces; and how to efficiently perform geometric proximity and motion planning queries in high-dimensional configuration spaces. We present new configuration space construction algorithms based on machine learning and geometric approximation techniques. These algorithms perform collision queries on many configuration samples. The collision query results are used to compute an approximate representation for the configuration space, which quickly converges to the exact configuration space. We also present parallel GPU-based algorithms to accelerate the performance of optimization and search computations in configuration spaces. In particular, we design efficient GPU-based parallel k-nearest neighbor and parallel collision detection algorithms and use these algorithms to accelerate motion planning.

  14. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...... the v impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power...... network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile...

  15. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  16. Scalable Energy Efficient Location Aware Multicast Protocol for MANET (SEELAMP)

    CERN Document Server

    Kamboj, Pariza

    2010-01-01

    Multicast plays an important role in implementing the group communications in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks. However, due to the dynamic topology of MANETs it is very difficult to build optimal multicast trees and maintaining group membership, making even more challenging to implement scalable and robust multicast in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). A scalable and energy efficient location aware multicast algorithm, called SEELAMP, for mobile ad hoc networks is presented in the paper that is based on creation of shared tree using the physical location of the nodes for the multicast sessions. It constructs a shared bi-directional multicast tree for its routing operations rather than a mesh, which helps in achieving more efficient multicast delivery. The algorithm uses the concept of small overlapped zones around each node for proactive topology maintenance with in the zone. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces th...

  17. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  18. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  19. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  20. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  1. Regional Differences in China's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum energy efficiency level and the energy saving potentials in each region in China that can be practically attained at current economic and technological development levels. Most of the nation's energy efficient provinces are found along the coast of southeast China, while most of its least energy efficient provinces are in the hinterland that is rich in coal resources, and which depends heavily on coal consumption. China's low efficiency in energy resource allocation stems from its secondary industry, which is handicapped by the lowest energy efficiency and the most striking regional differentials. 4comparison of the factors affecting the energy efficiency shows that the provinces being compared in this study differ tremendously in energy consumption structure, technological level of the secondary industry, and abundance of energy resources, and that the other factors are only adequate, rather than necessary, conditions. It is imperative to rectify the behaviors of provinces in balancing local energy allocation, to channel energy resources to energy efficient provinces, and to improve the national energy efficiency as a whole. When taking energy-saving steps, provinces must take into full consideration both the national and local factors that affect energy efficiency. Furthermore, it is unrealistic for China to set a unified energy saving goal for different provinces.

  2. 77 FR 43723 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... implementing demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid... assisting electric borrowers to implement demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation... efficiency, and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for both demand side management and...

  3. Detecting emerging trends and country specializations in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, D.; Pandiella Dominique, A.

    2016-07-01

    The sector of Energy Efficiency is key in the development of a country. Energy saving means cost savings and this affects GDP growth and employment. In addition, there are environmental benefits such as savings in the use of natural resources or reducing carbon emissions. If we also take into account the deduction of foreign energy dependence, it is noted that it is a sector of vital economic and strategic importance. Proof of this is that energy efficiency is a priority policy in science and technology agenda of most countries (OECD, 2011). Although it is an area of global concern, the particularities of each context make both the issues and the areas of scientific and technological activity can be considerably different from one country to another. To study these peculiarities, scientific publications in international databases were analyzed. These outputs are a good indicator of the intensity and specialization of scientific and technological activity of countries. Also, the characteristics of energy efficiency sector -such as the crosscutting and interdisciplinarity- make it an attractive object to be approached from a bibliometric perspective. This methodological approach was used because bibliometrics has become one of the central models to analyze measure and evaluate different aspects of the scientific activity (Callon, Courtial, & Penan, 1995). Among its most frequent uses are, the analysis of scientific productivity (researchers, groups, institutions, disciplines or countries), and the study of its impact on the scientific community. However, it has had more innovative applications, as the detection of new research fronts, the study of collaborative networking between different institutional actors and the identification of niche of research. Given these considerations, the aim of this work is to show the results of a study in which we analyze scientific activity in energy efficiency through bibliometric indicators. The bibliometric research, constructed

  4. Energy Efficiency in Computing (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We will start the second day of our energy efficient computing series with a brief discussion of software and the impact it has on energy consumption. A second major point of this lecture will be the current state of research and a few future technologies, ranging from mainstream (e.g. the Internet of Things) to exotic. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic Lectures are recorded. No webcast! Because of a problem of the recording equipment, this lecture will be repeated for recording pu...

