WorldWideScience

Sample records for construction cost impact

  1. SYNERGIC IMPACT ON SLIPPAGE, COST AND TIME IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K .Georgekutty

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction Industry in Kerala has a physical environment which influence cost, time. This is a peculiar issue of a developing country, which leads to many setbacks in completion of projects. This approach has made many challenges in the growth of construction. Material management is an important aspect in project planning andcontrol. It contributes a major portion of expense in construction projects. Controlling procurement and carrying cost can reduce total project cost. To identify the reason for setbacks and suggest an appropriate workable solution under the special circumstances is the aim of this study. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among hundred selected ongoing housing projects in Kochi and nearby districts. Based on the study, only 15% of the projects are expected to complete in time. Though all materials are equally important in construction, some of the key materials specifically control the project cost. A dynamic control over the materials can control project cost. Continues process will optimize the total project cost.

  2. IMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS ON CONSTRUCTION FIRM`S COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura Liana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The average cost of debt is negatively related with size, tangibility, firm growth, the leverage ratio, and the ratio of long- to short-term debt and positively to profitability. We find that the recent international crisis did have a significant impact on the set of firms in our sample, but affected the way in which leverage and the interest to debt ratio relate to firm fundamentals. In this article, we want to study the impact of financial crisis on the cost of capital using a sample of construction companies.

  3. Proportioning of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Mixes for Pavement Construction and Their Impact on Environment and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Kallis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC is a construction material investigated for more than 40 years including for pavement applications. A number of studies have demonstrated the technical merits of SFRC pavements over conventional concrete pavements; however little work has been carried out on the environmental and economical impact of SFRC during the pavement’s life cycle. Therefore, extended research was undertaken within the framework of the EU funded project “EcoLanes” to estimate the environmental and economical loadings of SFRC pavements. The innovative concept of the project is the use of recycled steel tyre-cord wire as concrete fibre reinforcement, which provides additional environmental benefits for tyre recycling over landfilling. Within the project framework a demonstration of a steel-fibre-reinforced roller-compacted concrete (SFR-RCC pavement was constructed in a rural area in Cyprus. In order to assess the economical and environmental picture of the demonstration pavement, life cycle cost analysis (LCCA and life cycle assessment (LCA studies were undertaken, which also compared the under study pavement design with four conventional alternatives. The main output of the studies is that SFR-RCC is more environmentally and economically sustainable than others. In addition, various concrete mix designs were investigated by considering parameters such as fibre type and dosage, cement type, and transportation distances to the construction site. Fibre dosage has been highlighted as a crucial factor compared with economical and environmental loadings in SFR-RCC pavement construction.

  4. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  5. Impact of the Economic Growth and Acquisition of Land to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, H. B.; Daulay, M.; Muda, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to test the aggregation of the economic growth of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building to the Construction Cost Index in North Sumatra. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample district in North Sumatra with the observation time series and cross sectional. The analysis tool used is multiple regression. The results showed that there was economic growth aggregation of North Sumatra and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building affect the Construction Cost Index.

  6. 25 CFR 700.467 - Construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction costs. 700.467 Section 700.467 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Discretionary Funds § 700.467 Construction costs. Construction costs and costs relating to construction such as...

  7. Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

    2013-09-01

    The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

  8. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  9. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 2): 874 – 880, 2015. ... Key Words: Cost, Highrise, Models, Nigeria, Office, Construction. Introduction .... the modern trend in cost analysis and cost planning ...

  10. Impact of COST 271

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bradley

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the significance of the achievements of the COST 271 Action on science and technology for space weather and telecommunications in Europe and the world. The Action's work has impacted national and international projects and the decision processes. The key words encompassed in the title of COST 271 are «space weather». But as the reader of this Final Report will appreciate, many more topics were addressed during the Action by the large team of workers from a wide range of countries and organisations than this wording would suggest. Relevant to the performance of telecommunication systems that rely on the presence of the ionosphere for propagation support, or that are affected by transmission through it, there have been investigations among other items of solar and magnetosphere disturbances on the ionosphere, satellite and ground-based measurements of the ionosphere, assembly of near-real-time databases of ionosphere information on the Web, studies of planetary and gravity waves in the ionosphere, ionosphere modelling, mapping and forecasting, long-term changes, ray-path deviations in the presence of irregularities, channel-scattering functions, and scintillations on Earth-space paths. The impact of all this work on the outside communities can be considered within three broad headings as follows.

  11. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  12. Construction Cost Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Cole; Thor, Philip W.

    1990-06-01

    The Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) is designed to demonstrate new residential building techniques and product innovations which advance the stage-of-the-art in constructing energy-efficient electrically heated residences. A secondary purpose is to obtain documented cost and energy savings data from which to make accurate assessments of the cost-effectiveness of various conservation innovations. The project solicits participation of regional homebuilders by offering them financial incentives for constructing homes to the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and including at least one innovation.'' The innovations are determined by BPA and the States prior to construction and represent construction techniques or energy saving products that might reduce the cost of building MCS homes, or expand the options available to builders in achieving MCS levels of energy efficiency in homes. Besides covering some of the additional risk for employing the innovation, the incentive payment guarantees that builders will provide certain amounts of information regarding the cost and acceptability of building the homes. In addition, an incentive is paid to homeowners for their participation in data collection efforts following construction. Several one-time'' tests were performed on the houses and homeowners were required to report energy consumption and temperature data on a weekly basis for approximately 18 months. BPA and the States compile the information obtained from the builders and homeowners. Access to this data is provided for the purpose of analyzing the cost and performance of the RCDP homes, as well as understanding the value of the various innovations that are tested. 25 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  14. Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project Parameters in ... This paper seeks to assess the views of consultants and contractors about the impact ... than the traditional project parameters in the form of cost, time and quality.

  15. CONSTRUCTION COST INTEGRATED CONTROL BASED ON COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Construction cost control is a complex system engineering. Thetraditional controlling method cannot dynamically control in advance the construction cost because of its hysteresis. This paper proposes a computer simulation based construction cost integrated control method, which combines the cost with PERT systematically, so that the construction cost can be predicted and optimized systematically and effectively. The new method overcomes the hysteresis of the traditional systems, and is a distinct improvement over them in effect and practicality.

  16. Cost impact assessment of cost accounting practice changes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James S.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis represents the results of research on cost impact assessment of cost accounting practice changes to Cost Account Standards- covered contracts. The objectives of the research were to explore the current environment in which cost impact is measured and to develop a structured approach to aid the decision-maker in the assessment. The requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards and Administration of Cost Accoun...

  17. Analysis of the Quality Control Impact on the Cost of the Architectural Decoration Construction Site%建筑装修施工现场质量控制对成本的影响浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      建筑装修施工现场质量控制对成本有着直接的影响,质量控制的好坏程度极大的体现了一个企业的管理水平,涉及到的成本直接对应着企业的经营建设表现。本文就建筑装修施工现场质量控制对成本的影响进行了详细的分析。%The quality control of architectural decoration co-nstruction site has a direct impact on the cost. The quality con-trol enormously reflects the management level of an enterprise, and the cost directly related to the operating construction per-formance of enterprise. In this article, the author analyzes the quality control impact on the cost of architectural decoration construction site.

  18. Development of a simple estimation tool for LMFBR construction cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    1999-05-01

    A simple tool for estimating the construction costs of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), 'Simple Cost' was developed in this study. Simple Cost is based on a new estimation formula that can reduce the amount of design data required to estimate construction costs. Consequently, Simple cost can be used to estimate the construction costs of innovative LMFBR concepts for which detailed design has not been carried out. The results of test calculation show that Simple Cost provides cost estimations equivalent to those obtained with conventional methods within the range of plant power from 325 to 1500 MWe. Sensitivity analyses for typical design parameters were conducted using Simple Cost. The effects of four major parameters - reactor vessel diameter, core outlet temperature, sodium handling area and number of secondary loops - on the construction costs of LMFBRs were evaluated quantitatively. The results show that the reduction of sodium handling area is particularly effective in reducing construction costs. (author)

  19. BIM-Based Cost Estimation/ Monitoring For Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Elbeltagi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proper Cost Estimate, Monitor and Control (CEM&C are vital for the success of construction projects. Starting from preliminary design to project closing, CEM&C progressively becomes more complex and challenging. Visualization can add another dimension to monitor and control where major deviations can be visually detected and analyzed. However, literature related to visualization in construction and integrating it with cost control is still in its early stages. Building Information Modeling (BIM can have promising impact in that domain. In this paper, a comprehensive cost estimating and monitoring model is presented. The model is integrated with BIM to provide the user with the capability of visualizing actual cost expended in different building elements and compare it with that budgeted at different time intervals. It provides construction practitioners with vital data that help them in taking appropriate corrective actions in case of any deviation from the budget. An example application is presented to demonstrate the capability and applicability of the model.

  20. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  1. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys a

  2. Factors influencing cost over-run in Indian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindrela Devi A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction cost is the most important criteria of project success and hence the construction project performance is generally expressed in terms of cost and its variance from the budget. In spite of having extant literature, cost estimation methods, cost indices etc., construction projects rarely meet the budgeted cost. This research study focuses on the construction cost overrun and to identify the various factors that affects the construction cost performance. Based on an extensive literature review and input from industry experts, sixty eight factors that causes cost overrun were identified for investigation. Further, a structured questionnaire survey was conducted among the industry experts and the collected data has been analysed statistically. It is concluded that the factors namely scope creep, construction delays, rework and practise of awarding the contract to the lowest bidder are most significant factors for construction cost overrun in non-infrastructural Indian projects. The relative importance of the listed factors used to guide the project team in addressing the cost related risks involved in the projects. The findings are expected to bridge the gap in the current construction cost management practices.

  3. Construction Cost Prediction by Using Building Information Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Remon F. Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The increased interest in using Building Information Modeling (BIM) in detailed construction cost estimates calls for methodologies to evaluate the effectiveness of BIM-Assisted Detailed Estimating (BADE...

  4. User costs as one of main advantages of precast concrete application in highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Radan

    2017-09-01

    Road user cost primarily refer to the monetized components of road (re)construction impacts, such as the user delay costs, vehicle operating costs, crash costs and emission costs. Objective of this paper is to analyze and appraise the advantages and benefits of the innovative prefabrication approach in contrast to traditional cast-in-place construction method. The goal is to reduce these additional costs borne by motorists and the community at-large as a result of road construction activity to their minimum through application of the prefabrication. Assessing two basic possible approaches to highway infrastructure construction - casting the road pavements and structures either in place or precast off the site - it can be concluded that the initial capital investment costs do not vary much. Substantial differences can be recognized when comparing their life-cycle costs and an extent to which their construction process affects the public, environment and the local economy. Prefabrication of any structure component off-site offers major construction time and user cost savings in comparison with the traditional cast-in-place methods of construction. Precast prestressed road pavements’ technology and precasting bridges’ parts and elements offers dramatic increase in durability, while it also substantially decreases construction time and resulting user costs.

  5. Costs of occupational injuries in construction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Haile, Elizabeth; Men, Yurong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries for the construction industry using 2002 national incidence data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and a comprehensive cost model that includes direct medical costs, indirect losses in wage and household productivity, as well as an estimate of the quality of life costs due to injury. Costs are presented at the three-digit industry level, by worker characteristics, and by detailed source and event of injury. The total costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the construction industry were estimated at $11.5 billion in 2002, 15% of the costs for all private industry. The average cost per case of fatal or nonfatal injury is $27,000 in construction, almost double the per-case cost of $15,000 for all industry in 2002. Five industries accounted for over half the industry's total fatal and nonfatal injury costs. They were miscellaneous special trade contractors (SIC 179), followed by plumbing, heating and air-conditioning (SIC 171), electrical work (SIC 173), heavy construction except highway (SIC 162), and residential building construction (SIC 152), each with over $1 billion in costs.

  6. Cost analysis of continuous flight auger piles construction in Egypt

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    Hossam E. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Flight Auger (CFA piling is widely used in the Egyptian construction industry. There is a dramatic fluctuation in pricing of executing this work package within short periods as a result of unsteady changes in supply-demand equilibrium. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the use of a scientific approach in estimating construction costs. Accordingly, it is crucial to consider the different cost elements of CFA piling construction as a step to reach an accurate and realistic cost estimate to be used by contractors in tendering. This research aims to study these cost elements based on an expert judgment, site observations and statistical analysis in order to develop an effective tool to estimate the total construction cost of the CFA piles in any future project. Expert survey was performed to draw detailed information to construct a cost breakdown structure (CBS that was used as a basis for developing the proposed cost model. The developed cost model is then validated through the application on fifty two projects. Such projects were carefully selected in different sizes, purposes and locations. Then the collected data were exposed to statistical analysis techniques. An average percentage error of 4.1% was observed upon comparing the estimated costs with the actual costs of these projects. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to recognize the most effective cost factors. The developed recommended model was used by some experienced contractors in the Egyptian market who expressed their satisfaction with the model.

  7. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  8. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt...

  9. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  10. Physical distribution costs in construction supply chains: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide insights into the trade-offs of physical distribution cost patterns in construction supply chains by modelling and measuring these costs. The model of the physical distribution system consists of the following (cost) elements: inventory, transport, handling,

  11. Physical distribution costs in construction supply chains: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide insights into the trade-offs of physical distribution cost patterns in construction supply chains by modelling and measuring these costs. The model of the physical distribution system consists of the following (cost) elements: inventory, transport, handling,

  12. Identifying Contractors’ Planned Quality Costs in Indonesian Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti F. Marzuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a very competitive construction industry, quality costs have to be measured to be able to identify potential quality problem areas and to focus attention on work output improvement opportunities. The awareness of contractors on the importance of quality costs could be reflected in the extent of their quality costs planning. This paper presents an identification of planned quality costs in three construction projects executed by two large Indonesian contractors, a state-owned company and a private company in Jakarta. The objective is to enable the contractors to elaborate their quality costs planning and thereby improve their work output based on the findi ngs. Quality costs are first grouped into three categories: prevention, appraisal, and failure costs. Based on the works of previous researchers, a list of quality management activities that should be covered in each quality costs category is then created. The contractors’ planned quality costs data for each category are identified and collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys that refer to the list. Quality costs are expressed as a percentage of contract value. It is revealed that although large contractors already have certain knowledge on quality costs in construction projects, these costs are not planned in a structured way through an analysis of systematic quality costs records. Through cost categorization it is also shown that higher prevention and appraisal costs lead to lower failure costs. It is then concluded that a lot of work is still to be done by the contractors to set up a quality costs recording system which can serve as a basis for their quality improvement planning.

  13. Risk Consideration and Cost Estimation in Construction Projects Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius A. Peleskei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects usually involve high investments. It is, therefore, a risky adventure for companies as actual costs of construction projects nearly always exceed the planed scenario. This is due to the various risks and the large uncertainty existing within this industry. Determination and quantification of risks and their impact on project costs within the construction industry is described to be one of the most difficult areas. This paper analyses how the cost of construction projects can be estimated using Monte Carlo Simulation. It investigates if the different cost elements in a construction project follow a specific probability distribution. The research examines the effect of correlation between different project costs on the result of the Monte Carlo Simulation. The paper finds out that Monte Carlo Simulation can be a helpful tool for risk managers and can be used for cost estimation of construction projects. The research has shown that cost distributions are positively skewed and cost elements seem to have some interdependent relationships.

  14. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  15. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  16. Quality Cost in the Construction Industry ' Preliminary Findings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Che Ali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key areas being emphasis in ISO 9001 Quality Management System (QMS is performance measurement towards continual improvement. Among the primary measuring tools is quality cost approach. Quality cost has been well practice in manufacturing sector but slowly gain its importance in construction industry. In fact Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK has reckoned quality cost as one of the tool and technique in few of its management processes. In view of such circumstances that has prompted an effort to undertake a study to ascertain the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost in Malaysian construction landscape. The targeted group of respondents was the personnel in the project management team. Capitalizing Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB National Electronic Tendering Initiatives (NETI road shows which were held in year 2007 throughout the country, the author was able to garner 263 respondents representing the project management team. Subsequently the data gathered from the completed forms were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software. General findings indicated that the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost among the project management team were relatively low. One of the main contributing factors was poor knowledge in the area related to quality cost. Despite of such scenario most of the respondents showed their interest in acquiring knowledge in the field of quality cost. Hence quality cost approach is at the infancy stage in Malaysian construction industry.

  17. Constructing minimum-cost flow-dependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Doreen A.; Weng, Jia F.

    2002-09-01

    In the construction of a communication network, the length of the network is an important but not unique factor determining the cost of the network. Among many possible network models, Gilbert proposed a flow-dependent model in which flow demands are assigned between each pair of points in a given point set A, and the cost per unit length of a link in the network is a function of the flow through the link. In this paper we first investigate the properties of this Gilbert model: the concavity of the cost function, decomposition, local minimality, the number of Steiner points and the maximum degree of Steiner points. Then we propose three heuristics for constructing minimum cost Gilbert networks. Two of them come from the fact that generally a minimum cost Gilbert network stands between two extremes: the complete network G(A) on A and the edge-weighted Steiner minimal tree W(A) on A. The first heuristic starts with G(A) and reduces the cost by splitting angles; the second one starts with both G(A) and W(A), and reduces the cost by selecting low cost paths. As a generalisation of the second heuristic, the third heuristic constructs a new Gilbert network of less cost by hybridising known Gilbert networks. Finally we discuss some considerations in practical applications.

  18. THE IMPACT OF DEPRECIATION ON COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RADU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that depreciation is calculated in financial accounting by regulated criteria, depending on a conventional fixed life. Excluding depreciation depending on units produced (applied to buildings and special construction of mines, salt mines, quarries where it is calculated per unit based on the exploitable reserve of useful mineral substance, the other depreciation methods do not always lead to fair and justified calculation of production costs. In this paper I will show how to record depreciation expenses in management accounting in Romania, the influence of methods of depreciation on costs, which are the restatements that depreciation expenses should be subject to for an accurate determination of production costs.

  19. Factors causing cost variation for constructing wastewater projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost is one of the major considerations throughout the project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Despite its proven importance, it is common to see a construction project failing to achieve its objectives within the specific cost. Cost variation is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly constructing all wastewater projects. Maintaining steady cost projection on wastewater projects had been recently an issue of serious concern, both to the client and project contractors. Cost deviation from initial cost plan had been prevalent on construction sites. However, little or no effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate and rank factors perceived to affect cost variation in the Egyptian wastewater projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, author invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample, to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of cost variation factors were identified for constructing wastewater projects. Totally 52 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and the survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index, ranking and simple percentages. It was analytically discovered that factors such as: (1 Lowest bidding procurement method; (2 Additional work; (3 Bureaucracy in bidding/tendering method; (4 Wrong method of cost estimation; and (5 Funding problems were critical for causing cost variation, while (1 Inaccurate cost estimation; (2 Mode of financing and payment for completed work; (3 Unexpected ground

  20. Research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglyi, Artem; Illiash, Sergii; Tymoshchuk, Oleksandr

    2017-09-01

    The tendency to increasing traffic volume on public roads and to increased axle loads of vehicles makes the road scientists to develop scientifically justified methods for preserving the existing and developing the new transport network of Ukraine. One of the options for solving such issues is the construction of roads with rigid (cement concrete) pavement. However, any solution must be justified considering technical and economic components. This paper presents the results of the research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction.

  1. The effect of construction cost estimating (CCE software on job performance: An improvement plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mukelas M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive statistical research on the effect of construction cost estimating software’s features towards estimating job performance. The objectives of this study are identification of cost estimating software features, analyzing the significant relation of cost estimating software’s features towards job performance, Explore the problem faced during the implementation and lastly propose a plan to improve the cost estimating software usage among contractors in Malaysia. The study statistically reveals four features of cost estimating software that significantly impact towards changes in cost estimating job performance. These features were refined by performing interview to focus group of respondent to observe the actual possible problems during the implementation. Eventually, the proposed improvement plan was validated by the focus group of respondents to enhance the cost estimating software implementation among contractors in Malaysia.

  2. Transaction Costs in Constructing Small and Medium Hydro Power Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the transaction costs helps knowing which are the real costs of starting a new business, finding bottlenecks, can serve to reduce inefficiencies and encourage more effective reforms. In  this article we analyze the impact of transaction costs in interactions between firms and public authority, when firms participate in the bidding procedure for constructing new hydropower plants until the stage of producing electricity. In the first years, after granting the concession right, firms face many difficulties due to a complex normative regulation, contractual conditions and  bureaucracy. Although in the majority of the cases, winning firms are provided by the public authority with the  concessionary permit within the legal deadlines, they fail to start producing electricity within the declared  timetable. Even though direct transaction costs computed by measuring the actual costs that firms or individuals face during these procedures may be relatively low, fairly 1-2 % of the total cost of investment, opportunity costs considering the potential loss in the revenues due to delays in producing and selling electricity, in some cases,  can be equal to the total cost of constructing the implant. Keywords: transaction costs, concessions, hydro power constructing, regulation.

  3. An Analysis of Construction Cost and Schedule Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    paradigm to develop project success measures. Griffith, Gibson, Hamilton, Tortora , and Wilson (1999 categorized projects by their cost, schedule, and...E., Hamilton, M. R., Tortora , A. L., & Wilson, C. T. (1999). Project success index for capital facility construction projects. Journal of

  4. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  5. Time Overrun and Cost Effectiveness in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project management technique of planning and scheduling using tools and devices are helpful in comparing the project with stipulated cost, time and quality. Resource tracking, Minimize the uncertainty and Cost Effectiveness is focused in this project. The software tool used for planning and scheduling is Primavera project planner enterprise for construction. The study covers three case studies of the process of planning, scheduling the activities and monitoring. A general re sequencing model had been proposed to overcome the delay factor from the critical area, to minimize the delay of the construction and to reduce the time, cost and it also helpful to concentrate on the major areas in the project. Re sequencing model leads the management to cost savings and make entire project success. Resource planning is one aspect, which decides the systematic execution of the project at worksite. This study is to have hands- on experience in an ongoing project, and evaluation of schedule of equipment, staff, Labor and Materials. It helps to plan and evaluate the resources for the Construction of the building project. This study also compares the cost variation due to the delay of the project and re scheduling the project by crashing process. KEYWORDS:

  6. REDUCTION OF COST AND TIME CONSUMPTION IN WELL-CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Contractor usually utilizes the available drilling equipment when constructing just one single well. Drilling cost and time consumption in constructing the well MB-1, using the percussion method, and the well MB-2, using the conventional rotary drilling method, call for a separate analysis in order to justify the investment cost for the acquisition of additional equipment for a single well only. The wells, located in a karst vrtača close to an estavelle near Tomislavgrad, with a diameter of 500 mm and approximately 80 m deep, have been accomplished with a low rate of penetration using the conventional Cable tool and resp. Rotary Drilling Method. In this paper results of analyses for the given circumstances are shown: both the efficiency and cost of the mentioned drilling methods performed by the crews of »Geotehnika d.d.« Zagreb, as well as the justifiability of investments in new equipment are evaluated.

  7. LHC Civil Engineering Construction Contracts Cost Monitoring and Budget Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, K

    2000-01-01

    The Civil Engineering project for the LHC is estimated at 350 MCHF, of which about 316 MCHF is for the construction contracts. These contracts are based on a system of remeasurement whereby the consultant estimates the quantities required for the construction of each structure and the contractor commits himself to the unit price, which define the initial tender price. There are many factors that affect the final price for these contracts, from increases or decreases in quantities of the estimated amounts in the original bill of quantities to variations to the contract. This paper will look at how these factors change costs at the individual level of a structure to the overall costs of the contract. It will look at how the Civil Engineering Group monitors these changes to calculate cash flows and final costs and how this information is used as a basis for budget forecasts.

  8. 48 CFR 30.606 - Resolving cost impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.606 Resolving cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving cost impacts. 30... negotiating and resolving the cost impact when the estimated cost impact on any of their contracts is at...

  9. Damage control orthopaedics: Variability of construct design for external fixation of the lower extremity and implications on cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine; Hess, Arthur; Kwon, John Y

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate relative cost of external fixator constructs applied for damage control purposes in a cohort of advanced orthopaedic trainees and orthopaedic staff traumatologists. We also sought to evaluate physicians' understanding of component cost. Participants were asked to apply an external fixator for three separate fracture patterns in damage control fashion. A total of 19 physicians (nine PGY-4 residents, five PGY-5 residents, two orthopaedic trauma fellows and three orthopaedic staff traumatologists) participated. Total construct cost was calculated. Participants provided an estimate of the cost of each component in a fill-in format survey. Main outcome measures included cost of external fixator construct applied and the estimated cost of external fixator components. Average whole sale cost of an external fixator construct was $5252 (±$1798). Of the three fracture types examined, the tibial plafond fracture external fixator construct on average cost the most, followed by the tibial plateau fracture and the femur fracture construct. The large ex-fix combination clamp was the major contributor to cost for each construct. The combination clamp may be substituted for a multi-pin clamp, resulting in significant cost savings. The self-drilling Schanz pin and the large ex-fix combination clamp were most highly underestimated (25% and 22% of their actual cost, respectively). Innumerous construct designs exist and even small changes can significantly impact cost. Knowledge of component cost is low among staff and trainees. Education of component cost is vital to allow adequate consideration of construct design prior to fixator application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  11. THE COST CONTROL BY APPLYING THE TARGET COSTING METHOD IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MĂRGINEAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economic spectrum considered on a slightly increasing trend in the general aspects of the national economy, feels increasingly the need for a development in the cost management issue. One of the modern methods of cost calculation that can fill this gap in the Romanian business practice in management accounting is the target costing method. The overall objective of this case study is to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of this method in the cost controlling activity, widely used in the field of managerial accounting practice in the developed economies. The financial accounting and the managerial accounting converge in terms of ultimate interest for the company, i.e. value creation and performance increase in a sustainable way. After performing the case study with real financial data, we conclude that the target costing method is applicable and particularly useful in the construction industry and the results may provide support for decision-makers.

  12. Factors Affecting Construction Cost in Mara Large Construction Project: Perspective of Project Management Consultant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Project cost is one of the most important criteria of success of project and is of high concern to those who are involved in the construction industry. However, studies show that rarely projects are complete within stipulated budget. This study is focusing on identification of significant causes affecting construction cost in MARA large projects. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted among the personnel of Project Management Consultant (PMC. Data was analyzed with statistical tools to determine the rank of factors affecting construction cost. It is concluded that cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors, contractor's poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractor experience, shortage of site workers, incorrect planning and scheduling by contractors are most severe factors while changes in scope of project and frequent design changes are least affecting factors on construction cost. Spearman correlation analysis showed that incorrect planning and scheduling by contractor has strong positive relationship with contractor’s poor site management and supervision, inadequate experience of contractors has strong positive relationship with incorrect planning and scheduling; and contractor’s poor site management and supervision, changes in scope of project has strong positive relationship with frequent design changes; and vice versa.

  13. Magnitude of Construction Cost and Schedule Overruns in Public Work Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Pramen P. Shrestha; Burns, Leslie A.; Shields, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed 363 Clark County Department of Public Works (CCDPW) projects to determine construction cost and schedule overruns in various types and sizes of the projects. The sample projects were constructed from 1991 to 2008, with a total construction cost of $1.85 billion, equivalent to 2012 cost. A one-factor ANOVA test was conducted to determine whether construction cost and schedule overruns significantly varied based on types and sizes of the projects. The study showed that lar...

  14. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  15. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  16. Industrial Construction Methods for Cost-Effective and Sustainable Multi-Storey Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pourghazian, Hanif

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of the cost of construction is a constant goal for the building industry. One way of reducing the construction cost of buildings is to develop building technologies that will give increased productivity. Reduced construction time at the building-site and waste of materials and resources contribute to furtherreduction of the costs. This is why the sector is developing towards more industrialized construction methods with prefabricated components. The objective of this thesis is devel...

  17. 25 CFR Appendix D to Subpart C - Cost To Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... would meet the Adequate Standard Characteristics (see Table 1). For roadways, the recommended design of... Costs, Pavement Costs, and Incidental Costs. For bridges, costs are derived from costs in the National...) with inadequate drainage and alignment that generally follows existing ground 100 4 A designed...

  18. Construction site environmental impact in civil engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their operational stage. The impact of construction sites of smaller projects in urban areas tends to merit less attention, despite their importance for cit...

  19. VA Construction: Improved Processes Needed to Monitor Contract Modifications, Develop Schedules, and Estimate Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    that designs should avoid costly and unwarranted architectural and engineering embellishments and unnecessary construction and maintenance expenses ...relevant data taken from the existing contract, remaining construction work, and cost information from other hospitals . Credible A cost estimate is...Office of Management and Budget Circular A-11 states that the cost of a capital asset such as a new hospital is its full life-cycle cost, which

  20. Magnitude of Construction Cost and Schedule Overruns in Public Work Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramen P. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 363 Clark County Department of Public Works (CCDPW projects to determine construction cost and schedule overruns in various types and sizes of the projects. The sample projects were constructed from 1991 to 2008, with a total construction cost of $1.85 billion, equivalent to 2012 cost. A one-factor ANOVA test was conducted to determine whether construction cost and schedule overruns significantly varied based on types and sizes of the projects. The study showed that large, long-duration projects had significantly higher cost and schedule overruns than smaller, short-duration projects.

  1. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  2. Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Liu; Zhongfu Li; Shaohua Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major compo...

  3. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  4. The contributions of construction material waste to project cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management, Faculty ... management of materials and waste leads to an increase in the total cost of building ... cost, quality and sustainability, as well as on the success of projects. (Nagapan ..... Moving beyond optimism bias and strategic ...

  5. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Li; Guangdong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...

  6. Low Impact Development in Army Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    BUILDING STRONG Structural BMPs • Bioretention (rain gardens) • Capture reuse • Constructed filter • Detention basin • Dry pond • Wet pond...Underground system • Constructed wetlands • Bioretention • Infiltration practices • Dry well • Infiltration basin • Infiltration berm...Infiltration trenches • Subsurface infiltration beds • Bioretention • Level spreaders • Native revegetation • Pervious pavement with infiltration

  7. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch nature policy: Transaction costs and land market impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial and economic costs and benefits of the large scale National Ecological Network (NEN) nature conservation project in the Netherlands, taking into account transaction costs and land market impacts of different institutional arrangements. The net financial costs associ

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch nature policy: Transaction costs and land market impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial and economic costs and benefits of the large scale National Ecological Network (NEN) nature conservation project in the Netherlands, taking into account transaction costs and land market impacts of different institutional arrangements. The net financial costs associ

  10. An innovative time-cost-quality tradeoff modeling of building construction project based on resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenfa; He, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    The time, quality, and cost are three important but contradictive objectives in a building construction project. It is a tough challenge for project managers to optimize them since they are different parameters. This paper presents a time-cost-quality optimization model that enables managers to optimize multiobjectives. The model is from the project breakdown structure method where task resources in a construction project are divided into a series of activities and further into construction labors, materials, equipment, and administration. The resources utilized in a construction activity would eventually determine its construction time, cost, and quality, and a complex time-cost-quality trade-off model is finally generated based on correlations between construction activities. A genetic algorithm tool is applied in the model to solve the comprehensive nonlinear time-cost-quality problems. Building of a three-storey house is an example to illustrate the implementation of the model, demonstrate its advantages in optimizing trade-off of construction time, cost, and quality, and help make a winning decision in construction practices. The computational time-cost-quality curves in visual graphics from the case study prove traditional cost-time assumptions reasonable and also prove this time-cost-quality trade-off model sophisticated.

  11. An Innovative Time-Cost-Quality Tradeoff Modeling of Building Construction Project Based on Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfa Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The time, quality, and cost are three important but contradictive objectives in a building construction project. It is a tough challenge for project managers to optimize them since they are different parameters. This paper presents a time-cost-quality optimization model that enables managers to optimize multiobjectives. The model is from the project breakdown structure method where task resources in a construction project are divided into a series of activities and further into construction labors, materials, equipment, and administration. The resources utilized in a construction activity would eventually determine its construction time, cost, and quality, and a complex time-cost-quality trade-off model is finally generated based on correlations between construction activities. A genetic algorithm tool is applied in the model to solve the comprehensive nonlinear time-cost-quality problems. Building of a three-storey house is an example to illustrate the implementation of the model, demonstrate its advantages in optimizing trade-off of construction time, cost, and quality, and help make a winning decision in construction practices. The computational time-cost-quality curves in visual graphics from the case study prove traditional cost-time assumptions reasonable and also prove this time-cost-quality trade-off model sophisticated.

