WorldWideScience

Sample records for construction period reduction

  1. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital construction period. 74.788 Section 74...

  2. Final construction of the CREOL 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Paul P.; Gallagher, John; Elias, Luis R.

    1996-02-01

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the CREOL high power far-infrared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the spring of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225-800 μm. The undulator has precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A simple method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce the peak field errors and the phase errors will be reported. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of magnetic field errors through these two techniques will be presented.

  3. Diesel emission reduction in construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The state of Rhode Island general law : The Diesel Emission Reduction Act : required a pilot project be undertaken to : gain a better understanding of the : impact of this legislative act. : The Rhode Island Department of : Transportation (RIDO...

  4. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  5. Intensification of constructed wetlands for land area reduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Huma; Masih, Ilyas

    2017-05-01

    The large land area requirement of constructed wetlands (CWs) is a major limitation of its application especially in densely populated and mountainous areas. This review paper provides insights on different strategies applied for the reduction of land area including stack design and intensification of CWs with different aeration methods. The impacts of different aeration methods on the performance and land area reduction were extensively and critically evaluated for nine wetland systems under three aeration strategies such as tidal flow (TF), effluent recirculation (ER), and artificial aeration (AA) applied on three types of CWs including vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW), horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW), and hybrid constructed wetland (HCW). The area reduction and pollutant removal efficiency showed substantial variation among different types of CWs and aeration strategies. The ER-VFCW designated the smallest footprint of 1.1 ± 0.5 m2 PE-1 (population equivalent) followed by TF-VFCW with the footprint of 2.1 ± 1.8 m2 PE-1, and the large footprint was of AA-HFCW (7.8 ± 4.7 m2 PE-1). When footprint and removal efficiency both are the major indicators for the selection of wetland type, the best options for practical application could be TF-VFCW, ER-HCW, and AA-HCW. The data and results outlined in this review could be instructive for futures studies and practical applications of CWs for wastewater treatment, especially in land-limited regions.

  6. Architects' perspectives on construction waste reduction by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, M; Glass, J; Price, A D F

    2008-01-01

    The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.

  7. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. 47 CFR 73.3598 - Period of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a showing of good cause. The LPFM permittee must file for an extension on or before the expiration... original construction permit shall toll when construction is prevented by the following causes not under... natural disasters (e.g., floods, tornados, hurricanes, or earthquakes); (2) The grant of the permit is the...

  9. LULA VS ALCKMIN: DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS OF THE VEJA PERIODIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília de Sousa Frazão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is carried out an analysis of the cover of the 1980 edition of the magazine Veja, published on November 01, 2006, in the election campaign of 2006 – second round, focusing on the image of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Geraldo Alckmin. Try to understand the imagetic and verbal speech expressed in covers and its constraints on social and discursive formation, through the investigations of the mechanisms of construction of the iconic and verbal text and reveal the effects of meaning constructed in covers. Based on a theoretical support, to seek to understand of how the effect depends on the codes produced by a culture and how they are mobilized by the media to construct or deconstruct a politician´s image facing society

  10. On Balancing and Order Reduction of Unstable Periodic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the direct application of balancing techniques to unstable periodic systems by extending the balancing concepts to arbitrary periodic systems. We extend first the balancing concepts to unstable discrete-time systems by defining the reachability and observability grammians from appropriate right and left coprime factorizations with inner denominators. Further, we extend this new balancing method to unstable linear time-varying discrete-time systems with periodically vary...

  11. The Quaternions and Bott Periodicity Are Quantum Hamiltonian Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2016-12-01

    We show that the Morita equivalences Cliff(4) ≃ H, Cliff(7) ≃ Cliff(-1), and Cliff(8) ≃ R arise from quantizing the Hamiltonian reductions R^{0|4} // Spin(3), R^{0|7} // G_2, and R^{0|8} // Spin(7), respectively.

  12. Construction of Large Period Symplectic Maps by Interpolative Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, Robert; Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC; Ellison, James A.; /New Mexico U.

    2009-12-17

    The goal is to construct a symplectic evolution map for a large section of an accelerator, say a full turn of a large ring or a long wiggler. We start with an accurate tracking algorithm for single particles, which is allowed to be slightly non-symplectic. By tracking many particles for a distance S one acquires sufficient data to construct the mixed-variable generator of a symplectic map for evolution over S, given in terms of interpolatory functions. Two ways to find the generator are considered: (1) Find its gradient from tracking data, then the generator itself as a line integral. (2) Compute the action integral on many orbits. A test of method (1) has been made in a difficult example: a full turn map for an electron ring with strong nonlinearity near the dynamic aperture. The method succeeds at fairly large amplitudes, but there are technical difficulties near the dynamic aperture due to oddly shaped interpolation domains. For a generally applicable algorithm we propose method (2), realized with meshless interpolation methods.

  13. Optimal periodic disturbance reduction for active noise cancelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C. E.; de Callafon, R. A.; Dunens, E.; Bargerhuff, R.; Bash, C. E.

    2007-08-01

    The design of an optimal internal model-based (IMB) controller by extending standard discrete time optimal control theory for IMB controllers is described. The optimal observer and state feedback gains of the IMB controller are given via the solution of discrete time algebraic Riccati equations. The design method is applied to an acoustic system that is subjected to disturbances from a server fan. Periodic disturbances from the server fan appear as harmonics of the fundamental frequency of the fan. Parametric models for the plant and non-periodic part of the disturbance are identified from experimental data. An internal model is designed in discrete time and the internal model principle is used to design a feedback controller that rejects periodic disturbances in the acoustic system. The controller is implemented in real-time and successfully attenuates the first four harmonics of the fan noise.

  14. Synthesis of workload reduction strategies for construction inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    State departments of transportation (DOTs) have seen significant funding increases throughout the past decade. The : additional funding has also brought about an increase in the construction inspection and testing workload, but the : DOTs have not se...

  15. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. REDUCTION OF COST AND TIME CONSUMPTION IN WELL-CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Contractor usually utilizes the available drilling equipment when constructing just one single well. Drilling cost and time consumption in constructing the well MB-1, using the percussion method, and the well MB-2, using the conventional rotary drilling method, call for a separate analysis in order to justify the investment cost for the acquisition of additional equipment for a single well only. The wells, located in a karst vrtača close to an estavelle near Tomislavgrad, with a diameter of 500 mm and approximately 80 m deep, have been accomplished with a low rate of penetration using the conventional Cable tool and resp. Rotary Drilling Method. In this paper results of analyses for the given circumstances are shown: both the efficiency and cost of the mentioned drilling methods performed by the crews of »Geotehnika d.d.« Zagreb, as well as the justifiability of investments in new equipment are evaluated.

  17. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  18. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  19. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  20. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  1. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  2. Reduction of construction wastes by improving construction contract management: a multinational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Daylath; Hewage, Kasun N; Wrzesniewski, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian construction industry generates 30% of the total municipal solid waste deposited in landfills. Ample evidence can be found in the published literature about rework and waste generation due to ambiguity and errors in contract documents. Also, the literature quotes that disclaimer clauses in contract documents are included in the contractual agreements to prevent contractor claims, which often cause rework. Our professional practice has also noted that there are several disclaimer clauses in standard contract documents which have the potential to cause rework (and associated waste). This article illustrates a comparative study of standard contractual documents and their potential to create rework (and associated waste) in different regions of the world. The objectives of this study are (1) to analyse standard contractual documents in Canada, the USA and Australia in terms of their potential to generate rework and waste, and (2) to propose changes/amendments to the existing standard contract documents to minimise/avoid rework. In terms of construction waste management, all the reviewed standard contract documents have deficiencies. The parties that produce the contract documents include exculpatory clauses to avoid the other party's claims. This approach tends to result in rework and construction waste. The contractual agreements/contract documents should be free from errors, deficiencies, ambiguity and unfair risk transfers to minimise/avoid potential to generate rework and waste.

  3. 48 CFR 846.710-71 - Warranty for construction-guarantee period services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710-71 Warranty for construction—guarantee period services. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-75, Warranty... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranty for construction...

  4. Reduction of the Differential Light Shift by the Spatial Periodicity in an Optical Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu-Guang; Xu, Xia; Chen, Xu-Zong; Zhou, Xiao-Ji

    2013-10-01

    We study the spatial periodicity effects on the differential light shift of noninteracting atoms in an optical lattice. Through the Rabi-spectrum approach, when the wavelength of the optical lattice is not magic, a reduction to the differential light shift is expected. The reduction results from the Bloch bands induced by the quantized motion in the periodic potential. Taking the microwave transition of rubidium atoms as an example, this reduction at some wavelengths can reach one order of magnitude, compared to the data without considering the spatial profile of the optical lattice. When the atomic temperature is considered, the differential light shift increases or decreases with temperature, depending on the wavelength of the lattice. Our results should be beneficial for microwave optical lattice clock and precision measurements.

  5. Indirect chronology method employing rare earth elements to identify Sagunto Castle mortar construction periods

    OpenAIRE

    Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Lezzerini, Marco; Hernandez, Emilia; Calvo, Matias; Morales, Angel; Pastor, Agustin; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    A novel indirect chronology method has been developed to identify Sagunto Castle construction periods. The method is based on the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine rare earth elements (REE) and other trace elements in mortars. Additionally, a no destructive geochemical analysis based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was employed for major elements determination. Collected chemical data were processed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to highlight an...

  6. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  7. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  8. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  9. Destigmatization and health: Cultural constructions and the long-term reduction of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Matthew; Daniel, Caitlin; Lamont, Michèle

    2016-09-01

    Research on the societal-level causes and consequences of stigma has rarely considered the social conditions that account for destigmatization, the process by which a group's worth and status improve. Destigmatization has important implications for the health of stigmatized groups. Building on a robust line of stigma reduction literature in psychology, we develop a sociological framework for understanding how new cultural constructions that draw equivalences and remove blame shape public and structural stigma over time. We examine historical transformations of cultural constructions surrounding three stigmatized groups in the United States: people living with HIV/AIDS, African Americans, and people labeled as obese. By tracing this process across cases, we find that the conditions that account for destigmatization include the credibility of new constructions, the status and visibility of actors carrying these constructions, the conclusiveness of expert knowledge about stigmatized groups, the interaction between new constructions and existing cultural ideologies, and the perceived linked fate of the stigmatized and dominant groups. We also find that the reduction of structural and public forms of stigma often depend on distinct processes and constructions. To conclude, we propose a framework for the comparative study of destigmatization as an essential component of promoting a culture of health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION IN SEASONALITY PERIODS: ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos William Kaspchak Machado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as an objective to evaluate the impacts of production seasonality in seasonality periods in the Brazilian construction industry. The adopted methodology was based on the qualitative and quantitative approaches of the aspects inherent to the seasonality factors in the construction industry and its possible causes. Besides that, literature data were collected in year report books and devices provided by institutions of the sector. The results demonstrated the importance of production management mechanisms to optimize the use of productive factors through cost analysis, which are fundamental to understand the operational flux of resources used in the operational media. Obtaining this information, connected to market indicators helped in the decision making process related to the development of prospective scenarios which will give support to the decision making strategy aiming to stabilize the production levels.

  11. Time-periodic solutions of massive scalar fields in dynamical AdS background: Perturbative constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakwoo Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider scalar fields which are coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant, and construct periodic solutions perturbatively. In particular, we study tachyonic scalar fields whose mass is at or above the Breitenlohner–Freedman bound in four, five, and seven spacetime dimensions. The critical amplitude of the leading order perturbation, for which the perturbative expansion breaks down, increases as we consider less massive fields. We present various examples including a model with a self-interacting scalar field which is derived from a consistent truncation of IIB supergravity.

  12. Sulphate reduction and the removal of carbon and ammonia in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kuschk, P; Kästner, M

    2005-11-01

    Sulphate is a normal constituent of domestic wastewater and reduced sulphur compounds are known to be potent inhibitors of plant growth and certain microbial activities. However, the knowledge about sulphate reduction and the effect on the removal of C and N in constructed wetlands is still limited. Investigations in laboratory-scale constructed wetland reactors were performed to evaluate the interrelation of carbon and nitrogen removal with the sulphate reduction by use of artificial domestic wastewater. Carbon removal was found to be only slightly affected and remained at high levels of efficiency (75-90%). Only at sulphate reduction intensities above 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal), a decrease of carbon removal of up to 20% was observed. A highly contrary behaviour of ammonia removal was found in general, which decreased exponentially from 75% to 35% related to a linear increase of sulphate reduction up to 75 mgl(-1) (50% removal). Since sulphate removal is considered to be dependant on the load of electron donors, the carbon load of the system was varied. Variation of the load changed the intensities of sulphate reduction immediately, but did not influence the carbon removal effectiveness. Doubling of the carbon concentration of 200 mgl(-1) BOD(5) for domestic wastewater usually led to sulphate reduction of up to 150 mgl(-1) (100% removal). The findings show that, particularly in constructed wetland systems, the sulphur cycle in the rhizosphere is of high importance for performance of the waste water treatment and may initiate a reconsideration of the amount of sulphate present in the tap water systems.

  13. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  14. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response.

  15. Capabilities Engineering:Promoting Change-Reduction and Constructing Change-Tolerant Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandar, Ramya

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Capabilities-based approach for constructing complex emergent systems such that they are change-tolerant, and the development effort promotes change-reduction. The inherent complexity of software systems increases their susceptibility to change when subjected to the vagaries of user needs, technology advances, market demands and other change inducing factors. Despite the inevitability of change, traditional Requirements Engineering strives to develop systems based on a fixed solu...

  16. Specification, construction, and exact reduction of state transition system models of biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Scott M; Beard, Daniel A

    2012-10-21

    Biochemical reaction systems may be viewed as discrete event processes characterized by a number of states and state transitions. These systems may be modeled as state transition systems with transitions representing individual reaction events. Since they often involve a large number of interactions, it can be difficult to construct such a model for a system, and since the resulting state-level model can involve a huge number of states, model analysis can be difficult or impossible. Here, we describe methods for the high-level specification of a system using hypergraphs, for the automated generation of a state-level model from a high-level model, and for the exact reduction of a state-level model using information from the high-level model. Exact reduction is achieved through the automated application to the high-level model of the symmetry reduction technique and reduction by decomposition by independent subsystems, allowing potentially significant reductions without the need to generate a full model. The application of the method to biochemical reaction systems is illustrated by models describing a hypothetical ion-channel at several levels of complexity. The method allows for the reduction of the otherwise intractable example models to a manageable size.

  17. Current practices of construction waste reduction through 3R practice among contractors in malaysia: Case study in penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L. S.; Tan, L. W.; Seow, T. W.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of the implementation of construction waste reduction through 3R reflects the sustainability in construction waste management. Weak implementation of construction waste reduction through 3R among contractors will lead to unsustainable construction waste management. Increase in construction waste on landfills is critical especially on islands where land is very limited for solid waste disposal. This aim of this paper is to investigate current practice of construction waste reduction through 3R practice among contractors in Penang, Malaysia. The findings reported herein is based on feedbacks from 143 construction contractors of grade CIDB G7, G6 and G5 in Penang and experts from Penang Local Authority, CIDB in Penang and its Headquarters, National Solid Waste Management Department, and Headquarters of Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation. Interviews and questionnaire surveys have been found that 3R practice is not mandatory in construction waste management in Penang. Only 39.8% construction contractors practiced 3R in managing their waste. Therefore, 3R practices should be emphasized in construction industry. Reducing wastes through 3R practices in construction industry is a way forward towards sustainable construction waste management especially in expanding the lifetime of landfill.

  18. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  19. The history of the construction of main state irrigation systems in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chepurda

    2017-03-01

    It was established that the construction of large public irrigation systems in Ukraine started in 1951 stated that hydro construction that unfolded in the south of Ukraine, opened prospects to final elimination of the impact of drought and dry winds, the prospects for an unprecedented economic prosperity of the area.

  20. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-01-01

    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries.

  1. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-01-01

    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries. PMID:23724336

  2. The construction of periodic unfolding operators on some compact Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobberschütz, Sören; Böhm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The notion of periodic unfolding has become a standard tool in the theory of periodic homogenization. However, all the results obtained so far are only applicable to the "flat" Euclidean space R n. In this paper, we present a generalization of the method of periodic unfolding applicable to struct...

  3. Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures were investigated using reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against AISI 440C balls under both dry and starved oil lubricated conditions. The friction coefficient of LIPSS covered surfaces has shown a lower value than that of the smooth surface. The induced periodic nanostructures demonstrated marked potential for reducing the friction coefficient compared with the smooth surface.

  4. A dynamic model for assessing the effects of management strategies on the reduction of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Chini, Abdol R; Lu, Yujie; Shen, Liyin

    2012-03-01

    During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C&D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C&D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C&D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C&D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C&D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C&D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C&D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only built confidence in the model so that it can be used for quantitative analysis, but also assessed and compared the effect of three designed policy scenarios on C&D waste reduction. One major contribution of this study is the development of a dynamic model for evaluating C&D waste reduction strategies under various scenarios, so that best management strategies could be identified before being implemented

  5. Construction training process of highly skilled players in mini-football for competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiuk I.I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the structure and content of the competition period in mini-football. It was determined that the structure of the competition period consists of 4 competitive mesocycles. In each mesocycle includes various types of micro-cycles (competitive, cross-game and rehabilitation. Reflects the ratio of specific and non-specific (general preparations means training work. So in the competitive period for competitive mesocycles general preparations exercises ranged from 38.3 to 42.4%, special-preparation - from 29.9 to 32.6%, competitive - from 20.9 to 23.3%. The intensity of the training load in intergame microcycles less than competitive. This corresponds to the strategy of building the training process in the competitive period. During the competition period the ratio of the training load was: aerobic focus - 49.2%, mixed - 46.1%, anaerobic alactate - 2.4%, anaerobic glycolytic - 2.3%. Defines the scope and focus of the training load: longer the aerobic work, then - mixed, anaerobic- alactate and anaerobic-glycolytic. The comparative characteristics of the intensity of the training load in competitive and intergame microcycles.

  6. REDUCTION IN ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES DURING 'LIMITED POWER' PERIODS IN WINTER 1999-2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz/TCR

    1999-01-01

    As in previous years, CERN signed contracts with EDF (Electricité de France) and with EOS (Energie Ouest Suisse), by which it undertakes, in return for special prices, to reduce its electricity consumption when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP).The contractual period for compulsory load shedding begins 1st November and ends 31st March. During these five months CERN will have to reduce its power consumption from210 MW to 40 MW during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Control Room (TCR) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons.For the month of March 2000, the limit of power consumption will be increased from 40 MW to 50 MW to guarantee an easier start-up of the accelerators.During these periods, the PS complex, the SPS and ...

  7. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  8. Design and construction of a periodic magnetic structure of SmCo{sub 5} magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliano, A.C.C.; Stopa, C.R.S. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso, J.R. [Escola Politecnica-USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zgainski, F.X.; Coulomb, J.L. [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble

    1997-03-01

    A SmCo{sub 5} permanent magnet periodic structure was developed to generate a sinusoidal space-varying magnetic field. This device was designed to be utilized in the wiggler of a infra-red Free-Electron Laser (IR-FEL). To design the structure, finite-element computer codes that calculate magnetic fields in two and three dimensions were utilized. The results obtained from the computer simulations and the mechanical design of the built structure are presented.

  9. 26 CFR 1.246-5 - Reduction of holding periods in certain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contract or the stock index while holding the stock of an investment company whose principal holdings mimic... stock for purposes of the dividends received deduction is appropriately reduced for any period in which... substantially similar or related to stock when— (i) The fair market values of the stock and the property...

  10. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz - TCR

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to limit its electricity consumption during the winter months sufficiently to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006 CERN is supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times as high as for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a strong fina...

  11. Reduction of electricity comsumption during 'high cost' periods in winter 2005 - 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2005-01-01

    In previous years CERN was able to sufficiently limit its electricity consumption during the winter months to be supplied from the Swiss grid. In order to make enough power available for the LHC machine and experiments at the lowest possible cost during the coming winter 2005 / 2006, CERN will be supplied from the French grid by EDF (Electricité de France). As a consequence, when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP) in France, the energy price is at least four times higher than for the usual winter period. From 1st November until 31st March these increased prices are applicable during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Infrastructure Control Room (TI) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons. During these days of EJP CERN has a stro...

  12. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials.

  13. COST ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND MINING STRUCTURES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEIR REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolinka Doneva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of underground mining facilities is of essential importance to the exploitation of mineral resources. Confirmation of this is the fact that the construction costs of main facilities occupy 40-60% of the underlying investments in the main construction and equipping. The main underground mining facilities are: shafts, drifts, raise, pump chambers, warehouses etc. This paper presents detailed analysis of underground mining facility - drift construction costs per individual working operations, following their change which depends on the rock type and profile size of underground mining facility, as well as possibilities of reducing these costs.

  14. Efficient Model Order Reduction of Structural Dynamic Systems with Local Nonlinearities under Periodic Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many nonlinear structural systems, compared with the local regions with induced nonlinear effects, the main portions of the structures are linear. An exact condensation technique based on the harmonic balance method (HBM in conjunction with the modal expansion technique is employed to convert the motion equations of such a system to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations that are considerably small and adequately accurate to determine periodic responses. To demonstrate the capability of the suggested method, few case studies consisting of discrete systems with weak and essential nonlinearities are studied, and the results are compared to other methodologies results.

  15. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  16. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  17. Reduction of dissipation in a thermal engine by means of periodic changes of external constraintsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Claus; Ross, John

    1985-03-01

    We consider a thermal engine driven by chemical reactions, which take place in a continuous flow, stirred tank reactor fitted with a movable piston. Work can be produced by means of a heat engine coupled to the products and to an external heat bath, and by the piston. Two modes of operation are compared, each with fixed input rate of chemicals: one with periodic variation of an external constraint [mode (b)], in which we vary the external pressure, and one without such variation [mode (a)]. We derive equations for the total power output in each of the two modes. The power output in mode (b) can be larger than that of mode (a) for the same chemical throughput and for the same average value of the external pressure. For a particularly simple case it is shown that the total power output in mode (b) is larger than that in (a) if work is done by the piston. At the same time the entropy production is decreased and the efficiency is increased. The possibility of an increased power output is due to the proper control of the relative phase of the externally varied constraint and its conjugate variable, the external pressure and the volume. This control is achieved by the coupling of nonlinear kinetics to the externally varied constraint. Details of specific mechanisms and the occurrence of resonance phenomena are presented in the following article.

  18. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-01-01

    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, tha...

  19. The construction and periodicity analysis of natural disaster database of Alxa area based on Chinese local records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Mingzhong, Tian; Hengli, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Chinese hand-written local records were originated from the first century. Generally, these local records include geography, evolution, customs, education, products, people, historical sites, as well as writings of an area. Through such endeavors, the information of the natural materials of China nearly has had no "dark ages" in the evolution of its 5000-year old civilization. A compilation of all meaningful historical data of natural-disasters taken place in Alxa of inner-Mongolia, the second largest desert in China, is used here for the construction of a 500-year high resolution database. The database is divided into subsets according to the types of natural-disasters like sand-dust storm, drought events, cold wave, etc. Through applying trend, correlation, wavelet, and spectral analysis on these data, we can estimate the statistically periodicity of different natural-disasters, detect and quantify similarities and patterns of the periodicities of these records, and finally take these results in aggregate to find a strong and coherent cyclicity through the last 500 years which serves as the driving mechanism of these geological hazards. Based on the periodicity obtained from the above analysis, the paper discusses the probability of forecasting natural-disasters and the suitable measures to reduce disaster losses through history records. Keyword: Chinese local records; Alxa; natural disasters; database; periodicity analysis

  20. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  1. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard...construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24

  2. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  3. Theory Comparison: Uncertainty Reduction, Problematic Integration, Uncertainty Management, and Other Curious Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, James J.