  5. Energy Efficiency in Computing (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    As manufacturers improve the silicon process, truly low energy computing is becoming a reality - both in servers and in the consumer space. This series of lectures covers a broad spectrum of aspects related to energy efficient computing - from circuits to datacentres. We will discuss common trade-offs and basic components, such as processors, memory and accelerators. We will also touch on the fundamentals of modern datacenter design and operation. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic L...

  6. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  7. Protocol for the building construction process with regard to the implementation trajectory protocols EWN and EUN. Manual for commissioners, contractors, building management offices and energy efficiency standard advisors; Handleiding opnameprotocollen EWN en EUN. Voor opdrachtgevers, aannemers, bouwmanagementbureaus en EPN-adviseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Duitslandweg 4, Postbus 274, 2410 AG Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In the year 2012 it was foreseen to base the energy label for new buildings on the Energy Efficiency Coefficient (EPC in Dutch). This is a protocol for residential and utility buildings, with the aim to check whether and to what extent buildings were constructed according the EPC and to determine the realized EPC. In order to gain experience with the new protocols and the voluntary ventilation test the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Houses (EWN in Dutch) and the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Utility Buildings (EUN in Dutch) were conducted in 12 newly built housing projects and 5 projects in the utility building sector. With this manual you can realize energy efficient houses and/or utility buildings that meet the standards [Dutch] In het jaar 2012 was voorzien om het nieuwbouwlabel te baseren op de EPC (Energie Prestatie Coefficient). Hiervoor is een opnameprotocol opgesteld voor de woningbouw en de utiliteitsbouw, met als doel te controleren of en in hoeverre conform de EPC is gebouwd en om de gerealiseerde EPC te bepalen. Om ervaring op te doen met de nieuwe opnameprotocollen en de vrijwillige ventilatietoets werden het Opnameprotocol Energielabel Woningen Nieuwbouw (EWN) en Opnameprotocol Energielabel Utiliteitsgebouwen Nieuwbouw (EUN) uitgevoerd bij 12 nieuwbouwprojecten in de woningbouw en 5 projecten in de utiliteitsbouw. Met deze handleiding realiseert u energiezuinige woningen en/of utiliteitsgebouwen die aan de verwachtingen voldoen.

  8. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  9. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  10. Constructing Efficient Dictionaries in Close to Sorting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    -case cost of construction of the structures is proportional to only loglogn times the cost of sorting the input. Our claimed performance bounds are obtained in the word RAM model and in the external memory models; only the involved sorting procedures in the algorithms need to be changed between the models.......The dictionary problem is among the oldest problems in computer science. Yet our understanding of the complexity of the dictionary problem in realistic models of computation has been far from complete. Designing highly efficient dictionaries without resorting to use of randomness appeared...... to be a particularly challenging task. We present solutions to the static dictionary problem that significantly improve the previously known upper bounds and bring them close to obvious lower bounds. Our dictionaries have a constant lookup cost and use linear space, which was known to be possible, but the worst...

  11. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low.