  12. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  13. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  14. Strategic IT Investments: The Impact of Switching Cost and Declining IT Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Didem Demirhan; Varghese S. Jacob; Srinivasan Raghunathan

    2007-01-01

    The declining cost of information technology (IT) over time provides the later entrant in information-intensive industries a cost advantage. On the other hand, the earlier entrant has the potential to build and retain its market share if consumers incur a cost in switching to the later entrant. We investigate the impact of a decline in the IT cost and the switching cost on IT investment strategies of firms. We find that a declining IT cost always hurts the early entrant's profit. The early en...

  15. COST ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND MINING STRUCTURES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEIR REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolinka Doneva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of underground mining facilities is of essential importance to the exploitation of mineral resources. Confirmation of this is the fact that the construction costs of main facilities occupy 40-60% of the underlying investments in the main construction and equipping. The main underground mining facilities are: shafts, drifts, raise, pump chambers, warehouses etc. This paper presents detailed analysis of underground mining facility - drift construction costs per individual working operations, following their change which depends on the rock type and profile size of underground mining facility, as well as possibilities of reducing these costs.

  16. 探讨建设工程造价控制%On Construction Project Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志

    2014-01-01

    建设工程中的造价控制在控制建设工程投资上有重要的意义。笔者结合建设工程造价的特点,针对我国建设工程造价的现状进行了分析,提出了建设工程造价控制的有效措施,以充分发挥建设工程的经济效益。%Construction project cost control is very important for the control of construction project investment. Combined with the characteristics of the construction project cost, this article analyzes the current situation of construction project cost in China, and puts forward the effective measures of the construction project cost control, in order to give full play to the economic benefits of construction project.

  17. A Neural Network Model for Construction Projects Site Overhead Cost Estimating in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    ElSawy, Ismaail; Razek, Mohammed Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Estimating of the overhead costs of building construction projects is an important task in the management of these projects. The quality of construction management depends heavily on their accurate cost estimation. Construction costs prediction is a very difficult and sophisticated task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to develop a parametric cost-estimating model for site overhead cost in Egypt. Fifty-two actual real-life cases of building projects constructed in Egypt during the seven year period 2002-2009 were used as training materials. The neural network architecture is presented for the estimation of the site overhead costs as a percentage from the total project price.

  18. Housing First Impact on Costs and Associated Cost Offsets: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angela; Latimer, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Housing First (HF) programs for people who are chronically or episodically homeless, combining rapid access to permanent housing with community-based, integrated treatment, rehabilitation and support services, are rapidly expanding in North America and Europe. Overall costs of services use by homeless people can be considerable, suggesting the potential for significant cost offsets with HF programs. Our purpose was to provide an updated literature review, from 2007 to the present, focusing specifically on the cost offsets of HF programs. A systematic review was performed on MEDLINE and PsycINFO as well as Google and the Homeless Hub for grey literature. Study characteristics and key findings were extracted from identified studies. Where available, impact on service cost associated with HF (increase or decrease) and net impact on overall costs, taking into account the cost of HF intervention, were noted. Twelve published studies (4 randomized studies and 8 quasi-experimental) and 22 unpublished studies were retained. Shelter and emergency department costs decreased with HF, while impacts on hospitalization and justice costs are more ambiguous. Studies using a pre-post design reported a net decrease in overall costs with HF. In contrast, experimental studies reported a net increase in overall costs with HF. While our review casts doubt on whether HF programs can be expected to pay for themselves, the certainty of significant cost offsets, combined with their benefits for participants, means that they represent a more efficient allocation of resources than traditional services.

  19. An Innovative Time-Cost-Quality Tradeoff Modeling of Building Construction Project Based on Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Wenfa Hu; Xinhua He

    2014-01-01

    The time, quality, and cost are three important but contradictive objectives in a building construction project. It is a tough challenge for project managers to optimize them since they are different parameters. This paper presents a time-cost-quality optimization model that enables managers to optimize multiobjectives. The model is from the project breakdown structure method where task resources in a construction project are divided into a series of activities and further into construction l...

  20. Construction Cost Estimates for Residences in Spain: practical application of the Pcr.5n model

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Ruiz, Pedro; García Erviti, Federico; Ramírez Pacheco, Gema María

    2013-01-01

    The construction cost estimation systems in Spain are undeveloped and, hence, infrequently used by technicians and professionals in the building sector. However, estimation of an approximate real cost prior to the execution of the work is compulsory under current legal regulations (Technical Building Code). Therefore, the development of research projects on construction cost estimation models such as the one described and demonstrated in this talk is extremely interesting.

  1. Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications. Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly.

  2. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  3. Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare...

  4. The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  5. Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare...

  6. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  7. Evaluation of the causes and cost impact of returned intravenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intravenous medications at a tertiary care hospital in. Riyadh ... cost impact in an in-patient setting in a Saudi tertiary care hospital. ..... Lean Techniques to Reduce Intravenous Waste. Through Premixed Solutions and Increasing Production.

  8. The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  9. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  10. Impact assessment of illegal small scale mining on construction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact assessment of illegal small scale mining on construction of ... with the construction of the new road, the activities of the small-scale miners assumed prominence. ... Future formulation of road projects for South-Western Ghana must take ...

  11. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Park

    Full Text Available Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  12. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  13. Impact of transaction costs on healthcare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Renée A; So, Stephanie A

    2003-06-01

    This article reviews transaction cost economics to frame a discussion of how inefficiencies in healthcare delivery processes affect clinical outcomes and differentiate between inefficiencies that are tractable from those that are transitional or intractable. Recognizing and quantifying these effects improves the ability of organizations to calculate returns on investment in quality improvement, research and development and related value enhancing, but it is subject to high-risk undertakings.

  14. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  15. The impact of rising energy costs on representative farms

    OpenAIRE

    Raulston, J. Marc; Knapek, George M.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Bryant, Henry L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent increases in natural gas and fossil fuel based energy sources have had a negative impact on the financial condition of agricultural producers across the nation. • In addition to higher fuel costs for trucks, equipment, and irrigation motors, the cost of nitrogen fertilizer is closely linked to energy prices and has also increased significantly. • This study quantifies the impacts of these increases on the economic viability of representative farms located throughout the United States f...

  16. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; Hoevenaars, R.P.M.M.; Sluis, van der P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. For the equity trades studied in this paper, executed by the world's second largest pension fund, we find that only 10% of all trades determines 75% of total market impact costs. Conseque

  17. The impact of silicon feedstock on the PV module cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Coso, G.; del Cañizo, C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of new (solar grade) silicon feedstock materials on the manufacturing cost of wafer-based crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules is analyzed considering effects of material cost, efficiency of utilisation, and quality. Calculations based on data provided by European industry

  18. The impact of silicon feedstock on the PV module cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Coso, G.; del Cañizo, C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the use of new (solar grade) silicon feedstock materials on the manufacturing cost of wafer-based crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules is analyzed considering effects of material cost, efficiency of utilisation, and quality. Calculations based on data provided by European industry

  19. Using a Cost-Construction Model To Assess the Cost of Educating Undergraduate Medical Students at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Luisa; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Using a cost-construction model, cost of the University of Texas-Houston Medical School program, instructional costs, educational costs, and milieu costs were calculated. Sensitivity analysis revealed the financial effects of various factors, some of which increased and some of which decreased cost. Despite inherent complexities of the method and…

  20. Comparison construction costs conventional rubblemound breakwaters/bermbreakwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, M.; Op den Velde, W.; Vrijling, J.K.; D' Angremond, K.

    1995-01-01

    Given a harbour location and a wave-climate, two different types of rubble-mound breakwaters were designed. Using realistic quarry yield curves and prices for production, transport and constmction, the total costs of the conventional statically stable and dynamically stable bermbreakwater designs we

  1. Impact of Generic Alendronate Cost on the Cost-Effectiveness of Osteoporosis Screening and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Nayak; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorp...

  2. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.

  3. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are…

  4. Designing to target cost: one approach to design/construction integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    One approach to a more integrated construction delivery process is the concept of ‘designing to target cost’ of which the first examples of application within a lean construction framework have recently been seen. This paper introduces the main principles of the design to target cost method...... and discusses the applicability of this approach to construction. The low degree of organizational and technical continuity from one construction project to the next limits the applicability of the design for target cost approach when compared to its origin in product development of mass manufactured artefacts...

  5. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human form dummies may be used as targets in some types of training exercises. In order to assess performance on target, it may be necessary to know...the time and location of all impacts upon the targets. A sparring dummy can provide a desirable target as well as house an impact reporting system.A...low-cost, self-contained impact reporting system has been designed within the form factor of a sparring dummy . The design goal of this system was to

  6. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rypdal; Rive, N.; T. K. Berntsen; Z. Klimont; Mideksa, T.K.; G. Myhre; R. B. Skeie

    2009-01-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC ...

  7. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demand has increased the need to manage conflicts between energy production and the environment. As an example, shale-gas extraction requires substantial surface infrastructure, which fragments habitats, erodes soils, degrades freshwater systems, and displaces rare species. Strategic planning of shale-gas infrastructure can reduce trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, but the specific nature of these trade-offs is not known. We estimated the cost of avoiding impacts from land-use change on forests, wetlands, rare species, and streams from shale-energy development within leaseholds. We created software for optimally siting shale-gas surface infrastructure to minimize its environmental impacts at reasonable construction cost. We visually assessed sites before infrastructure optimization to test whether such inspection could be used to predict whether impacts could be avoided at the site. On average, up to 38% of aggregate environmental impacts of infrastructure could be avoided for 20% greater development costs by spatially optimizing infrastructure. However, we found trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs among sites. In visual inspections, we often distinguished between sites that could be developed to avoid impacts at relatively low cost (29%) and those that could not (20%). Reductions in a metric of aggregate environmental impact could be largely attributed to potential displacement of rare species, sedimentation, and forest fragmentation. Planners and regulators can estimate and use heterogeneous trade-offs among development sites to create industry-wide improvements in environmental performance and do so at reasonable costs by, for example, leveraging low-cost avoidance of impacts at some sites to offset others. This could require substantial effort, but the results and software we provide can facilitate the process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  9. On information and communication technology and production cost in construction industry: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, A.J; Vrolijk, M.H.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between information and communication technology (ICT) and the competitiveness of construction firms is considered. More specifically, the question is whether firms that invest in information and communication technology have a production cost advantage. The economics literature

  10. Cost Consideration and a Possible Construction Timeline of the CEPC-SPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Weiren [Fermilab

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the cost consideration and a possible construction timeline of the CEPC-SPPC study based on a preliminary conceptual design that is being carried out at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in China.

  11. 2007 Effect of Changes in Layout Shape on Unit Construction Cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    and sizes of vertical components such as external walls and associated finishes, ... construction cost) obtained by dividing total project ... since non-right angled internal arrangements are .... corner columns (such as the square shape and.

  12. A LOW-COST THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLE COLLECTION ARRAY TO EVALUATE AND MONITOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  13. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  14. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  15. Labor productivity in heavy construction: impact on synfuels program employment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusterer, K.C.

    1980-06-01

    This study focuses on variations in labor productivity in the heavy construction industry. Productivity is one of a number of factors likely to affect the speed and cost of constructing a synthetic fuels plant. The findings of this study are presented with reference to synthetic fuels plants, but they are relevant to other large energy facilities as well. The data were gathered through a detailed literature search and extensive in-depth interviews with consultants in heavy industrial construction, union officials, and management. In this manner the most important determinants of labor productivity were identified and ranked in terms of relative significance. The type of project under construction is the most important factor affecting the productivity of heavy construction labor. Projects characterized by the utility work syndrome are large, complex, relatively unique, highly regulated, and have cost-plus contracts and tight deadlines. Such projects generally have lower-than-average levels of labor productivity. Labor productivity is also lowered by worker and management morale problems, due to delays and design changes, and by high levels of unemployment among construction workers. Finally, boom town conditions, caused by workers moving to live near large projects located in rural areas, also are likely to result in below-average labor productivity.Synthetic fuels plants are likely to have a number of these identified characteristics. Consequently, the findings suggest that labor productivity may well be a problem for the timely development of an economically competitive synthetic fuels industry.

  16. 36 CFR 51.57 - How does a concessioner request arbitration of the construction cost of a capital improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... request arbitration of the construction cost of a capital improvement? 51.57 Section 51.57 Parks, Forests... Surrender Interest § 51.57 How does a concessioner request arbitration of the construction cost of a capital improvement? If a concessioner requests arbitration of the construction cost of a capital...

  17. Application of the fuzzy sets theory to cost calculations on individual stages of a construction investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebankiewicz, Edyta

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant parameters of cost calculations of a construction project are the costs. Their calculation on each stage of the investment process is characterized by high uncertainty. This is one of the reasons for using fuzzy logic to such calculations. The paper presents a short description of applications of fuzzy logic to compute costs on various stages of the investment process. They encompass both the initial planning stage and the calculations during the tender procedure.

  18. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Yılmaz; Uğur Buğra Çelebi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value t...

  19. TRANSACTION COSTS AND MARKET IMPACT IN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kociński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the major sources of transaction costs in financial markets, in particular to find the amounts of such costs on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. Sources of transaction costs are considered: commissions, bid-ask spread and market impact. The commissions are only briefly described since they are explicitly stated and easily measured. More attention is paid to the bid-ask spread which is one of the main causes of trading costs. It is shown that the investor who wants to outperform the Polish market should usually expect a much higher bid-ask spread than it follows from the officially used calculations. Then it is demonstrated how historical spreads can be used in predicting their future values. This seems to be important from the practical point of view, since forecasting trading costs is a compelling task for financial managers. Next, market impact and market impact costs are considered. The practical method of measuring these is applied and discussed.

  20. The hidden cost of investment: The impact of adjustment cost on firm performance measurement and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nick, Sebastian; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we address a major problem in the measurement of firm performance and the regulation of natural monopolies, namely the intertemporal character of long-term investment decisions. In specific, we focus on the impact of adjustment costs of investments on estimates of firms' technical and cost inefficiency. We apply nonparametric dynamic data envelopment analysis to investigate the dynamic inefficiency of electricity distribution and transmission companies in the US during the year...

  1. Artificial neural networks incorporating cost significant Items towards enhancing estimation for (life-cycle costing of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayedh Alqahtani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial application of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA is somewhat limited, with techniques deemed overly theoretical, resulting in a reluctance to realise (and pass onto the client the advantages to be gained from objective (LCCA comparison of (subcomponent material specifications. To address the need for a user-friendly structured approach to facilitate complex processing, the work described here develops a new, accessible framework for LCCA of construction projects; it acknowledges Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to compute the whole-cost(s of construction and uses the concept of cost significant items (CSI to identify the main cost factors affecting the accuracy of estimation. ANNs is a powerful means to handle non-linear problems and subsequently map between complex input/output data, address uncertainties. A case study documenting 20 building projects was used to test the framework and estimate total running costs accurately. Two methods were used to develop a neural network model; firstly a back-propagation method was adopted (using MATLAB SOFTWARE; and secondly, spread-sheet optimisation was conducted (using Microsoft Excel Solver. The best network was established as consisting of 19 hidden nodes, with the tangent sigmoid used as a transfer function of NNs model for both methods. The results find that in both neural network models, the accuracy of the developed NNs model is 1% (via Excel-solver and 2% (via back-propagation respectively.

  2. The Financial Impact of Risk Factors Affecting Project Cost Contingency: Evidential Reasoning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Abeere-Inga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of cost modeling using risk analysis for construction projects is very crucial for the achievement of project success. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the financial impact of risk factors affecting key construction work sections; using a systematic risk methodology based on empirical judgment. The failure mode effect analysis (FMEA and the evidential reasoning methods are presented as qualitative and quantitative risk tools respectively. Data analysis from structured questionnaires revealed that four work sections are prone to high scope changes contemporaneous with seven risk factors. Contrary to the usual 10% contingency estimate allowed for construction projects in Ghana, an approximate overall physical contingency range of between 13.36% and 17.88% was determined using evidential reasoning methods. The likely impact of the integrated work sections and risk factors provide a clue to estimators on how to estimate and account for project cost contingency. The research concludes by recommending a framework for improving the estimation process of cost contingency through the integration of efficient risk management strategies, cost estimation and design management process.

  3. Biomechanical and Cost Comparisons of Near-Far and Pin-Bar Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney Kluk, Augusta; Zhang, Tina; Russell, Joseph P; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V

    2017-03-01

    Orthopedic dogma states that external fixator stiffness is improved by placing 1 pin close to the fracture and 1 as distant as possible ("near-far"). This fixator construct is thought to be less expensive than placing pins a shorter distance apart and using "pin-bar" clamps that attach pins to outriggers. The authors therefore hypothesized that the near-far construct is stiffer and less expensive. They compared mechanical stiffness and costs of near-far and pin-bar constructs commonly used for temporary external fixation of femoral shaft fractures. Their testing model simulated femoral shaft fractures in damage control situations. Fourth-generation synthetic femora (n=18) were used. The near-far construct had 2 pins that were 106 mm apart, placed 25 mm from the gap on each side of the fracture. The pin-bar construct pins were 55 mm apart, placed 40 mm from the gap. Mechanical testing was performed on a material test system machine. Stiffness was determined in the linear portion of the load-displacement curve for both constructs in 4 modes: axial compression, torsional loading, frontal plane 3-point bending, and sagittal plane 3-point bending. Costs were determined from a 2012 price guide. Compared with the near-far construct, the pin-bar construct had stiffness increased by 58% in axial compression (P<.05) and by 52% in torsional loading (P<.05). The pin-bar construct increased cost by 11%. In contrast to the authors' hypothesis and existing orthopedic dogma, the near-far construct was less stiff than the pin-bar construct and was similarly priced. Use of the pin-bar construct is mechanically and economically reasonable. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e238-e241.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Schools That Sustain: Lessening the Environmental Impact of New Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…

  5. The impact of internationalization and diversification on construction industry performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horta, Isabel M.; Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Camanho, Ana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of internationalization and diversification strategies on the financial performance of construction industry companies. The results obtained can guide the design of strategies to pursue company growth and achieve competitive advantage. The evaluation of companie

  6. Simulating The Impact Of The Material Flow In The Jordanian Construction Supply Chain And Its Impact On Project Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the new developments and challenges within the construction industry improving the construction supply chain is becoming a major concern to both governments and industries. Improving the construction supply chain helps in improving the quality of construction projects reducing cost wastes delays and other disruptions. This paper discusses the analysis of material flow in the construction supply chain. The methodology consisted of preliminary investigations survey and simulation development to analyse the extent of impact that material flow has on construction projects in Jordan. Both the main survey and the investigations revealed that material flow delays are caused mainly by 3 types of delays late delivery wrong specification and material damaged on site. The highest impact regarding late deliveries was scaffolding with a 16 probability of occurrence a 2-day delay on the activitys duration. Concrete ranked highest regarding wrong specification with a 19 probability of occurrence an 8-day delay the activitys duration. Regarding materials damaged on site bricks ranked highest with a 9 probability of occurrence a 3-day delay on the duration. The simulation results exhibited a delay of 50 on the projects duration and a probability of a delay occurring is 9.2.

  7. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  8. The Impact of Individual Surgeon Volume on Hysterectomy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P.; Kantartzis, Kelly L.; Lee, Ted; Bonidie, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures women will undergo in their lifetime. Several factors affect surgical outcomes. It has been suggested that high-volume surgeons favorably affect outcomes and hospital cost. The objective is to determine the impact of individual surgeon volume on total hospital costs for hysterectomy. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort of women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications from 2011 to 2013 at 10 hospitals within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center System. Cases that included concomitant procedures were excluded. Costs by surgeon volume were analyzed by tertile group and with linear regression. Results: We studied 5,961 hysterectomies performed by 257 surgeons: 41.5% laparoscopic, 27.9% abdominal, 18.3% vaginal, and 12.3% robotic. Surgeons performed 1–542 cases (median = 4, IQR = 1–24). Surgeons were separated into equal tertiles by case volume: low (1–2 cases; median total cost, $4,349.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] [$3,903.54–$4,845.34]), medium (3–15 cases; median total cost, $2,807.90; 95% CI [$2,693.71–$2,926.93]) and high (>15 cases, median total cost $2,935.12, 95% CI [$2,916.31–$2,981.91]). ANOVA analysis showed a significant decrease (P < .001) in cost from low-to-medium– and low-to-high–volume surgeons. Linear regression showed a significant linear relationship (P < .001), with a $1.15 cost reduction per case with each additional hysterectomy. Thus, if a surgeon performed 100 cases, costs were $115 less per case (100 × $1.15), for a total savings of $11,500.00 (100 × $115). Conclusion: Overall, in our models, costs decreased as surgeon volume increased. Low-volume surgeons had significantly higher costs than both medium- and high-volume surgeons.

  9. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  10. Does Accumulated Knowledge Impact Academic Performance in Cost Accounting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Khalid A.; Alfraih, Mishari M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This quantitative study aims to examine the impact of accumulated knowledge of accounting on the academic performance of Cost Accounting students. Design/methodology/approach The sample consisted of 89 students enrolled in the Accounting program run by a business college in Kuwait during 2015. Correlation and linear least squares…

  11. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT) is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN) model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  12. Probabilistic prediction of expected ground condition and construction time and costs in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoodzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground condition and construction (excavation and support time and costs are the key factors in decision-making during planning and design phases of a tunnel project. An innovative methodology for probabilistic estimation of ground condition and construction time and costs is proposed, which is an integration of the ground prediction approach based on Markov process, and the time and cost variance analysis based on Monte-Carlo (MC simulation. The former provides the probabilistic description of ground classification along tunnel alignment according to the geological information revealed from geological profile and boreholes. The latter provides the probabilistic description of the expected construction time and costs for each operation according to the survey feedbacks from experts. Then an engineering application to Hamro tunnel is presented to demonstrate how the ground condition and the construction time and costs are estimated in a probabilistic way. In most items, in order to estimate the data needed for this methodology, a number of questionnaires are distributed among the tunneling experts and finally the mean values of the respondents are applied. These facilitate both the owners and the contractors to be aware of the risk that they should carry before construction, and are useful for both tendering and bidding.

  13. Probabilistic prediction of expected ground condition and construction time and costs in road tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Mahmoodzadeh; S. Zare

    2016-01-01

    Ground condition and construction (excavation and support) time and costs are the key factors in decision-making during planning and design phases of a tunnel project. An innovative methodology for probabilistic estimation of ground condition and construction time and costs is proposed, which is an integration of the ground prediction approach based on Markov process, and the time and cost variance analysis based on Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation. The former provides the probabilistic description of ground classification along tunnel alignment according to the geological information revealed from geological profile and boreholes. The latter provides the probabilistic description of the expected con-struction time and costs for each operation according to the survey feedbacks from experts. Then an engineering application to Hamro tunnel is presented to demonstrate how the ground condition and the construction time and costs are estimated in a probabilistic way. In most items, in order to estimate the data needed for this methodology, a number of questionnaires are distributed among the tunneling experts and finally the mean values of the respondents are applied. These facilitate both the owners and the contractors to be aware of the risk that they should carry before construction, and are useful for both tendering and bidding.

  14. Identifying factors causing cost overrun of the construction projects in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWAPNIL P WANJARI; GAURAV DOBARIYA

    2016-06-01

    Delay and cost overrun are common phenomena in projects worldwide. However, these are especially severe in developing countries. In India as per MOSPI report, 235 projects out of 410 were severely affected cost overrun due to certain factors. A short questionnaire was conducted with 15 prominent factorsresponsible for cost overrun and forwarded to 190 constructional professionals across India. Total 85 responses were received and it was analyzed using various statistical tools such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis tool using SPSS. In this study, top three factors affecting cost overruns were identified such as price escalation of raw material, delay in planned activity and lack of co-ordination between construction parties which could be significantly responsible for cost overnun of construction project in India. Factor analysismethod was also carried out to group the factors into three components of overall questionnaire. These components, such as client control component, project management component, and contractor control component,would be useful to the various parties involved in the construction activities. This paper also provides suggestive frameworks which have been framed after discussing with large number of construction professionals or expert

  15. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  16. Ford-Class Aircraft Carrier: Congress Should Consider Revising Cost Cap Legislation to Include All Construction Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    thus increasing the likelihood of additional testing delays. For example, testing of the ship’s fire sprinklers was delayed because construction of...independent systems , which means that changes in one system are not automatically updated in the other. Consequently, the shipbuilder—and subsequently the...not deploy as scheduled or will deploy without fully tested systems . The Navy is implementing steps to achieve the $11.5 billion congressional cost

  17. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PLOSCARU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

  18. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost.

  20. Research on Reliability and Cost Integrated Optimization Algorithm of Construction Project Logistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the construction project logistics system is decomposed in detail; some uncertain factors affecting system reliability are analyzed. This paper applies the probability-influence coordinate graph to screen out the logistics subsystem that has great influence on system reliability under the conditions of occurring failure, and establishes an allocation model of the reliability index in construction project logistics system based on the restriction of cost, makes use of the presented model and algorithm to calculate the cost-based reliability, contrasts it with the index reliability assigned by the scoring method to the optimal distribution value of reliability index and the optimal cost. The presented detailed methods and steps can offer the meaningful reference for reliability optimization management of the logistics system in the construction project.

  1. Modeling Of Construction Noise For Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Hamoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. It included 33 construction sites in Kuwait and used artificial neural networks (ANNs for the prediction of noise. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN model was compared with a general regression neural network (GRNN model. The results obtained indicated that the mean equivalent noise level was 78.7 dBA which exceeds the threshold limit. The GRNN model was superior to the BPNN model in its accuracy of predicting construction noise due to its ability to train quickly on sparse data sets. Over 93% of the predictions were within 5% of the observed values. The mean absolute error between the predicted and observed data was only 2 dBA. The ANN modeling proved to be a useful technique for noise predictions required in the assessment of environmental impact of construction activities.

  2. Cutting costs: the impact of price lists on the cost development at the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ulf Martin

    2010-12-01

    It was shown that physicians working at the Swedish emergency department (ED) are unaware of the costs for investigations performed. This study evaluated the possible impact of price lists on the overall laboratory and radiology costs at the ED of a Swedish university hospital. Price lists including the most common laboratory analyses and radiological investigations at the ED were created. The lists were distributed to all internal medicine physicians by e-mail and exposed above their working stations continually. No lists were provided for the orthopaedic control group. The average costs for laboratory and radiological investigations during the months of June and July 2007 and 2008 were calculated. Neither clinical nor admission procedures were changed. The physicians were blinded towards the study. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test. A total of 1442 orthopaedic and 1585 medical patients were attended to in 2007. In 2008, 1467 orthopaedic and 1637 medical patients required emergency service. The average costs per patient were 980.27 SKR (98€)/999.41 SKR (100€, +1.95%) for orthopaedic and 1081.36 SKR (108€)/877.3 SKR (88€, -18.8%) for medical patients. Laboratory costs decreased by 9% in orthopaedic and 21.4% in medical patients. Radiology costs changed +5.4% in orthopaedic and -20.59% in medical patients. The distribution and promotion of price lists as a tool at the ED to heighten cost awareness resulted in a major decrease in the investigation costs. A significant decrease in radiological costs could be observed. It can be concluded that price lists are an effective tool to cut costs in public healthcare.

  3. Designing to target cost: one approach to design/construction integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    One approach to a more integrated construction delivery process is the concept of ‘designing to target cost’ of which the first examples of application within a lean construction framework have recently been seen. This paper introduces the main principles of the design to target cost method...... and discusses the applicability of this approach to construction. The low degree of organizational and technical continuity from one construction project to the next limits the applicability of the design for target cost approach when compared to its origin in product development of mass manufactured artefacts....... The approach can, however, be applied as a way of substantially involving the production organisation from the earliest phases of schematic design and thus contribute to enhanced value and reduced waste for the overall project delivery as well as for the many assignments of which it is ultimately composed...

  4. Guaranteed cost control with constructing switching law of uncertain discrete-time switched systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying; Duan Guangren

    2007-01-01

    A guaranteed cost control problem for a class of linear discrete-time switched systems with normbounded uncertainties is considered in this article. The purpose is to construct a switching rule and design a state feedback control law, such that, the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible uncertainties under the constructed switching rule.A sufficient condition for the existence of guaranteed cost controllers and switching rules is derived based on the Lyapunov theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Furthermore, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to select the suboptimal guaranteed cost controller. A numerical example demonstrates the validity of the proposed design approach.

  5. International comparisons of cost and productivity in construction: a bad example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a report published in June 2012 the Business Council of Australia (BCA reported that it costs considerably more to build a variety of types of infrastructure in Australia than it does in the US. Airports (90% more costly and hospitals (62% were quoted as the worst cases with other projects ranging from 26% to 43% more. They used these figures to conclude that Australia is a high cost, low productivity environment for building infrastructure projects. These claims were based on cost/m2 figures published by a major international construction consultancy. The method used by the BCA is flawed in two ways: one is the in the use of costs that are recognised as giving only the broadest of indications of probable costs and the second is the use of exchange rates to convert Australian construction costs to US dollars. Careful analysis of the methodology used, supported by a series of other comparisons based on other data sources and other conversion factors (purchasing power parities or PPPs, suggests that in real terms it probably costs no more to build in Australia than it does in the US and that it may well be cheaper to build in Australia than it is in the US.

  6. Payroll costs not identified by phase in construction work done with no third subcontracted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Antonio González Franco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Social Insurance Regulations applicable to the construction companies with regard to meeting high work requires the owner to generate high for each construction phase and thus to check the amounts of materials, machinery and equipment, as well as labor applied at the same stage, all in order to validate that it complies 100% with the payment of worker-employer contributions by the employer, guidelines in the specific case of SMEs practice becomes more complex, controls as these companies have no proof phased costs in two areas in particular, as are exercised costs of materials and workmanship for housing, which is why this research aims to solve the problem of generating clear guidelines to comply with the verification of payment of contributions in the field of labor when it is exerciseddirectly, and through the application of direct interviews and questionnaires to the units of analysis consists of businessmen, representatives, directors or business accountants SMEs construction, staff of the National Chamber of construction Industry and the Mexican Social Security Institute head of the Department of construction, who will answer questions the same instrument provides, and with this it was determined that in fact the perception of these SMEs is required to leave a standard criterion for testing and would be more appropriate apportionment of costs proportionately based on hire dates and termination dates of the work keeping track of costs identifying overall, leaving an identification number in the working papers for further review by the authority.

  7. An Analysis of Cost Premiums and Losses Associated with USAF Military Construction (MILCON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    outside of MILCON procurement. Additionally, project signage requirements do not represent a MILCON cost premium. Although the USACE prescribes exact... signage specifications for the construction site, this cost is negligible for a MILCON project since private industry utilizes similar signs...8A/small-business policies Moderate 3.175 1 18 9 6 11 Specific Direct digital controls for all HVAC components Moderate 3.139 1 4 19 25 12 General

  8. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT) is applied to cost estimations at the early stag...

  9. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  10. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF NON-QUALITY COSTS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei DIAMANDESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors aim to analyze the impact of the implementation of the quality system based on ISO 9001:2008, on the overall efficiency of the organizations. For this purpose non-quality costs will be defined, classified and evaluated and there will be made relevant proposals for highlighting and quantifying them. The approach is focused on studying the effects of the failures in quality and the cost of these failures, but also on non-quality and its assessment methodology and benchmarks to monitor the progress in improving quality. At the end of the paper some methods are proposed to improve the control of non-quality costs.