    2001-01-01

    Compares three theories examining the role of communication in producing and coping with subjective uncertainty. Notes that uncertainty reduction theory offers axioms and derived theorems that describe communicative and noncommunicative causes and consequences of uncertainty. Compares meanings of "uncertainty" in the three theories as…

  4. Public Constructs of Energy Values and Behaviors in Implementing Taiwan's "Energy-Conservation/Carbon-Reduction" Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Spangler, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The emergent crisis of global warming calls for energy education for people of all ages and social groups. The Taiwanese government has publicized 10 declarations on energy conservation and carbon reduction as public behavior guidelines to mitigate global warming. This study uses interviews with quantitative assessment to explore the values and…

  5. B,N-Codoped graphene as catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction: Insights from periodic and cluster DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Chiara; Labat, Frédéric; Zavala, Claudia; Russo, Nino; Adamo, Carlo; Merino, Gabriel; Sicilia, Emilia

    2017-12-22

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over B,N-codoped graphene has been carried out in the framework of DFT using two different approaches based on periodic or cluster models. The comparison and integration of the information provided by the two approaches allow achieving a more complete description of the studied phenomena, combining the advantages of both models. On one hand, the analysis of the structure, stability, and electronic properties of this catalyst permits to identify and characterize the active sites and provides insights into the origin of its high catalytic activity that should be found in the synergistic coupling of the opposite effects of the two B and N heteroatoms used as dopants. On the other hand, the study of the reaction mechanisms evidences that the process is thermodynamically favorable due to the overall high exothermicity, and that the 4e- transfer is the favorite ORR pathway, being the OH hydrogenation the rate-determining step. Overall, all the reported results clearly underline the superior catalytic activity of B,N-codoped graphene toward this reaction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Efficacy of enhanced HIV counseling for risk reduction during pregnancy and in the postpartum period: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. METHODS: Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. RESULTS: There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75. DISCUSSION: An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.

  7. TURNING THE PULSATING FLOW INTO LAMINAR FLOW, REDUCTION / ELIMINATION OF EFFECT OF VACUUM, NEW CONSTRUCTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU Alexandru Lucian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article, as a new concept, analyzes the notion of « pulsating flow », the physical phenomenon seen when emptying bottles of PET or Tetra Pak; which do not have a disposal system of the vacuum created while emptying them, situation in which the fluid stream becomes oscillating in terms of the speed and the flow of the fluid passing through the drain area / section. Pulsating flow is a result of the vacuum created in the container, as opposed to laminar and turbulent flow whose existence is determined by the relative speed of the layers of fluid and the friction forces [2]. In the paper I present some new constructive solutions, designed by AutoCAD and created physically with rapid-prototyping

  8. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate: Do Quality Of Reduction And Screw Orientation Influence Construct Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Ivan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Stoffel, Karl; Sommer, Christoph; Helfen, Tobias; Camino, Gaston; Richards, R Geoff; Nork, Sean E; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2017-08-22

    To investigate biomechanically in a human cadaveric model the failure modes of the Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP) and explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four fresh-frozen paired human cadaveric femora with simulated unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A3.3) were assigned to four groups with six specimens each for plating with PF-LCP. The groups differed in the quality of fracture reduction and plating fashion of the first and second proximal screws as follows: 1) anatomical reduction with on-axis screw placement; 2) anatomical reduction with off-axis screw placement; 3) malreduction with on-axis screw placement; 4) malreduction with off-axis screw placement. The specimens were tested until failure using a protocol with combined axial and torsional loading. Mechanical failure was defined as abrupt change in machine load-displacement data. Clinical failure was defined as 5° varus tilting of the femoral head as captured with optical motion tracking. Initial axial stiffness (N/mm) in groups 1 to 4 was 213.6±65.0, 209.5±134.0, 128.3±16.6 and 106.3±47.4, respectively. Numbers of cycles to clinical and mechanical failure were 16642±10468 and 8695±1462 in group 1, 14076±3032 and 7449±5663 in group 2, 8800±8584 and 4497±2336 in group 3 and 9709±3894 and 5279±4119 in group 4. Significantly higher stiffness as well as numbers of cycles to both clinical and mechanical failure were detected in group 1 in comparison to group 3, P≤0.044. Generally, malreduction led to significantly earlier construct failure. The observed failures were cut-out of the proximal screws in the femoral head, followed by either screw bending, screw loosening or screw fracture. Proper placement of the proximal screws in anatomically reduced fractures led to significantly higher construct stability. Our data also indicates that once the screws are placed off-axis (>5 degrees), the benefit of an anatomic reduction is lost.

  9. Relationships among Undergraduates' Friendship Style, Difficulty in Friendship, and Friendship Strategy: The difference between the relation construction period and the maintenance period

    OpenAIRE

    満野, 史子; 今城, 周造; Fumiko, MITSUNO; Shuzo, IMAJO; 昭和女子大学生活心理研究所; 昭和女子大学心理学科

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences in the types of relationship difficulties which undergraduate students face and the strategies which they adopt in constructing and maintaining friendships. The influence of students' relationship strategies on their adjustments to university life was explored. Friendship difficulty and friendship strategy scales were administered to 234 undergraduate students(92 males and 142 females)to examine the difficulties they encountered and their strategies during ...

  10. On the construction of Tesla transformers. Period of oscillation and self-inductance of the coil. (Zur construction von Teslatransformatoren. Schwingungsdauer und Selbstinduction von Drahtspulen)

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, David W

    2016-01-01

    English Translation of Paul Drude's 1902 investigation into the factors affecting the self-resonance of single-layer solenoid coils. The ratio of the self-resonant half-wavelength to the conductor length is is found to be principally dependent on the height-to diameter ratio of the coil and the dielectric constants of any insulating materials involved in the construction.

  11. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  12. Silent period to transcranial magnetic stimulation: construction and properties of stimulus-response curves in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiskidis, V K; Papagiannopoulos, S; Sotirakoglou, K; Kazis, D A; Kazis, A; Mills, K R

    2005-05-01

    Silent period (SP) is widely used in transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. Methodologically, SP is usually elicited at stimulus intensities corresponding to a certain percentage of corticomotor threshold. Because this approach might lead to factitious SP changes, the present study was designed to develop, in a stepwise manner, a method for investigating SP independently of corticomotor threshold. First, stimulus-response (S-R) curves of SP against stimulus intensity (SI) were constructed and quantitatively described in healthy volunteers. Second, various methodological issues such as the optimum model for describing the relationship between SP duration and SI and the importance of the type of stimulating coil were addressed. Finally, the proposed method and a commonly used method (eliciting SPs at 130% MT SI) were directly compared for a group of epileptic patients for whom administration of oxcarbazepine resulted in significant corticomotor threshold elevation. Twenty-one subjects (eleven females, median age, 38 years) were studied. SPs were obtained with a figure-of-eight coil using a standardized procedure (recording, FDI). Pilot experiments indicated that at least four trials were required, at each intensity level, to estimate the mean SP duration within 10% of the true mean. Therefore, SPs were determined from the average of four trials with 5% increments from 5 to 100% maximum SI. In a second set of experiments, SPs were obtained for fifteen subjects using a circular coil. In a third set of experiments, eight epileptic patients were studied before and after administration of oxcarbazepine (mean dose 1553 mg, range 900-1800 mg). The S-R curves were fitted to a Boltzman function and to first-order to fourth-order polynomial and sigmoid functions. The Boltzman function described the data accurately (R2=0.947-0.990). In addition, direct comparison of the six models with an F-test proved the superiority of the first. The best-fit parameters of the reference

  13. Demonstration of constructed wetlands for treatment of municipal wastewaters, monitoring report for the period, March 1988--October 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choate, K.D.; Watson, J.T.; Steiner, G.R.

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the constructed wetland technology, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) implemented a municipal wastewater demonstration project in western Kentucky. Using combined city, State, and TVA appropriated funds, three constructed wetland systems were built at Benton, Hardin, and Pembroke, Kentucky. Demonstration objectives include evaluating relative advantages and disadvantages of these types of systems; determining permit compliance ability; developing, evaluating, and improving basic design and operation criteria; evaluating cost effectiveness; and transferring technology to users and regulators. A demonstration monitoring project was implemented with a partnership of funds from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, other EPA funds through the National Small Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC), and TVA appropriations. TVA is managing the project in cooperation with an interagency team consisting of EPA, Kentucky Division of Water and NSFC. This report, which supersedes the first monitoring report (Choate, et. al., 1989) of these demonstration projects, describes each constructed wetland system, its status, and summarizes monitoring data and plans for each system. 5 refs., 30 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Medicaid program; reductions in payments to the states--Health Care Financing Administration. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This rule amends current Medicaid regulations to implement section 2161 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Pub. L 97-35) which imposes reductions in Federal matching payments for fiscal years 1982 through 1984. In the regulations, we describe the conditions and specify minimum criteria under which States may lower the reduction. The conditions are the existence of the qualified hospital cost review program, a specific level of unemployment in a State, and a specific amount of fraud and abuse recoveries by a State or, for fiscal year 1982 only, a combination of fraud and abuse and third party liability recoveries. We intend these regulations to provide guidance as to when the reductions, and offsets against the reductions, will be made and how States can qualify for the offsets. In addition, we have issued a notice of proposed rulemaking elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register that contains proposed policies concerning recoveries from liable third parties for purposes of implementing section 2161.

  15. Biogeochemical Processes Related to Metal Removal and Toxicity Reduction in the H-02 Constructed Wetland, Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, E. A.; Mills, G. L.; Harmon, M.; Samarkin, V.

    2011-12-01

    The H-02 wetland system was designed to treat building process water and storm water runoff from multiple sources associated with the Tritium Facility at the DOE-Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The wetland construction included the addition of gypsum (calcium sulfate) to foster a sulfate-reducing bacterial population. Conceptually, the wetland functions as follows: ? Cu and Zn initially bind to both dissolved and particulate organic detritus within the wetland. ? A portion of this organic matter is subsequently deposited into the surface sediments within the wetland. ? The fraction of Cu and Zn that is discharged in the wetland effluent is organically complexed, less bioavailable, and consequently, less toxic. ? The Cu and Zn deposited in the surface sediments are eventually sequestered into insoluble sulfide minerals in the wetland. Development of the H-02 system has been closely monitored; sampling began in August 2007, shortly after its construction. This monitoring has included the measurement of water quality parameters, Cu and Zn concentrations in surface water and sediments, as well as, characterization of the prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) component of wetland biogeochemical processes. Since the beginning of the study, the mean influent Cu concentration was 31.5±12.1 ppb and the mean effluent concentration was 11.9±7.3 ppb, corresponding to an average Cu removal of 64%. Zn concentrations were more variable, averaging 39.2±13.8 ppb in the influent and 25.7±21.3 ppb in the effluent. Average Zn removal was 52%. The wetland also ameliorated high pH values associated with influent water to values similar to those measured at reference sites. Seasonal variations in DOC concentration corresponded to seasonal variations in Cu and Zn removal efficiency. The concentration of Cu and Zn in the surface layer of the sediments has increased over the lifetime of the wetland and, like removal efficiency, demonstrated seasonal variation. Within its first year, the H-02

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, S M; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW......Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...

  17. Analytical and numerical construction of vertical periodic orbits about triangular libration points based on polynomial expansion relations among directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Zhai, Guan-Qiao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Innovated by the nonlinear modes concept in the vibrational dynamics, the vertical periodic orbits around the triangular libration points are revisited for the Circular Restricted Three-body Problem. The ζ -component motion is treated as the dominant motion and the ξ and η -component motions are treated as the slave motions. The slave motions are in nature related to the dominant motion through the approximate nonlinear polynomial expansions with respect to the ζ -position and ζ -velocity during the one of the periodic orbital motions. By employing the relations among the three directions, the three-dimensional system can be transferred into one-dimensional problem. Then the approximate three-dimensional vertical periodic solution can be analytically obtained by solving the dominant motion only on ζ -direction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an accuracy study was carried out to validate the polynomial expansion (PE) method. As one of the applications, the invariant nonlinear relations in polynomial expansion form are used as constraints to obtain numerical solutions by differential correction. The nonlinear relations among the directions provide an alternative point of view to explore the overall dynamics of periodic orbits around libration points with general rules.

  18. Construction and Skilled Trades (CAST) Test Preparation, Final Report for period 10/1/2016 - 03/31/2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles [CW Consulting Group LLC, Towson, MD (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Within the energy and utilities sectors, the most significant barrier for consideration and submittal of diverse applicants for skilled labor opportunities is their inability to successfully pass the industry’s Construction And Skilled Trades (CAST) examination. The exam is collectively accepted as the benchmark for prospective candidates and assess if they have the baseline skills and knowledge to apply for skilled positions within those industries. It is an exam that was created by the Edison Electric Institute. Students were taught for a full 40-hr week M-F. We conducted one class in each of the following locations: Philadelphia, Chicago and Washington, DC. The students learned and practiced curriculum prepared by the utility industry for increased success for the examination. They were also taught how to successfully navigate the final barrier of employment opportunity: behavior-based interviewing. They were then directed to the website in order to apply for the positions they desired, and then scheduled to take the exam. We were targeting at least 70% of those who sit for the exam to pass the first time. If they were unsuccessful, candidates could re-test within 3 months. We then sent their resumes directly to the hiring recruiters and managers so that they received prime consideration. Our target number of applicants who were successful in being invited for interviews was 15 candidates.

  19. Socio-Economic Problems of the Russian Construction of Art Nouveau Period (on the Example of A.I. Lishnevsky’s Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr I. Chepel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the specifics of Russian architect’s work on the example of the activity of prominent architect of Art Nouveau period A.L. Lishnevsky (1868–1942. The special attention is paid to the architect’s relations with the authorities, contractors and workers, as well as with customers and colleagues. The author shows the opinion of citizens about the activities of an architect as a builder and businessman, reveals the main socio-economic problems which the architect faced from the moment of inception and approval of the project prior to its actual implementation. The author attempts to trace the mechanism of professional networking in the architecture environment of that time, and to reveal the peculiarities of private architectural bureaus (“offices”. The attention is paid to the assessment by the architect of their own professional activity. A.L. Lishnevsky’s activity is a good example of architect’s work in the construction business. A native of the city of Kherson, he received the metropolitan education at the Art Academy, then for over six years (1895–1901 he worked as a municipal architect in Elisavetgrad (Kirovograd, since 2016 – Kropivnytsky during the period of rapid economic and cultural growth of the town. After 1901 and up to 1917 he was actively engaged in municipal and private construction in the capital of the Russian Empire, Saint Petersburg. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the Art Nouveau period architect worked in capitalism construction market, and was forced to deal with issues similar to those that the architects of our time solve. The study is based on materials from Russian archives and periodicals of late 19th – early 20th century.

  20. Development of Guidelines for Reduction of Temperature Differential Damage (TDD) for Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement Projects in Connecticut - Construction Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Connecticut Department of Transportation personnel used an infrared camera to observe thermal segregation of hot mix asphalt during pavement construction. Several sites were selected for study from ongoing paving projects. During paving operations, t...

  1. Synthetic studies on taxol: highly stereoselective construction of the taxol C-ring via SN2' reduction of an allylic phosphonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Masayuki; Miyano, Masayuki; Nakada, Masahisa

    2006-07-06

    [reaction: see text] The highly stereoselective construction of the C3 stereogenic center of the taxol C-ring is described. The trans isomer at the C3-C8 position of the taxol C-ring, which is required for the total synthesis, as well as its diastereomeric cis isomer were successfully synthesized with highly diastereoselective S(N)2' reduction of the allylic phosphonium salts.

  2. Fluvial geomorphology and suspended-sediment transport during construction of the Roanoke River Flood Reduction Project in Roanoke, Virginia, 2005–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2015-09-30

    Beginning in 2005, after decades of planning, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) undertook a major construction effort to reduce the effects of flooding on the city of Roanoke, Virginia—the Roanoke River Flood Reduction Project (RRFRP). Prompted by concerns about the potential for RRFRP construction-induced geomorphological instability and sediment liberation and the detrimental effects these responses could have on the endangered Roanoke logperch (Percina rex), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnered with the USACE to provide a real-time warning network and a long-term monitoring program to evaluate geomorphological change and sediment transport in the affected river reach. Geomorphological change and suspended-sediment transport are highly interdependent and cumulatively provide a detailed understanding of the sedimentary response, or lack thereof, of the Roanoke River to construction of the RRFRP.

  3. Codes in the codons: construction of a codon/amino acid periodic table and a study of the nature of specific nucleic acid-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyo, B; Biro, J C; Benyo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The theory of "codon-amino acid coevolution" was first proposed by Woese in 1967. It suggests that there is a stereochemical matching - that is, affinity - between amino acids and certain of the base triplet sequences that code for those amino acids. We have constructed a common periodic table of codons and amino acids, where the nucleic acid table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons and the corresponding amino acid table also displayed periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydrophobicity) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table indicates that the middle (2/sup nd/) amino acid in the codon has a prominent role in determining some of the structural features of the amino acids. The possibility that physical contact between codons and amino acids might exist was tested on restriction enzymes. Many recognition site-like sequences were found in the coding sequences of these enzymes and as many as 73 examples of codon-amino acid co-location were observed in the 7 known 3D structures (December 2003) of endonuclease-nucleic acid complexes. These results indicate that the smallest possible units of specific nucleic acid-protein interaction are indeed the stereochemically compatible codons and amino acids.

  4. "Just Advil": Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of over-the-counter medication for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Emery R

    2015-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medications as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as "just over-the-counter" or "not real pain medication," sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from "those people who like taking pain medication" while still seeking relief. Justifying one's use of OTC medication as minimal and "normal," regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain medications and

  5. Transition Metal Oxides for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Influence of the Oxidation States of the Metal and its Position on the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Rou Jun; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-16

    Electrocatalysts have been developed to meet the needs and requirements of renewable energy applications. Metal oxides have been well explored and are promising for this purpose, however, many reports focus on only one or a few metal oxides at once. Herein, thirty metal oxides, which were either commercially available or synthesized by a simple and scalable method, were screened for comparison with regards to their electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We show that although manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel oxides generally displayed the ability to enhance the kinetics of oxygen reduction under alkaline conditions compared with bare glassy carbon, there is no significant correlation between the position of a metal on the periodic table and the electrocatalytic performance of its respective metal oxides. Moreover, it was also observed that mixed valent (+2, +3) oxides performed the poorest, compared with their respective pure metal oxides. These findings may be of paramount importance in the field of renewable energy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Using one filter stage of unsaturated/saturated vertical flow filters for nitrogen removal and footprint reduction of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m2/P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO3-N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.

  7. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input.

  8. REDUCTION OF THE RISK IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT BY USING DESIGN-BUILD AS A MEANS FOR SUITABLE CONSTRUCTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Blaťák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Suitable and sustainable buildings have increased demands for design and for the transfer of design requirements to realization. That causes an increase of risk connected with the differences between planned and real parameters of the buildings. This article will outline the main theme comparison between DBB and DB projects concerning contractor’s risk management level. This comparative analysis explains, using the RIPRAN method, the hidden risks in each type of delivery method. The comparison identifies numerous contractual topics and risks included in both and gives deeper insight into risk management, both for the contracting party and also for public procurement. Applying risk analysis strategies and tools to the process will help decision-makers evaluate and select the suitable delivery method consistently and defensibly. This paper gives generic risk factors related to both project types. The results indicate risk factors with influence on the price, probability of occurrence and unfavourable impact on the project and help allocate risk level more properly in accordance with its high, middle or low probable impact. Public investment is a significant part of the public budget, the application of design-build can help with the reduction of corruption, and the public sector can benefit from the usage of DB projects to help eliminate the mistakes made by contracting authorities.

  9. FORECASTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM PERIOD BY USING ARIMAX MODEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SECTOR IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the forecasting of energy consumption in the Construction and Materials sectors. The scope of the study covers the forecasting periods of energy consumption for the next 10 years, 2017-2026, 20 years, 2017-2036, and 30 years, 2017-2046, by using ARIMAX Model. The prediction results show that these models are effective in the forecast measured by RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results show that from the first model (2,1,1, which predicted the duration of 10 years, 2017-2026, indicates that Thailand has increased an energy consumption rate with the average of 18.09%, while the second model (2,1,2 with the prediction of 20 years, 2017-2036, Thailand arises its energy consumption up to 37.32%. In addition, the third model (2,1,3 predicted the duration of 30 years from 2017 to 2046, and it has found that Thailand increases its energy consumption up to 49.72%.

  10. The layout of urban construction in Bolghar in the late Golden Horde period (preliminary results of studies on materials of excavations Southwest of the Cathedral Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badeev Denis Yu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the archaeological studies on a monumental building, identified in the central part of the Bolghar fortified settlement site, 150 meters southwest of the Cathedral Mosque, during the 1989-1993, 2000 and 2011-2013 works are presented. Adobe brick masonry and remains of wooden flooring have been recorded. Findings in the form of numerous a large number of commercial stock-in-trade items and coins allow interpreting this building as the city market. The authors of the excavations of the building date it back to the 50-70s of the 14th century. The structural elements of the construction and its internal layout suggest the existence of the city market at the intersection of two streets. The presence of street system in this part of the city is also indicated by the remains of two brickworks of mud bricks, which had served as a street fence (duval and referred to layers of the 30-40s of the 14th century. In the mid-14th century, the building of the city market had been being erected in place of the street fence and the adjoining estates. Thus, the development dynamics of Bolghar urban planning in the Late Golden Horde period on the site southwest of the Cathedral Mosque could be traced.

  11. Reduction of the HIV seroconversion window period and false positive rate by using ADVIA Centaur HIV antigen/antibody combo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kang, Eun-Suk

    2013-11-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV infection reduces morbidity and mortality. Fourth-generation HIV detection assays are more sensitive because they can detect p24 antigen as well as anti-HIV antibodies. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a new fourth-generation ADVIA Centaur HIV antigen/antibody combo (CHIV) assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) for early detection of HIV infection and reduction of false positive rate. Four seroconversion panels were included. The third-generation ADVIA Centaur HIV 1/O/2 enhanced (EHIV) assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and fourth-generation CHIV assay were used to test each panel for HIV infection. The presence of antigen was confirmed using HIV p24 antigen assay. To evaluate false-positivity and specificity, 54 HIV false-positive and HIV-negative serum samples from 100 hospitalized patients and 600 healthy subjects were included. COMPARED TO THE EHIV ASSAY, THE CHIV ASSAY HAD A SHORTER WINDOW FOR THREE OF THE SEROCONVERSION PANELS: a difference of 10 days and two bleeds in one panel, and 4 days and one bleed in the other two panels. Only 34 of the 54 (63%) samples known to yield false-positive results by EHIV assay had repeatedly yielded reactive results in the CHIV assay. One of the 600 healthy subjects had a false-positive result with the CHIV assay; thus, the specificity was 99.85% (699/700). CHIV accurately determined the reactive results for the HIV-confirmed serum samples from known HIV patients and Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) panels. The new fourth-generation ADVIA Centaur HIV assay is a sensitive and specific assay that shortens the serological window period and allows early diagnosis of HIV infection.

  12. Field instrumentation and measured response of the I-295 cable-stayed bridge : interim report on construction period strains in cable stays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    During the construction of the I-295 cable-stayed bridge, a number of the stays on the main span cantilever were instrumented with electrical resistance strain gages mounted directly on the wires of the seven-wire strands making up the stay cables. M...

  13. Role of three different plants on simultaneous salt and nutrient reduction from saline synthetic wastewater in lab-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João M; Cassoni, A C; Danko, Anthony S; Fiúza, António; Borges, Maria-Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Constructed Wetlands (CWs) can be a valuable technology to treat high salinity wastewaters but it is not known their potential for removal of both nutrients and salt, and the type of plants to use. This study evaluated the effect of three plants on salt reduction and simultaneous nutrient removal in CWs microcosms with expanded clay and in hydroponic conditions. Initial values of the synthetic wastewater tested were EC=15dSm-1, SAR=151; NH4+-N=24mgL-1; PO43--P=30mgL-1 and NO3--N=34mgL-1. With expanded clay CW removal efficiency for NH4+-N was 21, 88 and 85%, while for NO3--N, it was 4, 56 and 68% for Spartina maritima, Juncus maritimus and Arundo donax, respectively. PO43--P was adsorbed completely in the expanded clay. However, in hydroponic system, removal efficiencies for NH4+-N were 53 and 50%, while PO43--P removal was 89 and -14% for Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, respectively. Nutrient removal in planted microcosms was statistically higher than unplanted controls for NH4+-N and PO43--P. However, salt removal was apparent in the hydroponic system only after 23days of HRT, despite clear salt excretion visible in both Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus. This study demonstrates the potential of two halophytic plants for saline wastewater treatment. However, salt removal in such a scenario could not be well documented and might prove to be impractical in future work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An unsaturated metal site-promoted approach to construct strongly coupled noble metal/HNb3O8 nanosheets for efficient thermo/photo-catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Xia, Yuzhou; Lin, Sen; Liang, Shijing; Wu, Ling

    2017-10-05

    Creating two-dimensional (2D) crystal-metal heterostructures with an ultrathin thickness has spurred increasing research endeavors in catalysis because of its fascinating opportunities in tuning the electronic state at the surface and enhancing the chemical reactivity. Here we report a novel and facile Nb4+-assisted strategy for the in situ growth of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on monolayer HNb3O8 nanosheets (HNb3O8 NS) constituting a 2D Pd/HNb3O8 NS heterostructure composite without using extra reducing agents and stabilizing agents. The Pd NP formation is directed via a redox reaction between an oxidative Pd salt precursor (H2PdCl4) and reductive unsaturated surface metal (Nb4+) sites induced by light irradiation on monolayer HNb3O8 NS. The periodic arrangement of metal Nb nodes on HNb3O8 NS leads to a homogeneous distribution of Pd NPs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the direct redox reaction between the Nb4+ and Pd2+ ions leads to a strong chemical interaction between the formed Pd metal NPs and the monolayer HNb3O8 support. Consequently, the as-obtained Pd/HNb3O8 composite serves as a highly efficient bifunctional catalyst in both heterogeneous thermocatalytic and photocatalytic selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in water under ambient conditions. The achieved high activity originates from the unique 2D nanosheet configuration and in situ Pd incorporation, which leads to a large active surface area, strong metal-support interaction and enhanced charge transport capability. Moreover, this facile Nb4+-assisted synthetic route has demonstrated to be general, which can be applied to load other metals such as Au and Pt on monolayer HNb3O8 NS. It is anticipated that this work can extend the facile preparation of noble metal/nanosheet 2D heterostructures, as well as promote the simultaneous capture of duple renewable thermal and photon energy sources to drive an energy efficient catalytic process.