  12. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  13. Efficient use of unutilized energy and holonic energy system. Miriyo energy katsuyo to energy yuzu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-10

    In the present report, opinion is given about the activation of unutilized energy and circulative use of energy. The fuel imported to Japan is utilized by 35% and its balance of 65% is used to go for nothing. An estimation example of unutilized energy in Tokyo Metropolis indicates that, generally high on the exhaust heat, the denpendency is 34.5 and 31.4% on the refuse treatment plants and sewage treatment plants, respectively. The exhaust heat from the refuse treatment plants must be activated under a repowering system to heighten both the output power and efficiency, for which system the existing steam turbine is to be installed commonly with a gas turbine to structure a combined cycle. Then, needed are the circulative use and industrial purpose repowering of energy among different categories of both public and private industries. From the viewpoint of cogeneration system to require the supply and demand to be balanced, it is advisable to circulatively use and repower the energy among and by many producers of unutilized energy. Cooperation is needed of syndical and other organizations. A further need in of large capacity thermal source heat pump, and which is to utilize a low temperature however comparatively large capacity thermal source generated in the sewage treastment and other plants. The engine-driven heat pump is prior to the electrically driven one. 2 figs.

  14. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has preliminarily determined that the 2009 version of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2006 IECC. Also, DOE has preliminarily determined that the 2006 version of the IECC would achieve greater energy efficiency than......

  15. Construction of energy-momentum tensor of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We argue the possibility that the gravitational energy-momentum tensor is constructed in general relativity through the Noether theorem. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that the constructed quantity can vary as a tensor under the general coordinate transformation. Furthermore, we verify that the energy-momentum conservation is satisfied because one of the two indices of the energy-momentum tensor should be in the local Lorentz frame. It is also shown that the gravitational energy and the matter one cancel out in certain space-times.

  16. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy......

  17. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  18. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  20. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  1. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy -Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2016-04-25

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition....

  3. Motor systems energy efficiency supply curves: A methodology for assessing the energy efficiency potential of industrial motor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee [Industrial Energy Analysis, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali, E-mail: AHasanbeigi@lbl.gov [China Energy Group, Energy Analysis Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States, Canada, the European Union, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil, bottom-up energy efficiency supply curve models were constructed to estimate the cost-effective electricity efficiency potentials and CO{sub 2} emission reduction for three types of motor systems (compressed air, pumping, and fan) in industry for the selected countries/region. Based on these analyses, the share of cost-effective electricity saving potential of these systems as compared to the total motor system energy use in the base year varies between 27% and 49% for pumping, 21% and 47% for compressed air, and 14% and 46% for fan systems. The total technical saving potential varies between 43% and 57% for pumping, 29% and 56% for compressed air, and 27% and 46% for fan systems. - Highlights: > Development of conservation supply curves for the industrial motor systems. > An innovative approach combining available aggregate country-level data with expert opinion. > Results show both cost-effective and technical potential for energy saving and their costs. > Policy implication of the results are briefly discussed.

  4. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: A Discrete Event Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper presented a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model for investigating and improving energy efficiency in vehicle assembly line. The car manufacturing industry is one of the highest energy consuming industries. Using Rockwell Arena DES package; a detailed model was constructed for an actual vehicle assembly plant. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. Sound energy efficiency model within this industry has two-fold advantage: reducing CO2 emission and cost reduction associated with fuel and electricity consumption. The paper starts with an overview of challenges in energy consumption within the facilities of automotive assembly line and highlights the parameters for energy efficiency. The results of the simulation model indicated improvements for energy saving objectives and reduced costs.

  6. Energy-Efficient Transmission Schemes in Cooperative Cellular Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wanlu

    2010-01-01

    Energy-efficient communication is an important requirement for mobile devices, as the battery technology has not kept up with the growing requirements stemming from ubiquitous multimedia applications. This paper considers energy-efficient transmission schemes in cooperative cellular systems with unbalanced traffic between uplink and downlink. Theoretically, we derive the optimal transmission data rate, which minimizes the total energy consumption of battery-powered terminals per information bit. The energy-efficient cooperation regions are then investigated to illustrate the effects of relay locations on the energy-efficiency of the systems, and the optimal relay location is found for maximum energy-efficiency. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the tradeoff between energy-efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  7. Energy efficient buildings. Sports. Programming, design, management; Batiments a hautes performances energetique. Sports. Programmer concevoir gerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is aimed for energy optimization in sport buildings; after an investigation of the sector market and its energy consumption, the characteristics of the various energy consuming systems in these buildings are reviewed and recommendations are given for cost- and energy-efficient design and operation of the different systems: site consideration, building construction and envelope, interior comfort (temperature, humidity, air renewal, lighting, acoustics), occupancy scenarios, space and water heating, air conditioning, ventilation, video systems, swimming pools, electric generators