  11. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  12. Impact of Foot Type on Cost of Lower Extremity Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    contributions to this study. We would like to thank David Boland, Peter Doyle, Timothy Eckard, Jess Feldtmann, Cyrus Kardouni, Drew Williams...would like to thank Impact of Foot Type on Cost of Lower Extremity Injury 25 - 10 STO-MP-HFM-228 Cynthia Childress and David Montplaisir for...9. 21. Hreljac, A., R.N. Marshall, and P.A. Hume , Evaluation of lower extremity overuse injury potential in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000. 32

  13. Advanced vehicles: Costs, energy use, and macroeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua

    Advanced vehicles and alternative fuels could play an important role in reducing oil use and changing the economy structure. We developed the Costs for Advanced Vehicles and Energy (CAVE) model to investigate a vehicle portfolio scenario in California during 2010-2030. Then we employed a computable general equilibrium model to estimate macroeconomic impacts of the advanced vehicle scenario on the economy of California. Results indicate that, due to slow fleet turnover, conventional vehicles are expected to continue to dominate the on-road fleet and gasoline is the major transportation fuel over the next two decades. However, alternative fuels could play an increasingly important role in gasoline displacement. Advanced vehicle costs are expected to decrease dramatically with production volume and technological progress; e.g., incremental costs for fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen could break even with gasoline savings in 2028. Overall, the vehicle portfolio scenario is estimated to have a slightly negative influence on California's economy, because advanced vehicles are very costly and, therefore, the resulting gasoline savings generally cannot offset the high incremental expenditure on vehicles and alternative fuels. Sensitivity analysis shows that an increase in gasoline price or a drop in alternative fuel prices could offset a portion of the negative impact.

  14. Construction and Characterization of a Compact, Portable, Low-Cost Colorimeter for the Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippard, Carrie M.; Hughes, William; Chohan, Balwant S.; Sykes, Danny G.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter was constructed featuring a low-voltage programmable color light sensor-to-frequency converter, a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller, and an LCD display. The instrument has successfully facilitated the introduction and application of spectroscopy to groups of middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. A…

  15. Energetic and economic cost of nuclear heat − impact on the cost of desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardour Saied

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study has been carried out to evaluate the cost of heat supplied by a pressurized water reactor type of nuclear reactors to thermal desalination processes. In the context of this work, simplified models have been developed to describe the thermodynamics of power conversion, the energetics of multi-effect evaporation (MED, and the costs of electricity and heat cogenerated by the dual-purpose power plant. Application of these models show that, contrary to widespread belief, (nuclear-powered MED and seawater reverse osmosis are comparable in terms of energy effectiveness. Process heat can be produced, in fact, by a relatively small increase in the core power. As fuel represents just a fraction of the cost of nuclear electricity, the increase in fuel-related expenses is expected to have limited impact on power generation economics.

  16. 试论建筑工程造价的影响要素与其工程造价降低的对策%On the Affecting Factors of Construction Cost and Measures to Reduce the Project Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英

    2014-01-01

    In the building engineering construction process, it is very necessary to do well the cost management, because the cost management has a direct and important impact on investment benefit of the entire project. Based on the construction project cost issue, this paper discussed the importance of cost management, the cost control process, and factors influencing construction cost, as well as the measures for reducing the construction cost, in order to provide some useful references.%在建筑工程建设过程中,做好造价管理是十分必要的,因为造价管理将会对整个项目的投资效益产生直接而重要的影响。本文基于建筑工程造价这一问题,先后探讨了建筑工程造价管理的重要性、建筑工程造价控制流程、建筑工程造价影响因素、建筑工程造价的降低对策,以期为同行提供一些有益的参考。

  17. Performance and cost comparison of a FWS and a VSF constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihrintzis, V A; Akratos, C S; Gikas, G D; Karamouzis, D; Angelakis, A N

    2007-06-01

    Two constructed wetland systems, treating domestic wastewater, are compared in terms of performance and costs. One is a free water surface (FWS) wetland system located in Pompia, Crete, south Greece, and the other one is a vertical subsurface flow (VSF) wetland system located in Comati, Chalkidiki, north Greece. The FWS system is designed for 1200 p.e. Its construction cost was Euro 305,000, and the capital, operation and maintenance cost was Euro 22.07 p.e.(-1) yr(-1) or Euro 0.50 m(-3) of influent. The VSF system is designed for 1000 p.e. Its construction cost was Euro 410,850, and the capital, operation and maintenance cost was Euro 36.81 p.e.(-1) yr(-1) or Euro 0.56 m(-3) of influent. Both systems achieved high removal rates for BOD5, COD, TSS, TKN, phosphorus, TC, and FC, which makes them ideal for small communities in the Mediterranean region.

  18. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Alaily, T.M., E-mail: toson_alaily@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El-Nimr, M.K.; Saafan, S.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Meaz, T.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Assar, S.T. [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-07-15

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability. - Highlights: • A low cost automated vibrating sample magnetometer VSM has been constructed. • The VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. • The VSM has been calibrated and tested by using some measured ferrite samples. • Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  19. Mapping the e-business profile and trends in cost management in the UK construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Srinath; Park, Rachael; Udeaja, Chika; Zhou, Lei, L; Rodrigo, Anushi

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of e-business applications and IT infrastructure has had massive impact on construction business processes over the last decade. The added effects of globalisation coupled with global economic recession have forced businesses to implement e-business applications within their organisations. It is clear in all industries, that e-business technologies have become a key strategic vehicle in improving performance. In Construction, e-business applications complement most of the busi...

  20. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  1. E-COCOMO: The Extended COst Constructive MOdel for Cleanroom Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mistakes create rework. Rework takes time and increases costs. The traditional software engineering methodology defines the ratio of Design:Code:Test as 40:20:40. As we can easily see that 40% time and efforts are used in testing phase in traditional approach, that means we have to perform rework again if we found some bugs in testing phase. This rework is being performed after Design and code phase. This rework will increase the cost exponentially. The cleanroom software engineering methodology controls the exponential growth in cost by removing this rework. It says that "do the work correct in first attempt and move to next phase after getting the proof of correctness". This new approach minimized the rework and reduces the cost in the exponential ratio. Due to the removal of testing phase, the COCOMO (COst COnstructive MOdel used for the traditional engineering is not directly applicable in cleanroom software engineering. The traditional cost drivers used for traditional COCOMO needs to be revised. We have proposed the Extended version of COCOMO (i.e. E-COCOMO in which we have incorporated some new cost drivers. This paper explains the proposed E-COCOMO and the detailed description of proposed new cost driver.

  2. The Cost Monitoring of the Construction Machinery with Using the Stochastic Progress-Based S-curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajňák Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contribution presents methodology for evaluating at-completion project performance status. Accurate cost and schedule project forecasts are difficult to generate when considering the impact of such events as unforeseen cost changes, material delays, scope deviation, changes to the project execution plan and poor subcontractor performance. In reality, the original estimate may be considered the first project forecast and at the point of project completion, the latest updated estimate (last forecast and the actual amount of what is being expended should be the same. Final project performance is determined by comparing the planned budget and project duration, with the expected forecasted final budget and elapsed time. The stochastic S-curve methodology permits objective evaluation of project performance without the limitations inherent in a deterministic approach. This paper used the stochastic S curve to monitor the cost and time consumption in operation of the construction machines. The contribution presents a partial outcome from the dissertation thesis called the Interactive tools for resource optimization in construction.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE INCREASE OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS IN URBAN REGENERATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Apollo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the reasons for construction costs increases in urban regeneration projects. The analysis considers major refurbishments of real estates’, as well as heavy repair and modernization of the road system. For the period mentioned, the costs from works and expenditure schedules were compared with the costs of additional works, which shows the percentage cost increase in relation to initial project budget assumptions of the case study. The analysis revealed that due to difficulties in assessing technical state of inhabited buildings, the investor and potential contractor should pay special attention to the character of issues presented in this paper, taking into account an increased risk of their occurrence.

  4. CONSTRUCTION FEATURES AND EFFICIENCY OF VERTICAL IMPACT CRUSHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Salopek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the technical stone market, the most demanded grain size classes are 4/8, 2/4, -4, -2 mm, which weight portion being predominant in aggregates for production of concrete and asphalt. However, the production of these classes is not always simple. In adition to quantity requirements, the specific grain size distribution and grain shape of stone aggregate, as well as a minimal portion of the particles -0,09 mm are regurarly demanded. Until about ten years ago, impact and hammer crushers were most often used for the production of the above mentioned classes, while nowdays vertical impact crushers are being used with increasing frequency for this purpose. Compared to the first-mentioned crushers, vertical impact crushers represent a certain technological progress manifested primarily in a greater content of cubic shaped graines in output material and reduced wear of crusher lining and impact elements. The paper descibes the basic construction features and the operating principle of vertical impact crusher and analyzes their efficiency (grain size distribution of the crushed product, content of favourably shaped grains, filler content as a function of the particular technological parameters (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Cost management as basis of harmonious approaches to the development of the construction business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Nikita Mikhaylovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The management of construction companies’ development is rarely aimed at harmonization of business and at the development of the ways of its sustainable development. Case studies and the application scope for harmonization as an approach allowing systematic and balanced development of business showed its practical relevance. The use of this approach allows not only correlating the objectives, clarifying the mission, structuring the problems, or determining the optimal salary of employees, but also correlating the costs to each other, which is particularly important in light of the need for rapid transformation of the building production methods. They are based on competent use of system properties of the systems. The properties of emergence, resonance, measurability, and others are of particular importance. Their accounting allows achieving the optimal cost outlay required in the process of investment and construction activities. It complies with the requirements and conditions of the market economy. The mentioned advantages of the use of harmonization technologies to ensure the stability and sustainability of investment and construction activities enable to confirm the hypothesis of the impossibility to achieve the optimum cost, for example, for the implementation of an investment and construction project without implementation of the system properties of a harmonious approach.

  6. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  7. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  8. Novel solar tower structure to lower plant cost and construction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, J. H.; White, S.; Hellwig, U.

    2016-05-01

    In recent times the interest in solar tower power plants is increasing with various plants being built in the last years and currently under construction, e.g. Ivanpah and Crescent Dunes in the US and Khi Solar One in South Africa. The higher cycle efficiency leads to lower levelised cost of electricity. However, further cost reductions are required and this paper compares a novel and patented solar tower structure with a conventional concrete tower. The novel solar tower design is cable-stayed which has the benefit that the cables absorb a large part of the wind and buckling loads. A tower that has to cope with fewer wind and buckling forces can have a significantly smaller diameter than a concrete tower, which enables workshop manufacture, sea and road transport, and rapid on-site installation. The case study provided in this paper finds that the tower area affected by wind can be reduced by up to 45%, installation time shortened by up to 66%, and tower cost by 20-40%. The novel design allows the construction and transport of the solar tower in few large modules, which are pre-manufactured including piping, cables, platform, ladders etc. The few modules can be assembled and installed rapidly not only lowering plant cost and construction time but also project risk.

  9. Design and Construction of a One-Stage Gas Gun for High Velocity Impact Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Castellanos Ricardo Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High impact tests are characterized by a projectile traveling at high speed as well as complex events such as flying fragments due to the velocity at which the impact occurs; however, these tests have become increasingly popular due to the need for more stringent protective material requirements nowadays. In this paper, the design and construction of a one-stage light gas gun for ballistic testing is presented. This particular design is characterized by its simplicity, excellent performance at low cost and compact dimensions, when compared to commercial systems, presenting an affordable option for materials characterization for high velocity impact tests. The results are completed with the characterization of an armor grade material, obtaining the ballistic limit of the material, as well as demonstrating the effectiveness and versatility of the equipment.

  10. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs and overesti......For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... and overestimating the demand for transport infrastructure projects. It is therefore claimed that ex-anteevaluations of trans- port-related projects are often based on inaccurate material, which ultimately can lead to severe socio- economic misperformance. This paper seeks to bridge the gap between the inaccuracies...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...

  11. Self-report versus care provider registration of healthcare utilization: impact on cost and cost-utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); C.R. van Wetering (Carel); A.M.W.J. Schols (Annemie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the impact of two different sources of resource use, self-report versus care provider registrations, on cost and cost utility. METHODS: Data were gathered for a cost-effectiveness study performed alongside a 2-year randomized controlled trial evalua

  12. Self-report versus care provider registration of healthcare utilization: impact on cost and cost-utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); C.R. van Wetering (Carel); A.M.W.J. Schols (Annemie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the impact of two different sources of resource use, self-report versus care provider registrations, on cost and cost utility. METHODS: Data were gathered for a cost-effectiveness study performed alongside a 2-year randomized controlled trial evalua

  13. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  14. SEM-PLS analysis of inhibiting factors of cost performance for large construction projects in Malaysia: perspective of clients and consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Aftab Hameed; Rahman, Ismail Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study uncovered inhibiting factors to cost performance in large construction projects of Malaysia. Questionnaire survey was conducted among clients and consultants involved in large construction projects. In the questionnaire, a total of 35 inhibiting factors grouped in 7 categories were presented to the respondents for rating significant level of each factor. A total of 300 questionnaire forms were distributed. Only 144 completed sets were received and analysed using advanced multivariate statistical software of Structural Equation Modelling (SmartPLS v2). The analysis involved three iteration processes where several of the factors were deleted in order to make the model acceptable. The result of the analysis found that R(2) value of the model is 0.422 which indicates that the developed model has a substantial impact on cost performance. Based on the final form of the model, contractor's site management category is the most prominent in exhibiting effect on cost performance of large construction projects. This finding is validated using advanced techniques of power analysis. This vigorous multivariate analysis has explicitly found the significant category which consists of several causative factors to poor cost performance in large construction projects. This will benefit all parties involved in construction projects for controlling cost overrun.

  15. SEM-PLS Analysis of Inhibiting Factors of Cost Performance for Large Construction Projects in Malaysia: Perspective of Clients and Consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uncovered inhibiting factors to cost performance in large construction projects of Malaysia. Questionnaire survey was conducted among clients and consultants involved in large construction projects. In the questionnaire, a total of 35 inhibiting factors grouped in 7 categories were presented to the respondents for rating significant level of each factor. A total of 300 questionnaire forms were distributed. Only 144 completed sets were received and analysed using advanced multivariate statistical software of Structural Equation Modelling (SmartPLS v2. The analysis involved three iteration processes where several of the factors were deleted in order to make the model acceptable. The result of the analysis found that R2 value of the model is 0.422 which indicates that the developed model has a substantial impact on cost performance. Based on the final form of the model, contractor’s site management category is the most prominent in exhibiting effect on cost performance of large construction projects. This finding is validated using advanced techniques of power analysis. This vigorous multivariate analysis has explicitly found the significant category which consists of several causative factors to poor cost performance in large construction projects. This will benefit all parties involved in construction projects for controlling cost overrun.

  16. Design and Construction of Low Cost High Voltage dc Power Supply for Constant Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N. S.; Jayasankar, V.

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed load applications like laser based systems need high voltage dc power supplies with better regulation characteristics. This paper presents the design, construction and testing of dc power supply with 1 kV output at 300 W power level. The designed converter has half bridge switched mode power supply (SMPS) configuration with 20 kHz switching. The paper covers the design of half bridge inverter, closed loop control, High frequency transformer and other related electronics. The designed power supply incorporates a low cost OPAMP based feedback controller which is designed using small signal modelling of the converter. The designed converter was constructed and found to work satisfactorily as per the specifications.

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  18. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiacai; Zhao, Wenjian

    2016-11-08

    There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  19. 谈施工成本控制技巧%Control Techniques of Construction Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文雄

    2013-01-01

    Construction cost control is the core issue of cost management in engineering project. How to implement a series of scientific management, including prediction, plan, control, calculation, analysis and evaluation, under the premise of the contract requirements to guarantee the engineering quality and construction time, its process has a unique skill.%  施工成本控制是工程项目成本管理的核心问题,如何在保证满足工程质量、工期等合同要求的前提下,对项目实施过程中发生的费用进行预测、计划、控制、核算、分析与考核等一系列科学管理,其过程具有独特的技巧。

  20. Construction of Optimal-Path Maps for Homogeneous-Cost-Region Path-Planning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    JICA opposite-edge boundaries and tlCA cornercuting boundaries. HCA opposite-edge boundaries are the generalization of obstacle op- posite-cdge...4.o APPENDIX D - IIIGlI-COST EXTERIOR-GOAL JICA INTERIOR-BOUNDARY CONSTRUCTION SOURCE CODE AFile "bdrygen". A Updated 12 Jan 89. AThis proorrm...generates boundaries for JICA interiors and writes them to two files; "bdry out" Is a file of prolog ’ facts recording the boundary and terrain information

  1. Risks Leading to Cost Overrun in Building Construction from Consultants’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamid, Ibrahim; Dmaidi, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the risk map for factors affecting cost overrun in building construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from the consultants’ perspective. The field survey included 26 consultants. 41 factors are identified through literature review. The factors are divided into 5 groups. The analysis of the identified 41 factors indicates that 1 factor is located in the green zone, 14 factors are located in the yellow zone, and 26 factors are locate...

  2. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongyin; Sultan, Saud A.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and man...

  3. Performance and cost evaluation of constructed wetland for domestic waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeptha, V T; Sudarsan, J S; Baskar, G

    2015-09-01

    Root zone treatment through constructed wetlands is an engineered method of purifying wastewater. The aim of the present research was to study the potential of wetland plants Phragmites and Typha in treatment of wastewater and to compare the cost of constructed wetlands with that of conventional treatment systems. A pilot wetland unit of size 2x1x0.9 m was constructed in the campus. 3x3 rows of plants were transplanted into the pilot unit and subjected to wastewater from the hostels and other campus buildings. The raw wastewater and treated wastewater were collected periodically and tested for Total nitrogen (TN),Total Phosphorous (TP), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was observed that this pilot unit reduced the concentrations of TN, TP, BOD and COD by 76, 73, 83 and 86%, respectively, on an average. Root zone system achieved standards for tertiary treatment with low operating costs, low maintenance costs, enhance the landscape, provide a natural habitat for birds, and did not emit any odour.

  4. Construction and Implementation of a Low-Cost Rubidium Magneto-Optical Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Judith

    2011-03-01

    A low-cost magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ultra-cold atoms is a wonderful tool for undergraduate research and teaching laboratories that highlights many topics in modern physics. We researched and created such a MOT using two external-cavity diode lasers, two laser locking systems, optics, magnetic coils, and Rubidium vapor cells. At our undergraduate institution, we chose a combination of equipment that we fabricated ourselves together with some purchased items as an optimum balance between cost and building time. However, an emphasis was placed upon self-construction of components, such as machining the laser cavities and constructing the majority of the circuitry within the institution. The total cost of our MOT was about 25,000. We were successfully able to trap more than 10 million Rubidium atoms in 1 cubic centimeter. Such a MOT is a feasible addition to any undergraduate course of study. The theory of operation and construction methods of our MOT will be presented along with our first measurement results. Many thanks to Ithaca College and the Ithaca College Department of Physics.

  5. The integration of price/cost modelling and construction planning - the automated generation of construc­tion operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bowen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that traditional price/cost models are unrelated to the construction process renders them largely unsuited to the provision of meaningful price/cost advice. The nature and lengthiness of the construction planning process has precluded its incorporation into price/cost modelling during the pre-tender phase of the traditional building procurement process. The nub of the modelling problem has been how to integrate the complex process of construction planning into the pre-tender price/cost modelling process. In this paper the authors propose the synthesis of artificial intelligence techniques and construction planning techniques, resulting in a conceptual framework for a network-based cost modelling system for use by quantity surveyors in the cost modelling of buildings.

  6. The impact of toxicity testing costs on nanomaterial regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Young; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Kandlikar, Milind

    2009-05-01

    Information about the toxicity of nanoparticles is important in determining how nanoparticles will be regulated. In the U.S., the burden of collecting this information and conducting risk assessment is placed on regulatory agencies without the budgetary means to carry out this mandate. In this paper, we analyze the impact of testing costs on society's ability to gather information about nanoparticle toxicity and whether such costs can reasonably be borne by an emerging industry. We show for the United States that costs for testing existing nanoparticles ranges from $249 million for optimistic assumptions about nanoparticle hazards (i.e., they are primarily safe and mainly require simpler screening assays) to $1.18 billion for a more comprehensive precautionary approach (i.e., all nanomaterials require long-term in vivo testing). At midlevel estimates of total corporate R&D spending, and assuming plausible levels of spending on hazard testing, the time taken to complete testing is likely to be very high (34-53 years) if all existing nanomaterials are to be thoroughly tested. These delays will only increase with time as new nanomaterials are introduced. The delays are considerably less if less-stringent yet risk-averse perspectives are used. Our results support a tiered risk-assessment strategy similar to the EU's REACH legislation for regulating toxic chemicals.

  7. 施工项目成本控制%Construction Project Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开玉

    2012-01-01

    加强工程项目成本管理是施工企业向科学管理进一步迈进的具体举措,是使施工企业在激烈的市场竞争中不断完善自我,做大做强的必经之路.完善项目成本的管理体系和高质量项目成本管理工作是不可缺少的.%Strengthening project cost management is the specific initiatives to further step to the scientific management for the construction enterprises, and the only way to constantly improve themselves in the fierce market competition and become bigger and stronger. It is indispensable to improve the cost management system of the project and high-quality cost management.

  8. The Cost of Cost-Sharing: The Impact of Medicaid Benefit Design on Influenza Vaccination Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Stoecker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research indicates that cost-sharing and lack of insurance coverage reduce preventive services use among low-income persons. State Medicaid policy may affect the uptake of recommended adult vaccinations. We examined the impact of three aspects of Medicaid benefit design (coverage for vaccines, prohibiting cost-sharing, and copayment amounts on vaccine uptake in the fee-for-service Medicaid population 19–64 years old. We combined previously published reports to obtain state Medicaid policy information from 2003 and 2012. Data on influenza vaccination uptake were taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used a differences-in-differences framework, controlling for national trends and state differences, to estimate the effect of each benefit design factor on vaccination uptake in different Medicaid-eligible populations. Each additional dollar of copayment for vaccination decreased influenza vaccination coverage 1–6 percentage points. The effects of covering vaccines or prohibiting cost-sharing were mixed. Imposing copayments for vaccination is associated with lower vaccination coverage. These findings have implications for the implementation of Medicaid expansion in states that currently impose copayments.

  9. Using loose-fill perlite with normal weight precast wall panels to lower the cost, time of construction projects, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al kulabi, Ahmed Kamil

    Lightweight concrete has been used in construction because of its properties, such as thermal, and fire resistances although it is more expensive and less available than normal weight concrete. One way to save time, cost, and to provide an alternative to lightweight concrete in construction projects is to reduce the number of installed insulations on precast wall panels and to improve the properties of normal weight concrete panels, respectively. These goals can be achieved by improving the four properties of precast panels, such as thermal resistance, fire resistance, heat capacity, and sound insulation by using perlite as insulation. The main goals of this research are getting buildings constructed or modified in less time and cost by producing superior wall panels and improving the properties of normal weight panels. Superior wall panels are new panels that provide the four properties listed above. Precast panels with different cross sections, concrete type, and different amounts of perlite will be investigated to observe the impact of each factor on the mentioned properties. The cost of each panel will be studied, and analytical methods will be used to find the optimum panel that provides the four mentioned properties with least cost. Moreover, theoretical methods will be applied to calculate the four properties for each panel. The preliminary theoretical calculations approved a good improvement in the four properties. In summary, the four properties of precast panels can be improved, time, and cost of construction can be reduced by using perlite as insulation.

  10. Activity-based Costing and Road Construction Project Cost Management%作业成本法与公路施工项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石超云; 赵克剑

    2012-01-01

    公路施工企业的间接费用、管理费用等在总成本中的比重日益提高,传统的成本控制方法面临挑战,公路施工企业不得不考虑将作业成本法引入公路施工项目管理,论文从分析公路施工项目成本和管理的特征出发,阐述公路施工项目应用作业成本法可行性,分析公路施工项目运营作业成本法的条件,以及运用作业成本法潜在效果.%The proportion of indirect costs, administrative expenses of highway construction enterprises in the total cost are increasing and traditional method of cost control face challenges. Highway construction companies have to consider the activity-based costing into a highway construction project management, the paper described the feasibility of the highway construction project application activity-based costing, analysis of the operational conditions of the operating cost method of highway construction projects, as well as the potential effect of using activity-based costing.

  11. Construction project bidding stage cost control research%建筑工程招投标阶段造价控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of socialist market economy system,the construction projects have gradually realized the market economy,and construction projects has increased the project cost control becomes more and more important.The current cost control for construction projects still in the construction process and the settlement process,ignoring the cost control in the bidding stage.Based on this,the in the construction project bidding and cost control on the basis of on,analysis of the impact of bidding cost control of the main reasons and the bidding tendering cost control problems,and on the basis of bidding for the tender stage cost control effective measures are discussed.%随着社会主义市场经济体系的不断完善,建筑项目也逐渐的实现了市场经济化,而建设项目的不断增多使得工程项目的造价控制显得愈发重要。当前对于建筑工程的造价控制仍旧以施工过程和结算过程为主,忽视了招投标阶段的造价控制。基于此,文章在对建筑工程招投标以及造价控制阐述的基础上,分析了影响招投标造价控制的主要原因以及当前招投标造价控制存在的问题,并在此基础上对招投标阶段造价控制的有效措施进行了探讨。

  12. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  13. Risk Management of Construction Cost%工程造价的风险管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奎

    2011-01-01

    工程项目在施工过程中有着诸多的风险因素在内,其厉害关系到项目投资的直接效益.如果仅仅靠看一个不可确定性的数字作为工程造价的方法指标是不合理的.文章通过对工程造价的构成及特性做了阐述,并提出了较为合理的风险识别和控制程序.以达到工程造价风险的完整性和科学性,为项目的建设保证最终经济效益.%During construction, the project has a number of risk factors, including its stake to the investment of the direct benefits.It is not reasonable if we only look at a non-deterministic number as an indicator of the project cost.By the composition of the project cost and characteristics, more reasonable risk identification and control procedures are put forward in order to achieve a full scientific risk of project cost for construction of the project and ensure the ultimate economic benefits.

  14. Construction and Testing of Lightweight and Low-Cost Pneumatically Inflated Solar Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. I. De Los Santos-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, construction, and evaluation of a cylindrical-trough solar concentrator with 1.3 m aperture, 2.15 m length, and 0.54 m focal length, with heat-pipe or vacuum tube receiver and one axis tracking system, are presented. Design performance was tested under ASHRAE standard 93-1986 (RA 91. The concentrator system is lightweight and inexpensive since it was made of polymeric membranes and was pneumatically inflated to acquire its cylindrical shape achieving good optical quality. Further implementation of a flat and a cylindrical extension of the concentrating mirror as secondary mirrors was incorporated into the concentrator design in order to compensate for seasonal variations of collected radiation. Total initial investment of $163.30 or $58.5/m2 and efficiencies ranging from 33 to 25% for 25 up to 65°C show an excellent cost-performance ratio. Construction, costs, and efficiencies obtained by us and developed by other groups are compared to emphasize the high cost/benefit ratio and efficiencies of this approach.

  15. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  16. Impact of Three Illumina Library Construction Methods on GC Bias and HLA Genotype Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, James H; Yin, Yuxin; Reed, Elaine F; Moua, Kevin; Thomas, Kimberly; Zhang, Qiuheng

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly recognized for its ability to overcome allele ambiguity and deliver high-resolution typing in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Using this technology, non-uniform read distribution can impede the reliability of variant detection, which renders high-confidence genotype calling particularly difficult to achieve in the polymorphic HLA complex. Recently, library construction has been implicated as the dominant factor in instigating coverage bias. To study the impact of this phenomenon on HLA genotyping, we performed long-range PCR on 12 samples to amplify HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1, and compared the relative contribution of three Illumina library construction methods (TruSeq Nano, Nextera, Nextera XT) in generating downstream bias. Here, we show high GC% to be a good predictor of low sequencing depth. Compared to standard TruSeq Nano, GC bias was more prominent in transposase-based protocols, particularly Nextera XT, likely through a combination of transposase insertion bias being coupled with a high number of PCR enrichment cycles. Importantly, our findings demonstrate non-uniform read depth can have a direct and negative impact on the robustness of HLA genotyping, which has clinical implications for users when choosing a library construction strategy that aims to balance cost and throughput with data quality. PMID:25543015

  17. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  18. A fuzzy neural network to estimate at completion costs of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bagherpour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In construction cost management system, normally earned value management (EVM is applied as an efficient control approach in both status detection and estimation at completion (EAC cost forecasting. The traditional approaches in EAC predictions normally extend the current situation of a project to the future by employing pervious performance factor. The proposed approach of this paper considers both qualitative and quantitative factors affecting the EAC prediction. The proposed approach of this research not only estimates the completion of the project, but also it can generate accurate forecast for the entire future periods using a fuzzy neural network model. The model is also implemented for a real-world case study and yields encouraging preliminary results.

  19. Energy Efficient Low-Cost Virtual Backbone Construction for Optimal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohaideen Pitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prominent applications in wireless sensor networks which require collected information have to be routed to end nodes in an efficient manner. In general, weighted connected dominating Sets (WCDS based routing is a promising approach for enhancing the routing efficiency in sensor networks. Backbone has been used extensively in routing. Here an efficient WCDS algorithm for constructing a virtual backbone with low total cost, hop spanning ratio, and minimum number of dominators is proposed. We report a systematic approach, which has three phases. Initial phase considers the issues of revoking a partial CDS tree from a complete CDS tree. Secondary and final phases make the design of the complete algorithm by considering the determination of dominators using an iteration process. Our findings reveal better performance than the existing algorithms in terms of total cost, hop spanning ratio, and number of dominators.

  20. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 5: Costs to Construct and Operate the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs

  1. Principles Developed for the Construction of the High Performance, Low-cost Superconducting LHC corrector Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Allitt, M; Ijspeert, Albert; Karppinen, M; Mazet, J; Pérez, J; Salminen, J; Karmarkar, M; Puntambekar, A

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) needs more than 6000 superconducting corrector magnets. These must be sufficiently powerful, have enough margin, be compact and of low cost. The development of the 11 types of magnets was spread over several years and included the magnetic and mechanical design as well as prototype building and testing. It gradually led to the systematic application of a number of interesting construction principles that allow to realize the above mentioned goals. The paper describes the techniques developed and presently used in practically all the LHC corrector magnets ranging from dipoles to dodecapoles.

  2. Investigating the possibility of constructing low cost roller compacted concrete dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Abu-Khashaba

    2014-03-01

    Results clarified how FA interacts with Portland cement and showed its effect on concrete properties especially strength development ratio. FA long-term reaction refines the pore concrete structure to reduce water ingress and control its seepage. FA reduces the thermal stresses by reducing the concrete hydration heat and reduces temperature-related cracking due to low early young’s modulus and finally leads to durability improvement that minimizes the dam construction cost. Results indicated that RCCD could be effectively implemented with site local Egyptian materials. However, more further field measurements and a RCCD prototype are required to be examined analytically and verified with in situ data to evaluate that technique.

  3. A GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRUCTING BROADCAST TREES WITH COST AND DELAY CONSTRAINTS IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y. Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We refer to the problem of constructing broadcast trees with cost and delay constraints in the networks as a delay-constrained minimum spanning tree problem in directed networks. Hence it is necessary determining a spanning tree of minimal cost to connect the source node to all nodes subject to delay constraints on broadcast routing. In this paper, we proposed a genetic algorithm for solving broadcast routing by finding the low-cost broadcast tree with minimum cost and delay constraints. In this research we present a genetic algorithm to find the broadcast routing tree of a given network in terms of its links. The algorithm uses the connection matrix of the given network to find the spanning trees and considers the weights of the links to obtain the minimum spanning tree. Our proposed algorithm is able to find a better solution, fast convergence speed and high reliability. The scalability and the performance of the algorithm with increasing number of network nodes are also encouraging.

  4. A multi-objective genetic algorithm model for time-cost trade-off analysis of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Senouci, Ahmed; Al-Derham, Hassan R.

    2006-01-01

    Time-cost trade-off analysis is one of the most important aspects of construction project planning and control. There are trade-offs between time and cost to complete the activities of a project. Existing methods for time-cost trade-off analysis are not efficient enough to solve large-scale CPM networks (hundreds of activities or more). This paper presents an advanced and robust multi-objective genetic algorithm model for the time-cost trade-off analysis of construction projects. The model al...