  15. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    To facilitate disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, Los Alamos National Laboratory designed and constructed the Size Reduction Facility (SRF) during the period 1977 to 1981. This report summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes.

  16. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes.

  17. Construction of response solutions for two classes of quasi-periodically forced four-dimensional nonlinear systems with degenerate equilibrium point under small perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wen; Si, Jianguo

    2017-05-01

    By developing two KAM theorems, in this paper, we show that two classes of quasi-periodically forced four-dimensional nonlinear systems with degenerate equilibrium point, a reversible system and a non-conservative system, admit a response solution under small perturbations. For the degenerate reversible system, applying special structure of unperturbed nonlinear term and Herman method, we successfully control the shift of equilibrium point, which is difficult in view of the degenerate linear term. For the degenerate non-conservative system, KAM method is brought into force even in completely degenerate case because of the restrictions on the smallness and average of perturbation. Moreover, arithmetic condition on the frequency is assumed to satisfy the Brjuno-Rüssmann's non-resonant condition. By the Pöschel-Rüssmann KAM method, we prove that these two kinds of perturbed systems can be reduced to a suitable normal form with zero as equilibrium point by a quasi-periodic transformation.

  18. A preliminary analysis of US CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction potential from energy conservation and the substitution of natural gas for coal in the period to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Ashton, W.B.; Cheng, H.C.; Steinberg, M.

    1989-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) is a product of burning fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of global CO/sub 2/ emissions amounting to 5.2 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC) in 1985. The control of CO/sub 2/ emissions would require control of energy production and use. US emissions were 1.25 PgC in 1985. National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) projections show total US emissions rising 38% by 2010 to 1.7 PgC. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) has sponsored research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to do a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and consequences of reducing US CO/sub 2/ emissions from 1985 levels by 10, 25 or 50 percent by either the year 1995 and 2010. In addition, DOE/CDRD sponsored a day-long roundtable attended by nine experts in the field to discuss this issue. Two methods of CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction were considered: energy intensity reductions (conservation), and substitution of natural gas for coal. The study did not address the contribution of other energy supply options or the feasibility of pre- or post-combustion CO/sub 2/ removal. Furthermore, the study made no attempt to explore specific policies that might be employed to achieve technically feasible CO/sub 2/ emissions reductions. This is not a policy document.

  19. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS IN THE PREOPERATIVE PERIOD FOR PATIENTS THAT WILL REMOVE OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISC’ PROLAPSE IN THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Lazarieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ineffectiveness of conservative treatment will make the need for surgery in 4-5% of patients suffering from low back pain with hernias of the lumbar and sacral spine. Despite the surgical removal of the source of compressed roots, nerves and blood vessels, require a comprehensive system of rehabilitation therapy in order to eliminate manifestations of disease and relief of disease progression. The aim of the work is to substantiate the general approaches for the using of physical rehabilitation and diagnostics static component of the dynamic stereotype in the preoperative period in patients to remove intervertebral disc prolapse. The materials and methods. There was examined 96 with low back pain. Methods are applied in this research: analysis of a literature, observation methods. Results. In conjunction with the physician was determined "diagnosis for rehabilitation" and "prognosis of the rehabilitation". The formulation of the basis of the diagnosis for rehabilitation was performed through the examination during the rehabilitation (as a taking an anamnestic data, examination and palpation, studies of intact sensory and motor functions, the results of objective research tool. Conclusions. The identification of preserved anatomical and functional entities, the definition of the initial level of compensation for lost functions and forecast further recovery is a fundamental approach to program development in the preoperative period in patients with low back pain aimed at the removal of intervertebral disc herniations.

  20. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS IN THE PREOPERATIVE PERIOD FOR PATIENTS THAT WILL REMOVE OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISC’ PROLAPSE IN THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarieva E.B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ineffectiveness of conservative treatment will make the need for surgery in 4-5% of patients suffering from low back pain with hernias of the lumbar and sacral spine. Despite the surgical removal of the source of compressed roots, nerves and blood vessels, require a comprehensive system of rehabilitation therapy in order to eliminate manifestations of disease and relief of disease progression. The aim of the work is to substantiate the general approaches for the using of physical rehabilitation and diagnostics static component of the dynamic stereotype in the preoperative period in patients to remove intervertebral disc prolapse. The materials and methods. There was examined 96 with low back pain. Methods are applied in this research: analysis of a literature, observation methods. Results. In conjunction with the physician was determined "diagnosis for rehabilitation" and "prognosis of the rehabilitation". The formulation of the basis of the diagnosis for rehabilitation was performed through the examination during the rehabilitation (as a taking an anamnestic data, examination and palpation, studies of intact sensory and motor functions, the results of objective research tool. Conclusions. The identification of preserved anatomical and functional entities, the definition of the initial level of compensation for lost functions and forecast further recovery is a fundamental approach to program development in the preoperative period in patients with low back pain aimed at the removal of intervertebral disc herniations.

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  2. Noise Reduction, Atmospheric Pressure Admittance Estimation and Long-Period Component Extraction in Time-Varying Gravity Signals Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying gravity signals, with their nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics, record the physical responses of various geodynamic processes and consist of a blend of signals with various periods and amplitudes, corresponding to numerous phenomena. Superconducting gravimeter (SG records are processed in this study using a multi-scale analytical method and corrected for known effects to reduce noise, to study geodynamic phenomena using their gravimetric signatures. Continuous SG (GWR-C032 gravity and barometric data are decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, which is proposed to alleviate some unresolved issues (the mode mixing problem and the end effect of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD. Further analysis of the variously scaled signals is based on a dyadic filter bank of the IMFs. The results indicate that removing the high-frequency IMFs can reduce the natural and man-made noise in the data, which are caused by electronic device noise, Earth background noise and the residual effects of pre-processing. The atmospheric admittances based on frequency changes are estimated from the gravity and the atmospheric pressure IMFs in various frequency bands. These time- and frequency-dependent admittance values can be used effectively to improve the atmospheric correction. Using the EEMD method as a filter, the long-period IMFs are extracted from the SG time-varying gravity signals spanning 7 years. The resulting gravity residuals are well correlated with the gravity effect caused by the _ polar motion after correcting for atmospheric effects.

  3. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  5. Construction of Au@Pt core—satellite nanoparticles based on in-situ reduction of polymeric ionic liquid protected gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlan; Li, Junbo; Zou, Sheng; Guo, Jinwu; Zhou, Huiyun

    2017-03-01

    A method of in-situ reduction to prepare Au@Pt core-satellite nanoparticles (NPs) is described by using Au NPs coating poly[1-methyl 3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine)] (PMMPImB-@-Au NPs) as the template. After electrostatic complex chloroplatinic acid with PMMPImB shell, the composite NP was directly reduced with N2H4 to produce Au@Pt core-satellite NPs. The characterization of composite and core-satellite NPs under different amounts of chloroplatinic acid were studied by DLS, UV-vis absorption spectrum and TEM. The satellite Pt NPs with a small size ( 2 nm) dotted around Au core, and the resulting Au@Pt core-satellite NPs showed a red-shift surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and a good dispersion due to effectively electrostatic repulsion providing by the polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) shell. Finally, Au@Pt core-satellite NPs exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity and cycled catalytic capability for the reduction of p-nitrophenol with NaBH4.

  6. From Chlorella to Nestlike Framework Constructed with Doped Carbon Nanotubes: A Biomass-Derived, High-Performance, Bifunctional Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghua; Deng, Yijie; Yu, Jinnan; Zheng, Long; Du, Li; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun

    2017-09-20

    The development of effective bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is significant for energy conversion systems, such as Li-air batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting technologies. Herein, a Chlorella-derived catalyst with a nestlike framework, composed of bamboolike nanotubes that encapsulate cobalt nanoparticles, has been prepared through a facile pyrolysis process. It achieves perfect bifunctional catalysis both in ORR and OER on a single catalyst. For our optimal catalyst Co/M-Chlorella-900, its ORR half-wave potential is positively shifted by 40 mV compared to that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst, and the overpotential at 10 mA cm -2 for the OER is 23 mV lower than that of a commercial IrO 2 /C catalyst in an alkaline medium. This superior bifunctional catalytic performance is benefited from the simultaneous increase of pyridinic N sites for ORR and graphitic N sites for OER. In addition, N-doped carbon-encapsulated Co nanoparticles improve both ORR and OER performance by forming new active centers. The unique nestlike carbon nanotube framework not only afforded highly dense ORR and OER active sites but also promoted the electron and mass transfer. Our catalyst also displays notable durability during the ORR and OER, making it promising for use in ORR/OER-related energy conversion systems.

  7. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  8. Quantum State Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, DC; Hughston, LP

    2016-01-01

    We propose an energy-driven stochastic master equation for the density matrix as a dynamical model for quantum state reduction. In contrast, most previous studies of state reduction have considered stochastic extensions of the Schr¨odinger equation, and have introduced the density matrix as the expectation of the random pure projection operator associated with the evolving state vector. After working out properties of the reduction process we construct a general solution to the energy- driven...

  9. [Alcohol and construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Lorenzi, S; Silva, Giulia; Bartolozzi, F; Pavesi, Greta; Bancone, Claudia; Bettineschi, O; Magno, D

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the data drawn by national and international literature and the introduction of recent legislation concerning "alcohol and alcohol-related problems", we studied alcohol consumption and the consequences that alcohol abuse has on health, working ability, accidents and absenteeism in construction workers. We studied alcohol consumption in two groups of building workers over different periods (1996-2000; 2006). In 142 workers alcohol concentration was measured in expired air during the periodic health surveillance examination and during work on building sites. We also analyzed the relationship between declared alcohol consumption, accidents and absenteeism. Our study showed a reduction in the average consumption of alcohol over the last ten years but confirmed the role of alcohol-related diseases as a cause of work limitations or work disability. On the other hand, "breathalysing" demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pauses in work is still common. The results of this study confirm the correlation between frequency/seriousness of accidents, absenteeism and average consumption of alcohol.

  10. Accelerating risk reduction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Theory-based mass-media intervention proven to increase knowledge of, belief in, and intent to support earthquake-resistant construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquini, A.; Thapaliya, S. M.; Wood, M. M.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Motivating people in rapidly urbanizing areas to take protective actions against natural disasters faces the challenge that these people often do not know what actions to take, do not believe that such actions are effective, and/or believe that the disaster will not happen to them within their lifetimes. Thus, finding demonstrated ways of motivating people to take protective action likely constitutes a grand challenge for natural disaster risk reduction and resiliency, because it may be one of the largest, lowest-cost sources of potential risk reduction in these situations. We developed a theory-based documentary film (hereafter, intervention) targeted at motivating retrofits of local school buildings, and tested its effectiveness in Kathmandu, Nepal, using a matched-pair clustered randomized controlled trial. The intervention features Nepalese who have strengthened their school buildings as role models to others at schools still in need of seismic work. It was tested at 16 Kathmandu Valley schools from November 2014 through March 2015. Schools were matched into 8 pairs, then randomly assigned to see either the intervention film or an attention placebo control film on an unrelated topic. Testing was completed just five weeks before the M 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck central Nepal. When compared to the control schools, the schools whose community members saw the retrofit intervention film increased their knowledge of specific actions to take in support of earthquake-resistant construction, belief in the feasibility of making buildings earthquake-resistant, willingness to support seismic strengthening of the local school building, and likelihood to recommend to others that they build earthquake-resistant homes, which have all been shown to be precursors to taking self-protective action. This suggests that employing a mass-media intervention featuring community members who have already taken the desired action increases factors that may accelerate adoption of risk

  11. Energy use for building construction. Preliminary progress report for period March 1, 1976--May 15, 1976. [Energy intensities of various sectors and overall industry from Energy Input/Output Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, B M; Stein, R G; Segal, B; Serber, D

    1976-05-01

    The building construction industry, as broken down by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, was integrated into the Energy Input/Output Model developed at the Center for Advanced Computation, University of Illinois. The resulting expanded model was used to determine energy intensities of various (49) building construction (new and maintenance) sectors and of the overall building construction industry, for year 1967. The latter figure was computed at about 70,000 Btu/$, i.e., the construction industry on the average required about 70,000 Btu of direct and indirect energy per dollar of output produced. The most energy intensive sector was New Construction of Petroleum Pipelines (about 150,000 Btu/$), while the least intensive was Maintenance Construction for Electric Utilities (about 25,000 Btu/$). Also developed were total energy (direct and indirect) requirements to final demand for the building construction industry, for 1967. The overall industry required about 6000 trillion Btu, or about nine percent of the total U.S. energy requirement. New Highway Construction required the most energy to final demand (about 1000 trillion Btu, or 16 percent of the total construction industry requirement), while Maintenance Construction Residential required the least (about 9 trillion Btu, or 0.1 percent of the total industry requirement.

  12. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  13. Historiske perioder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For at forstå fortiden og fortællingerne om den, må vi skabe en form for orden og systematik. Her spiller inddelingen af fortiden i historiske perioder en afgørende rolle – og historiske perioder er da også et kompetencemål efter 6. klasse. Videoen diskuterer forskellige principper...... for periodisering. Kronologi og sammenhænge hænger naturligt sammen med historiske perioder. Videoen handler også om forståelser og brug af synkrone og diakrone sammenhænge i faget....

  14. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  15. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  16. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  17. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  18. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  19. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  20. Accelerated construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  1. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  2. Influence of the in vitro culture period on the in vivo performance of cell/titanium bone tissue-engineered constructs using a rat cranial critical size defect model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikavitsas, V.I.; Dolder, J. van den; Bancroft, G.N.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo performance in bone-regenerating capability of cell/scaffold constructs implanted into an orthotopic site. Bone marrow stromal osteoblasts were seeded on titanium fiber mesh scaffolds using a cell suspension (5 x 10(5) cells per scaffold) and

  3. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    the building process and includes all participants in the construction project. A general result from the analysis was that critical events that occurred when the site was not using Lean Construction evolved much longer than critical events that occurred in the period when Lean Construction was used. Another......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate...

  4. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  5. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  6. ' CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. N. Aniekwu. Civil Engineering Department,. University of Benin,. Benin City. Nigeria. ABSTRACT. This paper deals with safety in the Nigerian construction industry. Three aspects of safety were identified as paramount in the study and include accident causations, accident prevention and the.

  7. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based

  8. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...... constructs and how they can be combined with more advanced constructs. Second, it will help combining different modelling notations with each other. Note that, though we introduce a notation for blocks in this chapter, we are not so much interested in promoting this notation here. The notation should just...

  9. El sector de la construcción en la provincia de León a lo largo del periodo 1990-2013 = The construction industry in the province of León during the period 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro María Martínez Villar

    2014-12-01

    Despite the intense crisis experienced by the sector since 2007, construction activity remains important for the entire provincial economy. Forasmuch as 17.36% of the total of Leon companies have direct activity with construction and its industry continues to provide figures close to 10% of the provincial VAB in terms of employment and the sector still employs 15,200 workers in the province. In this sense, the fact remains that the crisis not only has driven a significant number of workers out of the sector, but it has also caused a significant deterioration of the contractual quality of the new jobs, and resulting in a significant reduction in wages as major characteristics of work sector market adjustment.

  10. Fisioterapia para redução da diástase dos músculos retos abdominais no pós-parto Physiotherapy for reduction of diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Mesquita

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: constatar se a intervenção fisioterápica no puerpério imediato é capaz de contribuir para a redução da diástase mais precocemente. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo longitudinal e aleatório, com 50 puérperas recrutadas na Maternidade-Escola Hilda Brandão da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte (MEHB-SCBH, no período de abril a setembro de 1998. O grupo controle (N = 25 foi submetido à avaliação e mensuração da diástase (6 horas e 18 horas após o parto e no grupo de tratamento (N = 25 foi realizada a mesma avaliação e mensuração acima, assim como um protocolo de atendimento fisioterápico, 6 e 18 horas após o parto. Utilizou-se um paquímetro, instrumento de medida de precisão, na mensuração da diástase nas avaliações. Resultados: no período de 18 horas pós-parto, o grupo controle apresentou uma redução da diástase de 5,4% e o grupo de tratamento de 12,5%, em relação à primeira medida (6 horas após o parto, (pPurpose: to check if physiotherapy immediately after childbirth may contribute to early diastasis reduction. Methods: longitudinal and randomized study with 50 parturient women recruited in the Maternidade-Escola Hilda Brandão of the Santa Casa of Belo Horizonte, from April to September 1998. The control group (N = 25 was submitted to evaluation and measurement (6 h and 18 h after labor, and the treatment group (N = 25 was submitted to the same evaluation and measurement as above, as well as to a protocol for physiotherapeutic assistance, 6 and 18 h after labor. For the evaluations, a pachymeter, a precision instrument, was used to measure diastasis. Results: at 18 h after parturition, the control group presented a diastasis reduction of 5.4%, and the treatment group of 12.5%, as related to the first measure (6 h after delivery (p<0.001, with a confidence interval of 99%. Conclusions: these results show that the physiotherapeutic assistance immediately after childbirth determines a significant

  11. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  12. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  13. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Second annual technical report for the period 1978 September 1-1979 December 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    A new computer program was developed for simultaneously solving heat and mass balance at steady state for a flowing one-dimensional chemical reactor. Bench scale reactor results confirmed that minimum final stage reaction temperature is 1950 to 2000/sup 0/C, depending on the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ concentration in the burden. Additions of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the charge produced significant increase in metallic yield. A new bench reactor was designed, built, and operated to facilitate semi-continuous operation, using O/sub 2/ injection to burn coke supporting the burden, resulting in burden movement. Validity of the equipment and test procedures was demonstrated by successfully operating the reactor as an iron blast furnace at 1500/sup 0/C. Bench scale fractional crystallizer runs were continued to determine the impurity effects of Fe up to 6.9% and Ti up to 1.25% on alloy product purity and yield. High initial impurity concentrations resulted in less pure Al-Si product and product yield below 50% due to Al and Si losses as Fe-Si-Al and Ti-Si-Al intermetallics. Long term testing was continued in the large bench scale membrane cell to evaluate woven cloth membrane and other construction materials, operating procedures, and effects of operating parameters on cell performance. Included in the latter were starting alloy composition, current density, anode-cathode spacing, and electrolyte composition.

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Analysis of performance indicators of investment and construction sector of the Russian Federation in the conditions of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliakov Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the performance indicators of the investment and construction sector in the Russian Federation in the conditions of the crisis, the main trends of development of this sphere in the period from 2008 to 2016 in the projects of construction of residential and commercial real estate are considered. It was noted that during this period there has been a significant growth in construction and commissioning of buildings, while consumer demand for both residential and commercial real estate is declining. Also considered are the main participants of the housing construction market, analyzed the specifics of mortgage lending in this period. Among the negative prospects for the development of the industry, a reduction in the volume of input, freezing or reformatting of projects was noted.

  16. Constructing dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The concept of montage is proposed as a driver for establishing heterogeneous, open and dynamic new-industrial architecture. Drawing parallels between the intense industrialization that occurred in Denmark in the 1960s and current scenarios of IT-based production methods, montage is unfolded both...... as an aesthetic strategy and a technical procedure, taking inspiration from both visual arts and architecture. Montage is presented as a means of creating active, architectural interactions - material as well as in terms of meaning - not only in the realm of industrialization but also in the intersection between...... industrial production methods and on-site, craft-based fields of construction....

  17. Constructing History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Riber

    2010-01-01

    The Icelandic sagas can be read and interpreted in many ways. This article examines the sagas both as literary expressions of a longstanding oral tradition and as part of a collective and cultural memory. The focus in the first part is on people and places in the sagas as ‘realms of memory’: things...... that help construct a common past and a common identity. The second part of the article explores the role of the sagas in medieval Iceland as ‘key myths’ that explain the origin and uniqueness of a society, and as moral and legal role models legitimizing the current social order....

  18. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib

    2016-01-05

    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  19. Time reduction in well construction with the addition of glass microspheres and thixotropic agents in cement slurries in zonal isolation at Solimoes Basin; Reducao do tempo de construcao de pocos de petroelo na Bacia do Solimoes atraves da utilizacao de microsferas de vidro e agentes tixotropicos nas fases de cimentacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson R.L.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hyghes, Houston, TX (United States); Corregio, Fabio; Augusto, Marcelo; Mendes, Sandro C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the problems faced by the oil industry during the well construction is the damage effect of the hydrostatic head of cement slurries on unconsolidated reservoirs, trending to a necessity of lightweight cementing slurries with high resistance for zonal isolation. This paper presents experiences with lightweight cementing slurries obtained by the addition of glass microspheres and thixotropic agents in oil and gas wells located at Solimoes Basin - Amazon Basin, Brazil, which led to 100% time reduction on well construction when compared with the standard cementing procedures, besides the benefit of no reservoir damage. It also includes lab tests, cement slurry designs, case histories and results that allow a complete evaluation of the technique that can be applied in other similar environments. (author)

  20. Nitrate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  1. Specific features of elite bodybuilders’ training process in competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Tihorsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To substantiate methodic of training process construction for elite bodybuilders in competition period with usage of different training methods. Material: elite bodybuilders - members of combined team of Ukraine (n=16 participated in the research. Results: we presented comparative characteristic of the most often used bodybuilding training methodic. Besides, optimal training methodic in competition period was worked out and substantiated. Such methodic permits to improve body proportions at the account of fat layer reduction. By the data of Harvard step-test the sportsmen improved organism’s functional potentials by 6%. Conclusions: the offered methodic noticeably reduces probability of functional unfavorable states (over-training, overloading, traumas. The methodic permits to achieve the required sport form without over-tension adaptation-compensatory mechanisms and acquire maximal muscular relief; improve proportions with minimal losses of muscles’ volume.

  2. Design and construction of the work for spoil bank of Tachibana Bay Power Station. Strength property of solidified soil and cost reduction by quality control; Tachibana Wan Htsudensho doshajo koji no sekkei to seko. Kokado no kyodo tokusei to hinshitsu kanri ni yoru kosuto teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesawa, H.; Okada, H.; Tachikawa, T. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Takamatsu (Japan)

    1996-11-05

    The construction work of the spoil bank of Tachibana Bay Power Station, Tokushima Prefecture, is a high banking work of the total volume of banked soil of about 2.2 million m{sup 3} reaching about 50m in height, and out of the above volume of soil, about 1.2 million m{sup 3} is the soil dredged from the sea bottom generated from levee construction, etc.. Concerning this work of spoil bank, it is required to accept a great quantity of surplus soil and solidified soil at the same time while securing stability of the entire banking, and maintenance of the construction process and construction costs are very much affected by whether or not this accepting work can be promoted smoothly. Hence, securing of accepting capacity, reduction of the effects on the environment and cost reduction have been the important issues. In view of this, a core type zoning has been adopted which has compounded dimensionally the surplus soil from the power station and the solidified soil. Also in order to make the high banking of the solidified soil economical and highly reliable, it is an indispensable condition that the design uniaxial compressive strength of each zone is secured at the constant reliability, and for this purpose, the measurement of percentage of water content of the dredged soil, the quality control system to control the volume of supply of the dredged soil and cement, and the method of controlling the strength of the dredged soil have been conducted. 7 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Long-period clocks from short-period oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labavić, Darka; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2017-08-01

    We analyze repulsively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, which are exposed to a distribution of natural frequencies. This source of disorder leads to closed orbits of repetitive temporary patterns of phase-locked motion, providing clocks on macroscopic time scales. The periods can be orders of magnitude longer than the periods of individual oscillators. By construction, the attractor space is quite rich. This may cause long transients until the deterministic trajectories find their stationary orbits. The smaller the width of the distribution about the common natural frequency, the longer are the emerging time scales on average. Among the long-period orbits, we find self-similar sequences of temporary phase-locked motion on different time scales. The ratio of time scales is determined by the ratio of widths of the distributions. The results illustrate a mechanism for how simple systems can provide rather flexible dynamics, with a variety of periods even without external entrainment.