  8. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Efficiency Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  9. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Joon Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies and analyzed especially the influence of the BEECS on the actual energy consumption of a residential building and calculated energy performance of non-residential buildings. The BEECS was evaluated to have influence on gas and district heating consumption in residential buildings. For non-residential buildings, a decreasing trend was shown in calculated primary energy consumption in the years since the BEECS has been enacted. Appropriate improvements of the certification system were also discussed by analyzing relationship between building characteristics and their energy consumptions.

  10. Faster Energy Efficient Column Compression Multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, B

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that faster, energy efficient, column compression multiplication, can be achieved by using a combination of two design techniques: partitioning of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using a hybrid adder proposed in this work. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of the techniques we have chosen the Dadda multiplier as an example. Based on the proposed techniques 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit Dadda multipliers are developed and compared with the regular Dadda multiplier. The performance of the proposed multiplier is analyzed by evaluating the delay, area and power, with 180 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit regular Dadda multiplier is as much as 41.1% slower than the proposed multiplier and requires only 1.4% and 3.7% less area and power respectively. Also the power-delay product of the proposed design ...

  11. Energy efficiency and barriers towards meeting energy demand in industries in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unachukwu, Godwin O.; Zarma, I.H.; Sambo, A.S.

    2010-09-15

    Energy is an important production factor and therefore should be managed in parallel with land, labor and capital. Energy efficient production should be seen as a quick and cheaper source of new energy supply as the cost of providing energy can be several times the cost of saving it. Increasingly energy efficiency is deemed to include not only the physical efficiency of the technical equipment and facilities but also the overall economic efficiency of the energy system.

  12. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  13. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary. Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8” CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  14. Energy efficient maintenance. Project report; Energioptimerende vedligehold. Projektrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerg, J. (Center for Drift og Vedligehold, Frederici (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Skjershede Nielsen, P.; Holt, J. (NRGi Raadgivning A/S, Aarhus (Denmark)); Dam, M. (Energi Horsens, Horsens (Denmark)); Holk Lauridsen, V. (Teknologisk Institut, Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Together with four case companies, the project developed and tested a model for energy-efficient maintenance. In each of the companies, the model was adjusted through a cooperation process aiming at combining energy optimisation and maintenance as part of specific production optimisation. When correctly planned, energy-efficient maintenance is interesting for all companies. An overall solution was made, which can facilitate major energy savings and production efficiency improvement. (LN)

  15. Design of Energy Efficient SMISMO-ELS Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally mechanical linked meter-in and meterout spool valves are used for velocity control of hydraulic differential cylinders. However with the demand for energy efficient systems the individual meter-in and meter-out valves draws massive attention. This paper propose an energy efficient...... actuator control and combines this with energy efficient system control. Finally energy neutral performance improvments are suggested for the subjacent actuator in an ELS system....