  5. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; Hoevenaars, Roy P. M. M.; Van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. Consequently, reducing the trading costs of comparatively few expensive trades would already result in substantial savings on total trading costs. Since trading costs depend to some exten

  6. Construction cost management of bored pile%钻孔灌注桩施工成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小利

    2012-01-01

    分析了钻孔灌注桩施工工艺的发展现状,结合当前钻孔灌注桩工程的施工形势,阐述了钻孔灌注桩施工成本管理的重要性,介绍了成本管理的理论,总结了钻孔灌注桩成本管理的基本方法,指出降低钻孔灌注桩施工成本的基本途径。%With an analysis on the construction technology development status of bored pile, combining with contemporary construction situation of bored pile engineering, the article describes the significance of bored pile construction cost management, introduces the cost management theo- ry, summarizes the basic methods of bored pile cost management, and finally points out ways of reducing bored pile construction cost.

  7. Analysis on construction project cost management%施工项目成本管理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严世杰

    2009-01-01

    The composition of construction project cost is introduced. Based upon analysis of the present cost management situations in construction enterprises in our couontry and questions existed practical measures for cost control and management are proposed, in order to realize effective control of construction project cost to increase the economic benefits and competitive power for construction enterprises.%介绍了施工项目的成本组成,分析了我国施工企业成本管理的现状以及存在的问题,提出了加强成本控制管理的措施,以使施工项目成本得到有效控制,提高施工企业的经济效益和企业竞争力.

  8. The evaluation of Spanish environmental impact. Costs and limitations; La evaluacion de impacto ambiental en Espana. Coste y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, S.; Riera, P.; Borrego, A.

    2009-07-01

    The environmental impact assessment applies to new investments in public infrastructure and in industrial activities. The latter accounts for most of the environmental impact studies undertaken in Spain. This evaluation tool has a number of limitations and weaknesses, both in the analysis and its implementation. This article discusses some of these limitations, including the private cost of the process. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  10. Leaf Construction Cost and Related Ecophysiological Parameters of Rice Crop and Its Important Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vartika SINGH; Hema SINGH

    2012-01-01

    To understand the reason for the success of weeds,we investigated the energetic cost of leaf construction,and certain ecophysiological traits of rice and its dominant weeds.On physiological basis among all weeds,Caesulia axillaris Roxburgh was found to be the most serious,followed by Echinochloa cruss-galli L.Beauv and Echinochloa colonum L.Link,while Fimbristylis miliaceae L.Vahl and Cyperus iria L.were moderate weeds of the rice fields.C.axillaris had the lowest leaf construction cost (LCC) both on a mass basis (1.15 g/g) and on a unit area basis (22.93 g/m2).Comparatively higher specific leaf area,photosynthetic rate,photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency,leaf area ratio and leaf area index provided C.axillaris with further competitive advantage.Low LCC suggests that weeds utilize carbon resource more efficiently than the crop and potentially spend the saved energy on other competitive strategies viz.seed production,biomass production and high relative growth rate,which results in low crop yield and increase in weed seed bank.

  11. Construction of a low-cost detector to identify dissolved metals in aqueous media by fluorescence spectroscopy: design and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Montaño, M.; Hoyo, C.

    2017-01-01

    We have constructed a low cost fluorescence detector model to determine the presence of some heavy metals in an aqueous medium. In particular, we focus on metals which cause public health problems in our country. We did the first tests with standard samples of Hg (II). The innovative features of this instrument are its small dimensions (9 dm3) and the low cost of materials used in its construction.

  12. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  13. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  14. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  15. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Mauro; De Falco, Anna; Giresini, Linda; Puppio, Mario Lucio

    2016-05-07

    Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A) is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B) is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center) by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  16. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  17. Planning and Construction of Low Carbon Cities:The Relevance of Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; C.T.YIP

    2011-01-01

    Cities are the major source of carbon dioxide emissions in China,and are the critical locations where emissions should be effectively managed.Adopting a low carbon urban development model is the pathway towards reducing the emissions.A low carbon city development model means achieving efficient and effective urban growth through low energy consumption and low emissions.While many local authorities in China have started to express the intention to construct low carbon cities,it is important to emphasize the need to apply a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) to low carbon urban policies and development projects.Since all policies and projects will have their costs and benefits to the society,the effects of the policies and projects on reducing emissions should be measured and assessed objectively.Through the setting up of an analysis framework to assess the costs and benefits,one can provide a scientific basis for decision making,and enhance the overall efficiency in the use of resources for the society as a whole.

  18. 施工项目成本控制与核算%Construction Project Cost Control and Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向绪武

    2012-01-01

    Project cost control is an important part of comprehensive enterprise cost management. The traditional cost control cannot solve the problem from the root. Aiming at the different characteristics of the project bidding, construction preparation, construction, and completion acceptance stage, the paper formulates scientific cost target and cost control measures to reduce the cost.%项目的成本控制是企业全面成本管理的重要环节.传统的成本控制无法从根本解决问题.本文针对项目招投标、施工准备、施工、竣工验收阶段的不同特点,制定科学的成本目标和成本控制措施以降低成本.

  19. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Materials for Additive Construction: Applications on Earth, the Moon, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Erick; Edmunson, Jennifer; Fiske, Michael; Christiansen, Eric; Miller, Josh; Davis, Bruce Alan; Read, Jon; Johnston, Mallory; Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    Additive Construction is the process of building infrastructure such as habitats, garages, roads, berms, etcetera layer by layer (3D printing). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pursuing additive construction to build structures using resources available in-situ. Using materials available in-situ reduces the cost of planetary missions and operations in theater. The NASA team is investigating multiple binders that can be produced on planetary surfaces, including the magnesium oxide-based Sorel cement; the components required to make Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), the common cement used on Earth, have been found on Mars. The availability of OPC-based concrete on Earth drove the USACE to pursue additive construction for base housing and barriers for military operations. Planetary and military base structures must be capable of resisting micrometeoroid impacts with velocities ranging from 11 to 72km/s for particle sizes 200 micrometers or more (depending on protection requirements) as well as bullets and shrapnel with a velocity of 1.036km/s with projectiles 5.66mm diameter and 57.40mm in length, respectively.

  20. Windpower project ownership and financing: The cost impacts of alternative development structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper uses traditional financial cash-flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of wind energy. While most large-scale wind projects are constructed, operated, and financed by non-utility generators (NUGs) via project financing, investor- and publicly-owned utilities have expressed interest in owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing wind energy from independent generators. A primary justification for utility ownership is that, because of financing and tax benefits, windpower may be cheaper when developed in this fashion. The results presented in this paper support that justification, though some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are found to be a result of shortcomings in utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. This paper also discusses the comparative value of the federal production tax credit and renewable energy production incentive; estimates the financing premium paid by NUG wind owners compared to traditional gas-fired generation facilities; and explores the impact of electricity restructuring on financing.

  1. Graph-associated entanglement cost of a multipartite state in exact and finite-block-length approximate constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hayata; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

    2017-09-01

    We introduce and analyze graph-associated entanglement cost, a generalization of the entanglement cost of quantum states to multipartite settings. We identify a necessary and sufficient condition for any multipartite entangled state to be constructible when quantum communication between the multiple parties is restricted to a quantum network represented by a tree. The condition for exact state construction is expressed in terms of the Schmidt ranks of the state defined with respect to edges of the tree. We also study approximate state construction and provide a second-order asymptotic analysis.

  2. Cost and Performance Report Low Impact Technologies to Reduce Pollution from Storm Water Runoff SI-200405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    and will likely require earthwork to remove the lids over the media bed. 44 5.2 Cost Analysis The economic analysis performed on the NRRC dual...pump system. Given these two scenarios, the economic evaluation was constructed and compared. 5.3.2 Cost Drivers The cost of the implementing a...report 7374 National Defense Center for Enviromental Exellence, 1999, Environmental Cost Analysis Methodology (CECAM) handbook, March 29, 1999

  3. Discussing the cost control of construction project%浅谈施工项目成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杰

    2012-01-01

    The project cost is divided into direct costs and indirect costs。Direct costs include labor costs,material costs,machinery costs,other direct costs and funding;Indirect costs include management fees,finance charges and other fees strengthening the control of project costs has important sense in enhancing the competitives of enterprises and econmic benefit.Construction cost will directly affect the construction enterprise's survival and development,and it is also closely related to employees' benefits Therefore,as a management discipline that the constraction enterprises benefit from the management,the decision makers in the construction enterprises and the managers in constraction project pay more and more attention to the cost control..it also plays an important role in construction management activities%工程项目的成本分为直接成本和间接成本。直接成本包括人工费、材料费、机械使用费、其他直接费和现场经费,间接成本主要包括企业管理费、财务费和其他费用。施工成本的高低直接影响着施工企业的生存与发展,关系到企业职工的待遇、福利等。因此,项目施工成本控制作为施工企业向管理要效益的管理学科,越来越被施工企业决策层和项目管理者所重视。

  4. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-09-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  5. Eco-costs and Eco-costs/Value Ratio in Construction Process%建设施工过程生态成本及EVR模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉然; 郑磊

    2016-01-01

    为衡量施工方案和施工过程的绿色化程度,定量分析建设施工阶段的环境破坏预防成本,在生命周期评价的基础上,引入了生态成本指标以及EVR计算模型,分析了建设施工生态成本的计算范围及具体方法。计算出我国普通建筑工程项目施工中涉及的主要有害排放物、能源、建筑原材料的生态成本及其 EVR。选取南京某普通住宅项目作为案例,计算其施工过程的生态成本和EVR,并根据计算结果分析各项生态成本的比例,探讨减少生态成本的有效方式及应用方向。%In order to evaluate green degree and pollution prevention costs in building construction,a single LCA-based indicator for sustainability and the eco-costs/value ratio(EVR)model are proposed. The calculation scope and method of construction eco-costs is analyzed. Eco-costs and EVR of toxic emissions,energy and construction materials related to ordinary project construction in China are listed. By calculating eco-costs and EVR of a case of residential project in Nanjing,the proportion of each part of eco-costs is analyzed. Solutions to reduce eco-costs are discussed.

  6. 78 FR 44137 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of..., ``Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway Bridge Across...; correction. SUMMARY: The comment period end date listed for the Manatee River Draft Environmental...

  7. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  8. On cost management of programs in construction enterprises%谈施工企业项目成本管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄毅平

    2015-01-01

    从施工企业成本管理的意识、内容、体制、手段等方面分析了施工企业项目成本管理的现状,针对成本管理中存在的各种问题,研究了加强施工企业成本管理的对策,以运用现代化的管理手段,优化资源配置,降低成本。%From ideas, contents, systems and measures of the cost management in construction enterprises, the paper analyzes the status of the cost management in programs of construction enterprises, and researches the strategies to enhance the cost management in the enterprises accord-ing to various problems in the cost management, so as to adopt the modern management measures, optimize resource allocation, and lower cost.

  9. On costs control of programs of construction enterprises%施工企业项目成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志宏

    2011-01-01

    叙述了施工企业项目成本控制的相关概念,分析了项目成本控制的要求,并针对目前我国施工企业成本控制现状,给出了工程项目成本控制的步骤及措施,以保证项目成本目标的实现。%The paper indicates the relative concepts of the costs control of the programs of construction enterprises,analyzes the requirements for the costs control,and provides the steps and the measures for the costs control of the engineering programs according to the current status of the costs control of the construction enterprises in China,so as to ensure the realization of the costs of programs.

  10. On the Estimate Method of Construction Engineering Cost Based on the RS-GA-NNA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the low intelligent level and the low accuracy of valuation of civil architecture projects, we put forward in the study a constructional engineering assessment method based on Artificial Intelligence which taking advantage of data-calculation from rough set theory, genetic algorithm and neural network algorithm. First, the rough set theory is used to reduce the discrete attributes to optimize the input variables of BP neural network. And then use the global search feature of genetic algorithm to optimize the initial weight and the threshold value of BP neural network. The new algorithm covers both the global random search capability of genetic algorithm and the learning ability and robustness of neural network, thus the computational speed and accuracy have been more significantly improved than the traditional methods. To empirically analyze a case selected from a city in Hunan Province, the results show that the new algorithm model can rely on the engineering features, assess the construction costs scientifically and objectively and have high practical value.

  11. Properties of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB For Low-Cost Housing Construction: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Shehu Waziri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials used for the construction of walls are normally required to possess adequate strength and erosion resistance. The study investigates the suitability of stabilized laterite soils for the production of compressed earth blocks for low-cost housing construction.  Soil samples for the experiment were obtained at two different locations. Sample I was obtained at a borrow pit along Gujba road in Damaturu Yobe state while Sample II was taken at a borrow pit near lake Alau in Borno sate, Nigeria. The results of the study revealed that the specific gravity, bulk density, moisture content and plasticity index of both samples showed satisfactory performance. Different cement stabilization levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% were used to prepare the specimens for testing. The blocks were moulded using hand operated CINVA-Ram machine. The maximum compressive strength of 2.48N/mm2 was obtained with stabilization level of 7.5% with sample I at 28 days curing.  The strength of the specimens increases with increasing cement content with an average value of 0.35N/mm2. For higher strength requirements different stabilization options can be considered.

  12. Construction delays causing risks on time and cost - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the number of construction projects experiencing extensive delays leading to exceeding initial time and cost budget.  This paper reviews 41 studies around the world which surveyed the delay factors and classified them into Groups.  The main purpose of this paper is to review literature, each of which have categorized the causes that are responsible for time delays and cost overrun in projects. The collected list has 113 causes for delays categorized in to 18 different groups.  Most of the researches have analysed the responses from the Questionnaire survey.    The collected data are used to rank the problem.  The data are further used to investigate and analyse Important Index, Frequency Index, Severity Index, Relative Important Index, Relative Importance Weight, Weighted Average, Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance.  The collective comparison has revealed that the ranking given by all the researchers is not the same.  Further each and every study has different rank ratings for the different group of the delays.  This review paper attempts to provide an updated compilation of the earlier studies on ranking of the delay causers, which are never similar and constant for universal projects.  It is concluded that a separate study is required for identifying the factors causing delay for projects operated in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  13. Design and construction of a low-cost nose poke system for rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Giorgio; Lodge, Meredith E; Tan, Kelly R

    2016-01-01

    Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions (i.e., understanding the role of dopamine in electrical brain stimulation reward [1], or determining the rewarding properties of feeding oriented brain pathways [2]). The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal terms [3], [4]. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries. To verify the applicability and validity of our system we tested the behavior of DAT-CRE transgenic mice injected with an adeno-associated virus to express ChannelRhodopsin 2 in the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and used the BNC output to drive a blue laser coupled to a fiber implanted above the VTA. Over 6 days, mice perform as it has been reported previously [5] exhibiting a remarkable preference for the port that triggers optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons. •We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system.•Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible.•We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons.

  14. Design and construction of a low-cost nose poke system for rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Giorgio; Lodge, Meredith E.; Tan, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions (i.e., understanding the role of dopamine in electrical brain stimulation reward [1], or determining the rewarding properties of feeding oriented brain pathways [2]). The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal terms [3], [4]. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries. To verify the applicability and validity of our system we tested the behavior of DAT-CRE transgenic mice injected with an adeno-associated virus to express ChannelRhodopsin 2 in the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and used the BNC output to drive a blue laser coupled to a fiber implanted above the VTA. Over 6 days, mice perform as it has been reported previously [5] exhibiting a remarkable preference for the port that triggers optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons. • We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system. • Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible. • We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:27222822

  15. Regulatory Cost Impacts for Selected Institutions of Higher Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Nelson L., Jr.

    Regulatory cost impacts for 11 Texas colleges and universities for the 1977-78 academic year are presented as part of a continuing effort to assess the costs and impact of federally mandated social regulations. The 11 institutions are representative of each of the types previously reviewed as groups. For each institution, data are presented on the…

  16. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  18. 试论施工项目成本管理%On the Management of Construction Project Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云生

    2012-01-01

    The management of construction project cost is an important part Of the construction project. This article analyzes the causes and current situation of China's long-standing cost management model which can not adapt to the fierce market competition. It discusses how to make good use of cost management in order to achieve the scientific management of the construction project, reasonable confirmation of the construction cost and favorable cost control, aiming to improve the operations of construction enterprises effectively.%建筑工程成本管理是建设工程的重要组成部分.文章首先分析了我国长期以来形成的成本管理模式的成因及现状,说明其不能适应激烈的市场竞争的原因,探讨了如何应用成本管理达到科学管理工程,合理确定造价和有利地控制成本的目的,以提高施工企业的经营效果.

  19. 谈煤矿建设项目工程造价%Analysis of coal mine construction project engineering cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems existing in the project cost,put forward by strengthening project quality supervision and management and con-struction period cost control and strengthen the comprehensive effect of management mechanism to enhance the effective measures to coal mine construction project cost,then analysis the construction project in decision-making,design,bidding,implement,completion of the settlement during the period of project cost management and control. In order to ensure the coal mine construction project cost effectiveness and rationality, and comprehensively promote the overall development of coal mine construction project.%针对项目工程造价中存在的各种问题,提出了通过加强项目质量监督管理和施工期间造价控制工作及加强管理机制的综合效果来提升煤矿建设项目工程造价的有效措施,进而探析了建设项目在决策、设计、招投标、实施、竣工结算等期间的工程造价管理与控制措施,以确保煤矿建设项目造价的有效性和合理性,进而全面促进煤矿建设项目的整体发展。

  20. Bariatric surgery: cost-effectiveness and budget impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Lorenzo; Busetto, Luca; Vestri, Annarita; Zappa, Marco Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related comorbidities and total mortality. As any medical treatment, bariatric surgery is costly and doubts about its affordability have been raised. On the other hand, bariatric surgery may reduce the direct and indirect costs of obesity and related comorbidities. The appreciation of the final balance between financial investments and savings is critical from a health economic perspective. In this paper, we try to provide a brief updated review of the most recent studies on the cost-efficacy of bariatric surgery, with particular emphasis on budget analysis. A brief overview of the economic costs of obesity will also be provided. The epidemic of obesity may cause a significant reduction in life expectancy and overwhelming direct and indirect costs for citizens and societies. Cost-efficacy analyses included in this review consistently demonstrated that the additional years of lives gained through bariatric surgery may be obtained at a reasonable and affordable cost. In groups of patients with very high obesity-related health costs, like patients with type 2 diabetes, the use of bariatric surgery required an initial economic investment, but may save money in a relatively short period of time.

  1. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  2. Methodological challenges in assessing the impact of comorbidities on costs in Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Fillit, Howard; Kurlander, Jonathan; Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with considerable costs and has a significant impact on health and social care systems. This study assessed whether baseline comorbidities present in 2,594 patients with AD participating in two semagacestat randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) would significantly impact overall costs. Resource utilization was captured using the Resource Utilization in Dementia Scale-Lite. Comorbidities and concomitant medications were tabulated via patient and caregiver reports. Only baseline data were analyzed. Direct and indirect costs per month were calculated per patient. The relationship between cost and explanatory variables was explored in a regression model. The baseline monthly cost of care in this RCT population was £1,147 ± 2,483, with informal care costs accounting for 75% of costs. Gender, age, and functional status were significant predictors of costs (p ≤ 0.0001). The cost ratio was not impacted when the number of comorbidities was added to the model (cost ratio = 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99) or when combined with the number of concomitant medications (cost ratio = 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-1.00). Inconsistent findings related to the impact of individual comorbidities on costs were noted in sensitivity analyses. The number of comorbidities, alone or when combined with concomitant medications, did not impact baseline costs of care, perhaps because RCTs often enroll less severely ill and more medically stable patients. However, higher costs were consistently associated with greater functional impairment similar to non-RCT databases. Supplemental sources (e.g., claims databases) are likely needed to better estimate the effects of disease and treatment on costs of illness captured in RCTs for AD.

  3. Permafrost in Qinghai Province:Characterization and impact on transportation construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianHong Fang; AnHua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Through a long-term summary of highway construction in the permafrost regions of Qinghai Province, the formation conditions and distribution characteristics of permafrost and their impact on transportation construction are analyzed. Research achievements on the stability of highways and urgent technical problems in the transportation construction in permafrost regions are discussed, and new development directions of highway construction in permafrost regions of Qinghai Province are introduced to provide cold regions engineering researchers with valuable references.

  4. Medical cost impact of intrathecal drug delivery for noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Scott; Witzke, Susan; Leier, Jacqueline; Hinnenthal, Jennifer; Prager, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    As healthcare budgets continue to contract, there is increased payer scrutiny on the use of implantable intrathecal drug-infusion devices. This study utilizes claims data to evaluate the economic effects of intrathecal drug delivery (IDD) based on health services utilization and costs of care before and after implantation. We performed a retrospective database study involving 555 noncancer pain patients that received an IDD system implant within a 3-year service period (1/2006-1/2009). IDD patient costs were temporally aligned to implant month and repriced to a standardized, national pricing schedule over a 6-year episode cycle (3 years preimplant, implant month, and 3 years postimplant). Additionally, we made an actuarial projection of postimplant experience, in the absence of IDD intervention, simulating a conventional pain therapy (CPT) protocol by assuming the same slope in costs prior to implantation at standardized, national price levels. Cost projections were produced over a 30-year time horizon at various reimplantation rates. IDD therapy was less costly than the CPT protocol over our baseline implantation cycle. Costs in the month of IDD implantation, and in the year following, are cumulatively $17,317 more than the CPT protocol; however, IDD financial break-even occurs soon after the second year postimplant. The lifetime analysis indicates that IDD per patient per year savings is $3,111 compared with CPT. The authors found that patients receiving an implantable IDD system may experience reduced cumulative future medical costs relative to anticipated costs in the absence of receiving IDD. This finding complements published literature on the cost-effectiveness of IDD. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society...

  6. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  7. 78 FR 40488 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of... Guard announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) and announces a public... Environmental Impact Statement. The Coast Guard will hold a public meeting on the DEIS on Wednesday, August...

  8. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  9. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  10. Measurement of the economic-financial impacts of trade-offs between inventory carrying costs and transport costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ventura Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic-financial performance is affected by logistics and, thus, the logistics area seeks solutions that best address the balance between incurred costs and services offered. This balance is achieved only when the potential logistics results are exploited with an evaluation that assesses total cost and cost trade-offs. As logistics research is used to emphasizing operational aspects of trade-offs, this paper attempted to deal with another dimension: the economic-financial one. In this context, the goal of the present study was to offer a model for the measurement of the economic-financial impacts of trade-offs between inventory carrying costs and transport costs. A measurement model was in fact proposed and employed in a simulated example of logistics solution. The results of this paper offer the arrangement for the measurement of the potential effects on economic result and on cash flow of trade-offs between inventory carrying costs and transport costs. The results also show that these effects change depending on the logistics solution.

  11. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. This analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  12. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...... and machinery costs are the important factors for IM to evaluate all the alternative schedules. At the same time, the potential cost from passengers is also crucial to minimize the impacts to the society. A phase-based planning toolkit is developed to help IM to plan and compare project proposals from a wider...... cost scope, integrating the passenger loss and direct costs into the comparison at planning stage. Passenger loss is estimated basing on the potential delay time values. The case study shows the potential cost from passengers is one of the key factors impacting the rank of M&R options. It even...

  13. Impact of robotic antineoplastic preparation on safety, workflow, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Andrew C; Churchill, William W; Keohane, Carol A; Belisle, Caryn D; Wong, Stephanie T; Sylvester, Katelyn W; Chesnick, Megan A; Burdick, Elisabeth; Wien, Matt F; Cotugno, Michael C; Bates, David W; Rothschild, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    Antineoplastic preparation presents unique safety concerns and consumes significant pharmacy staff time and costs. Robotic antineoplastic and adjuvant medication compounding may provide incremental safety and efficiency advantages compared with standard pharmacy practices. We conducted a direct observation trial in an academic medical center pharmacy to compare the effects of usual/manual antineoplastic and adjuvant drug preparation (baseline period) with robotic preparation (intervention period). The primary outcomes were serious medication errors and staff safety events with the potential for harm of patients and staff, respectively. Secondary outcomes included medication accuracy determined by gravimetric techniques, medication preparation time, and the costs of both ancillary materials used during drug preparation and personnel time. Among 1,421 and 972 observed medication preparations, we found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious medication errors (P = .8) and 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. Drugs failed accuracy measurements in 12.5% (23 of 184) and 0.9% (one of 110) of preparations in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P robot (P = .009). Labor costs were similar in both study periods, although the ancillary material costs decreased by 56% in the intervention period (P robotically prepared antineoplastic and adjuvant medications did not reduce serious medication errors, both staff safety and accuracy of medication preparation were improved significantly. Future studies are necessary to address the overall cost effectiveness of these robotic implementations.

  14. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  15. Blind polarization demultiplexing by constructing a cost function for coherent optical PDM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenming; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Xingwen; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-07-13

    We propose a training symbols-free polarization demultiplexing method by constructing a cost function (CCF-PDM) for coherent optical PDM-OFDM. This method is applicable for high-speed, wide-bandwidth OFDM signals, different subcarrier modulation formats and long-haul transmission. It shows comparable performance with that of conventional method but without overhead and converges fast. Since the neighboring subcarriers experience similar polarization effects, we set the initial matrix parameters by the neighboring subcarrier to reduce the number of iteration for the gradient algorithm and prevent swapping the data of the two orthogonal polarizations. We verify this method in experiment by transmitting 66.6-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 4QAM subcarrier modulation over 5440 km SSMF and 133.3-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 16QAM subcarrier modulation over 960 km SSMF respectively. We compare its performance with that of training symbols. We also analyze the convergence speed of this method.

  16. Tazimina Hydroelectric Project, Iliamna, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Cost Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Alaska, Inc.

    1998-11-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. These communities have a combined population of approximately 600 residents. There is no direct road connection from these villages to larger population centers. Electric power has been generated by INNEC since 1983 using diesel generators located in the community of Newhalen. Fuel for these generators was transported up the Kvichak River, an important salmon river, and across Iliamna Lake. In dry years the river is low and fuel is flown into Iliamna and then trucked five miles into Newhalen. The cost, difficult logistics and potential spill hazard of this fuel was a primary reason for development of hydroelectric power in this area. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  17. Rotavirus-associated hospitalization and emergency department costs and rotavirus vaccine program impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, April; Donauer, Stephanie; Edwards, Kathryn M; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Payne, Daniel C; Szilagyi, Peter G; Rice, Marilyn; Cassedy, Amy; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Parashar, Umesh D; Staat, Mary Allen

    2013-08-28

    To determine the medical costs of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits and estimate the economic impact of the rotavirus vaccine program. During 4 rotavirus seasons (2006-2009), children costs were obtained from hospital and physician billing data, and factors associated with increased costs were examined. Annual national costs were estimated using rotavirus hospitalization and ED visit rates and medical costs for rotavirus hospitalizations and ED visits from our surveillance program for pre- (2006-2007) and post-vaccine (2008-2009) time periods. Pre-vaccine, for hospitalizations, the median medical cost per child was $3581, the rotavirus hospitalization rate was 22.1/10,000, with an estimated annual national cost of $91 million. Post-vaccine, the median medical cost was $4304, the hospitalization rate was 6.3/10,000 and the estimated annual national cost was $31 million. Increased costs were associated with study site, age cost per child was $574, the ED visit rate was 291/10,000 resulting in an estimated annual national cost of $192 million. Post-vaccine, the median medical cost was $794, the ED visit rate was 71/10,000 with an estimated annual national cost of $65 million. After implementation of rotavirus immunization, the total annual medical costs decreased from $283 million to $96 million, an annual reduction of $187 million. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Marzouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP, human health (HH particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmental impact indicators can be linked to different phases of the construction projects. The overall environmental impact indicators can be divided into direct, indirect, and operational emissions. This paper presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-based methodology for the assessment of environmental impacts in road construction projects. The model takes into account the overall life cycle of the road construction project, which is divided into: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operational phase, recycling phase, and deconstruction phase. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The proposed model solves a major problem for road construction project teams who want to assess the environmental impact indicators associated with their project prior to the start of the execution of their projects.

  19. Impact of Continuous Competition on Operations and Support Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    private firms, not the government. Aircraft Net Cost Growth B737-400 0.76 B757-200ER 0.80 A310-300 0.98 A320 0.92 A330-300 0.86 DC10-30 0.83 MD...Analysis. (1989). Results of Navy Competition. Nolte, P., Quackenbush, et al. (2008). Sustainment key performance parameter and the RAM-C manual ...of Defense. (2009). Department of Defense reliability, availability, maintainability, and cost rationale report manual . Washington, DC: Department of

  20. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  1. Discussion on circulation material management of construction project construction cost management%论建设项目施工成本管理之周材管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍明华

    2016-01-01

    简述了建筑施工企业管理周转材料的常用方式,以材料现场积压、材料浪费、损失等方面,分析了目前周转材料管理中常见的问题,并提出了具体的解决方案,有利于降低企业施工成本,提高企业的成本管理水平。%The paper briefly describes common circulation material management methods of building construction enterprises,analyzes common circulation material management problems from aspects of material field overstocking,material waste and loss,and puts forward specific solving schemes,which will be good for reducing construction cost and improving cost management level.

  2. 谈施工项目成本控制%Discussion on cost control of construction project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继勇

    2012-01-01

    阐述了项目成本控制的原则与意义,分析了项目成本控制目前存在的问题,探讨了如何加强项目成本控制的对策,提出应重视事先控制及图纸会审工作,加强现场管理,并做好施工中的成本检查和完工后的成本考核。%This thesis illustrates principles and meanings of project cost control,analyzes problems existing in current project cost control,and discuses countermeasures for strengthening project cost control.And then,it advises to notice previous control and charting auditing,to strengthen field management,and to do well in cost check in construction and cost check after the completion as well.

  3. The High Cost of Harsh Discipline and Its Disparate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Losen, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    School suspension rates have been rising since the early 1970s, especially for children of color. One body of research has demonstrated that suspension from school is harmful to students, as it increases the risk of retention and school dropout. Another has demonstrated that school dropouts impose huge social costs on their states and localities,…

  4. The impact of organizational structure on flight software cost risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen; Monson, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the final results of the follow-up study updating the estimated software effort growth for those projects that were still under development and including an evaluation of the roles versus observed cost risk for the missions included in the original study which expands the data set to thirteen missions.

  5. Impact of Robotic Antineoplastic Preparation on Safety, Workflow, and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Andrew C.; Churchill, William W.; Keohane, Carol A.; Belisle, Caryn D.; Wong, Stephanie T.; Sylvester, Katelyn W.; Chesnick, Megan A.; Burdick, Elisabeth; Wien, Matt F.; Cotugno, Michael C.; Bates, David W.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Antineoplastic preparation presents unique safety concerns and consumes significant pharmacy staff time and costs. Robotic antineoplastic and adjuvant medication compounding may provide incremental safety and efficiency advantages compared with standard pharmacy practices. Methods: We conducted a direct observation trial in an academic medical center pharmacy to compare the effects of usual/manual antineoplastic and adjuvant drug preparation (baseline period) with robotic preparation (intervention period). The primary outcomes were serious medication errors and staff safety events with the potential for harm of patients and staff, respectively. Secondary outcomes included medication accuracy determined by gravimetric techniques, medication preparation time, and the costs of both ancillary materials used during drug preparation and personnel time. Results: Among 1,421 and 972 observed medication preparations, we found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious medication errors (P = .8) and 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. Drugs failed accuracy measurements in 12.5% (23 of 184) and 0.9% (one of 110) of preparations in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P drug preparation time increased by 47% when using the robot (P = .009). Labor costs were similar in both study periods, although the ancillary material costs decreased by 56% in the intervention period (P antineoplastic and adjuvant medications did not reduce serious medication errors, both staff safety and accuracy of medication preparation were improved significantly. Future studies are necessary to address the overall cost effectiveness of these robotic implementations. PMID:23598843

  6. Construction of a low cost wind energy generator; Construcao de um gerador de energia eolica de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jonathan Penha de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: jonathan_penha@poli.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This project presents a low cost wind electric power generator constituted of cheap and easy access materials. The necessary materials are presented for it construction and the expected efficiency, having as reference the city of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. The elaboration of the generator was initially developed as alternative energy source during blackout.