  4. Embending Sustainability Dynamics in the Lean Construction Supply Chain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Begum Sertyesilisik

    2016-01-01

    .... Lean construction project management contributes to the reduction of the environmental footprint of the construction industry, enabling reduction in waste, and increasing value added activities. For this reason, based on an in depth literature review, this paper analyses and establishes the principles of the integration of the sustainability dynamics into lean construction supply chain management.

  5. Absent menstrual periods - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary amenorrhea; No periods - primary; Absent periods - primary; Absent menses - primary; Absence of periods - primary ... nutrition Tumors In many cases, the cause of primary amenorrhea is not known.

  6. 36 CFR 14.29 - Timely construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timely construction. 14.29...-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.29 Timely construction. (a) Unless otherwise provided by law, a period of up to five years from the date a right-of-way is granted is allowed for completion of construction...

  7. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  8. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  9. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... at the heart of the tug-of-war metaphor. The author's suggestion would be to "offshore" the tug-of-war metaphor and replace it by the ocean metaphor of Bolinger (1964), with the ups and downs at the surface of the ocean representing the speaker's variation along the hypo-hyper scale and wavelength...

  10. Period doubling patterns of interval maps

    CERN Document Server

    Valaristos, A

    2003-01-01

    We prove the existence and demonstrate the construction of period doubling patterns centered at periodic orbits of continuous maps on the interval. In particular we prove that f in R: =set membership C sup 0 (I,I) exhibits a period doubling pattern centered at a fixed point of f if and only if the set of periodic points is not closed. Furthermore, we prove that if f has a periodic orbit of period n>1, which is not a power of two, and n .pr. m in Sarkovskii's ordering, then f exhibits a period doubling pattern centered at a periodic orbit of period m. An analytic configuration of such period doubling patterns is exhibited.

  11. Effect of Extending Hot Weather Periods on Approach to Floor Construction in Moderate Climate Residential Buildings / Wpływ Przedłużających Się Okresów Występowania Wysokich Temperatur Letnich Na Podejście Do Projektowania Podłogi Na Gruncie w Budynkach Mieszkalnych w Krajach Klimatu Umiarkowanego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszczuk Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of changes in Global climate on the prolonging time and the frequency of the periods of very high outside air temperature at summer were shown in the paper with particular emphasis on European moderate climate countries. In these countries, residential buildings, are usually equipped neither in air conditioning equipment, nor in ordinary window blinds. As the most promising solution it is suggested to resign completely or partially from ground slab thermal insulation, directly utilizing ground heat storage capacity. The paper includes detailed simulations on potential effect of various kind of floor construction and actions preventing high indoor air temperatures in building approach on air temperature inside the one-storey, passive residential buildings during consecutive days of very high outdoor temperature and total energy used yearly for additional heating and air conditioning.

  12. Effect of Extending Hot Weather Periods on Approach to Floor Construction in Moderate Climate Residential Buildings / Wpływ Przedłużających Się Okresów Występowania Wysokich Temperatur Letnich Na Podejście Do Projektowania Podłogi Na Gruncie w Budynkach Mieszkalnych w Krajach Klimatu Umiarkowanego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszczuk, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    The effects of changes in Global climate on the prolonging time and the frequency of the periods of very high outside air temperature at summer were shown in the paper with particular emphasis on European moderate climate countries. In these countries, residential buildings, are usually equipped neither in air conditioning equipment, nor in ordinary window blinds. As the most promising solution it is suggested to resign completely or partially from ground slab thermal insulation, directly utilizing ground heat storage capacity. The paper includes detailed simulations on potential effect of various kind of floor construction and actions preventing high indoor air temperatures in building approach on air temperature inside the one-storey, passive residential buildings during consecutive days of very high outdoor temperature and total energy used yearly for additional heating and air conditioning.

  13. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  14. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    of the industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  15. Post-insulation of Existing Buildings Constructed Between 1850 and 1920

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    ’s requirements. Therefore, there is an increased interest in improving the insulation standard of many existing and older buildings. However, special attention should be paid to prevent degradation of the existing construction when the energy demand for heating and thermal comfort of a building decreases...... building constructed as a typical building constructed in the period of 1850 to 1920. Like many of the existing buildings from that period, this building was recognized as a building with a unique architecture. It is a prerequisite for the improvement of the insulation standard that customized post......Tightened requirements for thermal insulation of new buildings and the demand for a reduction of energy consumption for heating and comfort in order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions mean that existing and especially older buildings have a very low thermal standard compared with today...

  16. Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Sarah J; Green, Mick; Gregerson, Sarah; Weir, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale offshore renewable energy infrastructure construction in Scottish waters is anticipated in coming decades. An approach being pursued, with a view to preventing short-range marine mammal injury, is the introduction of additional noise sources to intentionally disturb and displace animals from renewable sites over the construction period. To date, no full and transparent consideration has been given to the long-term cost benefits of noise reduction compared with noise-inducing mitigation techniques. It has yet to be determined if the introduction of additional noise is consistent with the objectives of the EU Habitats Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  17. Use of Insulating Concrete Forms in Residential Housing Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Dan

    2000-01-01

    .... Many of ICF material properties provide advantages over wood frame construction, notably in better insulation R-values, fire resistance, sound reduction, air infiltration, consistency of insulation...

  18. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  19. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  20. Effective Safety Management in Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I.; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Effective safety management is one of the serious problems in the construction industry worldwide, especially in large-scale construction projects. There have been significant reductions in the number and the rate of injury over the last 20 years. Nevertheless, construction remains as one of the high risk industry. The purpose of this study is to examine safety management in the Malaysian construction industry, as well as to highlight the importance of construction safety management. The industry has contributed significantly to the economic growth of the country. However, when construction safety management is not implemented systematically, accidents will happen and this can affect the economic growth of the country. This study put the safety management in construction project as one of the important elements to project performance and success. The study emphasize on awareness and the factors that lead to the safety cases in construction project.

  1. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  2. Industrial Disputes in the Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Perry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cole Royal Commission enquiry into the building and construction (abbreviated to ‘construction’ sector recommended controversial workplace-relation reforms for that sector. The recommended changes are likely to be enshrined in legislation within the year. The Commission drew on analyses of industrial disputes that focused, in the main, on quite recent experience. This paper attempts to give a broader historical perspective on disputes in that sector by considering the pattern of disputes for the entire post-World War II period. Accordingly, data on disputes and employees during the entire period are gathered from Australian Bureau of Statistics current and archived sources. These data are classified according to sector (construction versus non-construction and analysed. It is found that the strike rate has, on average, been greater in the construction sector than in the non-construction sector. However, there have been periods during which disputes in the construction sector have been relatively low. The most recent period was during the period of the Accord (1983-96, during which the strike rate in the construction sector fell relatively strongly. The analysis of this relatively broad historical period draws attention, among other things, to the possibility that the sort of strategies employed during the Accord years – strategies of cooperation and consensus building – may provide a more effective means of bringing industrial peace to the workplace relations scene of the construction sector than policies that are relatively confrontational.

  3. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2013-12-01

    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Embending Sustainability Dynamics in the Lean Construction Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertyesilisik Begum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The world’s habitat is being deteriorated despite of the precautions taken. Construction industry is among the industries which highly effect the environment adversely not only through its outputs but also through the construction process and its inputs. The main focus in dealing with the reduction of its footprint has been on sustainable building certificates which mainly analyse the output of the construction activies. There is need to analyse the construction supply chain as a whole and to embed sustainability dynamics in construction supply chain management. Lean construction project management contributes to the reduction of the environmental footprint of the construction industry, enabling reduction in waste, and increasing value added activities. For this reason, based on an in depth literature review, this paper analyses and establishes the principles of the integration of the sustainability dynamics into lean construction supply chain management.

  5. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  6. Periodic solutions of nonlinear vibrating beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Berkovits

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove new existence and multiplicity results for periodic semilinear beam equation with a nonlinear time-independent perturbation in case the period is not prescribed. Since the spectrum of the linear part varies with the period, the solvability of the equation depends crucially on the period which can be chosen as a free parameter. Since the period of the external forcing is generally unknown a priori, we consider the following natural problem. For a given time-independent nonlinearity, find periods T for which the equation is solvable for any T-periodic forcing. We will also deal with the existence of multiple solutions when the nonlinearity interacts with the spectrum of the linear part. We show that under certain conditions multiple solutions do exist for any small forcing term with suitable period T. The results are obtained via generalized Leray-Schauder degree and reductions to invariant subspaces.

  7. Visual quasi-periodicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogalin, E.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Periodicity is at the core of the recognition of many actions. This paper takes the following steps to detect and measure periodicity. 1) We establish a conceptual framework of classifying periodicity in 10 essential cases, the most important of which are flashing (of a traffic light), pulsing (of

  8. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  9. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) increased the number of construction projects funded by capital made available through the leasing of the Indiana Toll Road. However, during the same time period, the level of perso...

  10. Streamlined project closeout for construction at KYTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project closeout is the period between the end of construction and when a contract is finalized. During closeout, resources are held in encumbered funds intended for the project and in the contractors bonding capacity. Although the Kentucky Transp...

  11. Reduction and Maintance of Turbochargers by Applying Valid Tribological Constructing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Condition recordings and turbochargers test results indicate that during the long driving at higher speeds may cause turbochargers overheat. Lubricate termination after shutting generator can cause damage to the sliding surface bearings. As a result, eventually comes to unbalance of rotating parts, turbine rotor and the compressor impeller. One of the solutions is application of sensor which would not allow shutting generator down until the temperature is lowered to an acceptable value.

  12. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    matrices are constructed based on the convex combinations of the generalized gramians. However this framework is less conservative than the first one, it does not guarantee the stability for all switching signals. The stability preservation is studied for this reduction technique. The third framework......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  13. How Long, Narrowly Constructed Wetlands Purify Irrigation Return Water: A Case Study of Ulansuhai Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of raw wastewater in China has proved to be very successful in recent decades. However, it is not known whether surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively purify irrigation return water. To investigate the performance of a constructed wetland in terms of meeting the goals of pollutant purification, the 8th drainage of Ulansuhai Lake was used for this study. Pollutant removal performances, as well as hydrological characteristic variations in relation to specific characteristics of plants, were investigated utilizing two years of monthly average data. The results indicated that surface-flow constructed wetlands can effectively change the physical characteristics of return water and lead to a sharp decrease in pollutant concentrations. The 1200 m long, narrowly constructed wetland resulted in the average reduction rates of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP of up to 22.1% and 21.5%, respectively. The overall purification efficient of the constructed wetland presented seasonal variations in four different monitoring periods (May, July, September, and November. Constructed wetlands with multiple types of plants exhibited higher efficiencies in pollutants removal than those with a single type of plant. The current study can provide meaningful information for the treatment of agricultural wastewater.

  14. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J. [Hedeselskabet, Miljoe og Energi A/S, Viborg(Denmark); Carstensen, Jakob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskidle (Denmark); Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Biology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-15

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  15. The Accelerated Window Work Method Using Vertical Formwork for Tall Residential Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In tall residential building construction, there is a process gap between the window work and the structural work. This process gap extends the total period of the project and increases its cost. In addition, as this process gap increases external exposure to noise and dust, it negatively affects the environment of a site and often causes civil complaints. This paper introduces a new window work process called the accelerated window work (AWW method, which minimizes the process gap and can reduce construction cost and duration and the number of civil complaints. We provide technical details and management elements of the AWW method with a case study that demonstrates the reductions in construction costs and duration compared with the conventional method. This work contributes to the body of knowledge in window work in tall buildings by introducing and validating a new window work method and process. The proposed method will be useful for practitioners who are under short-term constraints.

  16. Second Period Access Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisondieu, Christophe; Giebhardt, Jochen; Tetu, Amelie

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive.......The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  17. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of lost time from ...

  18. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...... publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally...

  19. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  20. Childhood as a social construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoyskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the period of childhood as a social construct and focuses on the duration of this life’s phase, the historical changes of children’s social position and the childhood symbolic image in the culture following the development of educational institutions and styles. The authors analyze the theories of such recognized authors in the field of social and cultural genealogy of childhood as Philippe Ariès and Lloyd de Mause.

  1. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the talk is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts for a hierarchy of four mathematical models....... In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common...

  3. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  4. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  5. The mixed Tate property of reductive groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sella, Yehonatan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the mixed Tate property of reductive algebraic groups G, which in particular guarantees a Chow Kunneth property for the classifying space BG. Toward this goal, we first refine the construction of the compactly supported motive of a quotient stack. In the first section, we construct the compactly supported motive M^c(X) of an algebraic space X and demonstrate that it satisfies expected properties, following closely Voevodsky's work in the case of schemes. In the s...

  6. Slow-light vortices in periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2009-01-01

    We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states havin...

  7. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  8. Tanzimat'tan II. Meşrutiyet'e Hüdâvendigâr Vilayetinde Karayolu Yapım Çalışmaları From Tanzimat Period To The Second Constitutionalist Hüdâvendigâr City Highway Construction Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah ÇETİN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Made during the Tanzimat reforms began to be establishedin every area. Initiatives, especially in the field of Public Works underthe XIX. given great importance to the issue of the road in the secondhalf of the century, and for many years was initiated studies for therehabilitation of neglected roads. Government, prepared by the projectsto build new roads, worked to repair the old ways, many of regulationwas published about them.Councils Reconstruction efforts after the Tanzimat, the empirehad begun the adventure of the road. Giving priority to creating atransportation stipulated in the zoning Councils, to identify ways to dothese councils serve as the primary task was given to regions. In 1848,the first job out of the Black Sea, Central Anatolia to Arabia, decidedthat the way to connect the highway between Trabzon and Baghdad.However, due to lack of sufficient grounds for this treasure, thisinitiative was postponed. In the meantime, efforts still CouncilsReconstruction of Trabzon, Erzurum and Bursa-Gemlik roadconstruction work was launched. For this purpose, studies wasdiscontinued due to the lack of resources and the need to not showinterest.Road construction and repair Hüdavendigâr province provinceswas one of the most important issue. Because a significant portion ofthe Anatolian Right Arm Route Hüdavendigâr district roads within theboundaries of the construction and repair of roads passes each note inthe province had been. Also very important in the feeding of Istanbulprovince constitutes a supply Hüdavendigâr province sought to berealized by constructing new roads and repair on a regular basis. In thisstudy, from the Tanzimat within the existing roads in the province inthe period up to the period of constitutionalıst are introduced,information about the new roads and repair works will bepresented. Tanzimat döneminde her alanda köklü ıslahatlar yapılmaya başlanmıştı. Bayındırlık alanındaki girişimler kapsamında

  9. Sustainable construction: composite use of tyres and ash in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, D G; Kinuthia, J M; Davies, P A; Chang, S-R

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of a non-standard (unprocessed) pulverised fuel ash (PFA) and waste tyres from a former landfill site at the Power Station Hill near Church Village, South Wales, United Kingdom. Investigations are on-going to establish the suitability of the fly ash and/or tyres in road construction (embankment and pavement) and also in concrete to be used in the construction of the proposed highway. This paper reports on concrete-based construction where concrete blends (using various levels of PFA as partial replacement for Portland cement (PC), and shredded waste tyres (chips 15-20mm) as aggregate replacement) were subjected to unconfined compressive strength tests to establish performance, hence, optimising mix designs. Strength development up to 180 days for the concrete made with PC-PFA blends as binders (PC-PFA concrete), with and without aggregate replacement with tyre chips, is reported. The binary PC-PFA concrete does not have good early strength but tends to improve at longer curing periods. The low early strength observed means that PC-PFA concrete cannot be used for structures, hence, only as low to medium strength applications such as blinding, low-strength foundations, crash barriers, noise reduction barriers, cycle paths, footpaths and material for pipe bedding.

  10. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  11. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  12. Model Reduction in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    mechanical parameters from experimental results. However, in real biological world, these homogeneous and isotropic assumptions are usually invalidate. Thus, instead of using hypothesized model, a specific continuum model at mesoscopic scale can be introduced based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulations at atomistic level. Once a continuum model is established, it can provide details on the distribution of stresses and strains induced within the biomolecular system which is useful in determining the distribution and transmission of these forces to the cytoskeletal and sub-cellular components, and help us gain a better understanding in cell mechanics. A data-driven model reduction approach to the problem of microtubule mechanics as an application is present, a beam element is constructed for microtubules based upon data reduction of the results from molecular simulation of the carbon backbone chain of alphabeta-tubulin dimers. The data base of mechanical responses to various types of loads from molecular simulation is reduced to dominant modes. The dominant modes are subsequently used to construct the stiffness matrix of a beam element that captures the anisotropic behavior and deformation mode coupling that arises from a microtubule's spiral structure. In contrast to standard Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko beam elements, the link between forces and node displacements results not from hypothesized deformation behavior, but directly from the data obtained by molecular scale simulation. Differences between the resulting microtubule data-driven beam model (MTDDBM) and standard beam elements are presented, with a focus on coupling of bending, stretch, shear deformations. The MTDDBM is just as economical to use as a standard beam element, and allows accurate reconstruction of the mechanical behavior of structures within a cell as exemplified in a simple model of a component element of the mitotic spindle.

  13. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively...

  14. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  15. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  16. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Construction Technologies (ACTs) are set to become the sustainable mainstay of the construction industry due to the demand for innovative housing solutions. Like most emerging economies, South Africa from a historical perspective and global...

  17. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  18. Service Robotics in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Bock

    2008-01-01

    Service robots in construction move from cleaning of the construction site and diagnosing of the building fa?ade as security, logistic and assistive robots into the building and apartment and will in the future share urban environment with humans.

  19. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  20. Construction manpower management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This report traces the development of and explains the operation of a Construction Manpower Management System (CMMS) developed for the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Initial direction for this project was received from the Construction...

  1. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  2. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  3. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  4. Periodicity in magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic systems show periodicity in productivity, magma chemistry and dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The timescales over which such parameters change are highly variable and ranges between several tens of millions of years down to few hundredths of thousands years. While magmatic activity appears modulated at various frequencies, the lifetime of single volcanic systems, the duration of emplacement of single plutons, or the timespan over which a given volcanic region is active, appear to last for distinct but characteristic periods of time. Hundredths of thousands of years is a typical number for the range of zircon crystallisation ages in the products of large eruptions or for the lifetime of single plutons, while activity in volcanic regions or the duration of emplacement of crustal batholiths appears to last up to about 10 Ma. Several mechanisms such as variable magma productivity in the mantle, delamination, thermal and mechanical maturation of the crust have been proposed to modulate magmatic activity. All these processes indeed contribute to modulate the periodicity of magmatic activity, but because certain timescales are recurrent, some fundamental processes must play a fundamental role in regulating the "tempo" of magmatism. Are transitions of behaviour finally the product of major changes in mantle dynamics or is the crust the plays the pivotal role in modulating periodic variations observed in magmatic systems? In this contribution I will provide an overview of existing data on periodicity of magmatic systems and use thermal modelling to show that periodic variations of magma chemistry and the physical properties of magmas are an inexorable consequence of the evolution of the thermal budget of magmatic systems. I hope to trigger discussion and collaborations between experts of geodynamics and magmatism to establish relationships between periodicity, mantle and crustal processes.

  5. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  6. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  7. Personality Constructs and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Simcox, April G.; Kim, Na-Young

    2007-01-01

    A psychological construct, such as personality, is an abstraction that is not directly seen but inferred through observed regularities in cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in various settings. Two assumptions give meaning to the idea of construct validity. First, constructs represent real phenomena that exist apart from the potential…

  8. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  9. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  10. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Construction Safety Program (CSP) for NIF sets forth the responsibilities, guidelines, rules, policies and regulations for all workers involved in the construction, special equipment installation, acceptance testing, and initial activation and operation of NIF at LLNL during the construction period of NIF. During this period, all workers are required to implement measures to create a universal awareness which promotes safe practice at the work site, and which will achieve NIF`s management objectives in preventing accidents and illnesses. Construction safety for NIF is predicated on everyone performing their jobs in a manner which prevents job-related disabling injuries and illnesses. The CSP outlines the minimum environment, safety, and health (ES&H) standards, LLNL policies and the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Zero Injury Techniques requirements that all workers at the NIF construction site shall adhere to during the construction period of NIF. It identifies the safety requirements which the NIF organizational Elements, construction contractors and construction subcontractors must include in their safety plans for the construction period of NIF, and presents safety protocols and guidelines which workers shall follow to assure a safe and healthful work environment. The CSP also identifies the ES&H responsibilities of LLNL employees, non-LLNL employees, construction contractors, construction subcontractors, and various levels of management within the NIF Program at LLNL. In addition, the CSP contains the responsibilities and functions of ES&H support organizations and administrative groups, and describes their interactions with the NIF Program.

  11. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    The Construction Safety Program (CSP) for NIF sets forth the responsibilities, guidelines, rules, policies and regulations for all workers involved in the construction, special equipment installation, acceptance testing, and initial activation and operation of NIF at LLNL during the construction period of NIF.

  12. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  13. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  14. Sawtooth Period Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Hastie, R J; Zocco, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the role of neoclassical resistivity and local magnetic shear in the prediction of the sawtooth period in tokamaks. When collisional detrapping of electrons is considered the value of the safety factor on axis, $q(t,0)$, evolves on a new time scale, $\\tau_{*}=\\tau_{\\eta}\

  15. Reduction of Dirac structures along isotropic subbundles

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, I; Falceto, F.; Zambon, M

    2007-01-01

    Given a Dirac subbundle and an isotropic subbundle of a Courant algebroid, we provide a canonical method to obtain a new Dirac subbundle. When the original Dirac subbundle is involutive (i.e., a Dirac structure) this construction has interesting applications, for instance to Dirac's theory of constraints and to the Marsden-Ratiu reduction in Poisson geometry.

  16. A generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer for straightness measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Ming

    2008-06-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. However, an interferometer with a displacement measurement accuracy of less than 1 nm is required in nanometrology and in fundamental scientific research. To meet this requirement, a generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer, based on three construction principles has been developed for straightness measurements. These three construction principles have resulted in an interferometer with a highly stable design with reduced periodic nonlinearity. Verifications by a straightness interferometer have demonstrated that the periodic nonlinearity was less than 40 pm. The results also demonstrate that the interferometer design is capable of subnanometer accuracy and is useful in nanometrology.

  17. HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention efficacy with South African adolescents over 54 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; O'Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Lewis, David A; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Icard, Larry D; Carty, Craig; Heeren, G Anita; Tyler, Joanne C; Makiwane, Monde B; Teitelman, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Little research has tested HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions' effects on early adolescents as they age into middle and late adolescence. This study tested whether intervention-induced reductions in unprotected intercourse during a 12-month period endured over a 54-month period and whether the intervention reduced the prevalence of STIs, which increase risk for HIV. Grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years) participated in a 12-month trial in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, in which 9 matched pairs of schools were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to a theory-based HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention or an attention-control intervention. They completed 42- and 54-month postintervention measures of unprotected intercourse (the primary outcome), other sexual behaviors, theoretical constructs, and, at 42- and 54-month follow-up only, biologically confirmed curable STIs (chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) and herpes simplex virus 2. The HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention reduced unprotected intercourse averaged over the entire follow-up period (OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.22, 0.84]), an effect not significantly reduced at 42- and 54-month follow-up compared with 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention caused positive changes on theoretical constructs averaged over the 5 follow-ups, although most effects weakened at long-term follow-up. Although the intervention's main effect on STIs was nonsignificant, an Intervention Condition × Time interaction revealed that it significantly reduced curable STIs at 42-month follow-up in adolescents who reported sexual experience. These results suggest that theory-based behavioral interventions with early adolescents can have long-lived effects in the context of a generalized severe HIV epidemic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across......We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...

  19. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo

    2017-03-06

    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.