  16. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  17. Energie Efficiency Directive. Article 7. Dutch implementation; Energie Efficiency Directive. Artikel 7. Nederlandse invulling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.; Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.; Kroon, P.; Stutvoet-Mulder, K.; Tigchelaar, C.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Article 7 of the recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) obliges the EU member states to achieve 1.5% yearly efficiency improvements during the period 2014-2020, culminating in a cumulative savings target. This report describes the way the Netherlands intends to meet the article 7 obligations, as requested by the European Commission. The EED offers the member states various degrees of freedom with regard to the definition of the target and the way it is met. Hence, this report addresses the choices of the Netherlands and their consequences for the Dutch target and the realised energy savings. A broad-lined description of the choices and overall results is complemented by extensive annexes that offer technical descriptions and detailed numbers [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de manier waarop Nederland aan haar doelstelling voor artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) denkt te voldoen. Het is gebaseerd op de interpretaties en keuzes die de Nederlandse overheid heeft gemaakt. Artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive verplicht Nederland tot het realiseren van een efficiencyverbetering van 1,5% per jaar in de periode 2014-2020, als cumulatieve doelstelling. Voor Nederland betekent dit - rekening houdend met de vrijheidsgraden van de EED - een doelstelling van minimaal 482 PJ besparing op het finaal energiegebruik. Nederland verwacht een cumulatieve besparing te bereiken tussen de 387 en 562 PJ in finale termen, waarvan 87 tot 186 PJ door nieuw beleid. Dit nieuwe beleid bestaat uit de overeengekomen beleidsmaatregelen uit het recente Energieakkoord dat onder regie van de Sociaal Economische Raad (SER) is gesloten. Het kabinet heeft dit akkoord mede ondertekend.

  18. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  19. Role of executive agencies for energy efficiency with a view on activities of Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Bojan J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly in Europe, have executive energy efficiency agencies at national, regional and local levels that are organized in different ways. For all of them, it is common that there are existing strategic needs in their countries for enhancement of conditions and measures for rational use of energy and fuels. Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency was established in 2002 within the reform of the energy sector in Serbia and its current status was defined in 2004 by the Energy Law. It contributes to the improvement of social responsibility towards energy in all structures of the state and society, by proposing energy efficiency incentives, promoting importance of energy efficiency, as well as by managing energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and projects.

  20. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  1. The carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction material: A comparative analysis of South African BRT stations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Hugo; A Barker; GH Stoffberg

    2014-01-01

      This article describes strategic design decisions that architects can make during the initial stages of a project to minimise the use of construction materials, reduce carbon emissions and increase energy efficiency...

  2. 77 FR 38040 - Reestablishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... International Trade Administration Reestablishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... announces the reestablishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the... programs and policies to expand the competitiveness of U.S. exports of renewable energy and energy...

  3. A new method for constructing total energy conservation algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on a basic rule for the research on numerical methods which requires that the properties of the original problem should be preserved as much as possible under discretization, a new method for constructing total energy conservation algorithms is presented. By this method, all kinds of implicit schemes with energy conservation laws including many classical conservation schemes can be constructed from a kind of special function. Also, the concrete criterion for judging total energy conservation schemes is given. Numerical tests show that these new schemes are effective.

  4. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  5. Effects of Building Occupancy on Indicators of Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aapo Huovila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings is high. The design phase of the building is very important. In addition, it is vital to understand how to measure the energy efficiency in the building operation phase in order to encourage the right efficiency efforts. In understanding the building energy efficiency, it is important to comprehend the interplay of building occupancy, space efficiency, and energy efficiency. Recent studies found in the literature concerning energy efficiency in office buildings have concentrated heavily on the technical characteristics of the buildings or technical systems. The most commonly used engineering indicator for building energy efficiency is the specific energy consumption (SEC, commonly measured in kWh/m2 per annum. While the SEC is a sound way to measure the technical properties of a building and to guide its design, it obviously omits the issues of building occupancy and space efficiency. This paper studies existing energy efficiency indicators and introduces a new indicator for building energy efficiency which takes into account both space and occupancy efficiency.

  6. Junction Temperature Aware Energy Efficient Router Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, Vandana; Sharma, Shivani; Minwer, M H

    2015-01-01

    Energy, Power and efficiency are very much related to each other. To make any system efficient, Power consumed by it must be minimized or we can say that power dissipation should be less. In our research we tried to make a energy efficient router design on FPGA by varying junction temperature...