  7. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C-3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H; VanBerkel, Y; Baxter, R; DenHertog, J; Dijkstra, P; Gifford, RM; Griffin, KL; Roumet, C; Roy, J

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO2, These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings, Both average responses a

  8. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Berkel, Y. van; Baxter, B.; Hertog, J. den; Dijkstra, P.; Gifford, R.M.; Griffin, K.L.; Roumet, C.; Roy, J.; Wong, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂. These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings. Both average responses a

  9. Building the Ridge on Iapetus: Impacts Can Be Constructive!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, A. M.; Roberts, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Iapetus has a continuous ridge along the equator that extends for more than 110° in longitude. Parts of the ridge rise as much as 20 km above the surrounding terrains. Earlier Voyager observations revealed mountains on the anti-Saturn side of Iapetus with as much as 25-km in relief, extending from 180°W-220°W which may be a continuation of this ridge. Most models for the formation of this enigmatic ridge are endogenic, generally requiring the formation of a fast-spinning Iapetus with an oblate shape due to the rotation speed. Though abundant, many of these models require specific scenarios and have constraining parameters in order to generate a ridge comparable to what is seen today. An exogenic formation mechanism has also been proposed, that the ridge represents the remains of an early ring system around Iapetus that collapsed onto the surface. Thus far, none of the models have conclusively identified the origin of the ridge. We assume an exogenic origin for the ridge, derived from a collapsing disk of debris around Iapetus, without invoking any specific model for the generation of the debris disk, to determine whether it is possible to generate a ridge of the size and shape as observed. Here, the impact of the collapsing debris is simulated using the CTH hydrocode. Pi-scaling calculations suggest that extremely oblique impact angles (1-10°) are needed to add to ridge topography. These extreme impact angles severely reduce the cratering efficiency compared to a vertical impact, adding material rather than eroding it during crater formation. Furthermore, material is likely to be excavated at low angles, enhancing downrange accumulation. Multiple impacts from debris pieces will heighten this effect. Because infalling debris is predicted to impact at extremely low angles, both of these effects might have contributed to ridge formation on Iapetus. The extreme grazing angles of the impacts modeled here decouple much of the projectile energy, and impact heating of

  10. R&D investment and impact in the global construction industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "R&D Investment and Impact in the Global Construction Industry brings together contributions from leading academics in a diverse group of countries to investigate the role of research and development (R&D...

  11. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON JOB SATISFACTION IN CONSTRUCTION COMPANY AT CHENNAI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Nandhini

    2017-01-01

      This study is based on descriptive research it has been undertaken in Construction Company in Chennai city, Tamilnadu with the objectives of examining the impact of motivational factors on job satisfaction...

  12. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available , fibreboard, cellulose products, steel, aluminium frames, appliances, wire, paint, solvents, plate glass, carpet 3 On-site construction Foundation and site earthwork, concrete pouring, structural framing, roofing, mechanical... reusable materials, knock-down, site clearing, disposal PRE-USE PHASE USE-PHASE EOL 5 mining, growing/harvesting quarrying and felling is a source of air pollutants, solid waste, polluted water run-off and noise, vibration and odour. The processing...

  13. Impacts of an Innovative Residential Construction Method on Internal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Birchmore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand houses are known for producing sub-optimal internal thermal conditions and unacceptably high internal moisture levels. These contribute to poor levels of health, mould and can coincide with the decay of structural timber frames. A proposed solution is to provide an alternative structure utilising plywood, a vapour check on the internal face of the timber frame and an additional air gap, followed by the internal lining. The internal vapour check is designed to prevent moisture vapour diffusion from inside into the frame and to permit moisture diffusion from outside through the structure to the internal environment. Two full scale houses had temperatures, dew points and humidity levels monitored in passive, unoccupied conditions. The test case house incorporated the innovative construction solution. The control house was of identical design and location, using standard construction practice. The calculated internal moisture content profile appeared to be unrelated to the external moisture content as expected, instead following the profile of the changing internal temperature. Whilst the innovative construction appeared to prevent moisture diffusion into the structure in winter and permit it inside in summer, this resulted in a generally higher internal relative humidity than the control house.

  14. Impact of subsequent metastases on costs and medical resource use for prostate cancer patients initially diagnosed with localized disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tracy T; Shore, Neal D; Mehra, Maneesha; Todd, Mary B; Saadi, Ryan; Leblay, Gaetan; Aggarwal, Jyoti; Griffiths, Robert I

    2017-09-15

    The impact of subsequent metastases on costs and medical resource use (MRU) for prostate cancer (PC) patients initially diagnosed with localized disease was estimated. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, linked to Medicare (1999-2012), were used to identify 7482 patients diagnosed with subsequent metastases 12 months or more after the initial diagnosis of localized PC (cases), and they were matched to 25,709 localized PC patients without subsequent metastases (controls). Patients were followed for costs and MRU from 12 months before their index date (subsequent metastases or a matched date for controls) up to 12 months after it. Costs and MRU were stratified by the setting/type of care/service. Multivariate mixed effects regression analyses were used to construct and compare longitudinal trajectories of marginal predicted costs and predicted probabilities of MRU between cases and controls. Among the controls, predicted monthly costs remained relatively stable throughout the entire observation period (weighted mean per patient per month, $2746; range during 24 months, $2603-2858). In contrast, among the cases, costs increased from $2622 (95% confidence interval [CI], $2525-2719) 12 months before the diagnosis of subsequent metastases to $4767 (95% CI, $4623-4910) 1 month before the diagnosis of subsequent metastases, peaked during the month of metastases at $13,291 (95% CI, $13,148-13,435), and remained significantly higher than costs for the controls thereafter (eg, $4677 at + 12 months; 95% CI, $4549-4805). Costs and MRU increased across a wide range of settings/types, including inpatient, outpatient, home health, and hospice settings. In PC patients initially diagnosed with localized disease, a diagnosis of subsequent metastases is associated with substantially increased costs and MRU. Cancer 2017;123:3591-601. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. 施工企业全过程造价控制%Whole-process cost control of construction enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彩英

    2016-01-01

    Based on whole-process cost control importance of construction enterprises,the paper discusses measures of implementing cost control at bidding and tender phase,engineering construction phase and completion settlement,with a view to realize maximum economic and social ben-efits in the premise of guaranteeing engineering quality,construction duration and safety.%基于施工企业进行全过程造价控制的重要性,论述了在招投标、工程施工、竣工结算等阶段实施造价控制的措施,旨在保证工程质量、工期、安全的前提下,实现经济社会效益的最大化。

  16. Analysis of Cost Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    how this disease had impacted on health service provision in Tanzania from a cost perspective. Methods: The study .... health facilities. While the budget allocated for HIV/ ...... as social marketing, training of trainers and peer and risky groups ...

  17. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  18. 工程项目施工成本管理之我见%Opinion on Construction Cost Management in Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应铎文; 伊森昌

    2011-01-01

    施工成本预测是成本管理的目标,施工成本计划是成本管理的基础,施工成本控制是成本管理的重要环节,施工成本核算是成本管理的主要内容,施工成本分析和考核是成本管理的手段.成本控制效果如何,不仅关系到项目能否顺利完成,而且还直接影响到施工企业的经济效益.文章以成本控制理论为基础,探讨了当前工程项目施工成本控制的个人见解.%The construction cost forecast is the target of cost management, construction cost plan is the basis of cost management, cost control is an important part of the cost management, construction cost accounting is the main content of cost management, construction cost analysis and assessment is the means of cost management.The result of cost control not only is related to the smooth completion of the project or not, but also directly affects the economic benefits of construction enterprises.The article, based on the theory of cost control, discusses the personal opinion on the cost control of current construction.

  19. A Cost Impact Assessment Tool for PFS Logistics Consulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of the solution to problem data is easy to compute and is often provided directly by the solver employed. ( Bazaraa , Jarvis, and Sherali, 1990; Winston...additional changes in 0 or no feasible solution exists for 0 > ON. (The cost vector can similarly be parametrized and investigated.) See Bazaraa ...Jarvis, and Sherali for a complete development of these parametric analysis techniques. ( Bazaraa , Jarvis, and B-13 Sherali, 1990:278-301) Also see Ward

  20. Impact and costs of varicella prevention in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Rutala, W A; Parham, C

    1988-01-01

    Information regarding all patient and staff exposures to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was prospectively accumulated from 1/1/86 to 12/31/86 at North Carolina Memorial Hospital. During this period of time 37 sources of exposure to VZV were reported: 10 outside and 27 within the hospital. Index cases for nosocomial exposure included: 12 patients with zoster, 9 patients with varicella, two staff with varicella, three visitors with varicella, and one staff with zoster. One hundred and twenty patients received nosocomial exposures; 28 had no history of VZV infection (23 per cent), of whom 11 were serosusceptible (39 per cent). Sources of nosocomial patient exposure included: other patients (85 per cent), staff (14 per cent), and a single visitor (1 per cent). More than 300 employees received nosocomial exposure; 158 had no history of VZV infection, of whom 49 were serosusceptible (31 per cent). Only a single employee and no patients developed clinical varicella as a result of nosocomial exposure. Costs associated with VZV control during 1986 totaled $55,934: $39,658 for work furloughs, $9,800 for serologies, $4,293 for patient isolation, $155 for varicella-zoster immune globulin, and $2,028 for infection control personnel time. These costs should be considered as part of any benefit-cost analysis of varicella immunization of health care personnel. PMID:3337300

  1. Green procurement of buildings: estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on environmental impact reduction and life-cycle cost estimations in building procurement. The aim for the work presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of whether costs and environmental impact of a building can be integrated in a, from the users perspective, practical model applied for tender evaluation. The model should also be able to use as a base of evaluating different solutions in the design phase. Specifically this means to: Increase knowledg...

  2. Discussion on construction project cost control%谈建筑工程项目成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾振疆

    2012-01-01

    结合成本控制的概念,阐述了建筑工程项目成本控制的意义、方法及原则,针对目前建筑工程项目成本控制存在的弊端进行了分析,并探讨了加强成本控制的措施,指出应通过优化设计方案,确立成本控制原则,利用技术和经济措施控制项目成本。%Combining with the concept of cost control, this paper elaborated the cost control significance, methods and principles of construction project, analyzed the existed problems of cost control according to present construction project, and discussed the measures to strengthen cost control, pointed out that should through optimizing the design plan, established the cost control principle, using technical and economic meas ures to control project cost.

  3. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues,

  4. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues, rel

  5. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Razzouk

    Full Text Available Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce.To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated.147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs.Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially

  6. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    to potential adverse impacts, especially related to the water-borne emission of pollutants, which need to be avoided. This requires first of all an estimation of their magnitude, and so the goal of this PhD is to provide an assessment of potential environmental impacts related to C&DW utilisation. C...... their ubiquitous environmental presence. Several methods may be used to investigate leaching from granular C&DW, one of which is percolation tests. Compared to down-flow lysimeters with uncrushed C&DW, this study found that the use of standard up-flow columns, with materials below 4mm in particle size, may...... case applies in situations characterised by high infiltration rates, such as unpaved roads, cracked asphalt cover or heavy rain events. By using holistic tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) a general evaluation of the environmental consequences of C&DW utilisation system was provided. Although...

  7. 铁路施工项目的成本控制%Cost Control of Railway Project Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彩霞; 马莹; 槐菁

    2011-01-01

    成本控制是一项贯穿于铁路施工全过程的复杂工作,涉及各部门、各环节及人、材、物等各要素.介绍了铁路施工工程成本控制的途径和措施,从人工费、材料费、施工机械费等直接成本以及间接成本方面对铁路施工项目的成本控制进行了总结.%The measures and ways for controlling the construction cost of railway engineering are introduced herein, and the experiences on cost control are summarized from the perspectives of direct costs of labors, materials and machineries and other indirect costs.

  8. CARBON EMISSIONS CAPS AND THE IMPACT OF A RADICAL CHANGE IN NUCLEAR ELECTRICITY COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Leibowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM and constrain the value of information (VOI on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF, an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.

  9. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a... advising the public of its intent to prepare an EIS evaluating potential environmental impacts associated...: Cancellation of Pan-STARRS EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969,...

  10. Impact of cardiac telemetry on patient safety and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Evan M; Klugman, Robert A; Luckmann, Roger; Fairchild, David G; Abookire, Susan A

    2013-06-01

    With the impetus for healthcare reform and the imperative for healthcare organizations to improve efficiency and reduce waste, it is valuable to examine high-volume procedures and practices in order to identify potential overuse. At the same time, organizations must ensure that improved efficiency does not inadvertently reduce patient safety. We undertook a multicenter analysis of the use of adult cardiac telemetry outside of the intensive care unit or step-down units at 4 teaching hospitals to determine the percentage of monitoring days that were not justified by an accepted indication and the monetary costs associated with these nonindicated days. We also assessed the safety of eliminating monitoring on days when it was not justified by looking at the incidence of arrhythmias. We found that in 35% of telemetry days, telemetry use was not supported by an accepted set of clinical indications. The incidence of arrhythmias on nonindicated days was low (3.1 per 100 days of monitoring per nonindicated day),and the arrhythmias detected were clinically insignificant. Eliminating monitoring on nonindicated days could save a minimum of $53 per patient per day. The average 400-bed hospital with a conservative estimate of 5000 nonindicated patientdays per year could save $250,000 per year. Reducing the use of telemetry on nonindicated days may provide an opportunity for institutions to safely reduce cost as well as staff time and effort, while maintaining and potentially increasing patient safety.

  11. The impact of residential demand response on the costs of a fossil-free system reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Balyk, Olexandr; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a better understanding of the system value of residential demand response, we study the potential impact of flexible demand on the costs of system reserves in a fossil-free electricity supply. Comparing these costs with traditional means of regulation our analysis aims...... to contribute to determining the least-cost options for regulation in a fossil-free power system. We extend an existing energy system model with demand response and reserve modelling and analyse the impact for the case of Denmark in 2035 to reflect a system based on renewable resources for electricity...

  12. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidis, Ioannis; Dekker, Rommert; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues, related to transportation emissions, on the transport geography of a region. Specifically we provide a tool that addresses: (i) supply chain network design, including port of entry and transportation ...

  13. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  14. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  15. Future Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewables Used to Meet U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This brochure provides a brief overview of the report titled 'A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards.' The report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. The analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  16. The cost utility and budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for acute diarrhea in children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn Anne; Zerwes, Ute

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. A cost utility model has been adapted to the context of Thailand to evaluate racecadotril plus oral rehydration solution (R+ORS) versus oral rehydration solution (ORS) alone for acute diarrhea in children costs and effects (quality-adjusted life years) over a 6-day time horizon from a public health care payer's perspective in Thailand. Deterministic sensitivity analysis and budget impact analysis have been undertaken. According to the cost utility model, the intervention (R+ORS) is less costly and more effective than the comparator (ORS) for the base case with a dominant incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -2,481,390฿ for the intervention. According to the budget impact analysis (assuming an increase of 5% market share for R+ORS over 5 years), the year-on-year reduction for diarrhea as a percentage of the total health care expenditure is -0.0027%, resulting in potential net cost savings of -35,632,482฿ over 5 years. Subject to the assumptions and limitations of the models, adjuvant racecadotril versus ORS alone is potentially cost-effective for children in Thailand and uptake could translate into savings for the Thailand public health care system.

  17. Constructing quality-adjusted price indices from revenue and cost data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aquino DeSouza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to construct quality adjusted price indices without direct observation of product-level data (prices, quantities and characteristics. The technique used here allows for a welfare based measurement of price change using commonly available (at least for the manufacturing sector plant-level data on revenue and cost. However, one has to be explicit about the evolution of the outside good quality and the structure of demand and supply. Using data on the Colombian beer industry and combining the methodologies originally proposed by Katayama, Lu and Tybout (2003, DeSouza (2006a and Trajtenberg (1990 I am able to uncover the demand parameters and build welfare-based price indices for the 1977-1990 period.Este artigo demonstra como construir um índice de preços ajustados pela qualidade sem a observação direta de dados ao nível de produto (preços, quantidades e características. A técnica aplicada no artigo permite medir a inflação dos preços com base na variação intertemporal de bem-estar através do uso de dados de receita e despesa comumente disponíveis (pelo menos para o setor industrial ao nível de empresas. No entanto, tal técnica exige a imposição de hipóteses sobre a evolução da qualidade do bem externo assim como a estrutura da demanda e da oferta. Com dados sobre a indústria colombiana de cerveja e combinando metodologias originalmente desenvolvidas por Katayama, Lu e Tybout (2003, DeSouza (2006a e Trajtenberg (1990 estimam-se os parâmetros da demanda e constroem-se índices de preços para o período de 1977 a 1990 a partir da mensuração do bem-estar dos consumidores.

  18. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  19. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Frohn, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb) emissions are assessed...... using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient) are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss...... in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed....

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  1. Cost Reduction Ability by Electricity Tariff Selection for Construction Facilities Located in Non-price Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasheva Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the art in the tariff type selection in the retail and the wholesale electricity market for construction or reconstruction facilities located at Far East are considered. As a management solution the electricity tariff’s selection for enterprises at stage of construction or reconstruction is accented.

  2. A cost-benefit analysis of tracking and tracing systems in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, H.; Akintoye, A.

    2001-01-01

    A major problem in road construction is the lack of timely and accurate information about the location and productivity of equipment. As a result, the productivity rate of certain types of construction equipment is low and equipment has to be hired in from third parties. Lack of co-ordination betwee

  3. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  4. 建设项目施工阶段成本控制的重点和措施%Priorities and Measures for the Cost Control in Construction Phase of Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕彬

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the major problems of cost control in present construction project are analyzed. According to the principles of cost control in the construction project,cost control in construction phase of construction project is mainly discussed.%分析目前建设项目成本控制存在的主要问题,依据建设项目成本控制的原则,重点探讨建设工程施工阶段的成本控制。

  5. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actual production experience of the merchandise in question, measuring production on the basis of units... production costs to be items such as depreciation of equipment and plant, labor costs, insurance, rent and... production. 351.407 Section 351.407 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Ancillary costs such as delivery and installation; plus (3) The net present value of the estimated future... realistic current market conditions; and (3) Based on the expected useful life of the asset in mass... for its entire expected useful life, when calculating the purchase cost, the recipient must...

  7. Study of the Environmental Impact of Constructing Dams on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Babazadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, water is considered as one of the pivotal and fundamental bases for the development of communities in different countries. The development of water resources by constructing big and small dams in accordance with their situation and circumstances has been caused enormous environmental changes. Mutual impacts of dams on the environment can be assessed at two aspects of positive and negative effects. The dam as a barrier on the river creates different physical and chemical features in the place, shoal and mirage of the dam. despite various advantages which this function has had on the limitation of exploitation, such as decreasing the abundance and intensity of floodwaters and the accessibility to water in arid or drought years, but constructing such structures can strike the balance of natural systems and it would leave many short term and long term environmental impacts on that region or other regions which are affected by constructing dams. These impacts may have some influence on the condition and behavior of aerology, biology and hygienic, culture, monuments etc. and seriously will cause to change it . As a result, regarding the importance of positive effects of constructing dams, in order to stable development their negative environmental impacts should be minimized. In the present paper, the environmental impact of constructing dams on the environment has been assessed from different aspects .

  8. Cost Management Practices and Strategic Perspectives: a study in the construction industry of the State of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Lauro Brito de; Machado, Esmael Almeida; Panhoca, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost management practices of building industry companies of Paraná that follow the typology of Porter´s strategies. The sample comprises member companies of the Association of Construction Industries of the State of Paraná (PR-SINDUSCON) operating in the segment of residential buildings. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to 317 SINDUSCON members. 69 were returned and 54 used for our research. Exploratory Factorial Analysis ...

  9. Introduction to Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Momentum behind zero energy building design and construction is increasing, presenting a tremendous opportunity for advancing energy performance in the commercial building industry. At the same time, there is a lingering perception that zero energy buildings must be cost prohibitive or limited to showcase projects. Fortunately, an increasing number of projects are demonstrating that high performance can be achieved within typical budgets. This factsheet highlights replicable, recommended strategies for achieving high performance on a budget, based on experiences from past projects.

  10. Paraboloidal solar cooker: simple construction and low cost; Fogao solar paraboloide: construcao simples e de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.M. dos; Venanzi, D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Almeida, S.J. de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    1984-12-31

    In this paper was developed four methods to constructions of solar cooker, relatively easy to make and low in cost. This parabolic concentrating cooker is basically a solar furnace. The thermal of the prototype have been studied and comparative study with the gas cooker is also included. The materials used for cooker and reflector surfaces have been discussed. (author). 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. On the Construction Cost Risk Management%浅谈建设工程造价风险管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晔

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses and analyzes the issues about settlement over budget estimates in current construction cost and puts forward the carresponding control measures for reference.%本文对当前建设工程造价中普遍存在结算超概算问题进行探讨分析,并就相关问题给出了相应的控制措施,仅供参考.

  12. Damage detection based on mode shapes of a girder bridge constructed from responses of a moving vehicle under impact excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Au, Francis T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The vibration mode shapes are often used to identify damage of bridges because the mode shapes are not only important modal properties but also sensitive to damage. However, the key issue is how to conveniently obtain the mode shapes of a bridge in service. Traditional methods invariably require installation of instruments on the bridge for collection of dynamic responses for constructing mode shapes, which are both costly and inconvenient. Therefore a method is developed to construct the mode shapes of simply supported bridges based on Hilbert Transform using only vehicle acceleration response for identification of the location of damage. Firstly, an algorithm is devised to construct the mode shapes by using the dynamic responses extracted from a moving vehicle under impact excitation. Then, based on these intermediate results, the coordinate modal assurance criterion in conjunction with suitable wavelets is used to identify the location of damage. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method uses only the information from the moving vehicle. Moreover, additional impact excitation on the vehicle helps to excite the bridge. This helps to improve the accuracy by overcoming the adverse effects of measurement noise and road surface roughness, which leads to high accuracy of damage detection. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, some numerical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of measurement noise, road surface roughness and multiple locations of damage on the accuracy of results.

  13. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost automated (68)Gallium-labeling synthesis unit for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Pedram; Szretter, Alicia; Rushford, Laura E; Stevens, Maria; Collier, Lee; Sore, Judit; Hooker, Jacob; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation. Such inexpensive systems could help increase use around the globe and in the US in particular by removing one of the barriers to greater widespread availability. The developed automated synthesis unit reproducibly synthesized (68)Ga-DOTATOC with average yield of 71 ± 8% and a radiochemical purity ≥ 95% in a synthesis time of 25 ± 1 minutes. Automated product yields are comparable to that of manual synthesis. We demonstrate in-house construction and use of a low-cost automated synthesis unit for labeling of DOTATOC and similar peptides with (68)Gallium.

  14. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. METHODS: Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. FINDINGS: (1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. INTERPRETATION: Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  15. Utilization of BIM for automation of quantity takeoffs and cost estimation in transport infrastructure construction projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitásek, Stanislav; Matějka, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with problematic parts of automated processing of quantity takeoff (QTO) from data generated in BIM model. It focuses on models of road constructions, and uses volumes and dimensions of excavation work to create an estimate of construction costs. The article uses a case study and explorative methods to discuss possibilities and problems of data transfer from a model to a price system of construction production when such transfer is used for price estimates of construction works. Current QTOs and price tenders are made with 2D documents. This process is becoming obsolete because more modern tools can be used. The BIM phenomenon enables partial automation in processing volumes and dimensions of construction units and matching the data to units in a given price scheme. Therefore price of construction can be estimated and structured without lengthy and often imprecise manual calculations. The use of BIM for QTO is highly dependent on local market budgeting systems, therefore proper push/pull strategy is required. It also requires proper requirements specification, compatible pricing database and software.

  16. 议公路施工中的成本管理%On costs management of road construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建通

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis of the factors which influence the engineering costs in the costs management of the road programs,the paper points out the improvement of the costs management from the resource distribution,the quality and speed which affect the engineering costs,and provides the factual reference for the costs management in the road construction,so as to undertake the better costs management and to improve the program benefits.%通过对公路项目施工成本管理中影响工程成本因素的分析,提出了从影响工程成本的资源调配、质量、进度等方面加强成本管理,为公路施工的成本管理工作提供具体的思路,以图更好地进行成本管理,提高项目效益。

  17. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  18. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

  19. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the National School-Based Sexuality Education Programme in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…

  20. Social risk factors in Spanish youth and their impact on self-concept construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Moreno, Esteban; Barrón López de Roda, Ana

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a psychosocial framework about the relationship among youth, work, and identity construction. The aims of this research were twofold. The first one was to analyze the working conditions of Spanish youth and their impact on individuals' biographies. The second one was to examine the effect of labor-related variables on construction / change of identity elements in Spanish youth. For this purpose, two research techniques were used: the Delphi method (103 expert...

  1. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  2. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS). This report evaluates the effects of renewable electricity used to meet aggregate RPS demand growth prospectively, over the period 2015-2050, under both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. Relying on a well-vetted suite of methods, the report quantifies: the costs to the electric system and retail electricity price impacts; the potential societal benefits associated with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution emissions, and water use; workforce requirements and economic development effects; and consumer savings associated with reduced natural gas prices. The study quantifies these effects in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, at both national and regional levels, and characterizes key uncertainties. The two prior studies in the series have focused, instead, on the historical costs and on the historical benefits and impacts of state RPS policies.

  3. Impacts of energy consumption and emissions on the trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we apply a car-following model, fuel consumption model, emission model and electricity consumption model to explore the influences of energy consumption and emissions on each commuter's trip costs without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The numerical results show that the energy consumption and emissions have significant impacts on each commuter's trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The fuel cost and emission cost prominently enhance each commuter's trip cost and the trip cost increases with the number of vehicles, which shows that considering the fuel cost and emission cost in the trip cost will destroy the equilibrium state. However, the electricity cost slightly enhances each commuter's trip cost, but the trip cost is still approximately a constant, which indicates that considering the electricity cost in the trip cost does not destroy the equilibrium state.

  4. Analysis on The Importance of Cost Control in The Construction Project%浅谈建设项目全过程造价控制的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春荣

    2012-01-01

    工程建设过程中造价控制是工程建设控制的目标之一,工程造价的高低直接反映了建设项目的管理水平、投资效益和工程质量。在建设工程中,工程造价是建设工程中系统管理工作的核心,降低工程造价提高经济效益是控制工程造价的目的。本文叙述了工程建设从投资决策、设计、招投标、施工及竣工验收各阶段工程造价的控制方法。%Cost control, one of the goals in controlling the construction, directly shows the management level, investment benefits and construction quality by whose level. As the core of the construction system management, the cost impacts the project profit. Cutting down the cost is the way to make a better profit. This article will give us a description about the methods of cost control in every steps of a construction, including investment decision, designing, inviting and submitting tenders, under construction, and acceptance check.

  5. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost- effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Allard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost- effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS, and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI. Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF. Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588

  6. The impact of intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital: A case of French firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Boujelbene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of intellectual capital disclosure (IC on cost of Equity capital. The empirical research is based on companies listed in the French SBF 120 stock market index. The findings confirm our hypotheses that stipulate the existence of a significant and negative association between intellectual capital disclosure with its two components (human capital, structural and the cost of equity. However, the negative impact of the relational capital disclosure is not validated. The results in this paper are of considerable importance to both policy makers and firms. In fact, the understanding of the impact of Intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital helps policy makers in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of disclosure. Moreover, with regard to managers of firms, the results show the benefit of enhanced IC disclosure regarding the reduction in their cost of capital. This study is one of the very first to provide empirical evidence of the association between Cost of equity capital and the level of disclosure in the three individual intellectual capital categories (human; structural and relational capital.

  7. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Rameezdeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS policies.

  8. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies. PMID:28085067

  9. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-11

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.

  10. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  11. A review of deepwater pipeline construction in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico-Contracts, cost, and installation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is the largest and most transparent system in the world. A review of deepwater projects in the region provides insight into construction cost and installation methods and the evolution of contract strategies. Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems, and three dozen deepwater pipeline installations from 1980-2014 are described based on OTC/SPE industry publications and press release data. Export lines and infield flowlines are equally represented and many projects used a combination of J-lay, S-lay and reel methods with rigid steel, flexible line, and pipe-in-pipe systems. The average 2014 inflation-adjusted cost for pipeline projects based on OTC/SPE publications was 2.76 million/mi and ranged from 520 000/mi to 12.94 million/mi. High cost pipelines tend to be short segments or specialized pipeline. Excluding the two cost endpoints, the majority of projects ranged from 1 to 6 million/mi. The average inflation-adjusted cost to install deepwater pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico based on available public data is estimated at 3.1 million/mi.

  12. A Review of Deepwater Pipeline Construction in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico-Contracts, Cost, and Installation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark J. Kaiser

    2016-01-01

    The offshore pipeline network in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is the largest and most transparent system in the world. A review of deepwater projects in the region provides insight into construction cost and installation methods and the evolution of contract strategies. Pipeline projects are identified as export systems, infield flowline systems, and combined export and infield systems, and three dozen deepwater pipeline installations from 1980–2014 are described based on Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) and Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) industry publications and press release data. Export lines and infield flowlines are equally represented and many projects used a combination of J-lay, S-lay and reel methods with rigid steel, flexible line, and pipe-in-pipe systems. The average 2014 inflation-adjusted cost for pipeline projects based on OTC/SPE publications was$2.76 million/mi and ranged from$520 000/mi to$12.94 million/mi. High cost pipelines tend to be short segments or specialized pipeline. Excluding the two cost endpoints, the majority of projects ranged from $1 to $6 million/mi. The average inflation-adjusted cost to install deepwater pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico based on available public data is estimated at $3.1 million/mi.

  13. Introduction to the Application of the Project Cost Management in Construction Project Cost%浅谈项目成本管理在建筑工程造价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德荣

    2014-01-01

    通过对项目成本管理在建筑工程造价中的应用问题进行分析,提出了加强建筑工程造价中项目成本管理的应用的策略,以期不断提高建筑工程造价的水平,促进建筑工程发展。%The application of project cost management in construction cost of the analysis, it proposes strengthening the construction cost of the project cost management strategies applied in order to constantly improve the level of construction cost, and promote the development of construction projects.

  14. The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channing Arndt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economy-wide model. Our results indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest to 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (relative to a historical baseline. Damages double under more extreme projections. Our findings suggest that there are net benefits from selected pre-emptive actions though careful consideration of opportunity costs is required.

  15. Analysis of the cost impact of the new technologies in e-tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DRUMEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of new technologies on retail is studied in terms of costs. Starting from the idea that reducing costs should have a significant effect of the new technologies in retail, it is investigated the possibility that it actually constitutes the basis of a new facette of the cost leadership generic strategy. Exploratory research tracks some automation effects on transaction costs and labour costs in retail. General business models in the field are analysed, with a focus on some concrete ways of implementation in retail, particularly as e-tail. In the background we grasp and discuss the aspects of the financial flows related to trade. Even when those issues may prevail, one cannot elude discussing the cultural and ethical standards associated to the trade new features induced by e-tail and the new technologies.

  16. Impact on cost accuracy and profitability from implementing product configuration system – A case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the impacts from implementing a product configuration system (PCS) on company profitability and improved cost estimations in the sales phase. Companies that have implemented PCSs have achieved substantial benefits in terms of being more in control of their product...... assortment, making the right decisions in the sales phase and increased sales of optimal products. Those benefits should have direct impact on improved profitability in terms of increased contribution ratios and more accurate cost estimations used to determine the price in the budgetary quotations....... As the literature describes, there are various benefits from implementing a PCS, however the effects on the company’s profitability have not been discussed in details. This study analyzes the impact from implementing a PCS on the accuracy of calculations in the quotations and the impact on the relative contribution...

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  18. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  19. Dynamic Analysis of the Macroeconomic Variables Influence on Construction Cost%宏观经济变量对工程造价影响的动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵田; 查京民

    2012-01-01

    通过引入脉冲响应函数和方差分解方法,应用向量自回归模型分析了宏观经济变量对于建筑工程造价的动态冲击和影响,证明了宏观经济因素与建筑工程造价间存在长期均衡关系,但不同因素影响各异,且存在一定的时滞效应.%By introducing the impulse response function and the variance decomposition,the vector auto regression model was applied to the analyze the dynamic impact and influence of macroeconomic variables on construction cost. Hie empirical results show that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between the macroeconomic variables and construction cost,but the impacts of different factors are diverse with a time - lag effect.