  20. Formulation et étude des propriétés mécaniques d'agrobétons légers isolants à base de balles de riz et de chènevotte pour l'éco-construction

    OpenAIRE

    Chabannes, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of building energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emissions from the construction industry have become a major issue over the last years. We need to cut the energy consumption linked to heating and cooling of buildings during their operating period but also to choose materials with low carbon footprint using renewable and local resources.Hemp concretes are more and more used in green construction. These bio-based building materials consist of hemp-derived aggregates mixed...

  1. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  2. Standartization and Terminography of New Construction Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The past ten year period showed the occurance of a great number of new construction terms in the Lithua- nian language. Thus it is necessary to collect and systematize construction terms, terminoids, quasi-terms and standardize them from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language taking into account both logic and terminology requirements. This article deals with modern construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language including newest data bases saving all actual information on them. The reseach showed that The Dictionary of Construction Terms (2003 ought to be included into The Lithuanian language Term Bank (http://terminai.vlkk.lt. It is necessary to be done for the following reasons. Firstly, because of the creation and standartization as well as sistematization process of new construction terms. Secondly, for the development of continuous scientific discusion and successful professional education. It was established that a certain number of construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language should be included into new Dictionary of Construction Terms as well as into Term Bank of the Lithuanian Republic. The terms analysed in the article are concerning basement types, pile types, construction joints, also details of walls, roofs, chimneys, construction materials and etc. The analysis showed how different morphological variants and undesirable synonymous terms occur. Finally, the analysis helped to identify that the informal terms mix with formal, standard terms and conclude in incorrect term usage.

  3. Fabrication of multi-well chips for spheroid cultures and implantable constructs through rapid prototyping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, Silvia; Piraino, Francesco; Kemp, Raymond J; Di Caro, Clelia; Lovati, Arianna B; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Moroni, Lorenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Rasponi, Marco; Moretti, Matteo

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are widely used in basic and translational research. In this study, to generate and culture multiple 3D cell spheroids, we exploited laser ablation and replica molding for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) multi-well chips, which were validated using articular chondrocytes (ACs). Multi-well ACs spheroids were comparable or superior to standard spheroids, as revealed by glycosaminoglycan and type-II collagen deposition. Moreover, the use of our multi-well chips significantly reduced the operation time for cell seeding and medium refresh. Exploiting a similar approach, we used clinical-grade fibrin to generate implantable multi-well constructs allowing for the precise distribution of multiple cell types. Multi-well fibrin constructs were seeded with ACs generating high cell density regions, as shown by histology and cell fluorescent staining. Multi-well constructs were compared to standard constructs with homogeneously distributed ACs. After 7 days in vitro, expression of SOX9, ACAN, COL2A1, and COMP was increased in both constructs, with multi-well constructs expressing significantly higher levels of chondrogenic genes than standard constructs. After 5 weeks in vivo, we found that despite a dramatic size reduction, the cell distribution pattern was maintained and glycosaminoglycan content per wet weight was significantly increased respect to pre-implantation samples. In conclusion, multi-well chips for the generation and culture of multiple cell spheroids can be fabricated by low-cost rapid prototyping techniques. Furthermore, these techniques can be used to generate implantable constructs with defined architecture and controlled cell distribution, allowing for in vitro and in vivo investigation of cell interactions in a 3D environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  5. Risk in construction subcontracting

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Deborah E

    1997-01-01

    Risk is inherent in every aspect of the construction industry. This risk is allocated by the contract documents which establish the relationships between the parties in a construction contract. Often, when risk is not appropriately proportioned in a contractual agreement, contractors and subcontractors add significant premiums, or risk allowances, to their bids to reduce the potential negative consequences if the risk event occurs. This paper investigates the risks in construction contract ag...

  6. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  7. Tilt-up construction

    OpenAIRE

    Crompton, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    CIVINS Tilt-up construction is a special form of precast concrete construction. The technique is used for constructing buildings by prefabricating concrete wall sections (panels) in a horizontal position on either the building's floor slab or on a temporary casting slab. Once the wall sections have cured, they are tilted to a vertical position using a mobile crane, they are temporarily braced in their final upright position, and finally, they are tied into the building's roof and floor sys...

  8. Outsourcing in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Linev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Material is devoted to the phenomenon, rather new to the Russian economy, – to outsourcing in construction branch. Widely applied in foreign economic practice he acts at the same time both a micro, and macroeconomic factor. A conclusion of non basic assets from structure of real estate development company (especially – large and transfer of function on their management to other organizations, specializing in these services, allows to solve a number of problems. The tasks in construction solved by means of outsourcing, concerning preparation of necessary initial and allowing documents and control of work progress are considered in more detail. The company can concentrate on performance of the main functions, without being distracted by the organization of the accompanying processes. As a result outsourcing not only makes for it additional profit, but also increases its competitiveness. Also other advantages, and also shortcomings are considered. Outsourcing can be presented in different types and take various forms. In article the most widespread of them are considered: full, partial and advanced outsourcing. At external similarity of outsourcing and a subcontract are two various economic events. The main differences proceed from the purposes of their application and a procedure of control, and also consist in division of powers of the parties. There is also some other differences. The carried-out analysis shows advantages of the first before the second. Outsourcing in concrete types of construction activity is considered on the example of outsourcing of personnel. The Russian construction business gradually comes to understanding that outsourcing is a way of minimization of cumulative expenses, improvement of quality and reductions of time of execution of works.

  9. Construction management of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohra, S.A. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)]. E-mail: sabohra@npcil.co.in; Sharma, P.D. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2006-04-15

    efforts are focused on further reduction of gestation period. This is in contrast to construction period of 7-14 years in the earlier projects with labour intensive construction methods, learning period and indigenisation. The schedule and cost are interrelated and ultimately determine the viability and competitive edge of a project. With rich experience of over 30 years of operation and construction management it is well established that setting up of nuclear power projects in India in 4-5 years is quite feasible because of tremendous developments in construction technology; mechanization, parallel civil works and equipment erection, computerized project monitoring and accounting systems. By considering the best achieved times for the critical path activities of previous and ongoing projects, even a 4-year schedule is achievable. For nuclear power to be competitive it is essential that the gestation period is reduced and the capacity utilization enhanced. Both of these are the goals of the Indian nuclear power program. Presently the overnight cost per kW installed capacity is in the range of US$ 1100-1300 with levellised tariff of 5 c/kWh.

  10. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Paritosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol–gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g−1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  11. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  12. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  13. Ergonomic measures in construction work: enhancing evidence-based implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the development and availability of ergonomic measures in the construction industry, the number of construction workers reporting high physical work demands remains high. A reduction of the high physical work demands can be achieved by using ergonomic measures. However, these ergonomic

  14. Comparative evaluation of three attached growth systems and a constructed wetland for in situ treatment of raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasaki, E; Diamadopoulos, E

    2013-01-01

    The necessity to treat municipal wastewaters in situ, with a low cost, yet effective system, led to the research of alternative methods for wastewater treatment. Attached growth systems can be an alternative option. Three attached growth systems with different media substrate, a rockwool cubes unit, a Kaldnes rings unit and a plastic bottle caps unit were studied in comparison with a constructed wetland in order to evaluate their ability to treat raw municipal wastewater. The selection of the three different media was based on their high porosity and surface area, as well as their availability and price. Three different operating periods were carried out with variations in the organic loading rate and the feeding frequency. The units were fed intermittently with short resting periods, less than 32 h, and relative high mean organic loading rates of 70, 50 and 30 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m2d), respectively for each operating period. The constructed wetland and the rockwool cubes unit were the most effective, with mean COD reduction as mass rate (mg/d) 88% and 88%, biological oxygen demand 78% and 76%, dissolved organic carbon 73% and 67%, and total suspended solids 91% and 92%, respectively. Total nitrogen reduction was significantly higher at the constructed wetland with mean reduction as mass rate 51%, 60% and 83% for each period, compared to 41%, 43% and 60%, respectively, of the rockwool cubes unit. This study showed that it is possible to design, build and operate in situ small and decentralized treatment systems by using readily available packing materials and with minimum wastewater pretreatment.

  15. Model based prognosis of contaminant leaching for reuse of demolition waste in construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Konrad, W.; C. H., Park; Bauer, S.; Grathwohl, P.; Rügner, H.; Liedl, R.

    2007-06-01

    In this study, groundwater contamination from recycled demolitian waste in road constructions is assessed using predictions of leachate concentrations. Numerical transport simulations are performed for three scenarios (a parking lot, a noise protection barrier, and road), and using a number of characteristic subsoils of Germany, to estimate the breakthrough of different contaminant classes at the groundwater table. Conservative tracer breakthrough times (BTT) primarily depend on subsoil hydraulic properties, for organic pollutants KOC and subsoil OC are the controlling parameters. Significant concentration reductions from dispersion only occur when source concentrations decrease prior to contaminant breakthrough. If source concentrations remain high for long periods relative to peak BTT, concentration breakthrough is undamped. Accounting for biodegradation reduces breakthrough concentrations significantly. For the “noise protection barrier” and “road” scenarios, capillary barrier effects cause the seepage water to partially bypass the recycling material. Accounting for this bypass flow and spatial averaging across the constructions reduces concentrations by about 30-40 %.

  16. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development ...

  17. Problems of Thesaurus Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Amitabha; Dhawle, Anand S.

    1977-01-01

    Assumptions of different thesaurus construction methods are analyzed from an epistemological point of view as well as from the information retrieval needs of users. Thesaurus construction for social sciences is difficult because of inherent ambituities of terminology. An empirical study of the semantic differential of different sociological groups…

  18. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs : construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the le...

  19. Constructional and Conceptual Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Ellen Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's (1995) recognition that, in addition to various word-level constructions, sentences also instantiate meaningful argument structure constructions enables a non-polysemy-based analysis of various verb 'alternations' (Levin 1993). In such an analysis, meaning variations associated with the use of the same verb in different argument…

  20. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control is the ...

  1. Toward 'socially constructive' social constructions of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Grint, Keith; Jackson, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In their introductory editorial essay for this special issue, David Grant and Gail Fairhurst have done us a great service by valiantly producing a "Sailing Guide" to the Social Construction of Leadership (Fairhurst & Grant, 2010). As with rounding the Capes, this is not a task for the faint of heart. A sailing guide is designed to provide vital knowledge about a particular sea or coast, providing us with charts, warnings about potential hazards and an indication where we might find safe haven...

  2. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  3. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  4. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  5. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Sources of Construction Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanjo O. Fadiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is traditionally environmentally unfriendly. The environmental impacts of construction waste include soil contamination, water contamination, and deterioration of landscape. Also, construction waste has a negative economic impact by contributing additional cost to construction due to the need to replace wasted materials. However, in order to mitigate waste, construction managers have to explore management options, which include reduction, recycling, and disposal of wastes. Reduction has the highest priority among the waste management options but efficient reduction cannot be achieved without adequate identification of the sources of waste. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a study that was carried out on the contribution rates of nine identified sources of construction waste. Establishing the contribution rates of different waste sources will enhance knowledge-based decision-making in developing appropriate strategy for mitigating construction waste. Quantitative research method, using survey questionnaire, was adopted in this study to assess the frequency and severity of contribution of the sources of waste. As one of the findings of the study, residual waste such as material off-cuts was identified as the highest contributor to construction waste. This study consequently demonstrated that waste has a significant contribution to the cost of construction.

  7. Extended period simulation (EPS) modelling of urban water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water distribution network was constructed, calibrated and validated for extended period simulation studies using the network's physical, operational, calibration and validation data. The model was then applied to evaluate: (i) effects of fluctuating water demand on system storage over 24 hour period and (ii) level of service ...

  8. On model reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M.; Franklin, Gene F.

    1986-01-01

    Three model reduction methods are described. These are the discrete balanced realizations of Mullis and Roberts (1976) where a characterization of the reduction error is given and a previously unknown L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error, is obtained. Another method is a new model reduction technique for discrete time systems which has the advantage that the reduced order model is balanced and has an L(infinity) norm bound on the reduction error. The last method derived is a frequency weighting technique for continuous and discrete systems where it is possible to specify the approximation accuracy with frequency and also, for this method, an L(infinity) norm on the weighted reduction error is obtained.

  9. Removal of mercury from gold mine effluents using Limnocharis flava in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 μg mL -1 ) and spiked with HgNO 3 (1.50 ± 0.09 μg mL -1 ). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 49741 - Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Demolition and Underground Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... correct three minor grammatical errors that appeared in the text of paragraphs Sec. 1926.800(t)(3)(vi), (t... correct inadvertent errors made to the demolition and underground construction standards when it issued... Determinations A. Final Economic Analysis and Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis B. Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  11. Drag reduction in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  12. Impacts of Emission Reduction Scenarios on Regional Climate and Local Air Quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J. A.; Wang, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Wu, Q.; Baeck, M.; Michel, A. P.; Yeung, J.; Gustafson, W. I.

    2009-05-01

    Beijing implemented a long term emission reduction program in 2001 when it won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. During the summer of 2008 Beijing increased its emission reduction effort by integrating short term strategies such as temporally shutting down factories, freezing constructions, and automobile control. Taking advantage of emission reduction measures, numerical simulation experiments are being carried out with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry module (WRF-Chem) to examine aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in the Beijing metropolitan region during the period of the 2008 Olympic Games. Analyses of TRMM 3B42V6 and MODIS Terra L3C5 datasets show that August 2008 was a period of above average precipitation and below average aerosol loadings, relative to observations during the past 10 years. This study is based on numerical simulations with two emission scenarios, business as usual scenario and reduced emission scenario, to examine the impacts of emission reduction measures on regional climate and local air quality in the Beijing metropolitan region, as well as the role of cloud and precipitation processes in controlling the regional distribution of aerosols. Both of the high- resolution emission inventories were developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China, to represent the effects of emission reduction policies for the Olympic period. Intercomparisons with in-situ measurements are used to assess the capability for modeling aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions on a regional scale. Analyses center on assessing "microphysical" and "stability" hypotheses linking aerosols to cloud and precipitation processes and examining the relative roles of precipitation processes, regional transport processes and emission reduction scenarios in producing the favorable air quality conditions during the Olympic period.

  13. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  14. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Andrew E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  15. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  16. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  17. Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the ...

  18. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  19. Efficient simulation of periodically forced reactors with radial gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Rotten, Bart A.; Verduyn Lunel, Sjoerd M.; Bliek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a limited memory iterative method, called the Broyden Rank Reduction method, to simulate periodically forced processes in plug-flow reactors with radial gradients taken into account. The simulation of periodically forced processes in plug-flow reactors leads to

  20. Almost Periodic Solution of a Discrete Commensalism System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonautonomous discrete two-species Lotka-Volterra commensalism system with delays is considered in this paper. Based on the discrete comparison theorem, the permanence of the system is obtained. Then, by constructing a new discrete Lyapunov functional, a set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the system global attractivity are obtained. If the coefficients are almost periodic, there exists an almost periodic solution and the almost periodic solution is globally attractive.

  1. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  2. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  3. Schildberg Construction Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Schildberg Construction Company, Inc. for alleged violations at its locations at 1605 218th Avenue, Osceola, IA 50213 and 34466 Elkhorn Trail, Graham, MO 64455.

  4. Caltrans : construction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Caltrans intends this manual as a resource for all personnel engaged in contract administration. The manual establishes policies and procedures for the construction phase of Caltrans projects. However, this manual is not a contract document. It impos...

  5. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  6. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  7. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  8. Dirac reduction revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Krzysztof; Blaszak, Maciej

    2003-01-01

    The procedure of Dirac reduction of Poisson operators on submanifolds is discussed within a particularly useful special realization of the general Marsden-Ratiu reduction procedure. The Dirac classification of constraints on 'first-class' constraints and 'second-class' constraints is reexamined.

  9. APPLICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Qomariana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents applicative constructions found in Javanese spoken in Malang, East Java. It shows that applicative constructions in Malang are marked by suffixes attached to verbs. Suffix –i is used with location and recipient, while suffix –na is used with benefactive and instrumental. This agrees with applicative in Javanese spoken in Semarang with suffix –i and -ake respectively.

  10. Construct Demo Input Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    designed to assist new users in understanding the ConstructML and how it can be used in order to build a successful simulation. Construct is an...agents will not gain transactive memory about others performing the same task. During the simulation, an agent’s success in performing a binary task can...agents more or less likely to interact in order to capture differences in factors such as seniority, career type, introversion , or other factors which

  11. Wage Leadership in Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    LEADERSHIP IN CONSTRUCTION Wage leadership is the theory that wage increases in one sector lead to imitative increases elsewhere. In this paper we...test this theory in a large industry where wage leadership is supposed to be dominant- construction. Alternate theories of wage determination (excess...demand, real wage bargaining) are also tested, along with %he efficacy of the 1971-73 wagecotls BACKGROUND The theory of wage leadership is an important

  12. Masonry Construction with drones

    OpenAIRE

    Latteur, Pierre; Goessens, Sébastien; Reniers, Milan; Zhao, Ma; Mueller, Caitlin; IASS Annual Symposium 2016 "Spatial Structures in the 21st Century"

    2016-01-01

    - This paper presents new research in the area of construction of building-scale structures using unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly called drones. The work follows up on a previous paper presented at the 2015 IASS Symposium by Latteur et al. [1], which focused on the feasibility of drone-based construction systems with an emphasis on localization systems and building system units. Since then, the project has continued with a focus on masonry block structures, with new developments in bloc...

  13. SCALE FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sujitha Mary; Alaguraj, V.; Krishnaswamy, S

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is an inherent property of proteins. Both ordered and disordered proteins have a tendency to aggregate. Protein folding itself starts from the partially folded intermediates. The formation of native structures from these intermediates may be called as constructive aggregation. We describe the design of an intrinsic aggregation scale and its efficiency in finding hot-spots for constructive aggregation. In this paper, we are proposing a new aspect of aggregation, wherein...

  14. Construction Contract Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    owner, contractor, and design professional should be in attendance. Typical - agenda items would include any problems encountered which need the...34Unraveling Construction Claims", Florida Constructor , September/October 19B2. 70. Callahan, Michael T. and H. Murray Hohns, Construction Schedules...Not Lead to Heartburn", Florida Constructor , January/February * 1985. 77. Cummings, Donald J., "Documentation: The Key to Successful Project

  15. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal design of lattice metal constructions of overhead power transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pustovgar Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new concept of design of power lines which allowed us to develop new unified power transmission supports, efficient and reliable ones. For the first time, a method of optimum design of overhead power lines has been developed which considered the power line as a united structural system, the relief, the atmospheric and climatic conditions, the environment pollution, the efficiency requirements, the technological and operational expenditures. The article describes the changes introduced into the requirements for the dimensions and parameters of grid metal works with the minimum mass. The optimum design, the computer-aided assembly process and the use of advanced technologies guarantee the reduction of the construction period and the increase in the maintenance period of power lines.

  17. Upper Limit of the Periodic Table and Synthesis of Superheavy Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, using the heaviest possible element, the diagram for known nuclides and stable isotopes is constructed. The direction of search of superheavy elements is indicated. The Periodic Table with an eighth period is tabulated.

  18. STIMULATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING BY REFORMATION OF A CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRONEVYTSKYI S. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of offers on stimulation of construction of affordable housing by reformation of a construction complex management system. Methodology. The revelation of the problems of planning of construction in large cities. The analysis of forming of structure of a build complex management in soviet times and in a transitional period. The revelation of the modern, actual, socio-economic problems of the construction activity management. Proposition on the improvement of methods of construction management in cities of Ukraine. Results. The methods of a construction complex management in countries with a market economy as for building of affordable housing are shown. Originality. In composition of a town-planning documentations, except for the norms of the common use of territories of city (density of population of micro region, the maximum parameters of a construction examining of land areas are proposed to determine: building percent and coefficient of maximum superficial area. Practical value. The principle of management and organization of construction is norms of a build use of territories for building of mass affordable housing for funds of population and investors while providing of the comfort of housing in accordance with state construction norms.

  19. Construction Worker Fatigue Prediction Model Based on System Dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Adi Tri Joko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction accident can be caused by internal and external factors such as worker fatigue and unsafe project environment. Tight schedule of construction project forcing construction worker to work overtime in long period. This situation leads to worker fatigue. This paper proposes a model to predict construction worker fatigue based on system dynamic (SD. System dynamic is used to represent correlation among internal and external factors and to simulate level of worker fatigue. To validate the model, 93 construction workers whom worked in a high rise building construction projects, were used as case study. The result shows that excessive workload, working elevation and age, are the main factors lead to construction worker fatigue. Simulation result also shows that these factors can increase worker fatigue level to 21.2% times compared to normal condition. Beside predicting worker fatigue level this model can also be used as early warning system to prevent construction worker accident

  20. ACES demonstration: construction, startup, and performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, A.S.; Brantley, V.R.

    1978-10-01

    A 2000-ft/sup 2/ single-family residence was constructed during the second quarter of 1976 to demonstrate the energy-conserving features of additional insulation, a ventilation cooling cycle, and the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). The ACES is an integrated heating and cooling system that supplies space heating, hot water, and space cooling using a heat pump and low-temperature thermal storage. Included in this report are a discussion of the construction techniques employed and the problems encountered during construction, a description of the ACES concept and the ACES mechanical package, and a discussion of the ACES performance and the experiences obtained during initial operation of the ACES. Continuous operation and data collection were begun in May 1977. Performance data from November 1977 through March 1978 have shown a seasonal heating coefficient of performance of 2.77 for the ACES, giving a 63% energy reduction compared to electric resistance space and water heating.

  1. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  2. Construction time of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.b, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  3. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and incubation period of 72 h. ... on R. oryzae growth and chromate reduction were investigated with different temperature of medium ..... Saccharomyces Cerevisiae'- J. Bioresour. Technol., 70: 826-829. Volesky B ...

  4. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  5. Waste Reduction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  6. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body. Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and self-confidence and your ability to participate in physical activities. ...

  7. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  8. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  9. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  11. Patient satisfaction constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the five-factor structure of patients' satisfaction constructs toward private healthcare service providers. This research is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with previous and current Bangladeshi patients. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to extract the underlying constructs. Five underlying dimensions that play a significant role in structuring the satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi private healthcare patients are identified in this study. Practical implications - The main contribution of this study is identifying the dimensions of satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi patients regarding private healthcare service providers. Healthcare managers adopt the five identified underlying construct items in their business practices to improve their respective healthcare efficiency while ensuring overall customer satisfaction.

  12. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  13. Attention: an evolving construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Arthur; Hrin, Skip

    2015-01-01

    We review the implications of large-scale brain systems on the construct of attention by first focusing on significant theories and discoveries during the previous 150 years and then considering how the comparatively recent discovery of large-scale brain systems may render previous conceptualizations of attention outdated. Seven functional brain networks are briefly reviewed and the implications of emerging principles of brain functioning for test construction and neuropsychological evaluation are considered. To remain a relevant discipline moving into the 21st century, the field of neuropsychology needs to apply the principles that have been discovered about brain networks to better inform our understanding of attention as well as our ever-refining evaluation of this construct.

  14. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH

  15. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    1979-01-01

    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  16. Construction Manager or General Contractor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, John

    1991-01-01

    Unlike the general contractor approach, the construction management firm acts on behalf of the school district in school construction. Examines the development and nature of construction management, and cites its advantages and disadvantages. (MLF)

  17. Pseudo-periodic partitions of biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lugang; Jin, Renchao; Kok, Poh-Lin; Wan, Honghui

    2004-02-12

    Algorithm development for finding typical patterns in sequences, especially multiple pseudo-repeats (pseudo-periodic regions), is at the core of many problems arising in biological sequence and structure analysis. In fact, one of the most significant features of biological sequences is their high quasi-repetitiveness. Variation in the quasi-repetitiveness of genomic and proteomic texts demonstrates the presence and density of different biologically important information. It is very important to develop sensitive automatic computational methods for the identification of pseudo-periodic regions of sequences through which we can infer, describe and understand biological properties, and seek precise molecular details of biological structures, dynamics, interactions and evolution. We develop a novel, powerful computational tool for partitioning a sequence to pseudo-periodic regions. The pseudo-periodic partition is defined as a partition, which intuitively has the minimal bias to some perfect-periodic partition of the sequence based on the evolutionary distance. We devise a quadratic time and space algorithm for detecting a pseudo-periodic partition for a given sequence, which actually corresponds to the shortest path in the main diagonal of the directed (acyclic) weighted graph constructed by the Smith-Waterman self-alignment of the sequence. We use several typical examples to demonstrate the utilization of our algorithm and software system in detecting functional or structural domains and regions of proteins. A big advantage of our software program is that there is a parameter, the granularity factor, associated with it and we can freely choose a biological sequence family as a training set to determine the best parameter. In general, we choose all repeats (including many pseudo-repeats) in the SWISS-PROT amino acid sequence database as a typical training set. We show that the granularity factor is 0.52 and the average agreement accuracy of pseudo-periodic partitions

  18. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world taking into account the increasing of information flows and socio-economic changes are defined. The definition of the concept «infantilism» including its main features is given. Infantilism is defined as the personal organization including features and models of the previous age period not adequate for the real age stage with emphasis on immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. Scientific novelty. The main psychological characteristics of adulthood are described as the reflection, requirement to work and professional activity, existence of professional self-determination, possession of labor skills, need for selfrealization, maturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. As objective adulthood characteristics are considered the following: transition to economic and territorial independence of a parental family, and also development of new social roles, such as a worker, spouse, and parent. Two options of a possible operationalization of concept are allocated: objective (existence / absence in real human life of objective criteria of adulthood and subjective (the self-report on subjective feeling of existence / lack of psychological characteristics of adulthood. Practical significance consists in a construct operationalization of «infantilism» which at the moment has so many interpretations. That operationalization is necessary for the further analysis and carrying out various researches. 