  7. Energy efficiency of error correction on wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. We have studied the energy efficiency of two different error correction mechanisms and have measured the efficiency of an implementation in software.

  8. Energy efficiency of error correction on wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. We have studied the energy efficiency of two different error correction mechanisms and have measured the efficiency of an implementation in software.

  9. Analysis of the determinative factors for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vanderley Herrero Sola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study energy efficiency in productive sector. The main objective is to analyze determinative factors to Energy Efficiency, identifying how external forces influence those factors as weel as energy efficiency, in order to subsidize a future scenery planning in energy management. The result of this analysis, based on scientific works, case study in universities, research in companies, studies by Brazilian Federal Government and studies by specialists, shows that energy efficiency depends on: effectiveness governmental actions for the technological development; technological development; initiative by universities for technology transfer to the companies; the relationship between individuals and small companies to create a corporative structure.

  10. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  11. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  12. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  13. A chronological overview of legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area

    OpenAIRE

    Zih, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In graduation thesis I described the legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area from 1875 to 2010. I showed the changes in legislation through time in order to provide energy efficiency. Lowering thermal transmittance through time is shown by graphs: • outer wall • roof • ceiling between floors (unheated attic) • underground wall • floor above ground • floor on the ground. I wrote construction examples for outer wall, ceiling between floors and roof. Con...

  14. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  15. CONSTRUCTION FEATURES AND EFFICIENCY OF VERTICAL IMPACT CRUSHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Salopek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the technical stone market, the most demanded grain size classes are 4/8, 2/4, -4, -2 mm, which weight portion being predominant in aggregates for production of concrete and asphalt. However, the production of these classes is not always simple. In adition to quantity requirements, the specific grain size distribution and grain shape of stone aggregate, as well as a minimal portion of the particles -0,09 mm are regurarly demanded. Until about ten years ago, impact and hammer crushers were most often used for the production of the above mentioned classes, while nowdays vertical impact crushers are being used with increasing frequency for this purpose. Compared to the first-mentioned crushers, vertical impact crushers represent a certain technological progress manifested primarily in a greater content of cubic shaped graines in output material and reduced wear of crusher lining and impact elements. The paper descibes the basic construction features and the operating principle of vertical impact crusher and analyzes their efficiency (grain size distribution of the crushed product, content of favourably shaped grains, filler content as a function of the particular technological parameters (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    existing macro base station sites together with the deployment of outdoor or indoor small cells (heterogeneous network) provide the best compromise between performance and power consumption. Focusing on one of the case studies, it is noted that the upgrade of both HSPA and LTE network layers results in the power consumption of the network increasing by a factor of 4. When coupled with the growth in capacity introduced by the various upgrades (x50), the efficiency of the network is still greatly improved. Over the evolution period, the stated increase in power consumption does not consider improvement in base station equipment. By considering a number of different equipment versions, the evolution study is further extended to also include the impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power consumption by enabling a number of power saving features. These features often exploit redundancies within the network and/or the variation in traffic over a daily period. An example of such feature is sleep mode, which allows for base station sites to be systematically powered down during hours with low network traffic. While dependent on the traffic profile, within an urban area sleep mode can reduce the daily energy consumption of the network by around 20%. In addition to the different variances of sleep mode, the potential savings of other features are also described. Selecting a power efficient network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile network operators to boost network capacity by a

  17. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense, t...

  18. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  19. 78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation... the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and... permit REA to make loans for demand side management and energy conservation program which are required...

  20. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... levels of the baseline building. (b) Energy consumption for the purposes of calculating the 30 percent...-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.4 Energy efficiency performance standard. (a) All Federal agencies shall design new...

  1. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  2. An energy efficiency guide for use in cleanroom programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale

    2001-12-07

    This guide was developed to provide ideas for considering energy efficiency in the early stages of a cleanroom design project. Use of this guide will facilitate selection of design features that will improve energy efficiency in cleanrooms. Cleanroom owners and designers can use the guide to focus on energy intensive items in the design of a cleanroom facility.