  20. Optimize the Designing Plan to Cut the Cost of Construction%优化设计方案 降低施工成本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜超

    2012-01-01

    To cut the cost of construction so as to raise economic benefits, is a problem that every construction enterprise should solve. Construction cost is the total sum of all the producing fees of a engineering project during the construction process, including labor cost, material cost and mechanical cost etc. So there are many ways to cut the cost of construction. The paper showed us how to use the designing plan optimizing to cut the cost of construction from the headstream of the cost control by a detail engineering project.%降低施工成本,提高经济效益,是每一个施工企业必须考虑的问题。施工成本是指在建设工程项目的施工过程中所发生的全部生产费用的总和,包括人工费,材料费,机械使用费等等。因此,降低施工成本的途径和方法是多方面的。本文列举一个具体的工程项目,通过优化设计方案,从成本控制的源头开始降低施工成本,从而提高经济效益。

  1. Monitoring systems and their effectiveness for project cost control in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Jibouri, Saad H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a research to investigate the effectiveness of some commonly used monitoring systems, in detecting deviations from the planned cost and performance. The monitoring systems used in this work are: Leading parameter technique Variances method Activity based ratios technique Th

  2. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Influenceon theProcessof Construction Dueto Changeof Labor Cost%施工中人工成本的变化对进度的影响数学建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳君

    2015-01-01

    Construction progress is one of the important lifelines for the construction enterprises to achieve maximum bene⁃fit, speeding up the construction process can help enterprises to shorten the construction time, reduce the construction cost and maximize profits. According to the current situation of changes occur in labor cost in construction process, we can see that the change of labor cost has a direct impact on its progress. Through analysis about the Mathematical Model⁃ing of influence on the process of construction due to change of labor cost on the basis of related research, and comparing with the empirical analysis of the construction industry in Anhui province from 2000 to 2011,we come to a conclusion that: the rise of labor cost can slow down the pace of construction, while the speeding up of the pace of construction may reduce the labor cost in the construction process.%施工进度是整个施工企业实现利益最大化的重要生命线之一,加快施工进程可以帮助施工企业缩短施工时间、降低施工成本以及实现利润最大化。现阶段施工中人工成本变化的现状表明,施工中人工成本的变化对其进度有直接影响。通过依据相关研究构建出的人工成本的变化对进度的影响数学建模和对2000-2011年安徽省建筑行业的实证分析发现:施工中人工成本的上扬可以降低施工进程,施工进程的加快可以降低施工过程中的人工成本。

  4. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US$ ranged between $0.85 billion and $1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from $50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to $300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were $100 and $500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

  5. The impact of first and second language exposure on learning second language constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We study how the learning of argument structure constructions in a second language (L2) is affected by two basic input properties often discussed in literature – the amount of input and the time of L2 onset. To isolate the impact of the two factors on learning, we use a computational model that

  6. The impact of first and second language exposure on learning second language constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We study how the learning of argument structure constructions in a second language (L2) is affected by two basic input properties often discussed in literature – the amount of input and the time of L2 onset. To isolate the impact of the two factors on learning, we use a computational model that simu

  7. 电网造价管理改进措施浅析%Primary analysis of the improvement measures in management of power grid construction cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒兰

    2011-01-01

    According to the present native power project cost characteristic and ~;rid construction cost -controlling condition, the paper presents the controlling measure of the management of power grid construction cost in order to improving the investment benefit if the power grid construction.%根据研究当前国内电力工程造价的特点和电网建设工程全过程造价控制现状,分析并提出电网建设全过程造价管理的控制措施,提高电网建设的投资效益性。

  8. Systematic impact of institutional pressures on safety climate in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Dong, Shuang; Rose, Timothy; Li, Heng; Yin, Qin; Cao, Dongping

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores how three types of institutional pressure (i.e., coercive, mimetic and normative pressures) systematically impact on the safety climate of construction projects. These impacts are empirically tested by survey data collected from 186 questionnaires of construction companies operating in Shanghai, China. The results, obtained by partial least squares analysis, show that organizational management commitment to safety and employee involvement is positively related to all three institutional pressures, while the perception of responsibility for safety and health is significantly influenced by coercive and mimetic pressure. However, coercive and normative pressures have no significant effect on the applicability of safety rules and work practices, revealing the importance of external organizational pressures in improving project safety climate from a systematic view. The findings also provide insights into the use of institutional forces to facilitate the improvement of safety climate in the construction industry.

  9. Long-term impact of war on healthcare costs: an eight-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sabes-Figuera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare. METHOD: War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model. RESULTS: 3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD had costs that were 63% higher (p = 0.005 than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p = 0.013. In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027 and 63% higher for mood disorders (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature.

  10. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  11. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution...

  12. Impact of Formulas, Language and Instruction on Student Performance on Cost-Volume-Profit Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benny G.; Sargent, Carol Springer

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how three factors impacted performance on cost-volume-profit homework problems: language, formula use, and instruction. Students enrolled in Introduction to Financial Accounting (the first principles of accounting course) and Managerial Accounting (the second principles of accounting course) from eight different US colleges…

  13. Cost and Service Impacts of Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders in Ten States: "Responses to Angry Youth."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    Status offenders are minors brought to the attention of courts because they are runaways, truants, or are considered ungovernable or incorrigible. This report assesses the costs and service impacts of deinstitutionalization of status offenders. The findings are based on case studies in 10 states. Included in this report are sections on the state…

  14. WP/082 The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn; Thurlow, James

    Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest...

  15. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    Designed to identify and quantify the potential impacts of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) on weapon system personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC), this study postulated a typical close-air-support (CAS) mission avionics suite to serve as a basis for comparing present day and DAIS configuration specifications. The purpose…

  16. Harvesting costs and environmental impacts associated with skyline yarding shelterwood harvests and thinning in Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Baumgras; C. B. LeDoux; J. R. Sherar

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for moderating the visual impact and soil disturbance associated with timber harvesting on steep-slope hardwood sites, thinning and shelterwood harvests were conducted with a skyline yarding system. Operations were monitored to document harvesting production, residual stand damage, soil disturbance, and visual quality. Yarding costs for...

  17. Construction and validation of a low-cost surgical trainer based on iPhone technology for training laparoscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Escamirosa, Fernando; Ordorica Flores, Ricardo; Minor Martínez, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we describe the construction and validation of a laparoscopic trainer using an iPhone 5 and a plastic document holder case. The abdominal cavity was simulated with a clear plastic document holder case. On 1 side of the case, 2 holes for entry of laparoscopic instruments were drilled. We added a window to place the camera of the iPhone, which works as our camera of the trainer. Twenty residents carried out 4 tasks using the iPhone Trainer and a physical laparoscopic trainer. The time of all tasks were analyzed with a simple paired t test. The construction of the trainer took 1 hour, with a cost of

  18. Impact of product configuration systems on product profitability and costing accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the impact of implementing a product configuration system (PCS) on the increased accuracy of the cost calculations and the increased profitability of the products. Companies that have implemented PCSs have achieved substantial benefits in terms of being more...... in control of their product assortment, making the right decisions in the sales phase and increasing sales of optimal products. These benefits should have an impact on the company's ability to make more accurate cost estimations in the sales phase, which can positively affect the products’ profitability....... However, previous studies have not addressed this relationship to a great extent. For that reason, a configure-to-order (CTO) manufacturing company was analyzed. A longitudinal field study was performed in which the accuracy of the cost calculations and the products’ profitability were analyzed before...

  19. Bridging the Gap in Transport Project Evaluation: Accounting for the Inaccuracies in Demand Forecasts and Construction Costs Estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    For decades researchers have claimed that demand forecasts and construction costs estimations are assigned with large degrees of uncertainty, commonly referred to as Optimism Bias. A severe consequence is that ex-ante socio-economic evaluation of infrastructure projects becomes inaccurate and can...... lead to unsatisfactory investment decisions. Thus there is a need for better risk assessment and decision support, which is addressed by the recently developed UNITE-DSS model. It is argued that this simulation-based model can offer decision makers new and better ways to deal with risk assessment....

  20. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  1. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  2. Health Insurance Coverage and Its Impact on Medical Cost: Observations from the Floating Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Kang, Bowei; Liu, Yawen; Li, Yichong; Shi, Guoqing; Shen, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population. Methods A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost. Results 82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost. Conclusion For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost. PMID:25386914

  3. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  4. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  5. [Evolution of reimbursement of high-cost anticancer drugs: Financial impact within a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Amandine; Fargier, Emilie; Cerruti, Ariane; Dubromel, Amélie; Vantard, Nicolas; Ranchon, Florence; Schwiertz, Vérane; Salles, Gilles; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Thomas, Luc; Bérard, Frédéric; Nancey, Stéphane; Freyer, Gilles; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Rioufol, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    In the context of health expenses control, reimbursement of high-cost medicines with a 'minor' or 'nonexistent' improvement in actual health benefit evaluated by the Haute Autorité de santé is revised by the decree of March 24, 2016 related to the procedure and terms of registration of high-cost pharmaceutical drugs. This study aims to set up the economic impact of this measure. A six months retrospective study was conducted within a French university hospital from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. For each injectable high-cost anticancer drug prescribed to a patient with cancer, the therapeutic indication, its status in relation to the marketing authorization and the associated improvement in actual health benefit were examined. The total costs of these treatments, the cost per type of indication and, in the case of marketing authorization indications, the cost per improvement in actual health benefit were evaluated considering that all drugs affected by the decree would be struck off. Over six months, 4416 high-cost injectable anticancer drugs were prescribed for a total cost of 4.2 million euros. The costs of drugs with a minor or nonexistent improvement in actual benefit and which comparator is not onerous amount 557,564 euros. The reform of modalities of inscription on the list of onerous drugs represents a significant additional cost for health institutions (1.1 million euros for our hospital) and raises the question of the accessibility to these treatments for cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost structures and life cycle impacts of algal biomass and biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Katrina Lea

    2011-12-01

    Development and extraction of energy sources, energy production and energy use have huge economic, environmental and geopolitical impacts. Increasing energy demands in tandem with reductions in fossil fuel production has led to significant investments in research into alternative forms of energy. One that is promising but yet not commercially established is the production of biofuel from algae. This research quantitatively assessed the potential of algae biofuel production by examining its cost and environmental impacts. First, two models developed by the RAND corporation were employed to assess Cost Growth defined as the ratio of actual costs to estimated costs, and Plant Performance defined as the ratio of actual production levels to design performance, of three algal biofuel production technologies. The three algal biofuel production technologies examined to open raceway ponds (ORPs), photobioreactors (PBRs), and a system that couples PBRs to ORPs (PBR-ORPs). Though these analyses lack precision due to uncertainty, the results highlight the risks associated with implementing algal biofuel systems, as all scenarios examined were predicted to have Cost Growth, ranging from 1.2 to 1.8, and Plant Performance was projected as less than 50% of design performance for all cases. Second, the Framework the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Feedstocks (FEBEF) was used to assess the cost and environmental impacts of biodiesel produced from three algal production technologies. When these results were compared with ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soybeans, biodiesel from algae produced from the different technologies were estimated to be more expensive, suffered from low energy gains, and did not result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. To identify likely routes to making algal biofuels more competitive, a third study was undertaken. In this case, FEBEF was employed to examine pinch-points (defined as the most costly, energy consuming, greenhouse gas producing processes), in

  7. IMPACT OF LOW-COST AIR TRAVEL ON TOURISM ECONOMY IN ZADAR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to encompassingly show what impact low-cost airline companies have on the tourism business in Zadar County. The high cost of travel for tourists who choose to travel by airplane in the past two decades has been significantely lowered by low-cost airline companies such as Ryanair, Germanwings, Easyjet and others. Low-cost flights have ensured an increase in the number of flights, thus increasing the number of tourist visits to destinations connected to those flights. Zadar County has recognized the ability of low-cost flights to have potential for the development of tourism. Low-cost airline companies have reduced the negative balance of tourism economy. This study wishes to gather information on how much low-cost airline companies affect the increase of tourist ventures to Zadar County. Considering that the increase in number of tourist arrivals is directly linked to business revenue, it will also show how much they affect the economy in Zadar County tourism.

  8. Job Satisfaction, Cost Management Knowledge, Budgetary Participation, and Their Impact on Performance (P.15-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Farahmita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the influence of the manager’s level of cost management knowledge and job satisfaction on the relation-ship between budget participation and managerial performance. This research uses theoretical framework of individual performance who claims that individual performance is affected by three dimensions of performance which interact each other, i.e. dimensions of opportunity (participatory budget, dimensions of capacity (cost management knowledge and the dimensions of willingness (job satisfaction. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate regression models that included interaction of three variables (3-way interaction between budgetary participation, cost management knowledge and job satisfaction to test their effects on managerial performance. Research shows that budget participation which is given to managers with higher cost management knowledge and higher job satisfaction, had no impact to their managerial performance. Managerial performance variation can be explained by two dimensions. Based on our tests, the findings is consistent that budget participation has positive effect to managerial performance. Further test shows that managerial performance will increase when budget participation combined with high level of cost management knowledge or when budget participation combined with high job satisfaction (2 way interaction. The research also found that the combination of cost management knowledge with high job satis-faction without the opportunity to participate in the budgeting process will actually degrade the managerial performance. Keywords: budget participation, cost management knowledge job satisfaction, managerial performance

  9. Research on Management Strategies of Construction Cost%工程造价全过程管理策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少杰

    2013-01-01

    Construction cost run through the entire construction course. In order to raise business economic benefits, more attention must be paid to cost controlling and organization. This paper elaborates the definition and peculiarity of construction cost, analyzes the existing problems, brings forward to the management policies of construction cost.%  工程造价管理贯穿于工程建设决策阶段到竣工验收阶段的全过程,必须在组织和控制措施上给予高度的重视,以达到提高企业经济效益的目的。文章阐述了工程造价管理的定义及特点,分析了工程造价管理存在的问题,提出了做好工程造价管理的策略。

  10. Impact and cost-effectiveness of culture for diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected Brazilian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently represents the closest "gold standard" for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB, but operational data are scant on the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB culture for human immunodeficiency (HIV- infected individuals in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded costs, laboratory results, and dates of initiating TB therapy in a centralized TB culture program for HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, constructing a decision-analysis model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of TB culture from the perspective of a public-sector TB control program. Of 217 TB suspects presenting between January 2006 and March 2008, 33 (15% had culture-confirmed active tuberculosis; 23 (70% were smear-negative. Among smear-negative, culture-positive patients, 6 (26% began TB therapy before culture results were available, 11 (48% began TB therapy after culture result availability, and 6 (26% did not begin TB therapy within 180 days of presentation. The cost per negative culture was US$17.52 (solid media-$23.50 (liquid media. Per 1,000 TB suspects and compared with smear alone, TB culture with solid media would avert an estimated eight TB deaths (95% simulation interval [SI]: 4, 15 and 37 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs (95% SI: 13, 76, at a cost of $36 (95% SI: $25, $50 per TB suspect or $962 (95% SI: $469, $2642 per DALY averted. Replacing solid media with automated liquid culture would avert one further death (95% SI: -1, 4 and eight DALYs (95% SI: -4, 23 at $2751 per DALY (95% SI: $680, dominated. The cost-effectiveness of TB culture was more sensitive to characteristics of the existing TB diagnostic system than to the accuracy or cost of TB culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TB culture is potentially effective and cost-effective for HIV-positive patients in resource-constrained settings. Reliable transmission of culture results to patients and integration

  11. Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Joëlle; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Mihaylova, Borislava; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Balyeku, Andrew; Sermé, Luc; Sanou, Armande K; Sombié, Benjamin S; Tiono, Alfred B; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Kabarungi, Vanessa; Falade, Catherine O; Kyaligonza, Josephine; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; Petzold, Max; Singlovic, Jan; Gomes, Melba

    2016-12-15

     Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness.  Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs.  Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda.  Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and

  12. Firm Fixed Price and Cost Plus Fixed Fee Construction Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    relationships (S. G. Arditi 2005). The attainment of feedback on the benefits and risks experienced by both the government and contractors in the...impact of key performance indicators on measuring project success (A. A. Chan 2004, A. P. Chan 2002, A. A. Chan 2004, A. P. Chan 2004, S. G. Arditi ... Arditi 2005). In order to determine the most appropriate measures of performance for Iraq and Afghanistan, it may be beneficial to determine what

  13. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were $757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of $9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

  14. Identification of Cost Indicators with Significant Economic Impact on the Total Treatment Costs of Chronic Heart Failure Patients - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahmed S; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Schreier, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Increasing treatment costs of HF patients affect the initiation of appropriate treatment method. Divergent approaches to measure the costs of treatment and the lack of common cost indicators impede the comparison of therapy settings. In the context of the present meta-analysis, key cost indicators from the perspective of healthcare providers are to be identified, described, analyzed and quantified. This review helps narrowing down the cost indicators, which have the most significant economic impact on the total treatment costs of HF patients. Telemedical services are to be compared to standard therapy methods. The identification process was based on several steps. For the quantitative synthesis, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. An additional set of criteria was defined for the following qualitative analysis. 5 key cost indicators were identified with significant economic impact on the treatment costs of HF patients. 95% of the reported treatment costs could be captured based on the identified cost indicators.

  15. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  16. Cost, staffing and quality impact of bedside electronic medical record (EMR) in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Hicks, Lanis; Petroski, Gregory F; Madsen, Richard W; Alexander, Greg; Galambos, Colleen; Conn, Vicki; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Zwygart-Stauffacher, Mary; Greenwald, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    There is growing political pressure for nursing homes to implement the electronic medical record (EMR) but there is little evidence of its impact on resident care. The purpose of this study was to test the unique and combined contributions of EMR at the bedside and on-site clinical consultation by gerontological expert nurses on cost, staffing, and quality of care in nursing homes. Eighteen nursing facilities in 3 states participated in a 4-group 24-month comparison: Group 1 implemented bedside EMR, used nurse consultation; Group 2 implemented bedside EMR only; Group 3 used nurse consultation only; Group 4 neither. Intervention sites (Groups 1 and 2) received substantial, partial financial support from CMS to implement EMR. Costs and staffing were measured from Medicaid cost reports, and staff retention from primary data collection; resident outcomes were measured by MDS-based quality indicators and quality measures. Total costs increased in both intervention groups that implemented technology; staffing and staff retention remained constant. Improvement trends were detected in resident outcomes of ADLs, range of motion, and high-risk pressure sores for both intervention groups but not in comparison groups. Implementation of bedside EMR is not cost neutral. There were increased total costs for all intervention facilities. These costs were not a result of increased direct care staffing or increased staff turnover. Nursing home leaders and policy makers need to be aware of on-going hardware and software costs as well as costs of continual technical support for the EMR and constant staff orientation to use the system. EMR can contribute to the quality of nursing home care and can be enhanced by on-site consultation by nurses with graduate education in nursing and expertise in gerontology. Copyright 2010 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing benefits, costs, and disparate racial impacts of confrontational proactive policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F; Nagin, Daniel S

    2017-08-29

    Effective policing in a democratic society must balance the sometime conflicting objectives of public safety and community trust. This paper uses a formal model of optimal policing to explore how society might reasonably resolve the tension between these two objectives as well as evaluate disparate racial impacts. We do so by considering the social benefits and costs of confrontational types of proactive policing, such as stop, question, and frisk. Three features of the optimum that are particularly relevant to policy choices are explored: (i) the cost of enforcement against the innocent, (ii) the baseline level of crime rate without confrontational enforcement, and (iii) differences across demographic groups in the optimal rate of enforcement.

  18. Why are there failures of systematicity? The empirical costs and benefits of inducing universal constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematicity is a property of cognition where capacity for certain cognitive abilities implies capacity for certain other (structurally related cognitive abilities. This property is thought to derive from a capacity to represent/process common structural relations between constituents of cognizable entities, however, systematicity may not always materialize in such admissible contexts. A theoretical challenge is to explain why systematicity fails to materialize in contexts that allow the realization (e.g., by induction of common structure (universal construction. We hypothesize that one cause of failure arises when the potential gain afforded by induction of common structure is overshadowed by the immediate benefit of learning the task as independent stimulus-response associations. This hypothesis was tested in an experiment that required learning two series of pair maps that involved products (universal construction, or non-products (control of varied size: the number of unique cue/target elements (three to six constituting pairs. Each series was learned in either ascending or descending order of size. Only performance on the product series was affected by order: systematicity was obtained universally in the descend group, but only on large sets in the ascend group, as revealed by the significant order x size interaction for errors in the product condition, F(3, 87 = 3.38, p < .05. Smaller maps are more easily learned without inducing the common product structure, which is more readily observable with larger maps: larger maps provide more evidence for relationships between stimulus dimensions that facilitate the discovery of the common structure. The new challenge, then, is to explain the systematic learnability of stimulus-response maps, i.e. second-order systematicity.

  19. Why Are There Failures of Systematicity? The Empirical Costs and Benefits of Inducing Universal Constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Takeda, Yuji; Sugimoto, Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Systematicity is a property of cognition where capacity for certain cognitive abilities implies capacity for certain other (structurally related) cognitive abilities. This property is thought to derive from a capacity to represent/process common structural relations between constituents of cognizable entities, however, systematicity may not always materialize in such admissible contexts. A theoretical challenge is to explain why systematicity fails to materialize in contexts that allow the realization (e.g., by induction) of common structure (universal construction). We hypothesize that one cause of failure arises when the potential gain afforded by induction of common structure is overshadowed by the immediate benefit of learning the task as independent stimulus-response associations. This hypothesis was tested in an experiment that required learning two series of pair maps that involved products (universal construction), or non-products (control) of varied size: the number of unique cue/target elements (three to six) constituting pairs. Each series was learned in either ascending or descending order of size. Only performance on the product series was affected by order: systematicity was obtained universally in the descend group, but only on large sets in the ascend group, as revealed by the significant order × size interaction for errors in the product condition, F (3, 87) = 3.38, p product structure, which is more readily observable with larger maps: larger maps provide more evidence for relationships between stimulus dimensions that facilitate the discovery of the common structure. The new challenge, then, is to explain the systematic learnability of stimulus-response maps, i.e., second-order systematicity.

  20. Exploration on the Cost Control Points in the Process of Project Construction%项目施工过程成本控制要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道勇

    2014-01-01

    我国目前施工企业提高利润的最佳途经是加快施工过程,降低能源和物质的消耗,控制项目施工成本。施工项目成本控制的根本目的是降低项目施工成本,增加项目利润。结合项目施工经验,作者探讨了项目施工成本控制原则和成本控制措施。%In China, the best way to increase profits for the current construction companies is speeding up the construction process, reducing energy and material consumption, and controlling the cost of the project construction. The fundamental purpose of the construction project cost control is to reduce the cost of construction and increase project profitability. Combined with experience in the construction project, the author discusses the principles of the construction cost project control and cost control measures.

  1. Is a Hypertext a Book or a Space? The Impact of Different Introductory Metaphors on Hypertext Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Stahl, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the impact of different metaphors on the process of hypertext construction. Two groups of 20 college students with no experience in hypertext construction received introductory explanations on the text format "hypertext" based on either a book or a space metaphor. Then they had to construct hypertexts by linking prepared nodes…

  2. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  3. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  5. 论高速公路路基工程施工项目成本管理%Discussion on highway subgrade engineering construction project cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建祥

    2016-01-01

    简述了高速公路路基工程施工中成本管理的必要性,针对路基施工中成本管理的现状,从树立成本管理理念、建立信息系统、使用作业成本法三方面,阐述了成本管理的策略,以提升公路项目的成本管理水平。%The paper discusses the necessity of cost management in highway subgrade engineering construction. In light of cost management status in subgrade construction,starting from three aspects of establishing cost management concept,establishing information system and using operation cost method,it describes cost management strategies,with a view to improve highway project cost management level.

  6. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  7. Cost of musculoskeletal diseases: impact of work disability and functional decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, Edward

    2003-12-01

    Persons with all forms of musculoskeletal conditions incur total medical care expenditures of about US$240 billion, or about 2.9% of GDP. Of this total, approximately US$77 billion, or about 0.9% of GDP, would not have occurred in the absence of the musculoskeletal conditions. Such persons had lower labor force participation rates, resulting in indirect costs of about US$98 billion; of this amount, almost all (over US$90 billion) remained after taking into account characteristics other than the presence of a musculoskeletal condition that might result in lower earnings. Thus, the majority of direct costs incurred by persons with musculoskeletal conditions would occur in the absence of the conditions, but the wage losses would not occur were the conditions to be eradicated. The importance of indirect costs in the economics of musculoskeletal conditions is underscored by the studies of the costs of specific diseases. In all but OA, indirect costs are at least as large as, if not larger than, direct costs. Reducing the economic impact of RA, SLE, AS, and low back pain requires treatments that reduce work disability associated with each of these conditions. Some promising results from short term studies have been reported, but it would appear to be an appropriate time to inaugurate trials focused on longterm work outcomes.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis to illustrate the impact of cost definitions on results, interpretations and comparability of pharmacoeconomic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of a uniform proxy for defining direct medical costs in the US. This potentially important source of variation in modelling and other types of economic studies is often overlooked. The extent to which increased expenditures for an intervention can be offset by reductions in subsequent service costs can be directly related to the choice of cost definitions. To demonstrate how different cost definitions for direct medical costs can impact results and interpretations of a cost-effectiveness analysis. The IMS-CORE Diabetes Model was used to project the lifetime (35-year) cost effectiveness in the US of one pharmacological intervention 'medication A' compared with a second 'medication B' (both unspecified) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complications modelled included cardiovascular disease, renal disease, eye disease and neuropathy. The model had a Markov structure with Monte Carlo simulations. Utility values were derived from the published literature. Complication costs were obtained from a retrospective database study that extracted anonymous patient-level data from (primarily private payer) adjudicated medical and pharmaceutical claims. Costs for pharmacy services, outpatient services and inpatient hospitalizations were included. Cost definitions for complications included charged, allowed and paid amounts, and for medications included both wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) and average wholesale price (AWP). Costs were reported in year 2007 values. The cost-effectiveness results differed according to the particular combination of cost definitions employed. The use of charges greatly increased costs for complications. When the analysis incorporated WAC medication prices with charged amounts for complication costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication A versus medication B was $US6337 per QALY. When AWP prices were used with charged amounts, medication A became a dominant treatment strategy, i.e. lower costs with greater

  9. Cultured construction: global evidence of the impact of national values on sanitation infrastructure choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2015-06-16

    Case study research often claims culture-variously defined-impacts infrastructure development. I test this claim using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and newly available data representing change in national coverage of sewer connections, sewerage treatment, and onsite sanitation between 1990 and 2010 for 21 developing nations. The results show that the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, and individualism-collectivism have statistically significant relationships to sanitation technology choice. These data prove the global impact of culture on infrastructure choice, and reemphasize that local cultural preferences must be considered when constructing sanitation infrastructure.

  10. Exploring Item Order in Anxiety-Related Constructs: Practical Impacts of Serial Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nicholas Carleton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to test for item order effects by measuring four distinct constructs that contribute substantively to anxiety-related psychopathology (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, injury/illness sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Participants (n = 999; 71% women were randomly assigned to complete measures for each construct presented in one of two modalities: (a items presented cohesively as measures or (b items presented randomly interspersed with one another. The results suggested that item order had a relatively small impact on item endorsement, response patterns, and reliabilities. The small impact was such that item order appears unlikely to influence clinical decisions related to these measures. These findings not only have implications for these and other similar measures, but further inform a long-standing debate about whether item grouping is a substantial concern in measurement.

  11. Impacts of multiple stressors on ecosystem function: Leaf decomposition in constructed urban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of stormwater on stream biota is well documented, but less is known about the impacts on ecosystem processes, such as the breakdown of organic matter. This study sought to establish whether the degree of urbanisation affected rates of leaf-litter breakdown within constructed wetlands. A litter bag method was used to ascertain rate of decomposition along a gradient of urbanisation (total imperviousness, TI), in constructed wetlands in western and south-eastern Melbourne. A significant positive relationship between TI and breakdown rate was found in the south-eastern wetlands. The significant reduction in rate of invertebrate-mediated breakdown with increasing concentration of certain metals was consistent with other studies. However, overall there was an increase in rate of breakdown. Studies have shown that the effects of heavy metals can be negated if nutrient levels are high. Our results suggest that other parameters besides exposure to contaminants are likely to affect leaf litter breakdown.

  12. Impact of air pollution control costs on the cost and spatial arrangement of cellulosic biofuel production in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colin W; Parker, Nathan C

    2014-02-18

    Air pollution emissions regulation can affect the location, size, and technology choice of potential biofuel production facilities. Difficulty in obtaining air pollutant emission permits and the cost of air pollution control devices have been cited by some fuel producers as barriers to development. This paper expands on the Geospatial Bioenergy Systems Model (GBSM) to evaluate the effect of air pollution control costs on the availability, cost, and distribution of U.S. biofuel production by subjecting potential facility locations within U.S. Clean Air Act nonattainment areas, which exceed thresholds for healthy air quality, to additional costs. This paper compares three scenarios: one with air quality costs included, one without air quality costs, and one in which conversion facilities were prohibited in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. While air quality regulation may substantially affect local decisions regarding siting or technology choices, their effect on the system as a whole is small. Most biofuel facilities are expected to be sited near to feedstock supplies, which are seldom in nonattainment areas. The average cost per unit of produced energy is less than 1% higher in the scenarios with air quality compliance costs than in scenarios without such costs. When facility construction is prohibited in nonattainment areas, the costs increase by slightly over 1%, due to increases in the distance feedstock is transported to facilities in attainment areas.

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE CONVERSION OF HISTORICAL COST TO CORRECTED CURRENT COST ON RETURN ON ASSETS AND EQUITY: ANALYSIS FROM DUPONT SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva da Penha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical cost is the most used form of accounting valuation, but it does not reflect the effect of currency in time. The Theory of Corrected Current Cost, albeit with limitations, may show evidence of real and relevant accounting information of the entity. In this context, a question can be formulated: What is the impact of the conversion of historical cost to corrected current cost in return on assets and equity? In order to answer this question, the DuPont system was applied in a model company as a tool for analysis. The results showed that the return of assets at historical cost and corrected current cost were 12.11% and 3.14%, respectively, a decrease of 74.07%, and the result of the return on equity, the historical cost and corrected current cost were 20.59% and 4.96%, respectively, decreased 75.91%. Based on these variations it is observed that the impacts of the conversion of the corrected current cost were significant,confirming the importance of the adoption of this practice, whenever possible.

  14. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J

    2017-01-05

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader-member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  15. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate. However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX, and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  16. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job. PMID:28067775

  17. The impact of healthcare costs in the last year of life and in all life years gained on the cost-effectiveness of cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kok, I M C M; Polder, J J; Habbema, J D F;

    2009-01-01

    It is under debate whether healthcare costs related to death and in life years gained (LysG) due to life saving interventions should be included in economic evaluations. We estimated the impact of including these costs on cost-effectiveness of cancer screening. We obtained health insurance, home...... care, nursing homes, and mortality data for 2.1 million inhabitants in the Netherlands in 1998-1999. Costs related to death were approximated by the healthcare costs in the last year of life (LastYL), by cause and age of death. Costs in LYsG were estimated by calculating the healthcare costs in any...... life year. We calculated the change in cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) if unrelated healthcare costs in the LastYL or in LYsG would be included. Costs in the LastYL were on average 33% higher for persons dying from cancer than from any cause. Including costs in LysG increased the CER by 4040 euro...

  18. Impact and Cost Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Integration on Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin; Pineau, Ulysse;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the impact of electric vehicle (EV) integration on medium voltage (MV) distribution networks and the cost evaluation of replacing the overloaded grid components. A number of EV charging scenarios have been studied. A 10 kV grid from the Bornholm Island...... in the city area has been used to carry out case studies. The case study results show that the secondary transformers are the bottleneck of the MV distribution networks and the increase of EV penetration leads to the overloading of secondary transformers. The cost of the transformer replacement has been...... evaluated. The transformer replacement cost reaches 72% of the total transformers value with 50% EV penetration and 3 Phase charging....