  19. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the role of expertise, the nature of criticality, and their relationship to securitisation as mineral raw materials are classified. It works with the construction of risk along the liberal logic of security to explore how "key materials" are turned into "critical materials......" in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy...

  20. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  1. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model...... reduction of linear systems and for the reduction of switched systems. Discrete-time balanced reduction within a specified frequency interval is taken as an example within this framework. To avoid numerical instability and to increase the numerical efficiency, a generalized gramian-based Petrov......-Galerkin projection is constructed instead of the similarity transform approach for reduction. It is proven that the proposed reduction framework preserves the stability of the original switched system. The performance of the method is illustrated by numerical examples....

  2. On Mikhailov's reduction group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valchev, Tihomir, E-mail: tiv@math.bas.bg

    2015-09-18

    Highlights: • We propose and consider in a systematic way a generalization of reduction group. • Our considerations let us apply the inverse scattering method to classes of nonlocally reduced equations. • Several examples of nonlocal reductions to illustrate the general ideas have been considered in more detail. - Abstract: We propose a generalization of the notion of reduction group which provides group-theoretical tools to study in a uniform way certain classes of nonlocal S-integrable equations like Ablowitz–Musslimani's nonlocal Schrödinger equation. Another benefit of the generalization to be presented here is that it supplies us with a systematic approach to construct solutions to S-integrable equations with prescribed symmetries.

  3. Periodic systems of N-atom molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferlin, R. A.; Zhuvikin, G. V.; Caviness, K. E.; Duerksen, P. J.

    1984-10-01

    The atoms have long been classified into a periodic system, which is now based on quantum mechanics and group theory. A classification of molecules containing any number (N) of atoms is proposed. It is an extension of the periodic system of the atoms. The approach in this paper is that of group theory, although the proposed system has been subjected to exhaustive comparison with experimental and ab initio computational results for diatomic molecules, and conforms to the commonly known behaviors of molecules with larger N. Orthonormal transformations are performed so that the molecules can be arranged according to their numbers of electrons and to the differences of atomic numbers of the constituent atoms. These arrangements parallel the physical reality of atomic bonding and permit partial three-dimensional models of the systems to be constructed for molecules with as many as four atoms.

  4. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Janusz, E-mail: wolny@fis.agh.edu.pl; Strzalka, Radoslaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kuczera, Pawel [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  5. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  6. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  7. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  8. Slow light vortices in periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2009-01-01

    We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states having...... non-vanishing phase velocity inside the Brillouin zone. We also demonstrate that presence of vortices can be linked to the absence of slow-light at the zone edge, and present calculations illustrating these general results....

  9. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  10. Innovative quality management practices in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Quality management practices do support the management of strategically important innoυation processes. This conclusion is based on empirical research in the Dutch construction industry. A large-scale innovative construction project is intensively studied during a three-year period. The quality

  11. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  12. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  13. CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    A 15-litre bench-top multipurpose bioreactor was designed and constructed. ... The system incorporates attributes of a good bioreactor design as discussed by ... The aeration system has a perforated pipe sparger discharging directly under agitating impellers (Figure 3). A peristaltic air pump motor type Rena 301 supply air ...

  14. Construction Mechanic 1 & C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Thomas E.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Naval Construction Mechanics First and Chief to fulfill the requirements of their rating. (Persons holding these ratings direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in maintaining, repairing, and overhauling automotive,…

  15. FOR CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains classification of construction computer aided design systems, requirements to the single file format, providing their interaction within the frames of creation of integrated computer aided design systems, main principles and data transformation schemes are given.

  16. Managing Construction Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny McGeorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Book ReviewManaging Construction LogisticsGary Sullivan; Stephen Barthorpe and Stephen Robbins Publishers : Wiley-Blackwell 2010, 304 pages, ISBN 978-1-4051-5124-5 (paperback, GBP 49.99, EUR 60.00,  AUD 99.95, NZD  115.00. 

  17. Construction Management: Planning Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsht, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  18. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...

  19. Anyonic FRT construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, S. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP); Rodriguez-Plaza, M.J. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H

    1994-12-31

    The Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan method to construct matrix bialgebras from non-singular solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation is extended to the anyonic or Z{sub n}-graded case. The resulting anyonic quantum matrices are braided groups in which the braiding is given by a phase factor. (orig.).

  20. Questionnaire Construction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    contained in this manual the following references may bt consulted. 1. Edwards , A. L. Techniques of attitude scale construction. New York: Appleton...516. d. Lorge, I. Predicting readability. Teachers College Record, 1944, 45, 404-419. e. Thorndike , !\\. L., & Lorge, R. the teacher’s word book of

  1. Industry Studies 2002: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project...are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete

  2. Mental Retardation: Construction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Federally funded construction programs for the retarded included are the following: 12 research centers in which biological, medical, social, and behavioral research is conducted to investigate the causes and prevention of mental retardation; 18 university-affiliated facilities for inter-disciplinary training of professional and technical…

  3. Neuroeconomics: Constructing identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper asks whether neuroeconomics will make instrumental use of neuroscience to adjudicate existing disputes in economics or be more seriously transformed by neuroscience in ways that might transform economics. The paper pursues the question by asking how neuroscience constructs an understanding

  4. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  5. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  6. Constructions in Wonderland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard; Shibuya, Yoshikata

    -gram analysis to some different texts, including Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (AW), Mark Twain's 1884/5 novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (HF), and some US presidential speeches, to identify frequently (co)occurring words that may be indicative of underlying constructions...

  7. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    of the group to which it belongs. Vygotsky, on the other hand, attended to the ways in which we construct meaningful ―signs‖ as artificial memory aids to solve memory problems that go beyond our natural capacities. These two approaches are brought together to show how we utilize various cultural resources...

  8. Constructive optimality theoretic syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevat, H.; Villadsen, J.; Christiansen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents efforts at developing a constructive optimality theory. Several years ago, two 3rd year AI-students, Chris Regenboog and Jacco van Willegen, came up with an idea to implement optimality theory, in a special case —a system partially describing Dutch word order—. Me and some

  9. The Construction of Syllabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The International Labour Organization assigned a staff member to an Asian country to assist the trade unions in strengthening their workers' education programs. One important aspect of his assignment consisted of establishing and testing a viable course program by constructing a set of syllabi for basic, specialized, and advanced courses that…

  10. Constructions of Peripherality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort...

  11. Uncertainty analysis of knowledge reductions in rough sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis is a vital issue in intelligent information processing, especially in the age of big data. Rough set theory has attracted much attention to this field since it was proposed. Relative reduction is an important problem of rough set theory. Different relative reductions have been investigated for preserving some specific classification abilities in various applications. This paper examines the uncertainty analysis of five different relative reductions in four aspects, that is, reducts' relationship, boundary region granularity, rules variance, and uncertainty measure according to a constructed decision table.

  12. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Distribution Center (ADC) automation flats in First-Class Mail, Periodicals, and Standard Mail. Id. at 9-10... model for Periodicals flats. Currently, cells for the coverage of mechanized ADC pallet bundle sortation...

  13. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... data for Presort First-Class Mail, and End-to-End Periodicals. Request at 1. The Request includes... Standard Mail, Outside County Periodicals, non-retail Media Mail, Library Mail, Bound Printed Matter...

  14. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  15. Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Xu; Chang, Jie; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Shi, Yan; Xue, Hui; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-03-01

    Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Progress has been made in reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen fertilizer consumption through biofuel production. Here we advocate an alternative approach that efficiently produces cellulosic biofuel and greatly reduces GHG emissions using waste nitrogen through wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands in China. Our combined experimental and literature data demonstrate that the net life-cycle energy output of constructed wetlands is higher than that of corn, soybean, switchgrass, low-input high-diversity grassland and algae systems. Energy output from existing constructed wetlands is ~237% of the input for biofuel production and can be enhanced through optimizing the nitrogen supply, hydrologic flow patterns and plant species selection. Assuming that all waste nitrogen in China could be used by constructed wetlands, biofuel production can account for 6.7% of national gasoline consumption. We also find that constructed wetlands have a greater GHG reduction than the existing biofuel production systems in a full life-cycle analysis. This alternative approach is worth pursuing because of its great potential for straightforward operation, its economic competitiveness and many ecological benefits.

  16. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  17. Numerical approximation of random periodic solutions of stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunrong; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Huaizhong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the numerical approximation of random periodic solutions of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with multiplicative noise. We prove the existence of the random periodic solution as the limit of the pull-back flow when the starting time tends to -∞ along the multiple integrals of the period. As the random periodic solution is not explicitly constructible, it is useful to study the numerical approximation. We discretise the SDE using the Euler-Maruyama scheme and modified Milstein scheme. Subsequently, we obtain the existence of the random periodic solution as the limit of the pull-back of the discretised SDE. We prove that the latter is an approximated random periodic solution with an error to the exact one at the rate of √{Δ t} in the mean square sense in Euler-Maruyama method and Δ t in the Milstein method. We also obtain the weak convergence result for the approximation of the periodic measure.

  18. Performance of three pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands for total coliforms and Escherichia coli removal from primary effluent - a 2-year study in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Carreón-Álvarez, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Three pilot-scale two-stage hybrid constructed wetlands were evaluated in order to compare their efficiency for total coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia coli removal and to analyze their performances in two 1-year periods of experimentation. System I consisted of a horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) followed by a stabilization pond. System II was also configured with a HF CW as a first stage which was then followed by a vertical flow (VF) CW as a second stage. System III was configured with a VF CW followed by a HF CW. In the first year of evaluation, the HF-VF system was the most effective for TCol removal (p < 0.05) and achieved a reduction of 2.2 log units. With regard to E. coli removal, the HF-VF and VF-HF systems were the most effective (p < 0.05) with average reductions of 3.2 and 3.8 log units, respectively. In the second year, the most effective were those with a VF component for both TCol and E. coli which underwent average reductions of 2.34-2.44 and 3.44-3.74 log units, respectively. The reduction achieved in E. coli densities, in both years, satisfy the World Health Organization guidelines that require a 3-4 log unit pathogen reduction in wastewater treatment systems.

  19. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R. Miller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment, most of the proposed strategies were perceived by all staff as a threat for officers and a privilege for prisoners. Addressing the underlying concerns of prison staff is essential in achieving a fully collaborative harm reduction effort. Ongoing resistance to proposed harm reduction strategies underscores the relevance of these findings for prison settings in Australia and elsewhere.

  20. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  1. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  2. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  3. Lean Construction Implementation in the Saudi Arabian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ghazi Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has witnessed a huge increase in construction during the last two decades. However, many projects experienced time delays, cost overruns and the generation of massive amounts of waste. To address these challenges, lean construction has been introduced into the Saudi construction industry; however, it is still in its infancy. This study therefore investigates the current state of lean construction implementation in the construction industry in the KSA. The objectives are to identify: the types of construction waste, level of use of tools that support the implementation of lean construction, stages of application of lean methods, and the benefits of lean construction. To achieve these objectives, a structured questionnaire survey of 282 construction professionals was carried out. After the analysis of the collected data using mean score and Anova test, the following conclusions were made.  In the construction industry in the KSA, waiting is the most common type of waste, while Computer Aided Design (CAD is the conventional tool supporting the implementation of lean construction. Furthermore, the data suggests that lean construction is most commonly used in the construction stage of projects while customer satisfaction is the main benefit derived from lean construction practices. This study concludes that the level of implementation of lean construction in the KSA construction industry is increasing. The results will help benchmark the current state of lean construction implementation, which will enable the construction industry to identify strategies to implement lean construction in Saudi Arabia in accordance with their needs and project goals, to achieve better productivity.

  4. Childhood intussusception: ultrasound-guided Hartmann's solution hydrostatic reduction or barium enema reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L; Saing, H; Peh, W C; Mya, G H; Cheng, W; Khong, P L; Lam, C; Lam, W W; Leong, L L; Low, L C

    1997-01-01

    A comparison was made of the efficacy of ultrasound guided Hartmann's solution hydrostatic reduction on 23 patients (US group) with the same number of consecutive patients in whom hydrostatic reduction was done by barium enema (BE group) under fluoroscopy for childhood intussusception. The US group was diagnosed by ultrasound scan and reduction was attempted under the guidance of ultrasonography with Hartmann's solution at 100 mm Hg pressure. Excluded were patients older than 12 years, patients in shock, patients with peritonitis, bowel perforation, and gross abdominal distension as well as recurrent intussusception of more than three episodes. There were three patients excluded in this group. The diagnosis of intussusception and complete reduction were confirmed by gastrografin enema. This US group had three recurrences (3 of 26, 11.5%), one lead point (1 of 23, 4.4%), and 19 successful reductions (19 of 26, 73%). Incidentally, there were also three patients excluded in this period of barium enema reduction. There was only one recurrence (1 of 24, 4.2%), one leadpoint (1 of 23, 4.4%), and 12 successful reductions (12 of 24, 50%) in these 23 BE patients. The success rates for the ileo-colic intussusceptions with Hartmann's solution reduction and barium enema reduction were 91% (19 of 21) and 55% (12 of 22), respectively (P = .00865). There was no complication in either group, and the accuracy of diagnosing a complete reduction was 100% in both forms of reduction. Hence, ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction for childhood ileocolic intussusception is preferred because it is safe, accurate, has a higher success rate, and can avoid radiation exposure risk.

  5. Construction quality assurance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-09-08

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  6. Construction of the DHCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Kurt; CALICE Collaboration

    Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed as a method of improving the jet energy resolution of future colliding beam detectors. PFAs require calorimeters with high granularity to enable three-dimensional imaging of events. The Calorimeter for the Linear Collider Collaboration (CALICE) is developing and testing prototypes of such highly segmented calorimeters. In this context, a large prototype of a Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) was developed and constructed by a group led by Argonne National Laboratory. The DHCAL consists of 52 layers, instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and interleaved with steel absorber plates. The RPCs are read out by 1 x 1 cm2 pads with a 1-bit resolution (digital readout). The DHCAL prototype has approximately 480,000 readout channels. This talk reports on the design, construction and commissioning of the DHCAL. The DHCAL was installed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in fall 2010 and data was collected through the summer 2011.

  7. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  8. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  9. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  10. Purchasing in Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Bildsten, Louise

    2016-01-01

    A significant part of the cost of a construction project, up to 90%, consists of purchased goods and services. Suppliers thereby have a large impact on the quality, price and time of projects. Purchasing management is therefore important for the outcome of a project. The aim of research covered by this thesis is to describe and analyse purchasing management and its interrelation with the supplier relationships and the production process. The research design was twofold: theory building and ca...

  11. Social Construction in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Thomas S.

    1992-01-01

    Der Verfasser würdigt die Bedeutung des Buchs "The Social Construction of Reality" von Berger und Luckmann anlässlich des 25. Jahrestags seines Erscheinens. Er betont vor allem die Bedeutung, die das Buch als Wegbereiter des symbolischen Interaktionismus, der Soziolinguistik, der Ethnomethodologie und des "interpretativen Paradigmas" generell hatte. Alfred Schütz' phänomenologische Analyse der Lebenswelt aufgreifend thematisierten Berger und Luckmann die Tatsache, dass Realität sozial konstru...

  12. 1997 construction & design survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C

    1997-03-31

    Managed care might seem to be putting a damper on healthcare construction, but in fact it's one of several industry changes creating opportunities for architectural and design firms. One example of a trend toward making surroundings as pleasant as possible is the west campus expansion at East Texas Medical Center in Tyler (left). Designed and built by Ellerbe Becket and completed in 1995, the project, including a nine-story medical office building, features artwork and rooftop gardens.

  13. Conservation of earthen constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Mattone, Manuela; Bignamini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Earthen constructions, built in many European, American, Asian and African countries, represent an interesting and important architectural heritage, whose conservation is necessary in order to make possible the transmission of a technological culture which keeps values of the uniqueness of the landscape as well as of their history. A study of the conditions of preservation of many unplastered earthen buildings revealed the need to set-up and test out treatments for the protection of the walls...

  14. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  15. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  16. Toward a constructive physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  17. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  18. Periodicity of DNA in exons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinghorn Brian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periodic pattern of DNA in exons is a known phenomenon. It was suggested that one of the initial causes of periodicity could be the universal (RNYnpattern (R = A or G, Y = C or U, N = any base of ancient RNA. Two major questions were addressed in this paper. Firstly, the cause of DNA periodicity, which was investigated by comparisons between real and simulated coding sequences. Secondly, quantification of DNA periodicity was made using an evolutionary algorithm, which was not previously used for such purposes. Results We have shown that simulated coding sequences, which were composed using codon usage frequencies only, demonstrate DNA periodicity very similar to the observed in real exons. It was also found that DNA periodicity disappears in the simulated sequences, when the frequencies of codons become equal. Frequencies of the nucleotides (and the dinucleotide AG at each location along phase 0 exons were calculated for C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens. Two models were used to fit these data, with the key objective of describing periodicity. Both of the models showed that the best-fit curves closely matched the actual data points. The first dynamic period determination model consistently generated a value, which was very close to the period equal to 3 nucleotides. The second fixed period model, as expected, kept the period exactly equal to 3 and did not detract from its goodness of fit. Conclusions Conclusion can be drawn that DNA periodicity in exons is determined by codon usage frequencies. It is essential to differentiate between DNA periodicity itself, and the length of the period equal to 3. Periodicity itself is a result of certain combinations of codons with different frequencies typical for a species. The length of period equal to 3, instead, is caused by the triplet nature of genetic code. The models and evolutionary algorithm used for characterising DNA periodicity are proven to be an effective tool

  19. Design, construction and performance of a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Lise M W; Bolton, Keith G E

    2013-01-01

    Malabugilmah is a remote Aboriginal community located in Clarence Valley, Northern NSW, Australia. In 2006, seven horizontal subsurface flow wetland clusters consisting of 3 m × 2 m wetland cells in series were designed and constructed to treat septic tank effluent to a secondary level (Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 50% Total Nitrogen (TN) reduction, no net Total Phosphorus (TP) export and ≥99.9% Faecal Coliform (FC) reduction. The wetland cell configuration allowed the wetlands to be located on steeper terrain, enabling effluent to be treated to a secondary level without the use of pumps. In addition to the water quality targets, the wetlands were designed and constructed to satisfy environmental, economic and social needs of the community. The wetland systems were planted with a local Australian wetland tree species which has become well established. Two wetland clusters have been monitored over the last 4 years. The wetlands have demonstrated to be robust over time, providing a high level of secondary treatment over an extended period.

  20. Spontaneous reduction of prolactinoma post cabergoline withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactinomas are common pituitary tumors usually highly responsive to dopamine agonists. Around 70-90% of the prolactinomas exhibit decrease in tumor size, though variably with these agents. Uncommonly, there may be little or no shrinkage in pituitary tumor. In the absence of medical therapy, pituitary apoplexy may also result in tumor shrinkage, albeit rarely. We report here a case showing only modest reduction in prolactinoma with cabergoline given for a period of one and a half years. Surprisingly, this tumor showed a 40% reduction in the tumor size 3 months after cabergoline withdrawal in the absence of clinical or radiological evidence of apoplexy.

  1. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  2. Method I : Planar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    We apply the planar reduction method to a general two degree of freedom system with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. As a leading example the spring-pendulum close to 1:2 resonance is used. The resulting planar model is computed explicitly, and the bifurcation curves

  3. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  4. Long period oscillations in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, N.; Hnat, B.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Inglis, A. R.; Bakunina, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    Long period oscillations of the gyroresonant emission from sunspot atmospheres are studied. Time series data generated from the sequences of images obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at a frequency of 17 GHz for three sunspots have been analysed and are found to contain significant periods in the range of several tens of minutes. Wavelet analysis shows that these periods are persistent throughout the observation periods. The presence of the oscillations is confirmed by several methods (periodogram, wavelets, Fisher randomisation and empirical mode decomposition). Spatial analysis using the techniques of period, power, correlation and time lag mapping reveals regions of enhanced oscillatory power in the umbral regions. Also seen are two regions of coherent oscillation of about 25 pixels in size, that oscillate in anti-phase with each other. Possible interpretation of the observed periodicities is discussed, in terms of the shallow sunspot model and the leakage of the solar g-modes.

  5. Pneumatic versus hydrostatic reduction in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare pneumatic reduction under guidance of fluoroscopy and hydrostatic saline enema reduction under guidance of ultrasound in treatment of intussusception in pediatric patients. Methods: The study included 80 patients with intussusception in the time period from September ...

  6. Applied periodization: a methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, Fernando; Moody, Jeremy; Chapman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Periodization represents an optimal modality for organizing training programs in athletes, recreational and rehabilitative practitioners. The selected procedure, however, should be based on the athlete’s age, level of performance, specific goals or competition characteristics. A common theme throughout all periodization paradigms is the requirement to manipulate the entire program variables (intensity, volume, frequency, recovery periods and exercise selection) in order to progress from gener...

  7. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume, E-mail: jaume.puigagut@upc.edu

    2016-11-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2 years (ca. 0.5 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW) to ca. 5 years (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5 years of clogging (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment. - Highlights: • Microbial fuel cells are used as tool for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands. • Microbial fuel cells were loaded with sludge from constructed wetlands. • Sludge retained within the systems simulated a clogging time ranging from 0.2 to ca. 5 years. • Electrons transferred decreased potentially as function of sludge loading.

  8. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the "unfolding" procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA.

  9. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRummel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLMS is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLMS index (PLMI. However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI in patients with PLMS. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLMS with OSA (group 1, PLMS without OSA or RLS (group 2 and PLMS with RLS (group 3 were considered. Applying the ``unfolding'' procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhanced or even revealed intrinsic periodicity of PLMS. The degree of periodicity of PLMS was assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it was investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity was neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering revealed more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consisted of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS {em and} OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLMS statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the {em degree} of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities was found. However, there were indications that the {em nature} of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLMS and OSA.

  10. Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Cyrus; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Li, Chin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P Radiology residents have limited opportunity to learn intussusception reduction and therefore lack confidence. Most think they would benefit from additional training with a computer-simulation model.

  11. Constructive and functional modernization of EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Moldovan, P.

    2015-06-01

    This article presents the main constructive and functional modernization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Schwabe is the creator of UHP (Ultra High Power) EAF. We present in this article the optimal use of EAF power and time aspects. These two main factors determine the increase in the productivity of the Electric Arc Furnace. Electric arc furnace operation can be based on either the short arc (with high intensity and low voltage) or long arc version (with low intensity and high voltage). Introduction of vault walls and water cooled has resulted in major reductions in the consumption of refractory bricks from electric arc furnace. Another important technological evolution inserted in the process of elaboration of steel in electric arc furnace is lowering the temperature of the exhaust. Using a system of intensive oxygen insufflation during melting can get many technological advantages. Another constructive and functional modernization is EAF inflatable sealing device for retention of slug.

  12. Quantum periods of Calabi–Yau fourfolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardus, Andreas, E-mail: gerhardus@th.physik.uni-bonn.de; Jockers, Hans, E-mail: jockers@uni-bonn.de

    2016-12-15

    In this work we study the quantum periods together with their Picard–Fuchs differential equations of Calabi–Yau fourfolds. In contrast to Calabi–Yau threefolds, we argue that the large volume points of Calabi–Yau fourfolds generically are regular singular points of the Picard–Fuchs operators of non-maximally unipotent monodromy. We demonstrate this property in explicit examples of Calabi–Yau fourfolds with a single Kähler modulus. For these examples we construct integral quantum periods and study their global properties in the quantum Kähler moduli space with the help of numerical analytic continuation techniques. Furthermore, we determine their genus zero Gromov–Witten invariants, their Klemm–Pandharipande meeting invariants, and their genus one BPS invariants. In our computations we emphasize the features attributed to the non-maximally unipotent monodromy property. For instance, it implies the existence of integral quantum periods that at large volume are purely worldsheet instanton generated. To verify our results, we also present intersection theory techniques to enumerate lines with a marked point on complete intersection Calabi–Yau fourfolds in Grassmannian varieties.