  3. Energy efficiency in small and medium scale foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patange

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research results of surveys which were conducted in an Indian foundry cluster which are potential members of such sectors are presented. These results indicate that there is an enough potential improvement in the energy use. The use of energy efficient practices can result in their energy use effectively as well as cost reduction. The key findings about the energy pattern are a lack of energy efficient practices. The suggested recommendations can contribute to an increase in energy efficiency in such cluster.

  4. Clustered Geometries Exploiting Quantum Coherence Effects for Efficient Energy Transfer in Light Harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Qing; Jin, Bih-Yaw; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating quantum coherence effects and geometrical factors for efficient energy transfer in photosynthesis has the potential to uncover non-classical design principles for advanced organic materials. We study energy transfer in a linear light-harvesting model to reveal that dimerized geometries with strong electronic coherences within donor and acceptor pairs exhibit significantly improved efficiency, which is in marked contrast to predictions of the classical F\\"orster theory. We reveal that energy tuning due to coherent delocalization of photoexcitations is mainly responsible for the efficiency optimization. This coherence-assisted energy-tuning mechanism also explains the energetics and chlorophyll arrangements in the widely-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. We argue that a clustered network with rapid energy relaxation among donors and resonant energy transfer from donor to acceptor states provides a basic formula for constructing efficient light-harvesting systems, and the general principles revea...

  5. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  6. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  7. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  8. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  9. Distributed Construction and Maintenance of Bandwidth-Efficient Bluetooth Scatternets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekkalmaz, M.; Sözer, H.; Korpeoglu, I.

    2005-01-01

    Bluetooth networks can be constructed as piconets or scatternets depending on the number of nodes in the network. Although piconet construction is a well-defined process specified in Bluetooth standards, scatternet construction policies and algorithms are not well specified. Among many solution prop

  10. Ground Thermal Inertia for Energy Efficient Building Design: A Case Study on Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Mazarrón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for energy efficient construction solutions is still pending in the agro-food industry, in which a large amount of energy is often consumed unnecessarily when storing products. The main objective of this research is to promote high energy efficiency built environments, which aim to reduce energy consumption in this sector. We analyze the suitability of using the thermal inertia of the ground to provide an adequate environment for the storage and conservation of agro-food products. This research compares different construction solutions based on the use of ground thermal properties, analyzing their effectiveness to decrease annual outdoor variations and provide adequate indoor conditions. The analysis undertaken is based on over five million pieces of data, obtained from an uninterrupted four year monitoring process of various constructions with different levels of thermal mass, ranging from high volume constructions to others lacking this resource. It has been proven that constructive solutions based on the use of ground thermal inertia are more effective than other solutions when reducing the effects of outdoor conditions, even when these have air conditioning systems. It is possible to reach optimal conditions to preserve agro-food products such as wine, with a good design and an adequate amount of terrain, without having to use air conditioning systems. The results of this investigation could be of great use to the agro-food industry, becoming a reference when it comes to the design of energy efficient constructions.

  11. Pricing in Noncooperative Interference Channels for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhijiat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider noncooperative energy-efficient resource allocation in the interference channel. Energy efficiency is achieved when each system pays a price proportional to its allocated transmit power. In noncooperative game-theoretic notation, the power allocation chosen by the systems corresponds to the Nash equilibrium. We study the existence and characterize the uniqueness of this equilibrium. Afterwards, pricing to achieve energy-efficiency is examined. We introduce an arbitrator who determines the prices that satisfy minimum QoS requirements and minimize total power consumption. This energy-efficient assignment problem is formulated and solved. We compare our setting to that without pricing with regard to energy-efficiency by simulation. It is observed that pricing in this distributed setting achieves higher energy-efficiency in different interference regimes.

  12. Lightweight and Energy Efficient Heat Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Spacecraft from the JPL will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. A need exists for efficient, lightweight Vapor Compression Cycle...