  19. Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention is cost saving and creates fiscal space in the future that otherwise would have been encumbered by antiretroviral treatment costs. An investment of US$1,500,000,000 between 2011 and 2015 to achieve 80% coverage in 13 priority countries in southern and eastern Africa will result in net savings of US$16,500,000,000. Strong political leadership, country ownership, and stakeholder engagement, along with effective demand creation, community mobilisation, and human resource deployment, are essential. This collection of articles on determining the cost and impact of VMMC for HIV prevention signposts the way forward to scaling up VMMC service delivery safely and efficiently to reap individual- and population-level benefits.

  20. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  1. Application Researchof Activity-based Costing Management in the Construction with Construction Enterprises%基于作业成本管理在建筑企业施工中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧明

    2012-01-01

    以作业成本管理理论为基础,研究了建筑施工企业的作业成本核算以及计算模型,通过对作业成本管理应用和导入作业成本管理理论与方案设计的分析,比较了施工企业与项目管理作业.结果表明,其作业成本管理模式完全适用于建筑施工企业作业成本的管理,并能够有效地对建筑施工企业的作业成本进行有效控制.图1,参5.%Based on the theory of Activity-based costing management, Activity-based Costing accounting and computational model of construction enterprises was studied, through the analysis of operating cost management application and the import job cost management theory and program design, comparing the construction enterprise project management job. The results show that the operating cost management mode is completely suitable for construction enterprises operating cost management and effective control of the operating costs of the construction enternrises.1figs. ,5refs.

  2. Some Thoughts on Cost Management of Construction Project%对建筑工程项目成本管理的若干思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴楠

    2011-01-01

    In view of problems in cost management of current construction project, specific measures are put forward in this paper, and these measures will be constructive significance for related issues of cost management of current construction project.%本文主要针对目前建筑工程项目成本管理中所存在的问题,提出了建筑工程项目成本管理的具体措施,此措施将对建筑工程项目成本管理的相关问题具有建设性的意义.

  3. The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollinger Lori A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major issue facing Botswana, with overall adult HIV prevalence estimated to be 25.7 percent in 2007. This paper estimates the cost and impact of the draft Ministry of Health male circumcision strategy using the UNAIDS/WHO Decision-Makers' Programme Planning Tool (DMPPT. Demographic data and HIV prevalence estimates from the recent National AIDS Coordinating Agency estimations are used as input to the DMPPT to estimate the impact of scaling-up male circumcision on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These data are supplemented by programmatic information from the draft Botswana National Strategy for Safe Male Circumcision, including information on unit cost and program goals. Alternative scenarios were developed in consultation with stakeholders. Results suggest that scaling-up adult and neonatal circumcision to reach 80% coverage by 2012 would result in averting almost 70,000 new HIV infections through 2025, at a total net cost of US$47 million across that same period. This results in an average cost per HIV infection averted of US$689. Changing the target year to 2015 and the scale-up pattern to a linear pattern results in a more evenly-distributed number of MCs required, and averts approximately 60,000 new HIV infections through 2025. Other scenarios explored include the effect of risk compensation and the impact of increasing coverage of general prevention interventions. Scaling-up safe male circumcision has the potential to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana significantly; program design elements such as feasible patterns of scale-up and inclusion of counselling are important in evaluating the overall success of the program.

  4. The economic and social impacts of site accidents on the small and medium sized construction companies in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie, V.N.; Aigbavboa, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Small and medium sized contractors represent the large number of construction companies in Nigeria. They play an important role in the construction industry. However, site fatalities and injuries cases among the small and medium sized construction companies still remain the most health and safety (H&S) issues around the world. This study seeks to examine the economic and social impacts of site accidents on the small and medium sized construction companies in Nigeria. Questionnaire s...

  5. Evaluating the impact of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment conditions on the cost of ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Bryan; Wedding, Chris; Balan, Venkatesh; Sendich, Elizabeth; Dale, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment is an ammonia-based process for improving the susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic attack. Four parameters--ammonia loading, water loading, reaction temperature, and residence time--can be varied in order to optimize AFEX pretreatment. The effect of these parameters on process economics of ethanol production was studied using a leading biorefinery model. Ammonia loading and residence time had the greatest impact on the economics of ethanol production, primarily due to processing costs for the chilled water condenser and the capital cost of the AFEX reactor. Water loading and reaction temperature had only modest impact on process economics. In addition, the impact of pretreatment conditions on makeup ammonia requirements was explored experimentally, which ranged from 15 to 25 g ammonia/kg biomass. Overall, pretreatment conditions can change the costs of ethanol production by up to 35 cents per gallon ethanol in an 850 ton/day refinery. By linking the results obtained from this Aspen model to experimental results for ethanol production and makeup ammonia recovery, this study can be used to create an economic optimum for AFEX pretreatment in contrast with simply maximizing fermentable sugar production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 建设工程造价预结算审核及技巧分析%The Settlement Audit and Skills Analysis of Construction Project Cost Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡平

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the construction project cost pr-oblem is starting to get the at ention of people. Base on this, this article carries on the analysis of the construction project cost accounting set lement audit problem, and put forward the construction project cost accounting set lement audit skil s, and hope to provide help for the construction of the project development.%近年来,建设工程造价问题开始受到人们的关注。为此,文章对建设工程造价预结算审核问题进行了分析,并提出了建设工程造价预结算审核技巧,希望能够为建设工程项目的发展提供帮助。

  7. Analysis of HSE cost in construction stage of petrochemical project%石化项目施工阶段HSE费用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜芳

    2011-01-01

    施工阶段HSE费用的确定是项目建设过程中的重要一环.在简述石化项目建设施工阶段HSE费用计取的依据及其范围的基础上,总结了石化项目施工阶段HSE费用的项目组成,说明了其计算方法和注意事项.%The determination of HSE costs in construction stage is important in the process of project construction. On the basis of HSE cost and its range in the construction stage, the composition of HSE costs in project construction stage is summarized, and calculation methods and precautions are described.

  8. Discussion on economic cost control of construction project%谈建筑工程经济的成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冉; 苏义坤; 梁梦琪; 黄文杰; 潘思辰; 张洪泽

    2015-01-01

    在分析建筑工程的经济成本含义的基础上,论述了建筑工程的经济成本控制的重要性,并针对现行建筑工程成本控制系统中存在的不足,总结了相应的解决措施,对指导实体项目经济的成本控制有重要的参考价值。%Based on the analysis on economic cost implications of construction,this paper discussed the importance of economic cost control of construction,and according to existing problems of cost control system in current construction,summarized the corresponding measures,had important reference value guide the cost control of entities economic project.

  9. Assessment of the Impact of Complex Healthcare Features on Construction Waste Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluka Domingo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the British government has been investing billions of pounds in new and refurbished healthcare building projects. With the rapid growth in investment in healthcare infrastructure throughout the United Kingdom, a number of sustainability issues have been created, including construction waste generation. There is growing consensus in the literature that healthcare buildings are “complex”, due to their unique functional and operational features, and are thus more prone to generating larger amounts of construction waste. However, no significant research has been undertaken to identify the relationships between complex features in building projects and construction waste production, which is the focus of this study. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted among healthcare clients, contractors, and architects. A life cycle approach has been adopted in this study to holistically assess and evaluate the effects of complexities with construction waste causes in healthcare projects. The findings reveal that the complex shapes and sizes of rooms, and mechanical and electrical services, significantly impact waste caused by such things as: incomplete briefing, incorrect drawing details, complex designs, non-standard designs, and inadequate communication and coordination in the pre-design, design, and construction stages.

  10. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  11. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  12. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE EXPENSE STRUCTURE OF THE GRAIN STORAGES CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLYUK A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The deficit of grain storage capacities in Ukraine is about 15-20 mln. tons. Specific conditions of the realization of grain storage construction projects require systemic research to improve the efficiency of organizational and technological solutions in the management of specialized companies, to reduce costs of construction works and to increase the profit margin. Purpose. Research changes in the structure and the amount of the total production costs of the grain storage construction enterprise under the influence of organizational and technological factors. Conclusion. The account of features of grain storage construction, as well as developed research methodology: have resulted in analysis and the construction of a computer model of the operating activity of the grain storage construction enterprise; have allowed exploring experimental and statistical regularities of indicators changes of such operating activity from the influence of organizational and technological factors.

  13. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  14. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn; Hulme, Claire; Edlin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness), models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical cost-effectiveness models. The final beginner’s guide is a step-by-step resource to accompany the model development process from understanding the problem to be modeled, model conceptualization, model implementation, and model checking through to reporting of the model results. PMID:27785080

  15. Cost-efficient emission abatement of energy and transportation technologies: mitigation costs and policy impacts for Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen; Van Passel, Steven; Lizin, Sebastien; Wouter M. J. Achten; Van Acker, Karel

    2014-01-01

    In the light of global warming, this paper develops a framework to compare energy and transportation technologies in terms of cost-efficient GHG emission reduction. We conduct a simultaneous assessment of economic and environmental performances through life cycle costing and life cycle assessment. To calculate the GHG mitigation cost, we create reference systems within the base scenario. Further, we extend the concept of the mitigation cost, allowing (i) comparision of technologies given a li...

  16. Cost-efficient emission abatement of energy and transportation technologies: Mitigation costs and policy impacts for Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen De Schepper; Steven Van Passel; Sebastien Lizin; Wouter Achten; Karel Van Acker

    2014-01-01

    In the light of global warming, this paper develops a framework to compare energy and transportation technologies in terms of cost-efficient GHG emission reduction. We conduct a simultaneous assessment of economic and environmental performances through life cycle costing and life cycle assessment. To calculate the GHG mitigation cost, we create reference systems within the base scenario. Further, we extend the concept of the mitigation cost, allowing (i) comparision of technologies given a li...

  17. Impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs on optimal HPV vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; McGoff, Kevin; Herzog, David P; Sivakoff, David J; Myers, Evan R

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV) remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs.

  18. Impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs on optimal HPV vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Ryser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vaccinating males against the human papillomavirus (HPV remains a controversial subject. Many existing studies conclude that increasing female coverage is more effective than diverting resources into male vaccination. Recently, several empirical studies on HPV immunization have been published, providing evidence of the fact that marginal vaccination costs increase with coverage. In this study, we use a stochastic agent-based modeling framework to revisit the male vaccination debate in light of these new findings. Within this framework, we assess the impact of coverage-dependent marginal costs of vaccine distribution on optimal immunization strategies against HPV. Focusing on the two scenarios of ongoing and new vaccination programs, we analyze different resource allocation policies and their effects on overall disease burden. Our results suggest that if the costs associated with vaccinating males are relatively close to those associated with vaccinating females, then coverage-dependent, increasing marginal costs may favor vaccination strategies that entail immunization of both genders. In particular, this study emphasizes the necessity for further empirical research on the nature of coverage-dependent vaccination costs.

  19. Indirect costs of diabetes and its impact on the public finance: the case of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torój, Andrzej; Mela, Aneta

    2017-08-31

    Growing public and private expenditure on healthcare results i.a. from the spreading of chronic diseases. Diabetes belongs to the most frequent ones, beyond neoplasms and cardiological diseases, and hence generates a significant burden for the public finance in terms of the direct costs. However, the economy suffers also from the indirect cost of diabetes that manifests itself in the loss in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and general government revenues. This paper aims to measure this indirect cost, both in terms of GDP drop (social perspective) and public revenue drop (public finance perspective), in the case of Poland in 2012-2014. We use a modified human capital approach and unique dataset provided by the Social Security institution in Poland and the Polish Central Statistical Office. Diabetes is a substantial and growing burden for the Polish economy. In the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 the indirect cost (output loss) amounted to 1.85 bn USD, 1.94 bn USD and 2.00 bn USD respectively. Estimated indirect cost of diabetes can be a useful input for health technology analyses of drugs or economic impact assessments of public health programmes.

  20. Impact Of Health Care Delivery System Innovations On Total Cost Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Bir, Anupa; Freeman, Nikki L B; Koethe, Benjamin C; Cohen, Julia; Day, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Using delivery system innovations to advance health care reform continues to be of widespread interest. However, it is difficult to generalize about the success of specific types of innovations, since they have been examined in only a few studies. To gain a broader perspective, we analyzed the results of forty-three ambulatory care programs funded by the first round of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation's Health Care Innovations Awards. The innovations' impacts on total cost of care were estimated by independent evaluators using multivariable difference-in-differences models. Through the first two years, most of the innovations did not show a significant effect on total cost of care. Using meta-regression, we assessed the effects on costs of five common components of these innovations. Innovations that used health information technology or community health workers achieved the greatest cost savings. Savings were also relatively large in programs that targeted clinically fragile patients-clinically complex populations at risk for disease progression. While the magnitude of these effects was often substantial, none achieved conventional levels of significance in our analyses. Meta-analyses of a larger number of delivery system innovations are needed to more clearly establish their potential for patient care cost savings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Impact of Trade Costs on Trade: Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    De, Prabir

    2007-01-01

    Trade costs include all costs incurred in getting a good to a final user other than the marginal cost of producing the good itself, such as transportation costs (both freight costs and time costs), policy barriers (tariffs and non-tariff barriers), information costs, contract enforcement costs, costs associated with the use of different currencies, legal and regulatory costs, and local distribution costs (wholesale and retail). Higher trade costs is an obstacle to trade and it impedes the rea...

  2. Financing and budgetary impact of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in NW Germany - an economic analysis using landslide database information and cost survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurischat, Philipp; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that landslides cause even in low mountain areas of Central and Western Europe millions of dollars in annual losses (Klose et al., 2012; Vranken et al., 2013). The objective of this study has therefore been to model landslide disaster financing and to assess budgetary impacts of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany. The present contribution includes two case studies on the financial burden of landslides for public budgets using the examples of the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation and the city of Hann. Münden. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. Using a toolset for landslide cost modeling based on landslide databases (Klose et al., 2013), the direct costs of more than 30 landslide damage events to highways in a local case study area were determined. The annual average landslide maintenance, repair, and mitigation costs for highways in this case study area are estimated at 0.76 million between 1980 and 2010. Alternatively, a cost survey based on expert interviews has been conducted to collect landslide loss data for urban infrastructures. This cost survey for the city of Hann. Münden shows annual landslide losses of up to 3.4 million during the previous 10 years. Further expert interviews at city and highway agency level were focused on identifying procedure, resources, and limits of financing landslide damage costs. The information on landslide disaster financing and cost survey data on annual maintenance and construction budgets for highways, city sewer lines, and urban roads were used to evaluate the fiscal significance of estimated landslide losses. The results of this economic impact assessment prove variable financial burdens of analyzed public budgets. Thus, in costly years with landslide losses of more than 7 million, the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation is required to shift up to 19% of its

  3. Impacts of feeding strategy on microbial community structure diversity in vertical flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Q.

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of feeding strategy (intermittently or continuously) on contaminant removal performance and microbial community structure in vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were evaluated. The results showed that intermittent feeding strategy improved the removal of COD, TP and ammonium in VFCWs, although TN removal was weakened correspondingly The bacterial diversity decreased with the increase of substratum depth in all CWs. The intermittent feeding favored the growth of microorganisms due to the enhancement of oxygen content in the substratum. The feeding strategy had little impact on the microbial community in the surface substratum. However, in the bottom substratum, the impacts were of great significance. The microbial community structure similarity between the CWs with different feeding strategies was low.

  4. 基于流程管理特性的施工成本管控研究%Research on Construction Cost Management Based on Process Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彬; 李正中; 王春梅; 程棋锋

    2013-01-01

    The outstanding problems in construction cost management is systematically analyzed, the concepts and methods of process management are introduced. Moreover, based on the characteristics of the construction project and the features of cost management, the cost management liability system is established, the cost management elements table in construction stage is drawn. Finally matrix flow chart of the construction cost management for construction enterprises is set up, so the cost management from procedure management to process management are made. Then,the flow chart makes process management and cost management fully integrated,not only covers all stages of the construction and clears the logical connections of cost management, but also associates with the all levels departments and managers and makes the responsibility and cost responsibility coordination and harmonization in cost management, in order to ach: eve the refinement cost management for construction cost.%系统分析现阶段施工成本管控工作中存在的突出问题,引入流程管理概念及方法,基于施工项目特点及成本管控特性,依次建立成本管控责任制度,并绘制出施工环节成本管控要素表,最终为施工企业搭建出施工成本管控的矩阵式流程图,将其由工序管理转变为流程管理.所设计的流程图,将流程管理与施工成本管控充分结合,不仅涵盖了施工全阶段并明确了成本管控各项工作的逻辑联系,而且关联到施工各部门及各级管理人员,并使其工作责任与成本责任在成本管控过程中得到协调和统一,从而实现对施工成本的精细化管控.

  5. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohn Lise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed. Methods Different types of models are here linked. It is relatively straightforward to establish the relationship between Pb emissions and consequent increase in air-Pb concentration, by means of a Gaussian plume dispersion model (OML. The exposed population can then be modelled by linking the OML-output to population data nested in geo-referenced grid cells. Less straightforward is to establish the relationship between exposure to air-Pb concentrations and the resulting blood-Pb concentration. Here an Age-Dependent Biokinetic Model (ADBM for Pb is applied. On basis of previous research which established links between increases in blood-Pb concentrations during childhood and resulting IQ-loss we arrive at our results. Results External costs of Pb airborne emissions, even at low doses, in our site are in the range of 41-83 €/kg emitted Pb, depending on the considered meteorological year. This estimate applies only to the initial effects of air-Pb, as our study does not address the effects due to the Pb environmental-accumulation and to the subsequent Pb re-exposure. These are likely to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher. Conclusions Biokinetic modelling is a novel tool not previously included when applying the IPA to explore impacts of Pb emissions

  6. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  7. Antihypertensive drugs: a perspective on pharmaceutical price erosion and its impact on cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Herings, Ron; Meerding, Willem-Jan; Rutten, Frans

    2012-01-01

    When comparators' prices decrease due to market competition and loss of exclusivity, the incremental clinical effectiveness required for a new technology to be cost-effective is expected to increase; and/or the minimum price at which it will be funded will tend to decrease. This may be, however, either unattainable physiologically or financially unviable for drug development. The objective of this study is to provide an empirical basis for this discussion by estimating the potential for price decreases to impact on the cost-effectiveness of new therapies in hypertension. Cost-effectiveness at launch was estimated for all antihypertensive drugs launched between 1998 and 2008 in the United Kingdom using hypothetical degrees of incremental clinical effectiveness within the methodologic framework applied by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed and compared with funding thresholds. In addition, the levels of incremental clinical effectiveness required to achieve specific cost-effectiveness thresholds at given prices were estimated. Significant price decreases were observed for existing drugs. This was shown to markedly affect cost-effectiveness of technologies entering the market. The required incremental clinical effectiveness was in many cases greater than physiologically possible so, as a consequence, a number of products might not be available today if current methods of economic appraisal had been applied. We conclude that the definition of cost-effectiveness thresholds is fundamental in promoting efficient innovation. Our findings demonstrate that comparator price attrition has the potential to put pressure in the pharmaceutical research model and presents a challenge to new therapies being accepted for funding. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome in Georgia: direct and indirect costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brimmer Dana J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating chronic illness affecting at least 4 million people in the United States. Understanding its cost improves decisions regarding resource allocation that may be directed towards treatment and cure, and guides the evaluation of clinical and community interventions designed to reduce the burden of disease. Methods This research estimated direct and indirect costs of CFS and the impact on educational attainment using a population-based, case-control study between September 2004 and July 2005, Georgia, USA. Participants completed a clinical evaluation to confirm CFS, identify other illnesses, and report on socioeconomic factors. We estimated the effect of CFS on direct medical costs (inpatient hospitalizations, provider visits, prescription medication spending, other medical supplies and services and loss in productivity (employment and earnings with a stratified sample (n = 500 from metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia. We adjusted medical costs and earnings for confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and geographic strata using econometric models and weighted estimates to reflect response-rate adjusted sampling rates. Results Individuals with CFS had mean annual direct medical costs of $5,683. After adjusting for confounding factors, CFS accounted for $3,286 of these costs (p Conclusions Study results indicate that chronic fatigue syndrome may lead to substantial increases in healthcare costs and decreases in individual earnings. Studies have estimated up to 2.5% of non-elderly adults may suffer from CFS. In Georgia, a state with roughly 5.5 million people age 18-59, illness could account for $452 million in total healthcare expenditures and $1.2 billion of lost productivity.

  9. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  10. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  11. 浅谈建设项目全寿命周期成本的优化%Discussion on Optimization of Life Cycle Cost for Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白万鹏

    2012-01-01

    在投资建设项目时不仅要在建设项目各个阶段考虑项目阶段的建设成本,而且还要考虑建设项目全寿命周期成本,实现建设项目全寿命周期的经济与合理性。%When people invest in construction project,they should not only consider the project construction cost in the construction of each phase of the project,but also consider the life cycle cost of construction project so as to achieve the life cycle economy and rationality of construction project.

  12. 浅谈施工企业内部成本费用的控制%Internal Cost Control in Construction Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜军

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly expounds the differences between internal cost accounting and financial cost accounting of construction enterprise, the internal cost accounting model, and also the conditions for the implementation of cost accounting should have, with a view to help internal cost control of construction enterprise.%本文主要阐述施工企业的内部成本核算与财务成本核算之间的区别,以及内部成本核算的模式,同时也阐述了实施成本核算应具备的条件.以期对施工企业的内部成本费用的控制有所帮助.

  13. Discussion on the cost management of construction project%议建设工程项目的造价管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉治国

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the meaning of cost management of construction project,elaborated the contents of whole process cost manage-ment,analyzed the cost management current situation in China,combining with China’s current cost management current situation,put forward the whole process control measures for construction project cost management.%介绍了建设工程项目造价管理的含义,阐述了全过程造价管理的内容,分析了当前我国造价管理的现状,结合我国目前造价管理现状,提出了建设工程项目造价管理的全过程控制措施。

  14. Construction project cost whole process tracking audit of cost control%建设工程造价全过程跟踪审核对成本控制的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤笑鹏

    2014-01-01

    随着我国市场经济改革的不断深入,建设投资资金的增加,房地产公司对造价的管理由事后的审核转移到成本的控制,建设工程造价全过程跟踪审核也应运而生。本文主要阐述房地产公司对工程项目造价的内容、重要性和控制作用,重点在房地产建设项目的前期及开发和建设项目竣工等方面探讨房地产建设项目的造价控制与管理对策。%With the continuous deepening of the reform of market economy in our country, the increase of capital construction investment, real estate companies on the cost of management by the audit later transferred to the cost, the control of construction project cost whole process tracking audit also arises at the historic moment. Is the purpose of this article is to real estate company, importance and the content of the engineering project cost control function, and finally focus on real estate in the early period of the construction project and the completion of development and construction of real estate construction project cost control and management measures.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  16. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Co-Firing with 20% Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichol, Corrie Ian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the possibility that biopower in the U.S. is a cost-competitive option to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in the United States was equivalent to 5,618 million metric tons CO2, up 5.6% from 1990 (EPA 2011). Coal-fired power generation accounted for 1,748 million metric tons of this total. Intuitively, life-cycle CO2 emissions in the power sector could be reduced by substituting renewable biomass for coal. If just 20% of the coal combusted in 2009 had been replaced with biomass, CO2 emissions would have been reduced by 350 million metric tons, or about 6% of net annual GHG emission. This would have required approximately 225 million tons of dry biomass. Such an ambitious fuel substitution would require development of a biomass feedstock production and supply system tantamount to coal. This material would need to meet stringent specifications to ensure reliable conveyance to boiler burners, efficient combustion, and no adverse impact on heat transfer surfaces and flue gas cleanup operations. Therefore, this report addresses the potential cost/benefit tradeoffs of co-firing 20% specification-qualified biomass (on an energy content basis) in large U.S. coal-fired power plants. The dependence and sensitivity of feedstock cost on source of material, location, supply distance, and demand pressure was established. Subsequently, the dependence of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) on feedstock costs, power plant feed system retrofit, and impact on boiler performance was determined. Overall life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions saving were next evaluated and compared to wind and solar energy to benchmark the leading alternatives for meeting renewable portfolio standards (or RPS).

  17. The impact of medication adherence on coronary artery disease costs and outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Matlin, Olga S; Swanton, Kellie; Shrank, William H

    2013-04-01

    Given the huge burden of coronary artery disease and the effectiveness of medication therapy, understanding and quantifying known impacts of poor medication adherence for primary and secondary prevention is crucial. We sought to systematically review the literature on this topic area with a focus on quantified cost and clinical outcomes related to adherence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1966 and November 2011 using a fixed search strategy, multiple reviewers, and a quality rating scale. We found 2636 articles using this strategy, eventually weaning them down to 25 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Three reviewers independently reviewed the studies and scored them for quality using the Newcastle Ottawa Scoring Scale. We found 5 studies (4 of which focused on statins) that measured the impact of medication adherence on primary prevention of coronary artery disease and 20 articles that focused on the relationship between medication adherence to costs and outcomes related to secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Most of these latter studies focused on antihypertensive medications and aspirin. All controlled for confounding comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics, but few controlled for likelihood of adherent patients to have healthier behaviors ("healthy adherer effect"). Three studies found that high adherence significantly improves health outcomes and reduces annual costs for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (between $294 and $868 per patient, equating to 10.1%-17.8% cost reductions between high- and low-adherence groups). The studies were all of generally of high quality on the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (median score 8 of 9). Increased medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes and reduced costs, but most studies do not control for a "healthy adherer" effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautenberg T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamlyn Rautenberg,1 Claire Hulme,2 Richard Edlin,3 1Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD, University of Kwazulu Natal, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS, Academic Unit of Health Economics (AUHE, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom; 3Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim: To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods: A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results: Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness, models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion: A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical

  19. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-31

    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  20. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  1. Barriers and Institutional Security System of China's Project Cost Information Construction%我国工程造价信息化建设的障碍及制度保障体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹隰生; 彭金平

    2015-01-01

    Using literature review and interview with professionals,this paper identifies 32 barrier factors of project cost information construction. Through questionnaire survey and factor analysis technique,this paper categorizes the barrier factors into nine key factors which are further ranked in accordance with their importance indices. The study found that insignificance of government support and information environment,and lack of standards have greatest impact on project cost information construction. Then institutional security system of project cost information construction are analyzed based on barriers removal, finally this paper extracts four class institutional security systems so as to ensure the rapid development of project cost information construction and promote reform of the entire project cost consulting industry.%通过文献回顾和专家访谈等方式识别出工程造价信息化建设的32个障碍因素,采用问卷调查和因子分析等方法将这些因素提炼为9个关键因素,并计算它们的重要性指数及对其排序,研究发现:政府支持不足、信息化环境不足及缺乏标准体系对工程造价信息化建设影响最大。并以清除这些障碍为原则,研究工程造价信息化建设的制度保障,最终提炼出4类制度保障体系,用以保证我国工程造价信息化建设快速发展及促进整个工程造价咨询行业的改革。

  2. Minimizing environmental impacts of a major construction: the Øresund link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John S

    2006-04-01

    The Øresund Link is a 4-lane motorway with a 2-line rail link between Copenhagen, Denmark, and Malmö, Sweden, built across the Øresund Sound between the 2 countries. The environmental concerns associated with construction of the Link were that that it might affect the water and salt flow through the Sound and into and out of the Baltic Sea, lead to destruction of the cod fishery, and affect other biological systems. An International Expert Panel was formed to design mitigation strategies to avoid negative environmental impacts. The Panel designed stringent environmental controls for the construction, of which the most significant was to limit sediment discharges to 5% of the dredged material. This was one-fifth of the discharge limit construction companies usually accept as normal for such a large-scale project. An environmental monitoring program was instituted to monitor compliance with the environmental control measures. As a result of the imposition of tough environmental requirements, the Link was built with little environmental impact and 3 y after it was completed, environmental conditions have returned to normal.

  3. Innovation Performance and Its Impact on Profitability Among Different Sectors in the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hardie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The BRITE (Building Research Information Technology and Environment project was established by the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation to encourage innovation in the construction industry. While innovation is generally perceived to be broadly beneficial, there has been little formal study of its occurrence or impact in Australian construction or of the factors which foster an innovative atmosphere within an enterprise. In order to benchmark innovation performance, the BRITE project conducted a survey in 2004 into the nature, incidence and variety of technological and organisational innovations in various sectors of the industry. With some exceptions, the survey found that clients and consultants engaged in significantly higher levels of innovation than did suppliers, main contractors or trade contractors. Within the industry sectors those organisations classified as high innovators favoured the adoption of advanced management practices and had formal evaluation systems in place to judge their progress. They reported significant positive impacts on their profitability from innovation and can therefore provide instructive examples for the rest of the industry to follow.

  4. A Study on the Composition of Construction Logistics Costs%建设工程项目物流成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方媛; 吴兆堂

    2012-01-01

    以预制构件为对象,综合分析了工程物料从生产工厂制造至按设计图纸吊装到建筑物指定位置过程的各个物流环节涉及的各项活动,基于此过程建立了工程项目物流模型,并使用基于作业活动的成本分析法研究工程项目物流成本构成。研究结果将有助于工程项目参与各方更全面、详细地了解工程物流过程及相关成本构成,进而达到对工程项目总成本的有效控制。%With the advancement of construction technologies and materials, more and more processes are conducted off site. The advantages of using prefabricated components are widely documented, which include a lower project cost ,better quality control ,faster assembly on site, and lesser waste. However, extensive use of off-site fabrication demands for a higher management control on the logistics process. Failing to do so may result in multi-handling and delays which could compound the time and cost pressure of a construction project. In this paper, the construction logistics process which captures the movement of precast concrete components from the prefabrication yard to the construction site is introduced. The respective logistics costs are identified based on the activity-based costing approach. This paper should help managers and planners to increase their understanding on construction logistics activities and their corresponding costs so as to increase their bid competitiveness and improve the chance of success at the construction stage by minirnising the construction logistics costs.

  5. Project cost control in construction phase based on WSR%基于WSR的施工阶段工程造价控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志鼎; 张晓芸; 郭琦

    2015-01-01

    工程项目施工阶段,因工期长,人工、材料等资源消耗量大,市场价格波动、自然条件变化等不确定因素相互作用,会对工程项目总体目标的实现产生不利影响. 为有效控制该阶段的工程造价,利用WSR(物理-事理-人理)系统方法论,建立施工阶段工程造价的WSR模型,分析工程造价控制管理活动各环节的相关要素,制定控制目标及措施,以降低施工管理活动的复杂性,为不同建设项目施工阶段工程造价提供有效的控制方法.%In the construction phase of a project, the interplay of uncertain factors including long construction duration, the maximum cost of resources like labor and material, fluctuation of market prices, change of natural conditions will affect the reali-zation of the general target of the project. To effectively control the cost in construction phase, based on WSR ( Wuli which means Technical perspective in Chinese, Shili which means organizational perspective, Renli which means personal perspective) System Methodology, a WSR model of the project cost in construction phase is established to analyze the related elements in project cost control and management, draw up cost control aims and measures, which in turn will reduce the complexity of construction man-agement and provide effective methods for cost control in construction phase of different construction projects.

  6. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  7. Budget impact and cost-utility analysis of universal infant rotavirus vaccination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, Iñaki; Rubio, Beltrán; Cornejo, Ana M; González-Enríquez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Rotavirus is not included in the Spanish mass infant vaccination schedule but has also not been economically evaluated for its inclusion. We analysed cost-utility of the universal infant rotavirus vaccination using RotaTeq® versus no vaccination in Spain. We also carried out a budget impact analysis and determined the effect on results of different variables introduced in the model. A deterministic Markov model was built considering loss of quality of life for children and their parents, and introducing direct and indirect costs updated to 2011. The introduction of the vaccination using RotaTeq® as a universal infant vaccination would increase the annual health care budget in 10.43 million euro and would result in a gain of an additional Quality Adjusted Life Year at a cost of 280,338€ from the healthcare system perspective and 210,167€ from the societal perspective. The model was stable to variable modifications. To sum up, according to our model and estimates, the introduction of a universal infant rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq® in Spain would cause a large impact on the health care budget and would not be efficient unless significant variations in vaccine price, vaccine efficacy and/or utilities took place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly.