  13. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCo......C as values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....

  14. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  15. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  16. Assessing the sustainable construction of large construction companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nasrun, Mohd Nawi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Considering the increasing concerns for the consideration of sustainability issues in construction project delivery within the construction industry, this paper assesses the extent of sustainable construction among Malaysian large contractors, in order to ascertain the level of the industry's impacts on both the environment and the society. Sustainable construction explains the construction industry's responsibility to efficiently utilise the finite resources while also reducing construction impacts on both humans and the environment throughout the phases of construction. This study used proportionate stratified random sampling to conduct a field study with a sample of 172 contractors out of the 708 administered questionnaires. Data were collected from large contractors in the eleven states of peninsular Malaysia. Using the five-level rating scale (which include: 1= Very Low; 2= Low; 3= Moderate; 4= High; 5= Very High) to describe the level of sustainable construction of Malaysian contractors based on previous studies, statistical analysis reveals that environmental, social and economic sustainability of Malaysian large contractors are high.

  17. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  18. The Core Periodicals in Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    When constructing the theoretical or conceptual framework for their research, researchers often rely heavily on a "core" set of periodicals within their discipline for articles relevant to their topic. In this study, an analysis of citations in 265 graduate student research papers, theses, and dissertation was conducted to identify the…

  19. Existence of extremal periodic solutions for quasilinear parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Carl

    1997-01-01

    bounded domain under periodic Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our main goal is to prove the existence of extremal solutions among all solutions lying in a sector formed by appropriately defined upper and lower solutions. The main tools used in the proof of our result are recently obtained abstract results on nonlinear evolution equations, comparison and truncation techniques and suitably constructed special testfunction.

  20. On spectral properties of periodic polyharmonic matrix operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a matrix operator = (-) + in , where ≥ 2, ≥ 1, 4 > + 1, and is the operator of multiplication by a periodic in matrix (). We study spectral properties of in the high energy region. Asymptotic formulae for Bloch eigenvalues and the corresponding spectral projections are constructed.

  1. Periodic orbits of nonscaling Hamiltonian systems from quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranger, M.; Haggerty, M. R.; Lauritzen, B.; Meredith, D. C.; Provost, D.

    1995-03-01

    Quantal (E,tau) plots are constructed from the eigenvalues of the quantum system. We demonstrate that these representations display the periodic orbits of the classical system, including bifurcations and the transition from stable to unstable. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Radon control systems in existing and new construction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Naureen Mahbub; Tracy, Bliss L

    2009-08-01

    In support of the implementation of the new Canadian radon guideline, a comprehensive review of radon mitigation techniques used in countries around the world was undertaken, with particular emphasis on North America and Europe that have climates and construction techniques similar to Canada. The results of this review are presented here as an aid to administrators of radon control programmes, companies offering radon testing and mitigation services and other concerned parties, both in Canada and elsewhere, who are facing issues of implementing a radon control strategy. A wide variety of radon mitigation strategies have been employed worldwide and all have achieved some success in reducing radon concentrations. Generally, active mitigation techniques involving physical alterations to a house (e.g. sub-slab depressurisation) are more effective in achieving a sustained and substantial radon reduction than passive techniques (e.g. improved ventilation or sealing of cracks). To a large extent, the choice of an optimal mitigation strategy will depend on the building type, soil conditions and climate. Radon levels should be measured at periodic intervals after remediation, perhaps once every 5 y, to ensure that concentrations continue to remain at acceptable levels.

  3. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  4. Singular Reduction and Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Meinrenken, E; Meinrenken, Eckhard; Sjamaar, Reyer

    1997-01-01

    Consider a compact prequantizable symplectic manifold M on which a compact Lie group G acts in a Hamiltonian fashion. The ``quantization commutes with reduction'' theorem asserts that the G-invariant part of the equivariant index of M is equal to the Riemann-Roch number of the symplectic quotient of M, provided the quotient is nonsingular. We extend this result to singular symplectic quotients, using partial desingularizations of the symplectic quotient to define its Riemann-Roch number. By similar methods we also compute multiplicities for the equivariant index of the dual of a prequantum bundle, and furthermore show that the arithmetic genus of a Hamiltonian G-manifold is invariant under symplectic reduction.

  5. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  6. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars ... Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important ...

  7. Harm Reduction Behind Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Emma R. Miller; Jan M. Moore; Peng Bi

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify how strategies to reduce the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in prisons could be implemented in a way that is acceptable to those with the responsibility for implementing them. Prison officer and nurse perceptions of HCV and attitudes toward a range of harm reduction interventions, including clean needle and bleach provision, were explored. In the context of highly prevalent feelings of resentment,...

  8. Reductive desulfurization of dibenzyldisulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K W

    1992-07-01

    Dibenzyldisulfide was reductively degraded by a methanogenic mixed culture derived from a sewage digestor. Toluene was produced with benzyl mercaptan as an intermediate in sulfur-limited medium. Toluene production was strictly associated with biological activity; however, the reducing agent for the culture medium, Ti(III), was partially responsible for production of benzyl mercaptan. Sulfide was not detected. Additions of sodium sulfide did not inhibit toluene production. Additions of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid prevented methanogenesis but did not adversely affect toluene yields.

  9. Drag reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-12-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  10. Efficient emissions reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Roussillon, Beatrice; Schweinzer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanism capable of achieving international agreement on the reduction of harmful emissions to their efficient level. It employs a contest creating incentives among participating nations to simultaneously exert efficient productive and efficient abatement efforts. Participation in the most stylised formulation of the scheme is voluntary and individually rational. All rules are mutually agreeable and are unanimously adopted if proposed. The scheme balances its budget and r...

  11. Cost reduction technologies for LNG receiving terminals; Technologies de reduction des couts pour les terminaux recepteurs GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneji, Ujita; Shuji, Yamamoto; Naoshige, Kubo; Takeyoshi, Nishizaki; Hiroshi, Iwahashi; Masanori, Takakta [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Since launching LNG operations in 1972, Osaka Gas has devoted its efforts to improving the reliability and security of its facilities, while consistently working to reduce costs. While the primary thrust in cost reduction is to lower the construction costs of LNG facilities by increasing their capacity and by improving construction methods, the secondary thrust is to lower facility operating costs by utilizing LNG cryogenic energy and improving the performance of the facilities. This paper describes the main efforts made recently by Osaka Gas in the area of cost reduction at LNG terminals. (authors)

  12. Reduction of the semisimple 1:1 resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Rod, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The method of “averaging” is often used in Hamiltonian systems of two degrees of freedom to find periodic orbits. Such periodic orbits can be reconstructed from the critical points of an associated “reduced” Hamiltonian on a “reduced space”. This paper details the construction of the reduced space

  13. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  14. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  15. Construction waste generation in Malaysia construction industry: illegal dumping activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M. H. I. A.; Kasim, N.; Mohamed, I.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Saikah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays development of construction in Malaysia has been effect to the increasing of construction waste. Additionally, the production of construction waste from construction projects has given negative impact to the environment especially in illegal dumping activities. The increasing number of illegal dumping activities from construction projects in Malaysia gives a sign that Malaysian construction waste management needs to be concerned. To date, a comprehensive criterion for construction waste management, particularly for a construction project in developing countries is still not clearly defined. Therefore, construction waste management in Malaysia needs further research. The objectives of this paper are to explore illegal dumping activities, and discuss the contributory factors of illegal dumping activities. Hence, this research conducted an interview with expertise in the area of construction waste management in order to scrutinise illegal dumping activities in Malaysia. The data from semistructured interviews were analysed by content analysis. Findings from this research will help to find out the strategies to reduce the illegal dumping activities. The final result also expected to increase the awareness and better solution for reducing illegal dumping activities in construction projects among construction players.

  16. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  17. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  18. Attribute Reduction and Information Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hong Wang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.

  19. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... All the data of the blazar 3C446 at 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz, presented in publications from 1977 to 2006, have been compiled to generate light curves. The light curves show violent activity of 3C446. Using Period04 analysis method, we have found that there is a period of 7.2 yr, which is consistent with the ...

  20. Periodic Euclidean solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    We examine periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. Classical perturbation theory is used to construct periodic time-dependent solutions in the neighborhood of the static sphaleron. The behavior of the action, as a function of period, changes character depending on the value of the Higgs boson mass. The required pattern of bifurcations of solutions as a function of the Higgs boson mass is examined, and implications for the temperature dependence of the baryon number violation rate in the standard model are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. PDG Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PDG Construction, LLC d/b/a Princeton Design Guild (the Company) is located in Bell Meade, New Jersey. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Hopewell, New Jersey.

  2. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  3. Construction inspection manual of procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides highway construction personnel with relevant, practical information in order to perform accurate inspections and provide relevant construction procedural information for the various roadway and structures items of work. It is the...

  4. Administrative Freezing of Capital Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropacheva A. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The author estimates administrative freezing of capital construction as a type of punishment for violating laws in this sphere. The article provides the mechanism of freezing of capital construction as a serious alternative for fine sanctions

  5. The incubation period of kuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillard d'Aignaux, Jérôme N; Cousens, Simon N; Maccario, Jean; Costagliola, Dominique; Alpers, Michael P; Smith, Peter G; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-07-01

    Kuru is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was identified in Papua New Guinea in the late 1950s. Several thousand cases of the disease occurred during a period of several decades. Epidemiologic investigations implicated ritual endocannibalistic funeral feasts as the likely route through which the infectious agent was spread. We estimated the incubation period distribution of kuru using a back-calculation model and explored the relation among sex, age at infection, and incubation period. Key assumptions in the model were that the number of new kuru infections in a year was proportional to the number of kuru cases dying that year, and that the epidemic arose from a single case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease occurring around 1900. The mean incubation period of kuru was estimated at between 10.3 and 13.2 years. Point estimates of the 90th percentile ranged from 21.1 to 27.0 years. The incubation period in females was estimated to be shorter than that in males. The shortest incubation periods were estimated in adult women, who may have been exposed to the largest doses of infectious material. Our findings suggest that the relatively young age of cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease probably reflects increased levels of exposure in young people, rather than age-dependency in the incubation period.

  6. Model reduction for discrete bilinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. M.; Skelton, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A model reduction method for discrete bilinear systems is developed which matches q sets of Volterra and covariance parameters. These parameters are shown to represent both deterministic and stochastic attributes of the discrete bilinear system. A reduced order model which matches these q sets of parameters is defined to be a q-Volterra covariance equivalent realization (q-Volterra COVER). An algorithm is presented which constructs a class of q-Volterra COVERs parameterized by solutions to a Hermitian, quadratic, matrix equation. The algorithm is applied to a bilinear model of a robot manipulator.

  7. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  8. Periodically driven random quantum spin chains: real-space renormalization for Floquet localized phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-07-01

    When random quantum spin chains are submitted to some periodic Floquet driving, the eigenstates of the time-evolution operator over one period can be localized in real space. For the case of periodic quenches between two Hamiltonians (or periodic kicks), where the time-evolution operator over one period reduces to the product of two simple transfer matrices, we propose a block-self-dual renormalization procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of the Floquet dynamics. We also discuss the corresponding strong disorder renormalization procedure, that generalizes the RSRG-X procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of time-independent Hamiltonians.

  9. Gabor frames by sampling and periodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    By sampling the window of Gabor frame for L-2 (R) belonging to Feichtingers algebra S-0 (R), one obtains a Gabor frame for l(2) (Z). In this article we present a survey of results by R. Orr and A.J.E.M. Janssen and extend their ideas to cover interrelations among Gabor frames for the four spaces L......-2 (R), l(2) (Z), L-2 ([O,L]) and C-L. Some new results about the general dual windows with respect to sampling and periodization are presented as well. This theory is used to show a new result of the Kaiblinger type to construct an approximation to the canonical dual window of a Gabor frame for L-2...

  10. Uses of Semiotics in Periods of Hostilities, Armed Conflicts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses uses of semiotics in periods of hostilities and declaration of war and as a tool for peace building and concludes with appropriate recommendations on the relevance of semiotics in the reduction of armed conflicts and the promotion of peace in contemporary sub-Saharan African societies. Key Words: ...

  11. Mercury's rotation axis and period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements made from high-resolution Mariner 10 photography of the planet Mercury yield a rotation period of 58.6461 + or 0.005 days, in excellent agreement with the period required for a precise 2/3 resonance with its orbital period (58.6462 days). The axis of rotation of the planet was calculated to be offset about 2 deg from the perpendicular to its orbital plane within a 50% probability error ellipse of + or - 2.6 deg by + or - 6.5 deg. Dynamical considerations make it most likely that the true displacement from the orbit normal is less than 1 deg.

  12. Period Variations of RT Persei

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1995-01-01

    RT Per has been known as a close binary of which the orbital period has unpredictably varied so far. Although there are no agreements with the working mechanism for the changes of the period, two interpretations have been suggested and waiting for to be tested: 1)light-time effects due to the unseen 3rd and 4th bodies (Panchatsaram 1981), 2)Abrupt period-change due to internal variations of the system(e.q. mass transfer or mass loss) superimposing to the light-times effect by a 3rd body (Frie...

  13. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  14. Inductive types in constructive languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Peter Johan de

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation deals with constructive languages: languages for the formal expression of mathematical constructions. The concept of construction does not only encompass computations, as expressed in programming languages,but also propositions and proofs, as expressed in a mathematical logic, and

  15. Material Science and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traugott, Alan

    2009-03-01

    We will review the new materials and technologies that are being applied in the construction of high performance (green) buildings to improve energy efficiency, Indoor Air and Environmental Quality, water conservation and reclamation, and resource conservation. We present an introduction to state-of-the-art building concepts, including ``Net-Zero'' buildings, which generate as much energy as they use, reclaim water, and minimize waste; and ``Waste as Resource,'' including waste to energy plants, biofuels, materials reclamation and recycling. The role of advanced materials and technologies, such as spectrally selective glazing, photocatalytic concrete, solar heating and cooling, and organic solar collectors will be discussed. We also give an overview of advanced analytic tools used in building design, including Computational Fluid Dynamics, energy, and lighting/daylighting computer-based simulation programs.

  16. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...... tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations...

  17. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...... process), 2.Organisational space (work processes and their spatial-temporal dimension) and; 3. Economic space (cost estimations and budgets). In practice, our findings show that the visualisations of different yet connected project spaces and the development of future clinical practices is related...

  18. Collaboratively Constructed Contradictory Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Just, Sine Nørholm

    2013-01-01

    Based on a mixed-method case study of online communication about the Danish pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk, this article argues that online communication plays out as a centrifugal narration process with centripetal consequences. Through a content analysis of communication about Novo Nordisk......, three dominant online meaning constructions that present themselves as narratives are identified and their convergence into one overarching meta-narrative is identified. The meta-narrative of Novo Nordisk as the ruthlessly profit-seeking socially responsible heavenly work place is made up of the three...... interrelated, yet disparate tales about Novo Nordisk as (1) a socially responsible organization, engaged in society at large; (2) an organization primarily concerned with fulfilling its own objectives – profit maximization; and (3) a great and employee-centred workplace. The article then discusses...

  19. Derailed self-constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the construction of self amongst a group of young boys in Denmark who have had experience with eating disorders, self- harm, loneli-ness and other manifestations of a lack of well- being. At first glance, these manifestations of a lack of well- being seem rather distinct...... and explore the ways that young boys understand and experience the self, and how they link this self to their lack of well-being. As will become apparent, fear of marginalization seems to be an important part of this connection: The young boys are struggling to live up to expectations in an increasingly...... individualized and competitive society, and their fear of being lost and excluded seems to have a destabilizing effect on their well-being. The young boys in this chapter are not socially excluded in terms of being outside ‘mainstream society’, rather their marginalization is that of insiders, who feel...

  20. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    semantically and formally predictable. Despite this difference, [méllo INF], like the other future periphrases, seems to be highly entrenched in the cognition (and grammar) of Early Medieval Greek language users, and consequently a grammatical construction. The syntactic evidence speaking in favor of [méllo......My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting...... presents evidence from historical linguistics, and more specifically diachronic arguments of a syntactic nature, to support the argument of frequency. I demonstrate that contrary to other Medieval Greek future periphrases, the Early Medieval Greek form [méllo (‘I am about to’) INFINITIVE (INF)] was both...

  1. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  2. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the communication and sociological values of the actors involved and saw it as essential for their way of cooperating. The cooperation included and combined elements of traditional industrial building production, with concepts and initiatives that had to be understood by means of sociological analysis. Tentatively...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  3. Constructing nonhuman animal emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2017-10-01

    Scientists and lay-people alike have long been fascinated with the emotional lives of nonhuman animals. To date, scientific approaches to the study of 'animal' emotion have assumed that emotions are biologically evolutionarily conserved, hardwired and have discrete behavioral and physiological outputs. According to this view, emotions and their outputs are homologous across species, allowing humans to accurately perceive (or 'read') animal emotion using our own concepts of what emotions are. In this paper, I discuss the challenges to that perspective and propose using an alternative theoretical approach to understand animal emotion. Adopting this alternative approach, which represents a collection of similar theories (referred to as 'Theories of Constructed Emotion'), changes the questions that we ask about animal emotion, how we study emotion across phylogeny and advance translational science, and how we understand the evolution of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  5. TOTEM Construction Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winter technical stop saw the final steps of the installation of the TOTEM experiment. After 8 years of development, the inelastic telescope T1 was successfully installed inside CMS at both sides of the interaction point. This detector joins the previously installed inelastic telescope T2 and the Roman Pots (147m and 220m from the CMS interaction point) to study both elastic and inelastic proton scattering.   The Genova team who designed and built the detector in front of the '+' arm of the T1 telescope after final insertion. All the detector chambers were assembled at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Major contributions to the construction of the support structure and the installation process came from CERN. “Installing the T1 detector was an important milestone for TOTEM,” says Joachim Baechler, Technical Coordinator for TOTEM. Enrico Robutti from Genova, responsible for the T1 project, added: "The T1 detector was carefully installed ...

  6. Uncertainty Analysis of Knowledge Reductions in Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty analysis is a vital issue in intelligent information processing, especially in the age of big data. Rough set theory has attracted much attention to this field since it was proposed. Relative reduction is an important problem of rough set theory. Different relative reductions have been investigated for preserving some specific classification abilities in various applications. This paper examines the uncertainty analysis of five different relative reductions in four aspects, that is, reducts’ relationship, boundary region granularity, rules variance, and uncertainty measure according to a constructed decision table.

  7. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  8. Nonlinear waves in periodic media

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcheson, David; Luna, Manuel Quezada de

    2015-01-01

    This poster advertises several recent theoretical developments the computational modeling of nonlinear waves in periodic materials, by the Numerical Mathematics Group at KAUST.  The papers referenced in the poster are linked to below.

  9. Photonic band gaps in materials with triply periodic surfaces and related tubular structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; Kole, JS

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the photonic band gap of triply periodic bicontinuous cubic structures and of tubular structures constructed from the skeletal graphs of triply periodic minimal surfaces. The effect of the symmetry and topology of the periodic dielectric structures on the existence and the

  10. Impact of Newly Constructed Roads on Adjoining Soil Properties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road construction often results in the displacement of animals and plants that may not be recovered, and the long-term consequences limits productivity of roadside biota due to exposure of sub-soils, reduction in water holding capacity by the soils, and compacting soil materials which makes it difficult for roadside ...

  11. UCAC3: Astrometric Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2010). Double star fits of blended images are based on the same Lorentz image profile model, however three more free parame- ters are used for the two...single width of the profiles for both components of a double star and a single background level parameter is used in this fit. The x, y data files also...provided with the DVD release. The UCAC3 is based on a complete re-reduction of the pixel data aiming at more completeness with the inclusion of double

  12. Transportation network reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Network reduction problem is formulated as follows: We are given a transportation network T, a set of important origin – destination relations R and a number q greater than 1. The goal is to find a subnetwork S of the given network T such that all shortest paths between all origin – destination pairs from R using only subnetwork S are not longer than q-multiple of the corresponding distance in original network T. A mathematical model and an exact algorithm of just mentioned task is presented.

  13. Construction of Daiichi Tamagawa bridge; Daiichi Tamagawa kyoryo no seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, O.; Tsuyoshi, T. [East Japan Railway Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ota, T.; Sato, S. [Tekken Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-30

    This paper describes the construction of Daiichi Tamagawa Bridge for JR Tazawako Line, which was reconstructed with the Akita Shinkansen Project apart from the existing line. This bridge is a three-span continuous PC cable stayed bridge. To avoid operation accidents due to snow and ice, independent two-column type with a height of 11 m without beam was employed for the main tower. For the construction of upper part, overhang election construction method was adopted, which can be applied all the year round. The main girder has a single box cross section, and a width of 5.5 m and a beam height of 2.3 m. This was also constructed by the overhang construction method. To reduce the construction period, the main tower was constructed by the precast block construction method. The whole bridge was divided into six blocks by considering the hoist performance of cranes. Reinforcement against bearing pressure and cleavage due to the cable tensile force was conducted by adopting saddle structure for the main tower. Oblique members were jointed with the main girder using lateral beams projected from lateral side of girder. Totally seven PC cables were used for each oblique member. Measurements and management during the overhang construction were also described. The construction was over without problems in August, 1996. This bridge is under test operation using test run vehicles. 2 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work......, a description of the planned activities for the next period, and last comments on management and coordination....

  15. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  16. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term investigation of constructed wetland wastewater treatment and reuse: Selection of adapted plant species for metaremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Mohamed Mounir; Ainouche, Abdelkader; Nelson, Mark; Cattin, Florence; El Amrani, Abdelhak

    2017-10-01

    A highly diverse plant community in a constructed wetland was used to investigate an ecological treatment system for human wastewater in an arid climate. The eight-year operation of the system has allowed the identification of a highly adapted and effective plant consortium that is convenient for plant-assisted metaremediation of wastewater. This constructed wetland pilot station demonstrated effective performance over this extended period. Originally, there were twenty-five plant species. However, because of environmental constraints and pressure from interspecific competition, only seven species persisted. Interestingly, the molecular phylogenetic analyses and an investigation of the photosynthetic physiology showed that the naturally selected plants are predominately monocot species with C4 or C4-like photosynthetic pathways. Despite the loss of 72% of initially used species in the constructed wetland, the removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, TSS, total phosphorus, ammonia and nitrate were maintained at high levels, approximately 90%, 80%, 94%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Concomitantly, the microbiological water tests showed an extremely high reduction of total coliform bacteria and streptococci, about 99%, even without a specific disinfection step. Hence, the constructed wetland system produced water of high quality that can be used for agricultural purposes. In the present investigation, we provide a comprehensive set of plant species that might be used for long-term and large-scale wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lunar Outpost and its construction scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    A Lunar Outpost (LO) is a man-tended frontier facility that Japan may construct on the lunar mare in around 2010. The objective of the Lunar Outpost is to perform various experiments such as observation, material procesing, life science missions during the shorttime period. It will be a demonstration project for the permanently manned Lunar Base (LB). The Lunar Outpost has three major missions. The primary misssion to be a precursor of the manned Lunar Base. The secondary mission is to verify technologies required for the manned Lunar Base. The tertiary mission is to conduct experiments including lunar resource utilizations and adaptability of human beings to the lunar environment. The period of LO operations will be limited to three years. The first year is a construction phases and covers five lunar landings. The second and third years are the man-tended operational phase in which experiments and observation will be conducted on the lunar surface. There will be a total of nine lunar landings; three cargo landings and six passenger landings. Three crew members will stay at the LO for tend days for each passenger landing. The system structure and functions of the subsystems are described. A configuration of the LO which satisfies the missions and systems requirements is proposed. The configuration consists of a Habitation Module, a Laboratory/Logistics Module, an Electric Module, and a Rover with Airlock. A construction scenario is written to transport and integrate these elements.

  19. Period proliferation in periodic states in cyclically sheared jammed solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Liu, Andrea J.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-08-01

    Athermal disordered systems can exhibit a remarkable response to an applied oscillatory shear: After a relatively few shearing cycles, the system falls into a configuration that had already been visited in a previous cycle. After this point the system repeats its dynamics periodically despite undergoing many particle rearrangements during each cycle. We study the behavior of orbits as we approach the jamming point in simulations of jammed particles subject to oscillatory shear at fixed pressure and zero temperature. As the pressure is lowered, we find that it becomes more common for the system to find periodic states where it takes multiple cycles before returning to a previously visited state. Thus, there is a proliferation of longer periods as the jamming point is approached.