  13. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  14. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  15. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  16. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  17. Expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material of low energy construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, P.; Spisakova, M.; Kyjakova, L.; Mandicak, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of buildings is a really important issue for the construction industry. Sustainable buildings are characterized by the lower construction costs for energy consumption and operations, they are environmentally friendly, able to save natural resources and they are comfortable and healthy for their users. The European Union supports this trend through its Strategy 2020, respectively with document Energy Roadmap 2020. The strategy 2020 sets greenhouse gas emissions 20% lower than 1990, 20% of energy from renewable and 20% increase in energy efficiency. It manifests itself in introduction of modern technologies of house building. One potential for the energy saving is construction of low-energy buildings using modern materials. This paper focuses on the analysis of the low-energy buildings made by expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material. The paper analyzes their design and describes the benefits of this modern but unusual type of construction technology for houses. The examples from abroad clearly indicate that this technology has potential in modern architecture. The success and exploration of this technology potential in the conditions of Slovak construction sector is closely related to interest of investors and users of further sustainable houses which are design according the Strategy 2020 conditions.

  18. Promoting the energy efficiency advantages of distributed generation/cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency were discussed with reference to district energy and distributed generation/cogeneration. The Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a leading independent organization which promotes energy efficiency and its benefits to the economy and the environment. Members include utilities, manufacturers, energy consultants, consumers and environmental groups across Canada. The Alliance mobilizes support for government policies, programs and standards. It also monitors and reports on government activities to raise a public profile of energy efficiency. This presentation includes a report card of the environmental performance of the provincial and federal governments in Canada which provides an indication of the level of their commitment to incorporate energy efficiency measures in their policy processes. Quebec and the Yukon share top honours for their initiatives on energy efficiency. The direct benefits of energy efficiency include reduced energy bills for customers, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and greater efficiency of the supply system. Indirect benefits include job creation, the advancement of new technologies and enhanced energy security. Between 1990 and 1999 energy efficiency initiatives in Canada resulted in an 8 per cent reduction. Overall energy usage increased 12 per cent. Distributed generation consists of small-scale, modular power generation units located in proximity to where the energy is used. Cogeneration is the combined production of heat (usually as steam) and electricity, where both products are used. Since district energy often makes use of steam or hot water it can be part of a cogeneration system and a cogeneration-based district energy qualifies as distributed generation. Cogeneration produces about one third of the carbon dioxide emissions compared to power produced from coal and heat from natural gas. Distributed generation results in reduced electricity transmission and

  19. Efficiency of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitalas, R.

    1989-03-01

    An explicit formula for the efficiency of the PP chain energy generation in terms of the branching fractions to the three PP chains is derived and the variation of the efficiency with temperature and hydrogen abundance is illustrated. The PP chain efficiency is shown to have a minimum as a function of Y/X. The combined efficiency of simultaneous nuclear energy generation by the PP chain and the equilibrium CN cycle is then presented. 6 refs.

  20. Management of Financing the Energy Saving in Terms of Construction Enterprises: International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchuk Marina N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the experience of financing the energy saving projects by leading countries of the world from the perspective of adapting the contemporary management-regulatory conditions of technology in terms of enterprises of the construction complex of Ukraine. On the basis of a content analysis of the existing practices of implementation of energy saving and enhancing energy efficiency, the following classification has been suggested: depending on the institutional socio-economic and environmental development, in accordance with the course of sustainable development, depending on the structure of economic system, depending on both time interval and subsectoral characteristic. Based on a scientific approach to the five levels in the structure of economic systems, barriers and recommendations for their prevention in the management of energy saving in construction at each of these levels have been identified. The article proposes strategic priorities of the State policy of energy saving in the construction industry, in particular holding of energy audits and energy performance certification of buildings, increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy balance of country; implementation of contemporary concepts of energy saving ("Green Lease", "Passive House", "Triple Zero"; establishing consulting-information centers for promoting energy saving measures.