  9. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stover

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Survival on first-line and second-line ART regimens is estimated based on annual retention rates reported by national AIDS programs. Costs per patient-year were calculated from country-reported ARV procurement prices, and expenditures on laboratory tests, health care utilization and end-of-life care from in-depth costing studies. Of the 3.5 million ART patients in 2011, 2.3 million will still need treatment in 2020. The annual cost of maintaining ART falls from $1.9 billion in 2011 to $1.7 billion in 2020, as a result of a declining number of surviving patients partially offset by increasing costs as more patients migrate to second-line therapy. The Global Fund is expected to continue being a major contributor to meeting this financial need, alongside other international funders and domestic resources. Costs would be $150 million less in 2020 with an annual 5% decline in first-line ARV prices and $150-370 million less with a 5%-12% annual decline in second-line prices, but $200 million higher in 2020 with phase out of stavudine (d4T, or $200 million higher with increased migration to second-line regimens expected if all countries routinely adopted viral load monitoring. Deaths postponed by ART correspond to 830,000 life-years saved in 2011, increasing to around 2.3 million life-years every year between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Annual patient-level direct costs of supporting a patient cohort remain fairly stable over 2011-2020, if current antiretroviral prices and delivery costs are maintained. Second-line antiretroviral prices are a major cost driver, underscoring the importance of investing in treatment quality to improve retention on first-line regimens.

  10. Estimation of the health impact and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination with enhanced effectiveness in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Fisman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The propensity for influenza viruses to mutate and recombine makes them both a familiar threat and a prototype emerging infectious disease. Emerging evidence suggests that the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccines in older adults and young children enhances protection against influenza infection and reduces adverse influenza-attributable outcomes compared to unadjuvanted vaccines. The health and economic impact of such vaccines in the Canadian population are uncertain. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model simulating the transmission of influenza in the Canadian population over a ten-year period. We compared projected health outcomes (quality-adjusted life years (QALY lost, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for three strategies: (i current use of unadjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine; (ii use of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine adults ≥65 in the Canadian population, and (iii adjuvanted vaccine used in both older adults and children aged < 6. RESULTS: In the base case analysis, use of adjuvanted vaccine in older adults was highly cost-effective (ICER = $2111/QALY gained, but such a program was "dominated" by a program that extended the use of adjuvanted vaccine to include young children (ICER = $1612/QALY. Results were similar whether or not a universal influenza immunization program was used in other age groups; projections were robust in the face of wide-ranging sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: Based on the best available data, it is projected that replacement of traditional trivalent influenza vaccines with MF59-adjuvanted vaccines would confer substantial benefits to vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, and would be economically attractive relative to other widely-used preventive interventions.

  11. Impact of Mergers on the Cost Efficiency of Indian Commercial Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep KAUR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the cost efficiency of Indian commercial banks by using a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis Technique. The cost efficiency measures of banks are examined under both separate and common frontiers. This paper also empirically examines the impact of mergers on the cost efficiency of banks that have been merged during post liberalization period. The present study based on unbalanced panel data over the period 1990-91 to 2007-08. In this paper to test the efficiency differences between public and private both parametric and non-parametric tests are employed. The findings of this study suggest that over the entire study period average cost efficiency of public sector banks found to be 73.4 and for private sector banks is 76.3 percent. The findings of this paper suggest that to some extent merger programme has been successful in Indian banking sector. The Government and Policy makers should not promote merger between strong and distressed banks as a way to promote the interest of the depositors of distressed banks, as it will have adverse effect upon the asset quality of the stronger banks.

  12. Impact of Uncertainty from Load-Based Reserves and Renewables on Dispatch Costs and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bowen; Maroukis, Spencer D.; Lin, Yashen; Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2016-11-21

    Aggregations of controllable loads are considered to be a fast-responding, cost-efficient, and environmental-friendly candidate for power system ancillary services. Unlike conventional service providers, the potential capacity from the aggregation is highly affected by factors like ambient conditions and load usage patterns. Previous work modeled aggregations of controllable loads (such as air conditioners) as thermal batteries, which are capable of providing reserves but with uncertain capacity. A stochastic optimal power flow problem was formulated to manage this uncertainty, as well as uncertainty in renewable generation. In this paper, we explore how the types and levels of uncertainty, generation reserve costs, and controllable load capacity affect the dispatch solution, operational costs, and CO2 emissions. We also compare the results of two methods for solving the stochastic optimization problem, namely the probabilistically robust method and analytical reformulation assuming Gaussian distributions. Case studies are conducted on a modified IEEE 9-bus system with renewables, controllable loads, and congestion. We find that different types and levels of uncertainty have significant impacts on dispatch and emissions. More controllable loads and less conservative solution methodologies lead to lower costs and emissions.

  13. Key issues for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Many countries have considered or are considering modifying their seasonal influenza immunization policies. Estimating the impact of such changes requires understanding the existing clinical and economic burden of influenza, as well as the potential impact of different vaccination options. Previous studies suggest that vaccinating clinical risk groups, health care workers, children and the elderly may be cost-effective. However, challenges in such estimation include: (1) potential cases are not usually virologically tested; (2) cases have non-specific symptoms and are rarely reported to surveillance systems; (3) endpoints for influenza proxies (such as influenza-like illness) need to be matched to case definitions for treatment costs, (4) disease burden estimates vary from year to year with strain transmissibility, virulence and prior immunity, (5) methods to estimate productivity losses due to influenza vary, (6) vaccine efficacy estimates from trials differ due to variation in subtype prevalence, vaccine match and case ascertainment, and (7) indirect (herd) protection from vaccination depends on setting-specific variables that are difficult to directly measure. Given the importance of knowing the impact of changes to influenza policy, such complexities need careful treatment using tools such as population-based trial designs, meta-analyses, time-series analyses and transmission dynamic models.

  14. Cost-saving or Cost-enhancing Mergers: the Impact of the Distribution of Roles in Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Nicolas; Kai ZHAO

    2010-01-01

    We consider firms perfectly symmetrical on production costs in the pre-merger game but the cost of the merged entity may be amended due to the anti-competitive effects of the merger. The lack of empirical precision concerning the effect of the merger on production costs (Scherer, 1980 or Tichy, 2002) justifies our theoretical model in which we do not specify a priori the exact production cost in the post merger game. Two firms in Stackelberg oligopoly game take part in the merger. The aim of thi...

  15. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  16. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  17. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Portilla, Marina P.; Somolinos, José A.; Morales, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions) on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing) the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26029951

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  20. Sustainability of Constructed Wetland under the Impact of Aquatic Organisms Overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chieh Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts, such as earthquakes, chemical pollution and anthropogenic factors can affect the stability and sustainability of an ecosystem. In this study, a long-term (3.7 years investigation experiment was conducted to estimate the sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW under the impact of aquatic organisms overloading. The situation of aquatic organisms overloading in this study meant that around 27,000 kg of fishes had to be moved and accommodated in a 4 ha water area of wetland for six months. Experimental results indicated that the pH value of CW water was slightly acidic and the Dissolved Oxygen (DO level decreased under the impact. On the other hand, the levels of Electrical Conductivity (EC, Suspended Solids (SS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN of CW water were increased under the impact. The pathogen analysis revealed that total coliforms, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, in the wetland water increased under the impact. The analyzed factors of water quality and amount of pathogens were all returned to their original statuses soon after the impact ended. Eventually, the results of microbial community structure analysis showed that overloading of aquatic organisms slightly increased the specific richness (R of wetland bacteria, whereas higher structural biodiversity (H of CW could stabilize the whole microbial community and prevent the pathogens or other bacteria from increasing to become the dominant strains. These results were novel and could be possible to conclude that a CW environment could not only stabilize the water quality and amount of pathogens resulting from the impact of aquatic organisms overloading, but also they could stabilize the microbial community structures, allowing the biogeochemical cycles of the CW to function. They could provide the useful information for wetland sustainability.

  1. The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Li, Yang; Pineda, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost......Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network....... LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply...

  2. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  3. The Impact of Delegating Decision Making to IT on the Sunk Cost Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Philipp N; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we investigate the impact of delegating decision making to information technology (IT) on an important human decision bias - the sunk cost effect. To address our research question, we use a unique and very rich dataset provided by an auction website containing actual market transaction data for approximately 7,000 pay-per-bid auctions. We analyze direct buy decisions of auction participants who did not plan to exercise the direct buy option prior to the beginning of the auction, but who, after failing to win the auction, did buy the product directly because of their normatively irrelevant sunk investments. Not surprisingly, participants with a higher monetary investment have an increased likelihood of violating the assumption of rationality due to the sunk cost effect. Interestingly, after controlling for monetary investments, participants who delegate their decision making to IT and, consequently, have comparably lower behavioral investments (e.g., emotional attachment, effort, time) are le...

  4. 论高速公路BOT建设模式的造价确定与控制%Discussing the construction cost and control of BOT building model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芸芸

    2012-01-01

    本文通过论述招银高速公路BOT建设模式各阶段的造价确定与控制,提出当前高速公路BOT建设模式下造价管理工作存在的问题和几点建议。希望给高速公路BOT建设模式的造价管理工作提供一定的借鉴作用。%Through discussing the construction cost and control of all stages of Zhaoyin expressway BOT building model. This thesis put forward the existing problems and suggestion for expressway cost management under BOT construction model. It aims to draw some reference to the cost man- agement of expressway BOT construction model.

  5. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  6. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  7. Impact of climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, GDT

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of the impact of the climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa. Seasonal productivity problems, the seasonal provision of special facilities...

  8. Impact of total knee replacement practice: cost effectiveness analysis of data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferket, Bart S; Feldman, Zachary; Zhou, Jing; Oei, Edwin H; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Mazumdar, Madhu

    2017-03-28

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of total knee replacement on quality of life in people with knee osteoarthritis and to estimate associated differences in lifetime costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) according to use by level of symptoms.Design Marginal structural modeling and cost effectiveness analysis based on lifetime predictions for total knee replacement and death from population based cohort data.Setting Data from two studies-Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST)-within the US health system.Participants 4498 participants with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis aged 45-79 from the OAI with no previous knee replacement (confirmed by baseline radiography) followed up for nine years. Validation cohort comprised 2907 patients from MOST with two year follow-up.Intervention Scenarios ranging from current practice, defined as total knee replacement practice as performed in the OAI (with procedural rates estimated by a prediction model), to practice limited to patients with severe symptoms to no surgery.Main outcome measures Generic (SF-12) and osteoarthritis specific quality of life measured over 96 months, model based QALYs, costs, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios over a lifetime horizon.Results In the OAI, total knee replacement showed improvements in quality of life with small absolute changes when averaged across levels of confounding variables: 1.70 (95% uncertainty interval 0.26 to 3.57) for SF-12 physical component summary (PCS); -10.69 (-13.39 to -8.01) for Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC); and 9.16 (6.35 to 12.49) for knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) quality of life subscale. These improvements became larger with decreasing functional status at baseline. Provision of total knee replacement to patients with SF-12 PCS scores osteoarthritis from the MOST cohort and were robust against various scenarios including increased rates of total

  9. Transport costs: the dark continent of the logistics world? The impact of transport costs on book and newspaper logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary logistics management has become more transport-intensive due, for example, to the centralisation of production and strategies aimed at reducing stocks. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision

  10. Transport costs: the dark continent of the logistics world? The impact of transport costs on book and newspaper logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary logistics management has become more transport-intensive due, for example, to the centralisation of production and strategies aimed at reducing stocks. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision makin

  11. 建筑安装工程造价全过程控制%The Whole Process Control of Engineering Cost of Construction and Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学广

    2014-01-01

    The construction and instalation engineering occu- pies an important position in the construction project, so its co- st control in engineering is the core work. Therefore, it has im- portant significance to study the cost control in whole process of construction and instalation engineering for controlling the cost of construction project.%建筑安装工程在建设项目工程中占据重要地位,建筑安装工程的全过程造价控制在工程中是比较核心的工作。因此,研究建筑安装工程全过程的造价控制对控制整个建筑工程的造价具有重要意义。

  12. Explore the Strengthen Measures of Construction Project Cost Audit Quality%建筑工程造价审核质量强化措施探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰英

    2014-01-01

    This article first summarizes the important signific-ance of auditing the construction project cost, then analyzes the factors that influence the construction project cost, and fin-al y discusses the measures for improving the audit quality of engineering cost and the method of engineering cost audit.%本文首先概述了审核建筑工程造价的重要意义,然后分析了影响建筑工程造价的因素,最后详细探讨了提高工程造价审核质量措施以及工程造价审核的方法。

  13. Distribution of Health Effects and Cost-effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination are Shaped by the Impact on Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alies van Lier

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination depends strongly on the impact on HZ and the economic time horizon. Our findings reveal ethical dilemmas as varicella vaccination may result in unequal distribution of health effects between generations.

  14. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Point-Of-Care CD4 Testing on the HIV Epidemic in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heffernan, Alastair; Barber, Ella; Thomas, Ranjeeta; Fraser, Christophe; Pickles, Michael; Cori, Anne

    2016-01-01

    .... We assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing POC CD4 testing at the population level in South Africa in a range of care contexts, using a dynamic compartmental model of HIV transmission...

  15. Clinical and cost impact of intravenous proton pump inhibitor use in non-ICU patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumana; C; Nasser; Jeanette; G; Nassif; Hani; I; Dimassi

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the appropriateness of the indication and route of administration of proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) and their associated cost impact. METHODS:Data collection was performed prospec-tively during a 6-mo period on 340 patients who re-ceived omeprazole intravenously during their hospital stay in non-intensive care floors. Updated guidelines were used to assess the appropriateness of the indication and route of administration. RESULTS:Complete data collection was available for 286 patients which wer...

  16. Road construction impact of the landscape transformation during the last 700 years in N Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Ott, F.; Obremska, M.; Theuerkauf, M.; Czaja, R.; Wulf, S.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    From way back, connecting pathways play an essential role in human life and are fundamental for cultural and economic exchange. However, routes also had negative impacts on nearby settlements since they became important during war times for troop transports and may even have fostered the spread of epidemic diseases. Here, we present, for the first time, a high-resolution reconstruction of the impact of the construction of the trade route "Via Marchionis" on landscape evolution in N Poland since more than 700 years. This reconstruction is based on exploiting the annually laminated (varved) sediment record of the nearby located Lake Czechowskie. The route was built in the early 13th century and it initially led from Brandenburg to the Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork. In the first few centuries this track developed and became the key migratory route during the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania. Moving armed forces often expended and devastated the region and caused changes in sovereignty and population density, all of which resulted in changes in regional vegetation and erosion processes in the lake's catchment. Based on a 5-year resolution pollen resolution pollen record combined with sub-annual resolving μ-XRF element scanning and precise varve dating five phases of significantly lower human activity interrupted by phases of stronger human impact were distinguished. Comparing these data with historical sources revealed a clear impact of wars and deployment through armed forces in this region. The strongest declines in anthropogenic pressure on the landscape are clearly related to periods of war and subsequent regeneration in the periods between wars. Hence, it was the construction of the "Via Marchionis" that indirectly influenced the development of Pomeranian landscape mainly due to its role as pathway for armed forces. This study is a contribution to ICLEA (VH-VI-415) and REKLIM projects of the Helmholtz Association and NCN UMO-2015/17/B/ST10/03430.

  17. Construction and installation of low-cost energy-conservation devices on existing residential structures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.

  18. On Construction Project Management and Cost Control%浅谈建筑工程施工项目管理及成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪军; 王雪芬

    2014-01-01

    Building construction project management is an important content of the construction unit, and the effect of cost management directly affects the survival and development of the unit. At present, there are still many problems in the cost control of building construction project management. The construction units must take the necessary measures to control cost strictly and create the greatest value with the minimum cost under the premise of ensuring the quality and period of project, which will make the construction unit have a place in the fierce competition. This paper expounds the cost control of construction project from the aspects of purpose, function, principle, way of cost control of the construction project cost control. Combined with practical engineering experiences, the paper analyzes some problems in the current construction project cost control, and puts forward some corresponding countermeasures.%建筑工程施工项目管理是施工单位中的重要内容,成本管理效果直接影响着单位的生存和发展。当前,我国建筑工程施工项目管理中的成本控制仍存在很多问题,施工单位只有采取必要的措施,严格的控制成本,保证项目在保质保期的前提下以最小的成本去创造最大的价值,才能使建筑施工单位在激烈的市场竞争中取得立足之地。本文从建筑工程施工项目的成本控制的目的和作用、原则、成本控制途径几个方面浅述施工项目的成本控制。结合工程实践经验,分析了当期建筑工程施工项目成本控制存在的一些问题,并提出了一些相应的解决问题的对策。

  19. 浅谈施工项目成本控制的有效措施%On the Effective Measures of Construction Project Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔秀海

    2013-01-01

    施工项目成本控制是目前项目管理中十分重要的一项管理内容,施工企业应当能够对成本控制的重要性有一个正确的认识,这样才能够有效的降低成本,从而达到提高效益的结果.在本文中,主要的目的是分析项目成本管理中所存在的问题,并对其进行深入的分析,并得出应对的措施.其主要的行驶措施由成本预测、工程直接成本、间接成本、质量成本、工期及预算收入等途径来实现.%The construction project cost control is very important content in the current project management, construction companies should be able to have a correct understanding of the importance of cost control, so that it can effectively reduce the cost efficiency. In this paper, the main problems in the project cost management were analyzed, and measures were proposed, which includes cost projections, project's direct costs, indirect costs, quality cost, schedule,budget revenues and other approches.

  20. Analysis of Correlations between the Level of Partnering Relations and their Influence on the Time, Cost, Quality and Safety of Implementation of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper uses the developed model of the influence of partnering relations on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. On its basis, a questionnaire has been created and a preliminary survey has been conducted. The paper presents an analysis of correlations between the level of partnering relations in the context of the partnering measures indicated in the model and their influence on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. The analysis was conducted based on the data collected in 52 construction projects. The values of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient have been calculated for the examined relations. The analysis allowed for indicating the measures of partnering whose improvement most often brings benefits with regard to the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. Among the 80 analysed correlations, the ones identified as strong were: 15 relations connected with the time, 8 with the cost, 5 with the quality and 1 with the safety of implementation of construction projects.

  1. The Current Management Situation and Countermeasures of Construction Engineering Cost%建设工程造价管理现状与应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓彦

    2014-01-01

    在建设工程的整个过程中,建设工程的造价管理具有重要的影响作用。本文首先介绍了建设工程造价管理的当前现状及存在的问题,然后提出了针对当前建设工程造价管理现状的应对策略,为建设工程的造价管理提供了必要的参考依据。%The construction project cost management plays an important role in the whole process of construction project. This article first introduces the current situation and existing problems of construction project cost management, and then put forward the countermeasures in view of the current con-struction project cost management, in order to provide the necessary reference basis for the construction project cost management.

  2. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  3. 建设项目全寿命周期成本管理研究%Research on the Whole Life Cycle Cost Management of Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卓华

    2016-01-01

    针对建设项目全寿命周期成本管理,结合实际工程经验,从成本管理相关部门的管理职责界定,开发企业内部管理职能层面的各部门间联动考核,以及建设项目全寿命周期层面的各阶段成本管理要点等角度,提出建设项目全寿命周期成本管理的建议,为提升建设项目全寿命周期成本管理成效提供参考。%For the whole life cycle cost management of construction project,combined with the practical engineering experience,puts forward suggestions for construction project life cycle cost management from the definition of management responsibility for the cost management related departments,inter departmental joint assessment of development enterprise internal management function,as well as each stage cost management point of the construction project life cycle level,in order to provide the reference for improving construction project life cycle cost management effectiveness.

  4. Impact and cost-effectiveness of current and future tuberculosis diagnostics: the contribution of modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R.; Cohen, T.; Pai, M.; Cobelens, F.; Vassall, A.; Menzies, N. A.; Gomez, G. B.; Langley, I.; Squire, S. B.; White, R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The landscape of diagnostic testing for tuberculosis (TB) is changing rapidly, and stakeholders need urgent guidance on how to develop, deploy and optimize TB diagnostics in a way that maximizes impact and makes best use of available resources. When decisions must be made with only incomplete or preliminary data available, modelling is a useful tool for providing such guidance. Following a meeting of modelers and other key stakeholders organized by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium, we propose a conceptual framework for positioning models of TB diagnostics. We use that framework to describe modelling priorities in four key areas: Xpert® MTB/RIF scale-up, target product profiles for novel assays, drug susceptibility testing to support new drug regimens, and the improvement of future TB diagnostic models. If we are to maximize the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB diagnostics, these modelling priorities should figure prominently as targets for future research. PMID:25189546

  5. Climate change and the effects of dengue upon Australia: An analysis of health impacts and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newth, D; Gunasekera, D, E-mail: david.newth@csiro.a [CSIRO Centre for Complex Systems Science, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, GPO Box 3023, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Projected regional warming and climate change analysis and health impact studies suggest that Australia is potentially vulnerable to increased occurrence of vector borne diseases such as dengue fever. Expansion of the dengue fever host, Aedes aegypti could potentially pose a significant public health risk. To manage such health risks, there is a growing need to focus on adaptive risk management strategies. In this paper, we combine analyses from climate, biophysical and economic models with a high resolution population model for disease spread, the EpiCast model to analyse the health impacts and costs of spread of dengue fever. We demonstrate the applicability of EpiCast as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies to manage the public health risks associated with shifts in the distribution of dengue fever in Australia.

  6. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  7. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  8. Impact of immigration on the cost of emergency visits in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of immigration on health services utilisation has been analysed by several studies performed in countries with lower levels of immigration than Spain. These studies indicate that health services utilisation is lower among the immigrant population than among the host population and that immigrants tend to use hospital emergency services at the expense of primary care. We aimed to quantify the relative over-utilisation of emergency services in the immigrant population. Methods Emergency visits to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona in 2002 and 2003 were analysed. The country of origin, gender, age, discharge-related circumstances (hospital admission, discharge to home, or death, medical specialty, and variable cost related to medical care were registered. Immigrants were grouped into those from high-income countries (IHIC and those from low-income countries (ILIC and the average direct cost was compared by country of origin. A multivariate linear mixed model of direct costs was adjusted by country of origin (classified in five groups and by the individual variables of age, gender, hospital admission, and death as a cause of discharge. Medical specialty was considered as a random effect. Results With the exception of gynaecological emergency visits, costs resulting from emergency visits by both groups of immigrants were lower than those due to visits by the Spanish-born population. This effect was especially marked for emergency visits by adults. Conclusion Immigrants tend to use the emergency department in preference to other health services. No differences were found between IHIC and ILIC, suggesting that this result was due to the ease of access to emergency services and to lack of knowledge about the country's health system rather than to poor health status resulting from immigrants' socioeconomic position. The use of costs as a variable of complexity represents an opportunistic use of a highly exhaustive registry

  9. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rafael; Stow, Adam J.; Magnusson, William E.; Lima, Albertina P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities. PMID:25147930

  10. Integrating Primary Care Into Community Mental Health Centers: Impact on Utilization and Costs of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Antoinette; West, Imara I; Scharf, Deborah M; Hopfenbeck, James; Andrus, Graydon; Joesch, Jutta M; Snowden, Mark

    2016-11-01

    This evaluation was designed to assess the impact of providing integrated primary and mental health care on utilization and costs for outpatient medical, inpatient hospital, and emergency department treatment among persons with serious mental illness. Two safety-net, community mental health centers that received a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) grant were the focus of this study. Clinic 1 had a ten-year history of providing integrated services whereas clinic 2 began integrated services with the PBHCI grant. Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were used to compare individuals enrolled in the PBHCI programs (N=373, clinic 1; N=389, clinic 2) with propensity score-matched comparison groups of equal size at each site by using data obtained from medical records. Relative to the comparison groups, a higher proportion of PBHCI clients used outpatient medical services at both sites following program enrollment (p<.003, clinic 1; p<.001, clinic 2). At clinic 1, PBHCI was also associated with a reduction in the proportion of clients with an inpatient hospital admission (p=.04) and a trend for a reduction in inpatient hospital costs per member per month of $217.68 (p=.06). Hospital-related cost savings were not observed for PBHCI clients at clinic 2 nor were there significant differences between emergency department use or costs for PBHCI and comparison groups at either clinic. Investments in PBHCI can improve access to outpatient medical care for persons with severe mental illness and may also curb hospitalizations and associated costs in more established programs.

  11. Patient medical costs for tuberculosis treatment and impact on adherence in China: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tuohong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charging for tuberculosis (TB treatment could reduce completion rates, particularly in the poor. We identified and synthesised studies that measure costs of TB treatment, estimates of adherence and the potential impact of charging on treatment completion in China. Methods Inclusion criteria were primary research studies, including surveys and studies using qualitative methods, conducted in mainland China. We searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, Science Direct, HEED, CNKI to June 2010; and web pages of relevant Chinese and international organisations. Cost estimates were extracted, transformed, and expressed in absolute values and as a percentage of household income. Results Low income patients, defined at household or district level, pay a total of US$ 149 to 724 (RMB 1241 to 5228 for medical costs for a treatment course; as a percentage of annual household income, estimates range from 42% to 119%. One national survey showed 73% of TB patients at the time of the survey had interrupted or suspended treatment, and estimates from 9 smaller more recent studies showed that the proportion of patients at the time of the survey who had run out of drugs or were not taking them ranged from 3 to 25%. Synthesis of surveys and qualitative research indicate that cost is the most cited reason for default. Conclusions Despite a policy of free drug treatment for TB in China, health services charge all income groups, and costs are high. Adherence measured in cross sectional surveys is often low, and the cumulative failure to adhere is likely to be much higher. These findings may be relevant to those concerned with the development and spread of multi-drug resistant TB. New strategies need to take this into account and ensure patient adherence.

  12. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Rafael de; Stow, Adam J; Magnusson, William E; Lima, Albertina P

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  13. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  14. Cost Composition of Expressway Construction and Establishment of Cost Valuation Model%高速公路建设费用组成及造价估价模型建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 刘凯; 王选仓; 杨育生

    2012-01-01

    In order to efficiently control and estimate expressway construction cost, taken the expressway construction cost in Shaanxi Province as research object, by using Matlab program and mathematical statistics and analysis method, the change regularity of individual project cost and its ratios to construction installation cost and total construction cost in different construction periods was obtained, and the valuation model of expressway cost was established. The research results indicate that ( 1 ) each individual project cost (suhgrade, pavement, bridge, tunnel, landscape, housing construction, traffic safety, electromechanical engineering and land acquisition) gradually increased over time; (2) the ratios of subgrade, bridge, and traffic safety costs to construction installation cost and total construction cost decreased, while the ratios of other individual project costs gradually increased. The valuation model reflected the quantitative relationship of cost per kilometer with subgrade width, average filling height of subgrade, total thickness of pavement structure, thickness of pavement surface course, ratio of bridge to tunnel, land acquisition area, length of landscape engineering and interchange number. The fitting of model can meet the accuracy requirement of project. The research results provided a decision-making basis for fast and accurately estimating and assessing construction cost and its reasonableness of new expressway project.%为有效控制和预估高速公路建设费用,以陕西省高速公路建设费用为研究对象,采用Matlab软件编程,通过数理统计与分析得出了不同建设时期各单项费用及其占建安费、总费用比例的变化规律,并建立了造价估价模型.研究结果表明:随着时间的推移,各单项费用(路基、路面、桥梁、隧道、绿化、房建、交通安全、机电、征地拆迁)逐渐增加;路基、桥梁、交通安全设施费用占建安费、总费用的比例减小;其他

  15. Cost reducing factors in effective pipeline piling structure design and construction in Alberta's thermal SAGD gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) gathering pipeline systems are typically arranged so that above-ground steam pipeline and production pipelines lay next to each other on the same steel structure. Longitudinal and lateral loads build up in the pipeline supports, and the loads are consistently changing until pipeline temperatures reach a steady state condition. SAGD pipelines are required to have enough flexibility to absorb thermal expansion or contraction movements. However, most pipeline engineers only consider upper and lower temperature limits in the design of steel structures and pilings. This paper examined the effect of considering both the thermal gradient and time factor in designing supports for pipelines. The study examined how the factors impacted on standard load calculations and pile sizings. Sixteen stress analysis models for steam and production lines were prepared and designated thermal gradients were introduced to each model. Longitudinal and lateral loads caused by thermal gradient movements were calculated for all supports. The models were analyzed and absolute values for longitudinal and lateral loads were recorded. Results of the study showed that engineers do not necessarily need to rely on maximum temperatures as the condition that results in maximum longitudinal and lateral loads on supports. It was concluded that costs related to pipeline construction can be significantly reduced by considering the effects of thermal gradients in stress analyses and load calculations. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost--Supplement. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    This supplement to a technical report providing the results of a preliminary investigation of the potential impact of the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept on system support personnel requirements and life cycle cost (LCC) includes: (1) additional details of the cost comparison of a hypothetical application of a conceptual…

  17. Brief Analysis on Power Transmission and Distribution Construction Costs in Rural Areas of China%我国农村电网输变电项目工程造价浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜安广

    2011-01-01

    近年来,随着我国电力建设的不断加快,国家也加大了对农村电网建设的改革与投入力度.农村电网的输变电改造工程的造价体系强弱,对建设投资的资金利用率和社会效应的城乡一体化都有很到印象,因此,我们要改变以往的传统造价指标模式,提供适应新变化的完善指标体系.%In recent years, with the construction of China's power continues to accelerate, the state also increased the reform and input of the rural power grid construction. Rural power grid transformation construction costs system has a big impact on the utilization of capital construction investment and the social effects of urban-rural integration, therefore, we have to change the past traditional cost index model to adapt to new changes and perfect index system.

  18. 承包商对冬季施工费用风险控制的探讨%Cost Risk Control of Construction in Winter for Contractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 吕疆红; 李俊仁; 刘悦

    2014-01-01

    Because the existing national standard to the feeing standard of construction in winter is not clear enough, so for the contractors, the risk of cost control of construction in winter is larger. This article discussed the cost risk control of construction in winter for contractor through four aspects, analyzing the present situation of the current winter construction in China, analyzing the winter construction cost accounting, contract signing and risk control in actual construction.%由于现行国家规范对冬季施工的取费标准还不够明确,所以在冬季施工中对于承包商来说费用控制存在较大的风险,本文通过对我国现行冬季施工的现状分析、现行计价方法中冬季施工费用计取的分析、合同签订及实际施工中的风险控制四个方面对承包商冬季施工的费用风险控制进行探讨。

  19. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  20. Impact of lung function on exacerbations, health care utilization, and costs among patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xuehua Ke,1 Jessica Marvel,2 Tzy-Chyi Yu,2 Debra Wertz,1 Caroline Geremakis,1 Liya Wang,1 Judith J Stephenson,1 David M Mannino3 1HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, 3University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Objective: To evaluate the impact of lung function, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 % predicted, on health care resource utilization and costs among patients with COPD in a real-world US managed-care population.Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study utilized administrative claim data augmented with medical record data. The study population consisted of patients with one or more medical claims for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry during the intake period (July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. The index date was the date of the earliest medical claim for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry. Spirometry results were abstracted from patients’ medical records. Patients were divided into two groups (low FEV1% predicted [<50%] and high FEV1% predicted [≥50%] based on the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease report. Health care resource utilization and costs were based on the prevalence and number of discrete encounters during the 12-month postindex follow-up period. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US dollars.Results: A total of 754 patients were included (n=297 low FEV1% predicted group, n=457 high FEV1% predicted group. COPD exacerbations were more prevalent in the low FEV1% predicted group compared with the high group during the 12-month pre- (52.5% vs 39.6% and postindex periods (49.8% vs 36.8%. Mean (standard deviation follow-up all-cause and COPD-related costs were $27,380 ($38,199 and $15,873 ($29,609 for patients in the low FEV1% predicted group, and $22,075 ($28,108 and $10,174 ($18,521 for patients in the high group. In the multivariable analyses, patients in the low FEV1% predicted group were more likely to have COPD