  20. Microbial reduction of iodate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  1. Planning for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines Das, Rose; Fry, Derek; Preziosi, Richard; Hudson, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    Reduction is one of the Three Rs which can be readily achieved in practice. This can be done by careful consideration of the experimental strategy and the implementation of good experimental design. Moreover, strategic planning leads to 'best' scientific practice and can have a positive impact on both refinement and replacement. The FRAME Reduction Steering Committee has developed a flow chart for an overall strategy for planning and conducting biomedical research. This, and important planning considerations for each of the steps proposed, are discussed. The strategy involves taking an initial overview and undertaking related background research, then planning a sequence of experiments expected to give satisfactory results with the least animal use and minimal severity, choosing an efficient design for each experiment in the sequence, reviewing the results of one experiment before progressing to the next, and conducting an overall analysis at the end of the programme. This approach should minimise animal use and maximise the quality of the resultant scientific output. Copyright (c) 2009 FRAME.

  2. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Inspection of Construction Works According to Polish Construction Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, A.

    2015-11-01

    Construction regulations are still different in many European countries, even though the European Union directives have unified many acts for construction works and construction products in the member countries. The scheme of the construction process presented in the paper could be valid for most countries, despite of detailed regulations of legal systems. The number of construction regulations to be followed in order to get the Construction Permit in Poland is rather big, so the time between the start of the investment process and the day when the Construction Permit is issued could be several months. Only licensed professional engineers can play the role of site managers, site inspectors and designers, registered for the given construction project. Duties and responsibilities (civil liability) of these engineers are strictly defined by regulations. The obligatory inspection of construction works should be executed by the licensed site inspectors. Moreover, the works can be incidentally inspected by Authority, banks, insurance companies or designers. Foreign designers and foreign site engineers in order to be allowed by respective Authority to play official roles on Polish construction sites should present documents proving that they can do the same jobs in their countries as per regulations obligatory there.

  4. Flat Plate Reduction in a Water Tunnel Using Riblets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Cononue onreee dnaessey end defyy blod numbr) FIEL / 9 GROUP SUB.GROUP Drag reduction /inTurbulent boundary layer // Streamwie microgroove surface...and its leading edge were separately constructed from type 302 stainless steel. The flat plate is 19.0mm thick and -.0.58m wide. with an Overall

  5. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and ... The reduction temperature did not affect the product selectivity. South African Journal of ...

  6. Sustainable regulation of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and

  7. Microgravity particle reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Vanessa; Joslin, Michelle; Mateo, Lili; Tubbs, Tracey

    1988-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project, sponsored by NASA, is assembling the knowledge required to design, construct, and operate a system which will grow and process higher plants in space for the consumption by crew members of a space station on a long term space mission. The problem of processing dry granular organic materials in microgravity is discussed. For the purpose of research and testing, wheat was chosen as the granular material to be ground into flour. Possible systems which were devised to transport wheat grains into the food processor, mill the wheat into flour, and transport the flour to the food preparation system are described. The systems were analyzed and compared and two satisfactory systems were chosen. Prototypes of the two preferred systems are to be fabricated next semester. They will be tested under simulated microgravity conditions and revised for maximum effectiveness.

  8. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  9. Sulfur dioxide emissions in Asia in the period 1985-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Tsai, Nancy Y.; Akimoto, Hajime; Oka, Kaoru

    A consistent set of SO 2 emission trends has been developed for Asian countries for the time period 1985-1997. The trend is based on extrapolation of a detailed 1990 inventory, which was constructed as part of the World Bank's RAINS-ASIA project, using IEA energy-use data. The trend shows Asian SO 2 emissions growing from 33.7 Tg in 1990 to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Estimates interpolated from the RAINS-ASIA computer model suggest a value for 1997 of 46.4 Tg, assuming no major changes in emission abatement policies after 1990. The reduction in the 1997 value, by some 16%, is primarily due to regulatory requirements and other trends toward lower sulfur content of oil products and coal. A slowdown in the growth of emissions in China - due to a reduction in economic growth, the mining of higher-quality coals, enhanced environmental awareness, and a reduction in industrial coal use - has been instrumental in arresting the growth of Asian emissions. Most of the positive developments have occurred in East Asia, and high-emission growth rates persist in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The outlook for the future is that Asian SO 2 emissions may well peak in the region of 40-45 Tg by the year 2020 or earlier, in contrast to previous predictions of 2020 emissions as high as 80-110 Tg. The trends developed in this paper are good news for the local and regional environment, particularly in East Asia. However, they also signify lower-than-anticipated concentrations of sulfate aerosol over the Asian continent, with the resulting possibility of greater-than-anticipated regional and global warming.

  10. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    , opportunities, and challenges concerning this new collection of media. I use the general term pervasive media systems for children (PMC), taking ‘medium’ in its broadest sense to cover aspects of communication as well as tangible interaction with the physical environment.             Tracing trends in children......’s popular culture and technology—especially their use of mobile phones and online games, worlds, and social networking sites—I argue that the there is a potential for a new type of medium which focuses on social construction rather than games and instrumental manipulation.             I give special...... divide. However, within some domains, the balance is shifting, with girls using mobile phones and social networking sites more than boys. New digital media should explore and support this shift.             New pervasive technologies offer possibilities to tie activities to the physical, informational...

  11. Pairs of oblique duals in spaces of periodic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2010-01-01

    We construct non-tight frames in finite-dimensional spaces consisting of periodic functions. In order for these frames to be useful in practice one needs to calculate a dual frame; while the canonical dual frame might be cumbersome to work with, the setup presented here enables us to obtain...... explicit constructions of some particularly convenient oblique duals. We also provide explicit oblique duals belonging to prescribed spaces different from the space where we obtain the expansion. In particular this leads to oblique duals that are trigonometric polynomials....

  12. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  13. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  14. Confluence reduction for Markov automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost P.; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Markov automata are a novel formalism for specifying systems exhibiting nondeterminism, probabilistic choices and Markovian rates. As expected, the state space explosion threatens the analysability of these models. We therefore introduce confluence reduction for Markov automata, a powerful reduction

  15. Student Attitudes Towards Cooperative Construction Education Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the attitudes of students at a historically disadvantaged institution (HOI compared with those at a previously advantaged institution (PAl in South Africa. PAis in South Africa have been almost exclusively white in the past while HOls have been predominantly black-both with respect to their academic staffing and student population. It is argued that higher education institutions have given students in general too little that will be of real value beyond a credential that will help them get their first jobs. The opinions of first year students were surveyed before, and third and final year students after, their practical periods of employment in construction. The study concludes that all the cooperative partners in cooperative education can do much more to improve this approach to construction education.

  16. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  18. THE INDUCTION PERIOD IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L

    1937-11-20

    1. Measurements on the photosynthesis of Cabomba caroliniana show an induction period at low and high light intensities and CO(2) concentrations. 2. The equation which describes the data for Cabomba also describes the data obtained by other investigators on different species. The phenomenon is thus shown to be similar in plants representative of three phyla. 3. A derivation of the induction period equation is made from a consideration of the cycle of light and dark processes known to occur in photosynthesis. The equation indicates that light intensity enters as the square, and that the same light reactions are involved as those which affect the stationary state rates. However, a different dark reaction appears to limit photosynthesis during the induction period.

  19. The Role of E-Procurement in the Austrian Construction Industry: Adoption Rate, Benefits and Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zunk, Bernd Markus; Marchner, Martin; Uitz, Iris; Lerch, Carina; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The progressive developments force suppliers on efficiency-driven construction markets to reorganize their internal organization. Especially the complex and not standardized procurement process holds high cost reduction potential. To exploit this potential, suppliers need to understand the

  20. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  1. Period Variations of RT Persei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available RT Per has been known as a close binary of which the orbital period has unpredictably varied so far. Although there are no agreements with the working mechanism for the changes of the period, two interpretations have been suggested and waiting for to be tested: 1light-time effects due to the unseen 3rd and 4th bodies (Panchatsaram 1981, 2Abrupt period-change due to internal variations of the system(e.q. mass transfer or mass loss superimposing to the light-times effect by a 3rd body (Frieboes-Conde & Herczeg 1973. In the point of view that the former interprepation models could predict the behavior of the changes of the orbital period theoretically, we checked whether the recent observed times of minimum lights follow the predictions by the first model or not. We confirmed that the observed times of minimum lights have followed the variations calculated by the light-times effects due to 3rd and 4th bodies suggested by Panchatsaram. In this paper a total of 626 times of minimum lights were reanalyzed in terms of the light-time effects by the 3rd and 4th bodies. We concluded that the eclipsing pair in SV Cam system moves in an elliptic orbit about center of mass of the triple system with a period of about 42.y2, while the mass center of the triplet is in light-time orbit about the center of mass of the quadruple system with a period of 120y. The mean masses deduced for the 3rd and 4th bodies were 0.89m⨀ and 0.82m⨀, respectively.

  2. Waveform simulation of predominant periods in Osaka basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Tsurugi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Predominant period of strong ground motions is an important parameter in earthquake engineering practice. Resonance at predominant period may result in collapse of building. Usually, predominant periods are associated with the soil resonances. However, considering that strong ground motions are composed from source, path and site effects, predominant periods are affected by source and propagation path too. From another side, 3D basin interferences may amplify quite different periods, depending on site location relatively to the basin edges and independently on the soil depth. Moreover, constructive or destructive interference of waves from different asperities of a large source may enhance or diminish amplitudes at a particular predominant period respectively. In this study, to demonstrate variations of predominant periods due to complicated effects above, we simulated wavefield snapshots and waveforms at a few representative sites of Osaka basin, Japan. Seismic source is located in Nankai trough, hosting anticipated M9 earthquake. 3D velocity structure is combined from JIVSM velocity structure (Koketsu et al., 2012) and Osaka basin structure of Iwaki and Iwata, 2011. 3D-FDM method is used to simulate waveforms. Simulation results confirm some previous results that due to elongated elliptical shape of Osaka basin, interference effects are strong and peak amplitudes has characteristic stripped pattern elongated in parallel to the long axis of basin. We demonstrate that predominant periods have similar pattern and value of predominant period may strongly depend on the location of site and azimuthal orientation of waveform component.

  3. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  4. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Ward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  5. Naval new ship construction cost analysis and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents an analysis of the Ship Construction and Conversion, Navy, Appropriation cost estimates for the ship construction during the period 1960-1992. Emphasis is placed on four specific shipbuilding programs: Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG-51), Fleet Ballistic Submarine (Trident), Attack Submarine (SSN-688), and Guided Missile Cruiser (CG-47). These programs are analyzed to determine how competition/dual sourcing, contrac...

  6. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between a w...

  7. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  8. Constructing Periodic Timetables using MIP - a case study from DSB S-train

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten N.; Hove, Bjørn; Clausen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    We describe a mathematical model to create operational timetable alternatives in DSB S-tog a/s. The model is a mixed integer program implemented in GAMS and solved by CPLEX. We investigate the impact of automatic merges of lines and perform scenario analysis for a subset of the parameters...

  9. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; RF cavity.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    RF cavity. There were 2 identical ones: one for stacking (accumulation) procedures; the other for scanning with "empty buckets" (measurement of beam density distribution). Both were operated at h=2 (2nd harmonic of the revolution frequency), i.e. at around 24.4 MHz. Voltage, frequency and phase were programmed with analogue circuits.

  10. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; deflector.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    One of the 2 electrostatic deflectors (lying on its side) for monoturn injection of the beam from the van de Graaff. They bring the beam close and parallel to the closed orbit. 1/4 of a betatron wavelength downstream from the 2nd deflector, a pulsed inflector corrects the angle.

  11. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; quadrupole.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    One of the 24 quadrupoles. They were made of massive (non-laminated) soft iron, which at the low field-strength (35 G on the pole-tips) presented problems. Later they were fitted with shims on all 4 poles, to correct the quadrupole and sextupole components.

  12. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; general view.

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab

    1962-01-01

    A general view of the 2-MeV electron storage-ring model during the last stages of assembly. The injection line for the electrons enters at the bottom of the picture (under the ladder) and meets the ring at the back, to the right. Near there, Joseph Karouanton (S.G.T.E, Paris) (inside the ring), and Marcel Bernasconi (AR Division) are seen testing for leaks in the vacuum system. In white coats are Mervin Barnes (left) and Boony Bruggerman (AR Division), considering the reading shown by one of the vacuum gauges.

  13. Surface Thermal Insulation and Pipe Cooling of Spillways during Concrete Construction Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that spillways adopt a hydraulic thin concrete plate structure, this structure is difficult to protect from cracks. The mechanism of the cracks in spillways shows that temperature stress is the major reason for cracks. Therefore, an effective way of preventing cracks is a timely and reasonable temperature-control program. Studies show that one effective prevention method is surface thermal insulation combined with internal pipe cooling. The major factors influencing temperature control effects are the time of performing thermal insulation and the ways of internal pipe cooling. To solve this problem, a spillway is taken as an example and a three-dimensional finite element program and pipe cooling calculation method are adopted to conduct simulation calculation and analysis on the temperature fields and stress fields of concretes subject to different temperature-control programs. The temperature-control effects are then compared. Optimization results show that timely and reasonable surface thermal insulation and water-flowing mode can ensure good temperature-control and anticrack effects. The method has reference value for similar projects.

  14. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  15. Systematic review: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, D J A; Brauer, C

    2017-04-01

    Between 15 and 20% of prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to occupational exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes. Dust at construction sites is still a challenge, but no overview exists of COPD among construction workers. To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition of airway obstruction among workers in the construction industry. The authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility and performed a quality assessment of the included papers. Twelve studies were included. Nine studies found a statistically significant association between COPD and work in the construction industry, although only among never-smokers in one study and only for the period after 2000 in another study. One study found that the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was significantly higher among construction workers compared with bus drivers. This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential exposure-effect relationship could be identified.

  16. TRADOC Union List of Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TRW 1969-1983 (MF). Construction in Maryland/D.C./Virginia/North Carolina TRB 1982-1983;1985+ (’onstructioneer TRB 1982-1983;1985+ Constructor TRB...197P+ TRH Apr 1962+ TSB 1956-ApTr 1964 TSO 1983+ TTF Sep 196 7 -no. 6, 197- n: 19--. TTG v. 1, 1965+ Sentine ’Canada (continues " ana (ian Army ourna1...l 76+ Seriia Literatury 1 lazyka, Izvest:ia Akademii nauk SSSR TSL 0321-1711 39:1 11980) - 44:6 i1985) T40:2,5; 41:1,3-4; 43: Ses: Cinema Theatre 3

  17. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  19. Soliton Management in Periodic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malomed, Boris A

    2006-01-01

    During the past ten years, there has been intensive development in theoretical and experimental research of solitons in periodic media. This book provides a unique and informative account of the state-of-the-art in the field. The volume opens with a review of the existence of robust solitary pulses in systems built as a periodic concatenation of very different elements. Among the most famous examples of this type of systems are the dispersion management in fiber-optic telecommunication links, and (more recently) photonic crystals. A number of other systems belonging to the same broad class of spatially periodic strongly inhomogeneous media (such as the split-step and tandem models) have recently been identified in nonlinear optics, and transmission of solitary pulses in them was investigated in detail. Similar soliton dynamics occurs in temporal-domain counterparts of such systems, where they are subject to strong time-periodic modulation (for instance, the Feshbach-resonance management in Bose-Einstein conde...

  20. Lean construction as an effective organization model in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashova Elena S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, due to the sharp climatic changes, the Arctic attracts an increased interest of the world powers as a strategically important object. In 2013, the development strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national security for the period up to 2020 was approved by the President. In this strategy, the socio-economic development of the region in terms of improving the quality of life, expressed in the implementation of housing and civil engineering is very important. The goal of the study is to identify effective organization model of construction in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Lean construction as a dynamically developing methodology abroad is analyzed. Characteristics of this organization model of construction meet the necessary requirements for the construction of various infrastructure objects in the Arctic. Therefore, the concept of lean construction can be an effective strategy of development of the Arctic regions of Russia as well as other Arctic countries.

  1. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, Flynn William [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using 14C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  2. Media Constructions of Sexual Violence

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The present research analysed how the media, specifically newspaper articles, construct sexual violence towards women, with the aim of investigating why cultural misconceptions about rape persist. Language use in the articles is examined using discursive psychology, and three constructions were closely analysed: the rapist, the rape, and the woman, each containing several themes and descriptive features, with a basis in historical rape myths. Findings suggested that these constructions are ma...

  3. Period persistence of long period oscillations in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, N.; Foullon, C.; Hnat, B.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Shibasaki, K.

    2011-05-01

    Long period oscillations in the microwave radiation intensity generated over the sunspot of NOAA AR 10330 are studied with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph as the sunspot passes over the solar disk, over the course of 9 days (06-15 April 2003). Periodogram, Fourier and global wavelet analyses reveal the presence of a significant oscillatory component in the range P ≈ 50-120 min over the course of the observations. The spectral amplitudes of five significant Fourier components in the range P = 50-150 min are also seen to be stable over the observations, when the data are not affected by changes in magnetic configuration in the region. The ground-based nature of the instrument naturally introduces long data gaps in such long duration observations and the presence of the gaps does not allow any conclusion as to the stability of the phases of the oscillations. As a model to explain the persistence of the dominant long periods, a simple oscillator with a nonlinear driving term is proposed. The spectral difference between distinct peaks within, e.g. the 3 min spectral band, is expected to be able to resonate with the long period one hour oscillations.

  4. Quality in Construction- A Supply Chain Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    2006-01-01

    be demonstrated by studying the emergence of failures occurring in the supply chain. The paper conceptualises the construction supply as a delivery network being partially stable, partially project specific and configured. It moreover develops a frame of understanding of the handling of quality issues...... followed generated 160 failures over a three month observation period. The economic consequences are calculated to 8% of the production costs. The analysis of relations in the supply network showed that most of the failures were generated in the knowledge stream and then occasionally transformed...

  5. On the construction of Wannier functions in topological insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Decebal Horia; Monaco, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of constructing exponentially localized composite Wannier bases, or equivalently smooth periodic Bloch frames, for three-dimensional time-reversal symmetric topological insulators, both of bosonic and of fermionic type, so that the bases in question are also...... vanish, we provide an algorithm which constructs a “multi-step logarithm” that is employed to continuously deform the given family into a constant one, identically equal to the identity matrix. This algorithm leads to a constructive procedure to produce the composite Wannier bases mentioned above....

  6. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed...

  7. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  8. Researcher perspectives on class size reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue’s (1999 position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes political histories of, contextual details about, and assumptions undergirding the conversation. We find divergent (and sometimes competing perspectives on identifying beneficiaries of class size reduction (or CSR and the correct context in which to view CSR research. By contrasting the logic and assumptions embedded in pupil-teacher ratio (PTR, class size (CS, and class size reduction studies, we conclude that sometimes research conflates these constructs and their associated theories of action, and such distortion poorly serves the needs of policymakers and stakeholders in education. We recommend that future inquiry focus on mechanisms of change, particularly instruction—both in terms of instructional strategies that capitalize on the resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for teacher and administrator professional development.

  9. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2018-01-10

    Electrochemically reducing CO2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synchronization of construction, replenishment and leasing cycles with account of wave dynamics of innovation cycles in the construction and transport field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the contradictive nature of the basic cycles of the growth in construction, the core of which are construction cycles, replenishment cycles of the active part of fixed assets, innovation and investment cycles. All of the listed cycles objectively thwart the science and technology progress in construction. There are presented results of the study of finance leasing as an effective tool, that provides time reduction of the innovation replenishment cycle of the active part of fixed assets in construction. It takes into account the development and implementation terms of construction investment projects in order to timely support the innovation wave and enhance its efficiency in construction for a rapid transition of the construction investment complex and national economy to a new vector of growth.

  11. Size reduction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  12. Space Warfighting Construct: Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teehan, R. F.; Anttonen, J. S.; Stein, J. M.; Stearns, J. A.

    Space is undergoing a period of great change, as the barriers to entry are lowering in every arena. Launch to any orbit is becoming more routine and feasible thanks to industry innovation, the rise of small- and cubesats, and the use of ESPA rings enabling “freight trains to GEO.” With more regular rides to space, there is a concomitant rise in the capability for space qualification, technology validation and verification, and all types of experimentation in both the space and ground segments. The types of architectures that commercial and government agencies develop is being influenced because space is becoming more accessible. Whereas current architectures are designed to have four to six satellites perform a mission, in the future that same mission may be distributed among dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of satellites. This changing landscape is something of a double-edged sword for Space Situational Awareness (SSA): safety of flight becomes a heightened concern, but the opportunities for the entire community to innovate, prototype, and ultimately provide novel, robust solutions have never been greater.

  13. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, E.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  14. Complete anatomic reduction and monosegmental fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis of Grade II and higher: use of the minimally invasive "rocking" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Sharma, Ankit; Reddy, Manjunatha

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Different surgical approaches have been described for treatment of spondylolisthesis, including in situ fusions, reductions of various degrees, and inclusion of healthy adjacent segments into the fusion construct. To the authors' knowledge, there are only sparse reports describing consistent complete reduction and monosegmental transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis using a minimally invasive technique. The authors assess the efficacy of this technique in the reduction of local deformity and correction of overall sagittal profile in single-level spondylolisthesis. METHODS This cohort study consists of a total of 36 consecutive patients treated over a period of 6 years. Patients with varying grades of lumbar spondylolisthesis (29 Meyerding Grade II and 7 Meyerding Grade III) were treated with operative reduction via minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in which the "rocking" technique was used. The clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for low-back pain/dysfunction. Meyerding grade, pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), disc space angle (DSA), pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS) were assessed to measure the radiological outcomes. These were reviewed for each patient for a minimum of 2 years. RESULTS At most recent follow-up, 94% of patients were pain free. There were 2 patients (6%) who had moderate pain (which corresponded to higher-grade of listhesis), but all showed an improvement in pain scores (p invasive monosegmental TLIF for spondylolisthesis reduction using this rocking technique is effective in the treatment of various grades of spondylolisthesis. Consistent complete reduction of the slippage as well as excellent correction of overall sagittal profile can be achieved, and the need for including healthy adjacent segments in the fusion construct can be avoided.

  15. Periodic Convergences: Dance and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    deLahunta, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Published in German and English, this chapter is one of deLahunta's major outputs to emerge from a group of related research outputs, concerning "dance and technology". In it he explores the history of the convergence between dance and computers from the 1960s to the 1990s, arguing that this convergence has been periodic, involving particular artists at particular times, rather than producing a genre of work (as others have speculated). As the mainstream of contemporary dance evolved alongsid...

  16. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ...,133,030 to remove 64 permits, which post- reduction harvesters will repay over a 40-year period. NMFS has tendered reduction payments to the selected bidders. DATES: Fee payment collection will begin on... referendum period on March 29, 2012 (77 FR 19004). Interested persons should review these for further program...

  17. Advanced volume reduction program for LLW at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, H.; Sato, M.; Hirabayashi, T.; Tanaka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has recently decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program and started the construction of facilities, in which volume reduction techniques will be applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the advanced volume reduction facilities. These facilities consist of Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities and Waste Volume Reduction Facilities; the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. The waste volume reduction will be carried out by a super compactor, a metal melting unit and a non-metal melting unit equipped plasma torch, and an annual processing capacity is around 10,000 drums of 200-liter size. The volume reduction ratio of waste is around 1/3 to 1/6. Molten metal is cast to receptacles for receiving molten slag from non-metal melting unit. Thus the amount of secondary wastes are reduced by utilizing the metallic wastes as receptacles. (authors)

  18. Periodicity and positivity of a class of fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z; Mohammed, M Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Fractional differential equations have been discussed in this study. We utilize the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus to implement it within the generalization of the well known class of differential equations. The Rayleigh differential equation has been generalized of fractional second order. The existence of periodic and positive outcome is established in a new method. The solution is described in a fractional periodic Sobolev space. Positivity of outcomes is considered under certain requirements. We develop and extend some recent works. An example is constructed.

  19. Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D

    2015-01-01

    The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie

  20. 77 FR 68106 - Second Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Longline Catcher Processor Subsector of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of reduction payment tender and industry fee... loan repayment fees of $2,700,000 which post-reduction harvesters will repay over a 30-year period. Accordingly, NMFS is preparing to tender a reduction payment to the accepted bidder and implement an industry...